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# Contents

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Fan Type Fan Type Selection Fan Selection Fan Efficiency Fan & Air System Fan Operating Range AMCA Fan Testing Deficient Performance System Effect System Effect Movies System Effect Factor Outlet System Effect Factor Inlet System Effect Factor Example

Fan Type

Axial

Mixed Flow

Centrifugal

## Fan Type Selection

Specific Speed
Specific Speed, ns is used to reflect the characteristic of fans, or blowers. It differentiates the fan. types and relates the major performance parameters of a fan such as airflow qv, total pressure ptf and fan speed. Specific speed is primarily used in three areas: 1. To determine fan type 2. For fan Classification 3. To perform design on geometrically similar blowers or fans.

## Fan Type Selection

ns 5.54n
Q 0 .5 ( Pt ) 0.75
n = Fan speed (rpm) Q = Airflow rate (m/s) Pt = Total pressure (Pa)

Specific speed of fan refers to single inlet fan operating individually. Evaluated at the point of maximum efficiency. When the design parameters are defined, the specific speed can be calculated. From the magnitude of the specific speed, the type of blower to be used can be determined. Specific Speed ns < 10 ns = 15 ~ 65 ns = 20 ~ 90 ns = 40 ~ 95 ns = 50 ~ 150 ns = 70 ~ 250 ns = 100 ~ 400 Fan Type Radial Blade Forward Curve Backward Inclined Mixed-Flow Vane axial Tube axial Propeller

## Fan Type Selection

Example!
A fan, under normal operating conditions, delivers 1.2m/s At a total pressure of 700Pa when running at a speed n=1040rpm. Select the type of fan suitable for this . application. 0.5

ns 5.54n

Q ( Pt ) 0.75

5.54 1040

## (1.2) 0.5 (700) 0.75

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Hence, the required fan can be forward curve, backward inclined or mixed flow fan.

## Fan Type Selection

Propeller Tube axial Vane axial

300

400

ns

Axial Vane Axial

## Centrifugal Backward Curve

Centrifugal Airfoil

Fan Selection
Three Parameters to size a fan
Air Velocity (V) or Velocity Pressure (Pv) Static Pressure (Ps) or Total Pressure (Pt) Air Volume (Q)

## Velocity Pressure [VP]

V = 10 m/s

A B

V = 20 m/s

System A
FAN Q Ps Vel Pv PT kW 59 Pa 859 Pa 12.52 kW Ps+Pv = 859 Pa 12 m3/s 800 Pa SYSTEM 12 m3/s 800 Pa 10 m/s

System B
FAN 12 m3/s 800 Pa SYSTEM 12 m3/s 800 Pa 20 m/s 237 Pa 1037 Pa 15.25 kW Ps+Pv = 1037 Pa

kW

QxPT kx

1. Fan Efficiency

1 Fan efficiency

Fan efficiency
Total efficiency (T) = Q x PT (PV + PS) 1020 x kW Static efficiency (S) = Q x Ps . 1020 x kW

5 10%

## Velocity Pressure [VP]

V = 10 m/s

A B

V = 20 m/s

System A
FAN Q Ps Vel Pv PT kW 59 Pa 859 Pa 12.52 kW Ps+Pv = 859 Pa 12 m3/s 800 Pa SYSTEM 12 m3/s 800 Pa 10 m/s

System B
FAN 12 m3/s 800 Pa SYSTEM 12 m3/s 800 Pa 20 m/s 237 Pa 1037 Pa 15.25 kW Ps+Pv = 1037 Pa

QxPT kW kx

## Velocity Pressure [VP] contd

Q = 12 m3/s Ps = 800 Pa

System A

System B

TA =

TB

= 80%

= 80%

## Velocity Pressure [VP] contd

Different in static efficiency with different power absorb
Static Efficiency
Q = 12 m3/s Ps = 800 Pa
System A PvA 59 Pa (10 m/s) Q x Ps 1020 x kW . System B PvB 237 Pa (20 m/s)

SA =

SB =

## Fan Set Efficiency

Fan set efficiency = fan x motor x (1 - transmission loss)

## Fan Set Efficiency (Belt Driven)

Motor Input Power Motor Efficiency Transmission Loss Thru Belt Fan Total Efficiency = 100 kW = 90% = 15% = 70%

Belt Driven: Fan set efficiency = 100 kW x 0.9 (90% motor ) x 0.85 (1 - 15% transmission loss = 85% transmission ) x 0.7 (70% fan ) = 53 kW (53%)

## Fan Set Efficiency (Direct Driven)

Motor Input Power = 100 Kw Motor Efficiency = 90% Direct Driven with Direct Shaft = 0% Fan Total Efficiency = 70%

Direct Driven: Fan set efficiency = 100kW x 0.9 (90% motor ) x 0.7 (70% fan ) = 63 kW (63%)

## Fan Set Efficiency

Belt Driven
Transmission 85% Fan output 53 kW Power input 100 kW

## Fan Set Efficiency

Direct Driven (Coupling), Transmission Loss 0%
Fan shaft power 90 Kw Fan output 63kW (70% ) Power loss thru coupling, 0% Power input 100 kW

## Fan Set Efficiency

Direct Driven (Direct Shaft)
Fan shaft power 76 kW (motor shaft) Fan output 53 kW (70% ) Power input 85 (100)kW

## Output 90% motor = 76 ( 90) kW shaft power

(No Transmission Loss for direct shaft drive)

## Fan and Air System

An air system consist of a fan, ductwork, air control dampers, cooling coils, heating coil, filters, diffusers, noise attenuation, turning vanes, etc.

The fan is the component in the system provides energy to the air system to overcome the resistance to flow of the other components.

## Fan and Air System

Performance Fan Curve
0.7

0.6

0.5

700 RPM

P res su r e

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

CFM x 100

## Fan and Air System

Varying Fan Curve
0.7

0.6

## 750 RPM 700 RPM

0.5

650 RPM
P re ssu re 0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 CFM x 100

## Fan and Air System

System Resistance Curve
1.4

1.2

P re ssu re

0.8

0.6

0.4

A
0.2

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 CFM x 100

## Fan and Air System

Varying System Resistance Curve
1.4

1.2

Curve B
P re ssu re 0.8

Curve A
0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 CFM x 100

Operating Point
0.7

0.6

0.5

Pressure

0.4

0.3

0.2

Operating Point
0.1

0 0 2

## System Resistance Curve

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

CFM x 100

## Fan and Air System

Varying Operating Points
3.5

2.5

1400 RPM
P ress u re 2

1.5

1

700 RPM
0.5

## Operating Point at 700 RPM

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 CFM x 100 30 35 40 45

## Fan and Air System

Varying Operating Points - continued
3.5

2.5

P re ssu r e

Curve B

1.5

## Curve A Operating Point on Curve B Operating Point on Curve A

0.5

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 CFM x 100 30 35 40 45

Backward
Curved Fan
40%

Pressure, P

Operating Range

85%

Flow Rate, Q

## Fan Operating Range

Unstable Operation in Fan & System
Fan Surge (Backward Curve Fan)

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Forward
Curved Fan
30%

Pressure, P

Operating Range

80%

Flow rate, Q

## Fan Operating Range

Unstable Operation in Fan & System
System Surge (forward curve Fan)

Axial
Fan

Pressure, P

65%

Operating Range

95%

Flow Rate, Q

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## Fan Operating Range

Unstable Operation in Fan & System
Stalling (Axial or Mixed Flow Fan)

## AMCA Licensed (Certified) on Air and Sound Performance

It is the prime responsibility of all manufacturers to publish true and accurate performance data to :minimize risk and ensures performance of the system and of equipment design less engineering during the equipment development stage less queries from customers and consultant due to the third party (AMCA) certification

## AMCA Licensed (Certified) on Fan Performance Curve

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AMCA
Published Catalogue with AMCA Seal

## Fan with AMCA Seal

WHEN EUROVENT TESTED THE PRODUCTS OF NON-PARTICIPATING MANUFACTURERS MAJOR SHORTFALLS IN PERFORMANCE WERE REVEALED.
The Eurovent certification schemes have been operating for almost six years now. In that time thousands of products have been applied to the various programmes. When a product is entered into a certification programme, Eurovent engineers scrutinise the published data relating to the unit, and then select individual units for third party testing. If a product achieves performance claimed by the manufacturer, the range of product from which it is derived is certified and included in the relevant directory. However, the procedure does not end there, as products are randomly selected for annual testing to ensure performance is maintained. If a product fails to achieve the claimed performance, that product together with all other associated products is either de-rated or removed from the market. In addition to testing products submitted for certification , Eurovent has recently been testing products from manufacturers which are not part of Eurovent. Concern The procedures were exactly the same as those applied to participating products, and involved the same analysis and testing by third part laboratories. The fact that all products failed to live up to their claims is, perhaps, remarkable, but what is of greater concern is the fact that the shortfall in performance ranged from 12 to 29%.

## The shortfall in performance ranged from 12 to 29%.

Specifiers and end users buying these products at what appear to be competitive prices are in fact being overcharged, as the products are consistently failing to achieve their claimed performance. Taken over a lifetime, the additional costs associated with under performance must be quite considerable. Not only is the end user paying for something that will not satisfy his requirements, but also there is the probability of additional future expenditure to rectify the situation

In a recent test of non-certified units readily available in the European market, Eurovent discovered that every single unit manufactured by non-participating companies failed to achieve its claimed performance.

Legislation On a legal point, these units are clearly in defiance of the trades description legislation as they patently do not do what they are claimed to do.

Fan Testing
WHAT
To have a reasonable accuracy the installed performance of a fan, we must know 1) 2) how the fan was tested and rated what effect the system and its connections will have on the fans performance.

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Fan Testing
There are four standard installation types as shown:

## Type D: Ducted inlet, Ducted outlet

To simulate an inlet duct, an inlet bell and one equivalent duct diameter of inlet duct are mounted on the fan inlet. The bell and duct is of the same size and shape as the fan inlet boundary conditions.

To simulate an outlet duct, a uniform duct 2 to 3 equivalent diameter long of the fan outlet area and a shape to fit the fan outlet.

Fan Testing
Typical Commercial Ventilation
Free inlet, Free outlet (Type A)

Fan Testing
Typical Commercial Ventilation
Free inlet, Ducted outlet (Type B)

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Fan Testing
Typical Commercial Ventilation
Ducted inlet, Free outlet (Type C)

O ffic e

O ff ic e

Fan Testing
Typical Commercial Ventilation
Ducted inlet, Ducted outlet (Type D)

DEFICIENT PERFORMANCE

WHY
does a fan,which had been certified from laboratory tests in accordance with AMCA Standard 210 and bear AMCA Certify Seal of Air Performance, sometimes fail to perform up to rating when it is installed in the system

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DEFICIENT PERFORMANCE
AMCA Standard 210
Each setup in AMCA Standard 210 is a standardized arrangement which is not intended to reproduce exactly any installation likely to be found in the field. The infinite variety of possible arrangements of actual air systems makes it impossible to duplicate these in the fan test laboratory.

DEFICIENT PERFORMANCE
Assuming the fan is rated and manufactured correctly, 3 most common causes of deficient performance of the fan/system combination are:

1. 2. 3.

Improper outlet connections Non-uniform inlet flow Swirl at the fan inlet

DEFICIENT PERFORMANCE
Precautions To Prevent Deficient Performance
Use appropriate allowances in the design calculations when space or other factors dictate the use of less than optimum arrangement of the fan outlet and inlet connections. Design the connections between the fan and system to provide, as nearly as possible, uniform straight flow conditions at the fan outlet and inlet. Include adequate allowances for the effect of all accessories ad appurtenances on the performance of the system and fan. Use field measurement techniques which can be applied effectively on the particular system.

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System Effect
System Effects Defined:
Anything you place in close proximity

## before or after the fan that effects the cataloged performance.

System Effect
Fan Outlet Velocity Profiles
Blast Area Cut off Outlet Area Discharge Duct

## 25% 50% 75% 100% Effective Duct Length

Centrifugal Fan

Axial Fan

System Effect
Changing Velocity Profiles when using elbows

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System Effect
Why System Effect is Important
Can decrease performance Can cause excess vibration Can cause excess noise Can require more energy (HP) to achieve rated performance Takes time to determine and understand

System Effect
Effective Duct Length
Effective Duct Length = 2.5 Duct Diameters for 2,500 FPM or less Add 1 duct diameter for each additional 1,000 FPM

For rectangular ducts, the equivalent duct diameter is (4 x width x length / 3.14) ^ 0.5

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## SYSTEM EFFECTS FACTOR

is a pressure loss which recognizes the effect of fan inlet restrictions, fan outlet restrictions, or other conditions influencing fan performance when installed in the system.

## SYSTEM EFFECTS FACTOR

FGH I J K L M N O P Q R

## 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15

0.1

5 6 7 8 9 10

15

20 25 30

35 40 45

## AIR VELOCITY, FPM IN HUNDREDS

(Air Density = 0.075 lbm/ft
3

## SYSTEM EFFECTS FACTOR

System Effect Curves for Outlet Ducts Centrifugal Fans
Blast Area Cutoff Outle t Area Discharge Duct

No Duct

## 25% Effective Duct

5 0% Effective Duc t

## 10 0% Effe ctive Duct

Blast Area Outlet Area 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

System Effect Curve P P R-S S T-U W-W -R-S R-S S-T U VW W-X -U U U-V W-X X --W W W-X ------------

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## SYSTEM EFFECTS FACTOR

FGH I J K L M N O P Q R

## 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.5 2.0

System Effect Factor (no duct) = 0.65 inches System effect with 25% effective duct length = 0.15WG

1.5
T

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15

0.1

5 6 7 8 9 10

15

20 25 30

35 40 45

## AIR VELOCITY, FPM IN HUNDREDS

(Air Density = 0.075 lbm/ft )
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## OUTLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

Outlet Ducts Outlet Diffusers Outlet Duct Elbows Turning Vanes Volume Control Dampers Duct Branches

## OUTLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

OUTLET DUCTS - Centrifugal Fan
To calculate 100%
effective duct length, assume a min. 2.5 duct dia. for 12.7m/s or less. Add 1 duct dia. for each additional 5m/s.

## No Duct Pressure Recovery Blast Area / Outlet Area

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 P P R-S S T-U V-W ---

0%

## System Effect Curve

R-S R-S S-T U V-W W-X --U U U-V W-X--X ----W W W-X -----------------------

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## OUTLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

OUTLET DUCTS Axial Fan

To calculate 100% effective duct length, assume a min. 2.5 duct dia. for 12.7m/s or less. Add 1 duct dia. for each additional 5m/s. No Duct 12% Effective Duct --V 25% Effective Duct --W 50% Effective Duct ----100% Effective Duct -----

--U

## OUTLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

OUTLET DIFFUSERS
Outlet DIFFUSER is a connection piece between fan outlet and duct
which allows the airstream to expand gradually.

## In many systems it may be feasible to use an outlet duct which is

equal or close to the fan outlet. In these case the static pressure available to overcome the system resistance can be increased by converting some of the fans outlet velocity pressure to static pressure --- static regain.

## The efficiency of conversion will depend upon the angle of expansion,

the length of the diffuser section, and the blast area / outlet area ratio of the fan.

Axial Fan

## OUTLET DUCTS ELBOWS

90# Elbow Tubeaxial fan Vaneaxial fan Vaneaxial fan 2&4 Pc 2 Pc 4Pc

No Duct --U W

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## OUTLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

OUTLET DUCTS ELBOWS
Blast Area Outlet Area Outlet Elbow Pos. A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D 0.4

Centrifugal Fan
No Outlet Duct N M-N L-M L-M O-P N-O M-N M-N Q P N-O N-O R-S Q-R P P S R-S Q-R Q-R T S R R T S-T R-S R-S 12% Effective Duct O N M M P-Q O-P N N Q-R Q O O S R-S Q Q S-T S R R T-U S-T S S T-U T S S 25% Effective Duct P-Q O-P N N R Q O-P O-P S R Q Q T S-T R-S R-S T-U T S S U-V T-U S-T S-T U-V U T T 50% Effective Duct S R-S Q Q T S-T R-S R-S U T S S V U-V T T W V U-V U-V W W V V W W V V 100% Effective Duct

0.5

0.7

0.8

0.9

## System Effect Curves for SWSI Fans

1.0

For DWDI Fans determine SEF using the curve for SWSI fans. Then apply the appropriate multiplier as follows:ELBOW POSITION ELBOW POSITION ELBOW POSITION ELBOW POSITION A = dP x 1.00 B = dP X 1.25 C = dP x 1.00 D = dP x 0.85

## OUTLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

TURNING VANES
Turning Vanes will usually reduce the pressure loss through an elbow. However, where a non-uniform approach velocity profile exists at a fan
outlet,the vanes may actually serve to continue the non-uniform profile beyond the elbow.

## This may result in increased losses in other system components

downstream of the elbow.

## OUTLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

VOLUME CONTROL DAMPERS

## OPPOSED BLADED DAMPEER ILLUSTRATING NON-DIVERTING FLOW

Blast Area / Outlet Area 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Pressure Drop Multiplier 7.5 4.8 3.3 2.4 1.9 1.5 1.2

0.6

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## OUTLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

TYPICAL HVAC UNIT CONNECTION

## INLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

Inlet Ducts Inlet Duct Elbows Inlet Boxes Inlet Vortex (Spin or Swirl) Inlet Turning Vanes Airflow Straighteners Enclosures (Plenum and Cabinet Effects) Obstructed Inlets

## INLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

INLET DUCTS ELBOWS
Axial Fan

H/T Tubeaxial fan Tubeaxial fan Tubeaxial fan Vaneaxial fan Vaneaxial fan 0.25 0.25 0.35 0.61 0.61

90o Elbow 2 pc 4 pc 2 pc 2 pc 4 pc

No Duct U X V Q-R W

[1][2]

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## INLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

INLET DUCTS ELBOWS
Centrifugal Fan

## Non-uniform flow into a fan inlet induced

by a 90o, 3-piece section elbow no turning vanes.

## Non-uniform flow induced into fan inlet by

a rectangular inlet duct.

## INLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

INLET DUCTS ELBOWS
Centrifugal Fan

System Effect Curves for Various Mitered Elbows Without Turning Vanes

## INLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

INLET VORTEX (SPIN OR SWIRL)

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## INLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

INLET TURNING VANES

## INLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

ENCLOSURES
wall to inlet dimensions.

## Plenum and Cabinet Effects

System effect curves for fans located in Plenums and cabinet Enclosures and for various

L Distance Inlet to Wall 0.75 x DIA of Inlet 0.5 x DIA of Inlet 0.4 x DIA of Inlet 0.3 x DIA of Inlet

## System Effect Curves V-W U T S

Introduction
Kruger Inline Fan The distance between the enclosure wall and fan inlet is about 0.5 of inlet diameter; New design was improved to 0.85 & above of inlet diameter to reduce cabinet effect and improve the performance of the units

## CFT Cabinet Fan

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Introduction

Introduction
As recommended by AMCA, if the L DISTANCE (fan inlet to enclosure wall) is less than 0.8 diameter of inlet we need to consider the SYSTEM EFFECT - the shorter di s t a nce, t he more t he SYSTEM EFFECT on the fan perfor mance at same air v e l o c i t y .

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## INLET SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS

OBSTRUCTED INLETS
% of Unobstructed Inlet Area 100 95 90 85 75 50 25 System Effect Curves No Loss V U T S Q P

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## 2003 ASHRAE Applications Handbook

Table 17 Pressure Drop Factor* Silencer Condition Inlet (within 3 to 4 duct diameters) Straight unobstructed duct 1.0 Free air/plenum with smooth inlet Radius elbow (with turning vanes) Radius elbow (no turning vanes) Miter elbow Free air/plenum with sharp inlet Fan 1.1 to 1.3 1.1 to 1.30 1.3 1.1 1.05 1.05 Approximate Silencer System Effect Factors

## 2003 ASHRAE Applications Handbook

Pressure Drop Factor* Silencer Condition Outlet (within 3 to 4 duct diameter) Straight unobstructed duct 1.00 Duct doubles area abruptly Radius elbow (with turning vanes) Radius elbow (no turning vanes) Miter elbow Abrupt expansion/plenum Fan
*Silencer pressure drop (including system effects) = silencer pressure drop per test code x pressure drop factor (inlet) x pressure drop factor (outlet).

## PRESSURE GRADIENTS Fan as Tested

C-D duct friction A free inlet B-C outlet with straight duct attached for 2 or more dia. REQUIRED Fan Ps

## 750 Pa (duct design) 0 Pa (no SEF) 0 Pa (no SEF) -------------------750 Pa

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E-F E E D

duct friction at 5000CMH (Q) contraction loss-plenum to duct Ps energy required to create velocity at E Pv loss (also Pt loss) at D as result of air velocity decrease Ps does not change from duct to plenum at D

750 Pa (duct design) 50 Pa (part of duct system) 125 Pa (part of duct system) 0 Pa 0 Pa -------------------925 Pa

## PRESSURE GRADIENTS Abrupt Expansion at Fan Outlet

D-E duct friction at 5000CMH (Q) D D contraction loss-plenum to duct Ps energy required to create velocity at D

750 Pa (duct design) 50 Pa (part of duct system) 125 Pa (part of duct system) 150 Pa 0 Pa ------------------

B-C SEF B-C Pv loss (also Pt loss) at C as result of air velocity decrease Ps does not change from duct to plenum at C REQUIRED Fan Ps

1075 Pa

A A-B B C E E

Entrance loss-sharp edge duct Duct friction at 5000CMH SEF 1 SEF 2 Fan Pv SEF 3

REQUIRED Fan Pt Fan Ps = fan Pt fan Pv Fan Ps = 1325 Pa 125 Pa Fan Ps = 1200 Pa

100 Pa (duct design) 750 Pa (duct design) 150 Pa 50 Pa 125 Pa 150 Pa -----------------1325 Pa

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## Teoh Kee Hin Kruvent Industries (M) Sdn Bhd khteoh@kruger.com.my

Website: http://www.krugerfan.com

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