Running head: IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE

The Impact of Self-Disclosure On Undergraduate Students: Social Penetration Theory

Sara Beth Jones Jennifer Styers Amanda Wright Brittany Harvey

sara.jones@qmail.queens.edu jennifer.styers@qmail.queens.edu amanda.wright@qmail.queens.edu brittany.harvey@qmail.queens.edu

Queens University of Charlotte

Submitted on: April 20, 2011

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE Abstract

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The number of users signing up for a Facebook account is growing at a rapid rate and has been since it was created in 2004. Starting off by invitation with only Harvard University, Facebook has spread to more than 600 million users worldwide. Founder, Mark Zuckerberg, has created a website that users have the power to disclose as much or as little information about themselves as desired. Along with the ability to create public profiles, there is a blog, twitter, and YouTube account that users can follow to stay more up to date with Facebook. This paper examines the extent to which college undergraduate users’ self-disclose personal information on Facebook, along with the potential benefits and risks users should take in consideration if they have not already. Through questionnaires, this concept of self-disclosure is examined. The participants will be asked to share their views on self-disclosure, how much they do it, and if they have witnessed any positive or negative things happening from self-disclosure.

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 4 2

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II.

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Social Penetration Theory Benefits of Self-Disclosure on Facebook Risks of Self-Disclosure on Facebook 5 7 9

III.

METHODOLOGY Survey Objective Survey Design 11 13 14 17

IV. V. VI.

RESULTS ANALYSIS CONCLUSION Limitations For Future Research

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VII.

APPENDICES Figure 1 Figure 2 21 21 24

VIII.

REFERENCES

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE Introduction and Background The Impact of Self-Disclosure On Undergraduate Students: Social Penetration Theory Online social networks such as Facebook are captivating undergraduates’ attention and time each day. Users are constantly updating profiles, posting new statuses, sharing pictures or links in attempt to connect with other users, which are classified as “friends” on Facebook. It provides a way for users to express their personal views and interests via the online virtual world. Users are self-disclosing personal information to their friends on an individual basis, whether it be conscious or not, and showing other users layers of themselves that may not have

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been obtained without the help of this online social network. Levels of maturity differ from each undergraduate student, but upperclassmen (juniors and seniors) students are expected to use more caution in their public posts and photographs on the social media site. While underclassmen (freshmen and sophomores) use little to no caution, being more focused on making new friends and gaining more attention socially. The purpose of this study is to show the difference of self disclosure between undergraduate students on Facebook, with the belief that upperclassmen are more cautious when posting a status or picture to their Facebook profile. Underclassmen, however, disclose more personal information and are not as aware of the image they are portraying or information that they are sharing. Self-disclosure stems from the Social Penetration theory created by Altman & Taylor (1987) which states that “to create meaningful relationships people have to disclose personal information” (Altman and Taylor, 1987). As tools such as social media sites progress, researchers will focus more attention to this realm of research, showing the significance of the impact of online social network sites to today’s culture. Self disclosure will be important to communication scholars in this inter-disciplinary study.

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE Review of the Literature Self-Disclosure on Facebook and Social Penetration Theory

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Self-disclosure is defined by Wheeless and Grontz (1976) as “any message about the self that a person communicates to another” (p. 388). As technology has boomed, the creations of Online Social Networking sites such as Facebook have appeared at a rapid rate. To date, over 500 million users are on Facebook (Facebook statistics, 2010). Facebook has created a portal for users where they “can present themselves on their individual profiles, make links to other users and communicate with them” (Gross and Acquisti, 2005). Some Facebook users have presented the online networking site with more personal information than others, when disclosing information there are benefits and risks that are associated with such disclosure. Many selfdisclosure messages include personal facts about ourselves that other individuals would not be able to uncover on their own (Derlega and Berg, 1987). Self-disclosure on Facebook increases the rate of the “getting to know you” process. In this way self-disclosure lends itself to the Social Penetration Theory. The Social Penetration Theory was developed by Altman & Taylor (1987) who defined it as “interpersonal closeness proceeds in a gradual and orderly fashion from superficial to intimate levels of exchange as a function of anticipated present and future outcomes.” They also discuss in their theory that to achieve deep social penetration is through self-disclosure. “As a relationship develops participants in the relationship have to penetrate deeper and deeper into private and personal matters" (Altman & Taylor, 1987). There are five stages of penetration: orientation, exploratory, affective, stable, and depenetration stage. The first is the orientation stage or the getting to know you stage, described as

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE “this stage people play it safe with small talk and what in their culture is considered norms of appropriateness.” The next is the exploratory affective stage, explained as the start of revealing yourself. Altman and Taylor say that people will start to tell their personal opinions on topics such as government or education. The theorists do disclaim, however, that what a person may tell might not be the whole truth. This may be a result of participants wanting to keep themselves guarded. This level is where many causal friendships are and will stay. The third level is the affective stage where relationships “start to talk about private and personal matters, critics will claim that this is where kissing and intimate touching will start” (Altman & Taylor, 1987). The fourth stage is the stable stage. Altman and Taylor say that the relationship is now on a level where two individuals are comfortable with sharing personal and private information with one another; “they can also predict what the other will do, say or react

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in a situation. The final stage is the de-penetration stage, where the relationship will start to break down and “individuals feel as if cost exceeds the benefits, if so they will withdrawal disclosure and the relationship will end” (Altman & Taylor, 1987). With these stages, participants in relationships should make sure that each staged is fully completed before jumping into another stage to ensure that all individuals involved feel comfortable (Altman & Taylor, 1987). If one of the members in the relationship is not comfortable, no progress will be made. Because each relationship is unique, some relationships on Facebook will never reach all five stages. Nonetheless, users may disclose information that may speed up the process and make others feel uncomfortable, as Altman and Taylor warned in their research (1987).

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE Depending on the text that users post on their Facebook profile, the message maybe interpreted incorrectly. The evaluation of the message is very important when it comes to selfdisclosing, like depth and breadth of penetration as mentioned in the social penetration theory (Altman & Taylor, 1987). There is also depth and breadth in self disclosing on social network sites. Wheeless and Grotz define this as breadth reflects the amount of disclosed information, which is a function of the frequency and duration of the disclosures. On the other hand, depth reflects the degree of intimacy and is a function of the user’s honesty, accuracy and intent

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(Wheeless & Grotz, 1976). Evaluation of the message that users are self-disclosing needs to have both in order that the message can be perceived as the user would like it to be. Benefits of Self-Disclosure on Facebook There are many benefits of self-disclosure and many reasons as to why it is necessary. According to Rosenfled (1979), given the appropriate type of self-disclosure, there can be “increased trust, liking, often loving, increased attraction, and better mental health” (Rosenfled, 1979). With self-disclosure comes an increased trust, so when users have someone to open up to and share their vulnerability, positive things can happen because of it. Users disclosing information with one another can immediately form a trusting bond. It allows them to feel comfortable around each other and let feelings out that would otherwise have been bottled up. As increased trust is established, it allows room for increased liking. Trust is a big issue in all relationships whether it is friendship, family, or romantic. The more trusting a person is, the more likely others will be to opening up and enabling them to further advance their relationship. After liking someone for an extended period of time, the like begins to turn into love. This is when people really open up to one another, even more than before and allow each other inside

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE their thoughts and feelings. Without this, people would have to guess what those feelings might be. Self-disclosure allows the gain of self-concept, which is vital to human beings (Rosenfled, 1979). Without self-concept, people will have a misguided understanding of who

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they are. If people never develop their own self-concept, it can lead to detrimental repercussions. According to Rosenfeld, self-concept correlates with a large number of interpersonal variables that include self-acceptance, feelings of security, and a greater tolerance for a wider range of behavior from others. Once someone feels accepted by others, they can begin to accept themselves. When people feel constantly rejected by others, it could encourage negative thoughts and even lead to thoughts such as depression. Having feelings of security can be very comforting. It can be extremely helpful for someone to know that they have others who will be there for moral support. There would be a feeling of emptiness and loss without the security of friends and loved ones. Self-concept relates to a greater tolerance for a wider range of behavior from others because learning certain behaviors comes into play. Viewing how people act and how others react to the actions, allows a person to develop an understanding of how people behave in certain situations. In such cases, a person can determine whether or not they accept the behaviors. Observing how others react to a situation can also allow a person to see what behaviors are accepted or rejected by others so they can make their own decisions of what is acceptable and what is not. This increase of self-concept allows one to develop much needed interpersonal relationships. These types of self-disclosure methods can be done on a personal level, and even online through social networking sites such as Facebook. Facebook is available to anyone who has access to the Internet and is a great way for users to keep in touch and up to date with

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE relationships both on and offline. It is a way to stay connected with people who have moved away, who are too busy to meet in person, out of town relatives, and even those who live in completely different countries. Some users feel more comfortable disclosing personal information online rather than face-to-face. According to the Pew Internet & American Life Project, “over 600 million American adults use the Internet to seek help when making tough decisions affecting their lives” (Rogers, Griffin, Wykle, and Fitzpatrick, 2009). Disclosing

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information through online networks restricts the face to face emotional aspects, allowing people to feel more at ease. Risks of Self-Disclosure on Facebook Being that Facebook is available to anyone, it allows friends, acquaintances, and even strangers access to the personal information that is displayed on a person’s profile (Christofides, Muise, Desmarais, 2009). Users have to actively change the privacy setting for content to be shared in the ways that they want. Facebook has an extensive privacy policy that most users overlook when signing up. “Many users do not realize that Facebook collects metadata from their profile accounts. The company warns on privacy policy page that information you share will show up on friends' accounts, be shown to third party vendors, and Facebook the company keeps a record of activity from each profile account” (Facebook’s privacy, 2010). Restricting access to data does not fully protect the data provided. Restricting profile visibility to “friends only” really only fulfills part of the action because as long as users feed the part of the profile with extensive personal data that is updated continually, their privacy is at risk (Debatin, Lovejoy, Horn, and Hughes, 2009).

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE

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Many undergraduate students use social networking sites as a way to feel more popular, in turn, making them feel better about themselves. Students disclose a wide range of personal information over the Internet including things such as full name, age, race, religious practices, addresses, phone numbers, provocative photographs, and so on (Facebook’s privacy, 2010). Revealing certain information can cause some serious risks, especially upon entering the work force. As professionals are taking more interest in Facebook when considering potential candidates for positions, researchers Peluchette and Karl (2010) found that 53% of Facebook profiles had photos related to alcohol consumption, 50% were profanity laden, and 25% included provocative photos. This kind of content on Facebook profiles could very well prevent people from getting the job they want. A recent survey reported that 77% of executive recruiters use social networking sites to look up potential employees and analyze what kinds of inappropriate information and pictures are posted and available to the public (Karl, Peluchette, and Schlaegel, 2010). The executive recruiters look at the content displayed on people’s Facebook pages to see what kind of people could potentially be working for their company. There is a universal understanding that once a part of a company, they represent that company. Employers are not going to hire someone who will bring negative publicity to the company. Aside from the risks in relation to the working world, there are personal risks as well. In a study conducted by Debatin et al. (2009) that Facebook users accept “friends” that they have only heard of through others or do not know at all and therefore, most of them have access to widely uploaded information such as full names, birthdays, hometowns, and many pictures. Also in this day and age the use of Smartphones is becoming increasingly popular. Anyone who uses the Facebook application on their Smartphone can automatically sync all of their Facebook

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE “friends” phone numbers directly into their contacts. This means that anyone who has their phone number listed in their profile on Facebook is granting permission for others to have it. Self-disclosure online poses another risk. No nonverbal clues can be picked up to go

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along with the information being presented. It also does not allow the tone of voice to be heard. This could lead to problems in communication where messages can easily be misinterpreted. Mixed signals and feelings can be taken away from such situations and unintended arguments or confusion can occur.

Methodology

Survey Objective

With this questionnaire we explored the extent to which users of different generations self disclose information on Facebook. When it came to coming in contact with a stranger, did people feel more comfortable in presenting more information about themselves due to the consideration of not actually having any intentions of ever meeting?

Participants and Procedures

In order to retain the information needed to determine how often Facebook users hand out personal information, a questionnaire was handed out. After the researchers put together multiple questions that pertained to the topic of interest, each person was given a handful of questionnaires. The questionnaires were passed to individuals around the campus. Participants filled questionnaires out with an understanding of why they were being asked. After collecting all the questionnaires, the finished data was collected and counted. After the counting was

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE complete, each question and its results were put into graph form to give a visual display of the final similarities and differences.

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Variables Predictor variable – Different users self disclosing personal information -> using online networking via Facebook Outcome variable – to strangers only with the purpose of never meeting, meeting new people and being exposed to others personal information

Questions

RQ1: Do you have a Facebook?

RQ2: How many times do you log into your facebook?

RQ3: Is your Facebook public?

RQ4: Approximately how many Facebook friends do you have?

RQ5: Approximately what percentage of your Facebook friends do you know on a personal level?

RQ6: How many of these Facebook friends would you feel safe disclosing information to?

RQ7: Is your relationship status visible on your Facebook profile?

RQ8: If yes, is this status true?

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE RQ9: Do you think some users self-disclose too much person information?

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RQ10: Do you use precaution when posting pictures, videos, comments, status updates, links, etc.? RQ11: What would you talk about on Facebook? RQ12: What type of pictures do you have on Facebook? Hypothesis

Facebook, to the younger users, is a gateway to meeting more friends as well as a form of entertainment to keep up to date with everything that is happening in their “world.” Users were more likely to use precaution when it came to posting personal information on Facebook.

H1: The closer to graduation, more precaution is used and personal information is self disclosed.

H2: The older the users the smarter they are about providing less information.

Survey Design

Volunteers of the study were asked to circle one of the provided school years in order to have information on what year the participants were in but they were not being identified as an individual. The first four questions were about the demographics of the participant. These include what gender, undergraduate status, academic year, and the amount of extracurricular activities he or she were involved in.

The rest of the questions were directed to the Facebook users about information that referred to their accounts. These questions included: How many times a day do you log into your

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE account? How often was your information updated- daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly? Facebook was designed for everyone to connect with old friends and/or make new ones. When making new friends on the internet, it is important to know what personal

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information is being displayed for them to see. Questions such as to whether or not the Facebook account in private, estimate the total amount of friends you have, and how many of the friends that you have do you actually know were asked. Participants were given a ranged number scale and were instructed to circle the estimated amount they felt was close enough to the amount of people they are friend with on Facebook.

The final few questions on the questionnaire pertained to what the Facebook users had posted on their accounts. These questions regarding what would they have talked about on Facebook and what types of pictures were uploaded on Facebook included a list of items that may have pertained to the participant. They were asked to circle as many of the listed choices that they felt most applied to them and their accounts. At the end of the questionnaire, room was left for the individuals to fill in any questions or comments they felt were necessary for the researchers to know and include in their final data.

Results Data was grouped according to academic class (upperclassmen and underclassmen) in order to assess any differences. Data was then categorized into discussion topics on Facebook and types of pictures that were added to their profiles. Throughout the various groups, a reoccurring theme showed that the participants of the questionnaire were more likely to post positive things happening in their life as opposed to negative things. This did not vary according to class group or gender.

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE When answering questions regarding precaution used when posting pictures, videos,

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comments, status updates, and links, 66% of upper class participants noted that they always use precaution. In comparison, 74% of underclass participants noted that they always use precaution. Only 12% of upperclassmen mostly used precaution, while 21% of underclassmen mostly used precaution. 3% of upperclassmen sometimes used precaution, while 6% of underclassmen sometimes used precaution. No participants in either group noted that they never used precaution. The other portion of the survey included questions pertaining to specific things or activities that participants would post and talk about on Facebook. Out of the 41 upperclassmen who completed the survey, 85% said they would post things positive in their life, 76% would talk about school and work, 49% would talk about having a bad day, 41% would talk about getting good grades, 5% would discuss family issues, 2% would discuss troubles with the law, and 2% would post personal information about a friend. In comparison, Out of the 34 upperclassmen who completed the survey, 88% said they would post things positive in their life, 79% would talk about school and work, 47% would talk about having a bad day, 50% would talk about getting good grades, none would discuss family issues, none would discuss troubles with the law, and none would post personal information about a friend. It should be noted that participants were able to select as many available answers as needed to express full disclosure.

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE

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Question 1- What would you talk about?
40 35 30 25 Number of Responses 20 15 10 5 0 A b c d e f g h i j k l Various Topics for Facebook Interaction Upperclassmen Underclassmen

y. Figure 1. What would you talk about on Facebook graph. For what types of pictures the participants have posted, 38 upperclassmen and 34 underclassmen posted pictures with friends, 32 upperclassmen and 33 underclassmen posted pictures with family, 15 upperclassmen and 13 underclassmen posted pictures with alcohol, and 7 upperclassmen and 8 underclassmen posted pictures of their place of residence.

Question 2- Picture Types
40 35 30 25 Number of 20 Respones 15 10 5 0 a b c d e f g h i j k l Various types of Facebook Pictures

Upperclassmen Underclassmen

Figure 2. Picture types graph.

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE The traditional undergraduate participants had similar results, but the results from students in the Hayworth College for Adult Undergraduate Students at Queens University of Charlottes were very different. Only two Hayworth College students participated in the questionnaire, and were both seniors. They both believed that some users disclose too much personal information. Likewise, these two participants had very minimal areas selected on the

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questionnaire about information and pictures disclosed. One applicant would not post any of the options listed on the questionnaire, and would only post pictures of family, holidays, and vacations on Facebook. The other applicant selected the “positive things in your life” section on information disclosed on Facebook, and would post pictures of family, friends, and work related. A section on the survey was left open for comments to offer any suggestions to the researchers. The upperclassman suggested asking if the Facebook user’s name is correct on their profile and if they have had to block anyone from stalking. The underclassmen wrote that if their mother would approve of their comments, then they would post it. One volunteer pointed out that phone numbers will transfer to smart phones if it is listed on the user’s Facebook profile. Other underclassmen commented that some people tell all their activities of the day on Facebook, and that people talk about their sexual practices too much. Overall, the results came from both the upperclassmen and underclassmen. Analysis Overall, the findings suggest most college students are aware of what information they disclose on Facebook. Over half of the participants from the questionnaire answered that they always use precaution when posting comments, pictures, videos, etc. on Facebook. Results yielded that participants had some education about the risks and benefits of self-disclosure

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE

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through Facebook. Although they might not be familiar with the social penetration theory, they were aware of its effect on those who post inappropriate information on Facebook. Thus, this communication theory has been utilized by these Facebook users and can be applied to anyone. Although the data showed the social penetration theory is being incorporated to everyday social media use, it did not support the hypothesis that as students get closer to graduation, (upperclassmen) the amount of disclosed information on Facebook would decrease. Rather, there was not much difference between the upperclassmen and underclassmen in terms of what was disclosed. The researchers predicted that there would be a much larger gap between classes and the hypothesis of the study would be strongly supported. There was no significant difference in if the different age groups were more aware of what they post on Facebook as well as the different types of pictures they would consider appropriate for uploading. The results were similar compared to classes, which was not complementary to the hypothesis. The researchers hypothesized that upperclassmen would not disclose as much personal information or pictures on Facebook as compared to the underclassmen. In terms of the types of information that were disclosed, both groups did report that they would be more likely to disclose information about positive things and activities in their lives rather than negative aspects. The Hayworth College participants were the most cautious when posting information and pictures on Facebook. This supported the hypothesis that the closer to graduation, the more aware the participants would be about what they post on Facebook. The Hayworth College participants were both seniors and may already have jobs. Therefore, responses yielded that the older the participants in the study, the more cautious they were about posting information and pictures on Facebook.

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE Conclusion According to the results from the self-disclosure questionnaire at Queens University of Charlotte, upperclassmen and underclassmen disclose similar amounts of personal information

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and pictures on Facebook. This data does not support the hypothesis set by the researchers. The Hayworth College participants selected the least amount of categories one would self-disclose information or pictures about on Facebook. This supports the hypothesis that as the student’s graduation date comes nearer, the amount of information disclosed on Facebook decreases. There were several limitations to the research study. One was that there were not equal groups of upperclassmen, underclassmen, and Hayworth College students. There were also not an equal number of men and women completing the questionnaire. This was a limitation because data could not be properly applied to the research questions as being equal. Another limitation included the actual sample size. Having more than 75 questionnaires completed would have helped gather more diverse information. Since the questionnaire was anonymous, the validity of the results was in question as well. There was no way to be certain of whether the participants were giving accurate answers to the questions. Some Facebook users might not have been aware and consciously thinking about their updates on Facebook because it came as a second nature. Information can easily be shared, without the user really thinking about how many “friends” on Facebook can view the updates. The clarity of the questionnaire also caused some concern because some participants did not understand what a public profile or updating your profile meant. For future research, the questionnaire would have to be more specific and not as generalized in order to increase clarity. It would be helpful to get input from recent graduates as to see what information they did and did

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE not disclose as well. In general, a larger sample size may have given us significant differences between the two groups of students as well. It would also be helpful to include more specific

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questions to the questionnaire as well. This includes questions about parental involvement with Facebook. For future research, a question about the participant’s parents' involvement in Facebook would have helped. With parents being involved in Facebook and being friends with their children, the children could have been more cautious about information posted on their profile than if the parent did not have Facebook. This question would give the researchers a more in depth analysis of the questionnaire and the results.

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE APPENDICES FIGURE 1 Sample Questionnaire

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Queens University of Charlotte Communication Research Survey Self-disclosure via Facebook

As undergraduate students in the Knight School of Communication at Queens University of Charlotte, we are conducting a questionnaire to better understand self-disclosure on the social network site, Facebook. As part of an ongoing interest in research on social networks, you have been selected to participate in The Self-disclosure Survey. The purpose of this study is to assess Queens’ undergraduate students’ levels of self-disclosure through Facebook. Your participation will involve the voluntary completion of a questionnaire. The questionnaire will take approximately 10 – 15 minutes to complete. It contains questions about your Facebook activity as well as your observation of friends’ activity. You should complete this questionnaire only once. If you are a member of several classes or groups who are asked to complete this questionnaire, do not complete the questionnaire a second time. Your responses will be completed anonymous, since there is no way to link the responses from completed questionnaires with any particular respondent. It is anticipated that your participation in completing this survey will be an interesting experience that will contribute to understanding more about self-disclosure through the channel of Facebook. The content of some of the items on the questionnaire may raise your level of awareness of certain feelings; otherwise, there are no expected risks or benefits associated with your participation. You may choose to withdraw your participation at any time; however, the return of your completed questionnaire will be considered as your consent to participate in this survey. Please answer all questions on the survey as directed. Thank you for taking the time to complete this questionnaire.

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE Instructions: Please select one answer about yourself below. 1. Gender: Male / Female 2. Undergraduate status: Traditional / Hayworth 3. Academic year : Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior

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4. How many extracurricular activities are you involved in? 0–2 2–3 4–5 5+

5. Do you have a Facebook account? Yes / No 6. How often do you log in to your account? Hourly Daily Weekly Monthly

7. How often do you update your Facebook account? Hourly Daily Weekly Monthly

8. Do you receive notifications to your cellular device? Yes / No 9. Is your Facebook profile public? Yes / No

10. Approximately how many friends do you have on Facebook? 0 – 200 200 – 500 500 – 1000 1000+

11. What percentage of your Facebook friends do you know on a personal level? Few Some Most All

12. How many of these friends would you feel safe disclosing personal information to? Few Some Most All

13. Is your relationship status visible on your Facebook profile? Yes / No 14. If yes, is this status true? Yes / No 15. Do you think some users disclose too much personal information? Yes / No

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE 16. Do you use precaution when posting pictures, videos, comments, status updates, links, etc.? Sometimes Mostly Always Never

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Instructions: Please select all answers that apply to you. 1. Would you talk about ____________ on Facebook? a. Getting a new car b. Having a bad day c. Getting a good grade d. Feeling hungover e. Relationship problem f. Coach / teacher g. Family Issues h. Positive things in your life i. Trouble with the law j. Personal information about a friend k. Gifts from friends l. School / work

2. What types of pictures do you have on Facebook? a. Alcohol b. Family c. Friends d. Sports e. Holidays f. Pets g. Work Related h. Residency i. Car j. Vacation k. Religious Practices l. Other __________________

Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions. The items in the survey may have missed a number of issues about disclosure on Facebook to consider. If you would like to offer your own suggestions on self-disclosure via Facebook please use the space below. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE References Altman, I., & Taylor, D. (1987). Communication in interpersonal relationships: Social Penetration Theory. In M. E. Roloff and G. R. Miller (Eds.), Interpersonal processes: New directions in communication research, 257-277. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2009). Information Disclosure and Control on Facebook: Are They Two Sides of the Same Coin or Two Different Processes?. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(3), 341-345. Debatin, B., Lovejoy, J. P., Horn, A., & Hughes, B. N. (2009). Facebook and online privacy: Attitudes, behaviors, and unintended consequences. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 15(1), 83-108.

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Derlega, V.,Berg, John, H. (1987). Self-Disclosure: Theory, Research, and Therapy; New York: Plenum Press. Facebook’s privacy policy. (2010, December 22). Facebook. www.facebook.com/policy.php. Facebook statistic. (2010). Facebook. www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics. Figure 1. (2011, April 10). What would you talk about on Facebook graph. Figure 2. (2011, April 10). Picture types graph. Gross, R., & Acquisti, A. (2005). Information revelation and privacy in online social networks: The case of facebook. ACM Workshop.

IMPACT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE Karl, K., Peluchette, J., & Schlaegel, C. (2010). Who's posting Facebook faux pas? A crosscultural examination of personality differences. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 18(2), 174-186.

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Peluchette, J., & Karl, K. (2010). Examining students' intended image on Facebook: 'What were they thinking?!'. Journal of Education for Business, 85(1), 30-37. Rogers, V. L., Griffin, M., Wykle, M. L., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2009). Internet versus Face-to-Face Therapy: Emotional Self-Disclosure Issues for Young Adults. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 30(10), 596-602. Rosenfeld, L. B. (1979). Self-disclosure avoidance:why am I afraid to tell you who I am. Communication Monographs, 46(1), 63. Wheeles & Grotz, J. (1976). Conceptualization and measurement of disclosure. Human Communication Research, 2, 338-346.

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