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SAP2000 9

METHODOLOGY

A comprehensive series of test problems, or examples, designed to test the various elements and analysis features of the program were created. The results produced by SAP2000 were compared to independent sources, such as hand calculated results, theoretical or published results, or results obtained from other structural/finite element programs. The comparison of the SAP2000 results with results obtained from independent sources is provided in tabular form as part of each example. Many different equation solver options are available in SAP2000. The different solver options typically give identical results for most of the verification problems. For a few numerically sensitive problems the different solver options may give slightly different results. The results presented in this document are those obtained using the Advanced equation solver running as a separate 32bit process on an Intel(R) Core(TM) i7 CPU with the Windows 7 Professional 64-bit operating system. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA The comparison of the SAP2000 validation and verification example results with independent results is typically characterized in one of the following three ways. Exact: There is no difference between the SAP2000 results and the independent results within the larger of the accuracy of the typical SAP2000 output and the accuracy of the independent result. Acceptable: For force, moment and displacement values, the difference between the SAP2000 results and the independent results does not exceed five percent (5%). For internal force and stress values, the difference between the SAP2000 results and the independent results does not exceed ten percent (10%). For experimental values, the difference between the SAP2000 results and the independent results does not exceed twenty five percent (25%). Unacceptable: For force, moment and displacement values, the difference between the SAP2000 results and the independent results exceeds five percent (5%). For internal force and stress values, the difference between the SAP2000 results and the independent results exceeds ten percent (10%). For experimental values, the difference between the SAP2000 results and the independent results exceeds twenty five percent (25%).

METHODOLOGY - 1

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

The percentage difference between results is typically calculated using the following formula:

Percent Difference = 100 SAP2000 Result Independent Result -1

SUMMARY OF EXAMPLES The example problems are categorized into seven groups based on the structural elements used in the example. Table 1 defines the seven groups, illustrates the example problem numbering system used for each group, and identifies the summary table used for each group.

TABLE 1: GROUPING OF EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Structural Elements Tested Frame Shell Plane Asolid Solid Link Cable Example Numbering 1-001, 1-002, , 1-xxx 2-001, 2-002, , 2-xxx 3-001, 3-002, , 3-xxx 4-001, 4-002, , 4-xxx 5-001, 5-002, , 5-xxx 6-001, 6-002, , 6-xxx 7-001, 7-002, , 7-xxx Summary Table Table 2-1 Table 2-2 Table 2-3 Table 2-4 Table 2-5 Table 2-6 Table 2-7

As shown in Table 1, Tables 2-1 through 2-7 summarize the validation and verification examples for each of the seven categories. Tables 2-1 through 2-7 include the example number, the problem title, a summary of the program features tested and the method of independent verification.

METHODOLOGY - 2

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Title Program Features Tested Calculation and application of Self load Projected, uniformly distributed load Application of Uniformly distributed load in global coordinates Uniformly distributed load in frame object local coordinates Trapezoidal and triangular distributed load on frames Joint moments and forces Static analysis of frames under all of these loading types The specification of Joint patterns The application of Temperature increase Transverse temperature gradient The calculation of Displacements in free expansion Reaction forces in restrained case caused by temperature loads The application of Distributed moments (uniform, trapezoidal, triangular) to frame objects Concentrated moments to frame objects Method of Independent Verification

1-001

General Loading

Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985.

1-002

Temperature Loading

Hand calculation using standard thermal expansion formulas and using Table 3 items 6a and 6c on page 107 in Roark and Young 1975. Hand calculation using equation 8.1.3 on page 284 in Cook and Young 1985. Hand calculation using the beam deflection formulas in Table 3 item 1a and Table 3 item 2a on pages 96 and 98, respectively, in Table 3 in Roark and Young 1975. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985.

1-003

1-004

Frame local axes rotated from global axes Use of AISC sections

1-005

Displacement Loading

1-006

Settlement of support in frame structures Rotation of support in frame structures Settlement of support with linear (translational) spring Rotation of support with rotational spring Skewed supports Skewed support settlement Structural behavior of a non-prismatic frame section Self weight calculations Linear variation of section area Linear, parabolic and cubic variation of moment of inertia Linear variation of section torsional constant Automatic frame subdivision

METHODOLOGY - 3

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Title Program Features Tested The end releases in a frame element, including Axial release Shear release Bending release The related frame static analysis 1-008 Partial Fixity End Releases 1-009 Prestress Applied To Frame Objects 1-010 End Offsets The partial fixity end releases in a frame element, including Shear partial fixity Bending partial fixity The application of gravity load to a frame object Prestress tendon with parabolic tendon profile and different eccentricities at the two ends Prestress tendon modeled usings loads Prestress tendon modeled as elements Prestress losses The use of end offsets in frames, including Non-rigid offsets Partially rigid offsets Fully rigid offsets The effect of end offsets on the frame static analysis results Cardinal point Joint offsets Method of Independent Verification Hand calculation using basic statics.

1-007

End Releases

Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Hand calculation using basic principles and the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Hand calculation using statics. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985 together with statics. Hand calculated using formulas presented in Problem 3 on page 23 of Timoshenko 1956. Hand calculation based on formulas presented on page 313 of Clough and Penzien 1975.

1-011

Insertion Point

1-012

1-013

Frame line spring assignments Static analysis of beam on elastic foundation Automatic frame subdivision

1-014

Eigenvalue Problem

Eigenvalue analysis of a frame with unequal moment of inertia values (I22 I33) for bending modes Automatic frame subdivision

METHODOLOGY - 4

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Title Steady State Harmonic Loads Program Features Tested Steady state analysis of frame systems Time history analysis of frame systems with periodic loading Line mass assignment to frame objects Automatic frame subdivision Method of Independent Verification Comparison with illustrative example 20.2 on page 434 of Paz 1985. Hand calculation using equation 23 on page 28 and equations 43 and 45 on page 43 of Timoshenko 1956. Hand calculation using vibration theory presented on pages 506 though 510 of Kreyszig 1983. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Hand calculation using formulas presented in Article 2.4 on pages 62 though 66 of Timoshenko and Gere 1961.

1-015

1-016

P-Delta force assignment to frame objects Nonlinear static analysis using the P-Delta option Automatic frame subdivision

1-017

Static nonlinear analysis using the P-Delta option to provide tension stiffening Modal analysis of frame for eigenvalues

1-018

Calculation of bending, shear and axial deformations in a rigid frame Frame property modification factors

1-019

1-020

Modal analysis of frame for eigenvalues and time periods Response spectrum analysis Joint masses

1-021

Comparison with results published in Bathe and Wilson 1972 and comparison with results from another computer program published in Peterson 1981.

METHODOLOGY - 5

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Title Program Features Tested Diaphragm constraint Joint force assignments Joint mass assignments Modal analysis for eigenvalues Response spectrum analysis Modal time history analysis for base excitation Direct integration time history analysis for base excitation Method of Independent Verification Comparison with results from another computer program published by Engineering/Analysis and Computers/ Structures International. Comparison with results from another computer program published in Peterson 1981 and in DeSalvo and Swanson 1977. Comparison with results from another computer program published in Peterson 1981.

1-022

1-023

Three-dimensional frame analysis Modal analysis using eigenvectors Joint mass assignments

1-024

Response Spectrum Analysis of a ThreeDimensional Moment Frame Response Spectrum Analysis of a ThreeDimensional Braced Frame

Three-dimensional frame analysis Modal analysis using eigenvectors Rigid diaphragm constraint Joint mass assignments Response spectrum analysis

1-025

Three-dimensional frame analysis Modal analysis using eigenvectors Rigid diaphragm constraint Joint mass assignments Response spectrum analysis

Comparison with results from another computer program published in Peterson 1981. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985 together with basic deflection formulas and superposition. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985 together with basic deflection formulas.

1-026

Static nonlinear analysis of a frame structure using moment and shear hinges

1-027

Nonlinear static analysis using the construction sequence loading option Frame end releases

METHODOLOGY - 6

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. 1-028 Problem Title Large Axial Displacements Program Features Tested Static nonlinear analysis of frame structure with large axial displacements using the SAP2000 P-Delta plus large displacements option Frame end releases Static nonlinear analysis of frame structure with large bending displacements using the SAP2000 P-Delta plus large displacements option Method of Independent Verification Hand calculation using basic statics. Hand calculation and Equation 4 in Article 7.1 of Chapter 7 on page 91 of Roark and Young 1975. Comparison with results published in Appendix A of AASHTO 1990 and hand calculation.

1-029

1-030

Moving Loads

METHODOLOGY - 7

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Description Program Features Tested Method of Independent Verification Hand calculation based theory in Timoshenko and Goodier 1951 and Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger 1959. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985 and using formulas from Roark and Young 1975. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation based theory in Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger 1959. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985.

2-001

Membrane analysis using shell elements Plate bending analysis using shell elements Thin-plate option Thick-plate option Joint displacement loading

2-002

Membrane analysis using shell elements Plate bending analysis using shell elements Effect of shell element aspect ratio Effect of geometrical distortion of shell element from rectangular Joint force loading

2-003

Membrane analysis using shell elements Plate bending analysis using shell elements Joint force loading

2-004

Membrane analysis using shell elements Plate bending analysis using shell elements Joint force loading

2-005

Plate bending analysis using shell elements Uniform load applied to shell elements Joint force loading

METHODOLOGY - 8

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Description Program Features Tested Method of Independent Verification Some results published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Other results scaled from plotted results in Zienkiewicz 1977 that were calculated using theory presented in Scordelis and Lo 1964. Results published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using Table 7.7 on page 7-30 of Harris and Crede 1976. Hand calculation using equation 185 on page 275 of Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger 1959. Hand calculation using item 1b in Table 29 on page 448 of Roark and Young 1975. Results scaled from plotted results in Zienkiewicz 1977 that were calculated using theory presented in Albasiny and Martin 1967. Results published in example shown on page 376 of Roark and Young 1975.

2-006

Three-dimensional analysis using shell elements Self weight applied to shell elements Gravity load applied to shell elements Uniform load applied to shell elements

2-007

Hemispherical Shell Structure with Static Loads Cantilever Plate Eigenvalue Problem

Three-dimensional analysis using shell elements Joint local axes Joint force loads Eigenvalue analysis using shell elements Area object mass assignment Area object automatic mesh Area object stiffness modifiers

2-008

2-009

Plate bending analysis using shell elements Area object spring assignment Joint force loads

2-010

Three-dimensional analysis using shell elements Surface pressure load applied to shell elements Joint local axes

2-011

Three-dimensional analysis using shell elements Joint patterns Shell element surface pressure load using joint pattern

2-012

Plate bending analysis of shell elements when shear deformations are significant Area object stiffness modifiers Frame distributed loads

METHODOLOGY - 9

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Description Temperature Load that Is Constant Through Shell Thickness Program Features Tested Method of Independent Verification Hand calculation using equation 1.3.4 on page 9 of Cook and Young 1985. Hand calculation using formulas presented in item 8e of Table 24 on page 361 of Roark and Young 1975. Hand calculated using theory presented in Chapter 6 of Ugural 1981. Hand calculated using theory presented in Timoshenko and Gere 1961. Hand calculated using equation 2-4 on page 48 of Timoshenko and Gere 1961. Hand calculation using basic statics. Hand calculation and Equation 4 in Article 7.1 of Chapter 7 on page 91 of Roark and Young 1975. Hand calculation using basic principles and the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985.

2-013

2-014

Temperature gradient loading for shell elements Area object local axes Joint local axes

2-015

Orthotropic Plate

Plate bending analysis of shells Orthotropic material properties Area object stiffness modifiers Buckling analysis of shells Automatic area meshing (N x N) with added restraints Joint springs Frame property modifiers Frame distributed load Frame automatic subdivide at intermediate joints Buckling analysis of shells Joint force loads Active degrees of freedom Static nonlinear analysis of shell structure with large axial displacements using the SAP2000 P-Delta plus large displacements option Joint constraints Static nonlinear analysis of shell structure with large bending displacements using the SAP2000 P-Delta plus large displacements option Automatic area meshing Prestress tendon with parabolic tendon profile and different eccentricities at the two ends Prestress tendon modeled using loads and applied to area objects Prestress tendon modeled as elements and applied to area objects Prestress losses

2-016

Out-of-Plane Buckling

2-017

In-Plane Buckling

2-018

2-019

2-020

METHODOLOGY - 10

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Description Program Features Tested Method of Independent Verification Hand calculation based theory in Timoshenko and Goodier 1951. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985 and using formulas from Roark and Young 1975. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation based on theory in Timoshenko 1956 and based on formulas in Roark and Young 1975. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using basic principles.

3-001

Membrane analysis using plane stress elements Incompatible bending mode option for plane elements Joint displacement loading

3-002

Membrane analysis using plane elements Effect of plane element aspect ratio Effect of geometrical distortion of plane element from rectangular Joint force loading

3-003

3-004

Thick-Walled Cylinder

Analysis using plane stress elements Analysis using plane strain elements Plane surface pressure load

3-005

Pore Pressure

METHODOLOGY - 11

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Description Soil Supporting Uniformly Loaded Circular Footing Program Features Tested Analysis using asolid elements Asolid surface pressure load Incompatible bending modes for asolid objects Method of Independent Verification Hand calculation based on data presented in Poulos and Davis 1974. Hand calculation based on theory in Timoshenko 1956. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation based on equations presented in Item 8 on page 567 of Roark and Young 1975. Hand calculation using basic principles.

4-001

4-002

Thick-Walled Cylinder

4-003

4-004

Pore Pressure

METHODOLOGY - 12

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. 5-001 Problem Description Patch Test With Prescribed Displacements Program Features Tested Patch test using solid elements Joint displacement loading Method of Independent Verification Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation based theory in Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger 1959. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985.

Solid object bending with and without the incompatible modes option Effect of solid object aspect ratio Effect of geometrical distortion of solid object from a cube Joint force loading

5-003

Solid object bending with the incompatible bending modes option Joint force loading

5-004

Solid object bending and twist with the incompatible bending modes option Joint force loading

5-005

Plate bending analysis using solid elements Surface pressure load applied to solid objects Joint force loading

METHODOLOGY - 13

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Description Program Features Tested Method of Independent Verification Some results published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Other results scaled from plotted results in Zienkiewicz 1977 that were calculated using theory presented in Scordelis and Lo 1964. Results published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation based on theory in Timoshenko 1956. Results also published in MacNeal and Harder 1985. Hand calculation using basic principles and the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985. Hand calculation using equation 2-4 on page 48 of Timoshenko and Gere 1961. Hand calculation using equation 1.3.4 on page 9 of Cook and Young 1985. Hand calculation using equation 185 on page 275 of Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger 1959.

5-006

Three-dimensional analysis using solid objects Self weight applied to solid objects Gravity load applied to shell objects

5-007

5-008

Thick-Walled Cylinder

Analysis using solid elements Solid surface pressure load Joint local axes

Prestress tendon with parabolic tendon profile and different eccentricities at the two ends Prestress tendon modeled using loads and applied to solid objects Prestress tendon modeled as elements and applied to solid objects Prestress losses Buckling analysis of solids Joint force loads Active degrees of freedom

5-010

Buckling

5-011

Temperature Load

5-012

Plate bending analysis using solid elements Solid object surface spring assignment Solid object automatic mesh Joint force loads

METHODOLOGY - 14

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. 5-013 Problem Description Pore Pressure Program Features Tested Pore pressure loading for solids Solid local axis assignments Joint pattern Method of Independent Verification Hand calculation using basic principles.

METHODOLOGY - 15

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Description Program Features Tested Linear links Modal load case for eigenvectors Modal time history load case Direct integration time history load case Ramp loading Method of Independent Verification Hand calculation using theory presented in section 4.5 on pages 126 through 129 of Chopra 1995. Comparison with defined link forcedeformation characteristics.

6-001

6-002

Multi-linear links Displacement-controlled nonlinear static analysis Gap element links Force-controlled nonlinear static analysis Nonlinear modal time history analysis Nonlinear direct time history analysis Frame point loads Joint force loads Joint mass assignments Ramp loading for time histories

6-003

Gap Element

Hand calculation using the unit load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985.

6-004

Hook Element

Hook element links Force-controlled nonlinear static analysis Frame temperature loads Damper element links Linear link elements Nonlinear modal time history analysis Nonlinear direct integration time history analysis Joint force loads Damper links with linear velocity exponents Frame end length offsets Joint mass assignments Modal analysis for ritz vectors Linear modal time history analysis Nonlinear modal time history analysis Linear direct integration time history analysis Nonlinear direct integration time history analysis Generalized displacements Damper links with nonlinear velocity exponents Frame end length offsets Joint mass assignments Modal analysis for ritz vectors Nonlinear modal time history analysis Nonlinear direct integration time history analysis Generalized displacements

Hand calculation using standard thermal expansion formulas. Hand calculation using equation 3.2.6 on page 70 in Chopra 1995. Comparison with experimental results from shake table tests published in Section 5, pages 61 through 73, of Scheller and Constantinou 1999. Comparison with experimental results from shake table tests published in Section 5, pages 61 through 73, of Scheller and Constantinou 1999.

6-005

6-006

6-007

METHODOLOGY - 16

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Description Plastic Wen Link Program Features Tested Plastic Wen links Displacement-controlled nonlinear static analysis Link local axis assignments Link gravity load Method of Independent Verification Comparison with defined link forcedeformation characteristics. Comparison with defined link forcedeformation characteristics. Comparison with results from the computer program 3D-BASIS-ME (see Tsopelas, Constantinou and Reinhorn 1994) published in Section 2, pages 5 through 23, of Scheller and Constantinou 1999. Comparison with experimental results from shake table tests published in Section 4, pages 43 through 59, of Scheller and Constantinou 1999. Hand calculation using formulas and theory presented in section 3.2 on pages 68 through 69 of Chopra 1995.

6-008

6-009

Plastic kinematic links Displacement-controlled nonlinear static analysis Link gravity load

6-010

Rubber isolator links Linear links Zero-length, two-joint link elements Diaphragm constraints Modal analysis for ritz vectors Nonlinear modal time history analysis Nonlinear direct integration time history analysis Generalized displacements

6-011

Friction pendulum link elements Damper link elements Zero-length, two-joint link elements Diaphragm constraints Frame end length offsets Modal analysis for ritz vectors Nonlinear modal time history analysis Nonlinear direct integration time history analysis Joint masses

6-012

METHODOLOGY - 17

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Exam. No. Problem Description Uniform and Temperature Loading Program Features Tested Uniform load applied to cable elements Temperature load applied to cable elements Joint displacement loading Nonlinear static analysis Uniform load applied to cable elements Concentrated load applied to cable elements Response combination results Nonlinear static analysis Uniform load applied to cable nets Concentrated load applied to cable nets Nonlinear static analysis Method of Independent Verification Comparison with results published in Figure 5 of Peyrot and Goulois, 1979. Comparison with results published in Section 4.6.2, Table 4.2, of Tibert, 1999. Comparison with results published in Section 4.6.3, Table 4.4, of Tibert, 1999.

7-001

7-002

7-003

METHODOLOGY - 18

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

MATRIX OF PROGRAM FEATURES COVERED IN EXAMPLES This section presents tables illustrating which element assignments, including loads, and which load case types are addressed in each of the examples. Table 3 shows the contents of the matrix tables.

TABLE 3: CONTENTS OF MATRIX TABLES

Features Joint assignments including loads Frame object assignments including loads Area object assignments including loads Solid object assignments including loads Link object assignments including loads Cable object assignment including loads Load case types Table Table 4-1 Table 4-2 Table 4-3 Table 4-4 Table 4-5 Table 4-6 Table 4-7

As illustrated in Table 3, the program features matrices are presented in tables 4-1 though 4-6. These tables are shown on the following pages.

METHODOLOGY - 19

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Joint Assignments Restraints Constraints Springs Masses Local axes Panel zones Joint patterns 1-002, 2-011, 3-005, 4-004, 5-013 1-001, 1-003, 1-004, 1-006, 1-010, 1-011, 1-012, 1-016, 1-019, 1-022, 1-026, 1-027, 1-028, 1-029, 2-002, 2-003, 2-004, 2-005, 2-007, 2-009, 2-017, 3-002, 3-003, 5-003, 5-004, 5-005, 5-012, 6-003, 6-005 1-005, 2-001, 3-001 Example Problems Most 1-022, 1-024, 1-025, 2-018, 6-010, 6-011 1-005, 2-016 1-020, 1-022, 1-023, 1-024, 1-025, 6-003, 6-006, 6-007, 6-011 1-005, 2-007, 2-010, 2-014, 5-008

Joint forces

Joint displacements

METHODOLOGY - 20

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Frame Assignments Non-prismatic section Frame property modifiers End releases Partial fixity Local axes End length offsets Insertion point Prestress definition P-Delta force Tension/compression limits Hinges Line springs Line mass Automatic frame subdivide Gravity load Point load Distributed load Temperature load Prestress load Frame self weight Example Problems 1-006 1-001, 1-002, 1-004, 1-005, 1-006, 1-013, 1-014, 1-018, 1-020, 1-021, 1-024, 2-016 1-007, 1-012, 1-028 1-008 1-004 1-010, 6-006, 6-007, 6-011 1-011 1-009 1-016 1-012 1-026 1-013 1-015, 1-021 1-006, 1-013, 1-014, 1-015, 1-017, 1-019, 2-016 1-008 1-001, 1-004, 1-007, 1-011, 1-013, 6-003 1-001, 1-003, 1-008, 1-015, 1-016, 1-018, 2-012, 2-016 1-002, 6-004 1-009 1-006, 1-009

METHODOLOGY - 21

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Area Type and Assignments Shell type area object Plane type area object Asolid type area object Stiffness modifiers Local axes Area springs Area Mass Automatic area mesh Gravity load (all) Uniform load (shell) Uniform load to frames (shell) Surface pressure (all) Pore pressure (plane, asolid) Temperature load (all) Rotate load (asolid) Wind pressure coefficients (shell) General prestress applied to area objects 2-020 2-010, 2-011,3-004, 4-001, 4-002 3-005, 4-004 2-013, 2-014 4-003 Example Problems 2-001 through 2-020 3-001 through 3-005 4-001 through 4-004 2-008, 2-012, 2-015 2-014 2-009 2-008 2-008, 2-016, 2-019 2-006 2-005, 2-006

METHODOLOGY - 22

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Solid Assignments Local axes Surface springs Automatic solid mesh Gravity load Surface pressure load Pore pressure load Temperature load General prestress applied to solid objects Example Problems 5-013 5-012 5-012 5-006 5-005, 5-008 5-013 5-011 5-009

METHODOLOGY - 23

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Link Type and Assignments Linear link Multilinear elastic link Gap (compression only) link Hook (tension only) link Damper link Plastic (Wen) link Plastic (kinematic) link Rubber isolator link Friction isolator link Frequency dependent link Local axes Gravity load Example Problems 6-001, 6-005, 6-010 6-002 6-003 6-004 6-005, 6-006, 6-007, 6-011 6-008 6-009 6-010 6-011 6-012 6-008 6-008, 6-009

Link Type and Assignments Cable element Cable net Rubber isolator link Friction isolator link Frequency dependent link Uniform load Temperature load Example Problems 7-001, 7-002 7-003 6-010 6-011 6-012 7-001, 7-002 7-001

METHODOLOGY - 24

Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.:

SAP2000 9

Load case type Linear static Multi-step static Nonlinear static Nonlinear static with construction sequence loading Nonlinear static with large displacements Modal for eigenvectors Modal for ritz vectors Response spectrum Linear transient modal time history Linear periodic modal time history Nonlinear transient modal time history Linear direct integration time history Nonlinear direct integration time history Moving load Buckling Steady state Power spectral density Example Problems Most 1-030 1-012, 1-016, 1-017, 1-026, 6-002, 6-003, 6-004, 6-008, 6-009, 7-001, 7-002, 7-003 1-027

1-014, 1-017, 1-020, 1-021, 1-022, 1-023, 1-024, 1-025, 2-008 6-001 6-006, 6-007, 6-010, 6-011 1-020, 1-022, 1-024, 1-025 1-022, 6-001, 6-006

1-015

METHODOLOGY - 25

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