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B GIO DC V O TO

TRNG I HC KINH T THNH PH H CH MINH


*********

NGUYN TH TUYT HN

O LNG MC HI LNG KHCH HNG V DCH V


GIAO NHN HNG KHNG TI CNG TY C PHN
GIAO NHN VN TI V THNG MI VINALINK

LUN VN THC S KINH T

TP. H CH MINH NM 2008

B GIO DC V O TO
TRNG I HC KINH T THNH PH H CH MINH
*********

NGUYN TH TUYT HN

O LNG MC HI LNG KHCH HNG V DCH V


GIAO NHN HNG KHNG TI CNG TY C PHN
GIAO NHN VN TI V THNG MI VINALINK

CHUYN NGNH: QUN TR KINH DOANH


M S

: 60.34.05

LUN VN THC S KINH T

NGI HNG DN KHOA HC:


TS. NGUYN HU LAM

TP. H CH MINH NM 2008

LI CAM OAN
*********

Lun vn Thc s Kinh t vi ti: o lng mc hi lng khch


hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng ti Cng ty C phn Giao nhn Vn ti
v Thng mi Vinalink l cng trnh do chnh bn thn ti nghin cu.
Ti xin hon ton chu trch nhim v ni dung v tnh trung thc ca
ti nghin cu ny.
Tc gi

Nguyn Th Tuyt Hn

-1-

MC LC
Trang
Li cam oan
Mc lc
Danh mc ch vit tt
Danh mc bng
Danh mc hnh
CHNG I: GII THIU .............................................................................1
1.1 Trnh by vn nghin cu........................................................................1
1.2 Mc tiu nghin cu.....................................................................................3
1.3 Phm vi v phng php nghin cu...........................................................3
1.3.1 Phm vi nghin cu ........................................................................3
1.3.2 Phng php nghin cu ................................................................4
1.4 ngha thc tin ca nghin cu ................................................................4
1.5 Kt cu ca lun vn ....................................................................................6
CHNG 2. TNG QUAN L THUYT ...................................................7
2.1 Tng quan l thuyt v s hi lng ca khch hng trong dch v .............7
2.1.1 nh ngha v dch v.....................................................................7
2.1.2 nh ngha s hi lng khch hng v ti sao phi lm hi lng
khch hng.....................................................................................9
2.1.3 S cn thit ca o lng nhu cu v tha mn khch hng........10
2.1.4 Cc m hnh o lng tha mn khch hng trong dch v.........12
2.2 Tng quan l thuyt v giao nhn hng khng ..........................................21
2.2.1 Nh giao nhn hng khng ..........................................................22
2.2.2 c im ca vn ti hng khng................................................23
2.2.3 C s vt cht k thut ca vn ti hng khng ..........................24
2.2.4 Hng ho thng c vn chuyn bng ng hng khng .....24
2.2.5 Cc yu t nh hng n s hi lng khch hng v dch v vn
chuyn hng khng ........................................................................24

-2-

CHNG 3. PHNG PHP V KT QU NGHIN CU ...............26


3.1 Nghin cu nh tnh..................................................................................27
3.1.1 Thit k nghin cu nh tnh .......................................................27
3.1.2 iu chnh thang o......................................................................29
3.2 Nghin cu nh lng...............................................................................32
3.2.1 Thit k nghin cu nh lng....................................................32
3.2.2 M t mu .....................................................................................35
3.2.3 Kt qu kim nh thang o..........................................................38
CHNG 4: KT QU V BIN LUN..................................................43
4.1 Mi yu t c khch hng nh gi quan trng nht ..........................44
4.2 Mi yu t khch hng t hi lng nht ...................................................46
4.3 Mi yu t c khong cch ln nht gia im s tm quan trng v
im s hi lng ...............................................................................................48
4.4 Phn tch cc yu t theo ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan
trng (Hnh 4.4)................................................................................................50
4.5 Phn tch cc yu t theo tng nhn t ......................................................52
4.5.1 V nhn t p ng .................................................................52
4.5.2 V nhn t chuyn nghip ......................................................59
4.5.3 V nhn t tn tm ..................................................................66
4.5.4 V nhn t hu hnh ...............................................................67
4.6 nh hng ca cc bin nh tnh n cc yu t nm trong vng II v
vng III Khu vc cn ci tin ca Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm
quan trng (Hnh 4.4) .......................................................................................70
4.6.1 nh hng ca bin nh tnh Loi hnh cng ty n cc yu t
cn ci tin ca Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan
trng (Hnh 4.4) ...........................................................................70
4.6.2 nh hng ca bin nh tnh Mc trng lng n cc yu t
cn ci tin ca Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan
trng (Hnh 4.4) ...........................................................................71

-3-

4.6.3 nh hng ca bin Mc thng xuyn n cc yu t cn ci


tin ca Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan trng
(Hnh 4.4).....................................................................................71
4.6.4 nh hng ca bin Ni n i vi cc yu t cn ci tin ca
Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan trng (Hnh 4.4)72
CHNG 5: GII PHP V KT LUN ................................................73
5.1 Nhm gii php u tin 1...........................................................................73
5.1.1 V vic cung cp chng t nhanh chng chnh xc(Yu t 9).....73
5.1.2 V mc tiu khng sai st (Yu t 14) .........................................74
5.1.3 Dch v c thc hin ng nh tha thun/ gii thiu (Yu
t 7) v Gii quyt vn / khiu ni (Yu t 10) .......................75
5.1.4 V mc cnh tranh ca ph dch v (Yu t 05)......................77
5.1.5 V cht lng i l (Yu t 06) ..................................................78
5.2 Nhm gii php u tin 2...........................................................................79
5.2.1 V thng bo vn pht sinh (Yu t 11) ..................................79
5.2.2 V tr li tha ng cc cu hi/ yu cu ca khch hng (Yu t
12) ................................................................................................79
5.2.3 V phc v chu o ma cao im (Yu t 13) ...........................81
5.2.4 V cng ngh (Yu t 20).............................................................81
5.2.5 V thng hiu (Yu t 21) ..........................................................82
5.3 Kt lun ......................................................................................................82
Ti liu tham kho
Ph lc

DANH MC CH VIT TT
IATA:

International Air Transport Association (Hip hi vn


ti hng khng quc t)

ISO:

International Standard Organisation (T chc tiu chun quc


t)

SERVQUAL: Service quality (cht lng dch v)


WTO:

World Trade Organisation (T chc thng mi th gii)

ACSI:

American Customer Satisfaction Index (Ch s tha mn khch


hng M)

NQRC:

The National Quality Research Center (Trung tm nghin cu


cht lng quc gia)

TNHH:

Trch nhim hu hn

TB:

trung bnh

Hawb:

House Airway Bill (Vn n do cc cng ty giao nhn pht


hnh cho ch hng)

Mawb:

Master Airway Bill (Vn n do cc hng hng khng pht


hnh)

DANH MC BNG
Chng 2
Bng 2.1: Thang o SERVQUAL..................................................................... 14
Chng 3
Bng 3.1: Thang o 1 v cc yu t nh hng n mc hi lng ca
khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng ................................. 27
Bng 3.2: Thang o 2 v cc yu t nh hng n mc hi lng ca
khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng .............................. 31
Bng 3.3: Bng tng hp thng tin mu ........................................................... 36
Bng 3.4: Cronbach alpha ca cc thnh phn thang o mc hi lng
khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng ................................. 39
Chng 4
Bng 4.1: Tng hp tm quan trng ca cc yu t ......................................... 44
Bng 4.2: Tng hp mc hi lng khch hng i vi cc yu t .............. 46
Bng 4.3: Tng hp khong cch gia im s tm quan trng v im s hi
lng................................................................................................... 48
Bng 4.4: Tng hp mc hi lng khch hng v tm quan trng i vi
nhn t p ng .......................................................................... 52
Bng 4.5: Tng hp mc hi lng khch hng v tm quan trng i vi
nhn t chuyn nghip ............................................................... 59
Bng 4.6: Tng hp mc hi lng khch hng v tm quan trng i vi
nhn t tn tm ........................................................................... 66
Bng 4.7: Tng hp mc hi lng khch hng v tm quan trng i vi
nhn t hu hnh......................................................................... 67

DANH MC HNH
Chng 2
Hnh 2.1: M hnh ch s tha mn khch hng ca M ................................... 12
Hnh 2.2:M hnh cc khong cch cht lng dch v ................................... 18
Hnh 2.3: M hnh nh gi tha mn khch hng ............................................ 19
Hnh 2.4: M hnh nh gi tm quan trng ca yu cu .................................. 20
Hnh 2.5: Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan trng ..................... 21
Hnh 2.6: Cc yu t cht lng quan trng ca nh vn chuyn hng khng . 25
Chng 3
Hnh 3.1: Quy trnh nghin cu ......................................................................... 26
Chng 4
Hnh 4.1: Mc hi lng ................................................................................. 43
Hnh 4.2: Phn b tm quan trng ca cc yu t ............................................. 45
Hnh 4.3: Phn b mc hi lng ca khch hng i vi cc yu t............ 47
Hnh 4.4: Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan trng ..................... 50

-1-

CHNG I: GII THIU


1.1 Trnh by vn nghin cu
Cng vi qu trnh t do ha thng mi ang din ra rm r trn ton
th gii, cc doanh nghip nhn ra rng hi lng khch hng l mt v kh
chin lc quyt nh em li cho cc doanh nghip th phn v li nhun
tng thm. Mt khch hng rt hi lng th kh nng gp 6 ln c th tr
thnh khch hng trung thnh v tip tc mua sn phm v/ hoc gii thiu
sn phm so vi khch hng ch mc hi lng. Lng trung thnh tng 5%
c th lm li nhun doanh nghip tng 25%-85%[28].
Nm bt c tm quan trng ca s hi lng khch hng, cc doanh
nghip thnh cng trong nn kinh t ton cu mi nhn ra rng s o lng
hi lng khch hng v ang l mt vn then cht trong hot ng ca
cc doanh nghip. Ch bng cch o lng hi lng khch hng cc doanh
nghip mi bit c lm th no lm hi lng khch hng, duy tr c
lng trung thnh ca khch hng v thu ht c khch hng mi [28].
Vit Nam, t khi tr thnh thnh vin th 150 ca WTO vo nm 2006,
ni ln l mt a ch hp dn i vi cc nh u t nc ngoi, hot ng
mua bn tr nn tp np v song song nhu cu vn chuyn gia Vit Nam
v cc nc khc cng pht trin hn bao gi ht. Trong tin trnh , giao
nhn l mt trong nhng ngnh phi chu p lc cnh tranh ln khi Vit Nam
thc hin cam kt m ca th trng dch v cho nh u t nc ngoi.
Trong qu trnh m phn gia nhp WTO, chng ta cam kt cho nc
ngoi c thit lp ngay cc doanh nghip lin doanh, vi t l gp vn 4951%, thc hin kinh doanh cc dch v vn ti, giao nhn, kho bi... Ba
nm sau, t l gp vn ca pha nc ngoi s tng ln v h c th thit lp
cc cng ty 100% vn sau 5-7 nm [02]. Nh vy, khi ngnh giao nhn vn
ti hng khng pht trin mnh vi s tham gia hot ng ca cc tp on

-2-

vn ti hng u th gii th khch hng c nhu cu vn chuyn hng khng


ngy cng c nhiu c hi la chn nh cung cp dch v no c th em
li cho h s hi lng cao nht bng vic cung cp cht lng dch v giao
nhn hng khng tt nht v h tr nn kh tnh hn thng qua vic i hi
cht lng dch v cao hn.
Lun vn c thc hin trong bi cnh sn lng hng xut i M v
cc nc gim ng k do tc ng xu ca cuc khng hong ti chnh M
2008 v tnh hnh d bo s rt kh khn trong nm 2009 sp ti. Thng 10
hng nm l bt u ma cao im ca hng ha vn chuyn bng ng
hng khng phc v cho l Noel v Tt dng lch ti cc nc tuy nhin
nm 2008 cc hng hng khng li i mt vi tnh trng thiu hng trm
trng cho cc chuyn bay, gi cc gim ng k v hot ng l. Cc ch
hng li cng tr nn kh tnh v chn la nh giao nhn k hn c c
cc ph gim. Trong bi cnh , to c v th cnh tranh, cc cng ty
giao nhn trong nc cng phi n lc hn bao gi ht lm khch hng hi
lng, nm bt c cc mong mun ca khch hng cng nh cc im mnh,
im yu ca dch v ang cung cp cho khch hng, t khng ngng ci
thin dch v, to c v duy tr lng trung thnh ca khch hng s dng
dch v ca cng ty, trnh mt khch hng vo tay nhng i th cnh tranh
ang ch sn.
Nh vy, cng vic cn lm i vi Vinalink l o lng s hi lng
ca khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng. T kt qu ca vic o
lng nh vy, cng ty s c ci nhn ton din hn v cc yu t nh hng
n s hi lng khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng, im mnh,
im yu trong hot ng ca cng ty, t tp trung tt hn cho vic hoch
nh ci thin dch v v phn phi ngun lc, cng nh c cc bin php
khuyn khch nhn vin ci thin cht lng dch v hng n mc ch lm

-3-

hi lng khch hng. Trn c s , cng ty s tng bc to c lng trung


thnh vi khch hng v cng chnh l nn tng cho li th cnh tranh.
1.2 Mc tiu nghin cu
Lun vn hng n cc mc tiu nghin cu sau:
1. nh gi s hi lng khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng ti
cng ty VINALINK da trn cht lng dch v.
2. xut gii php nhm ci thin s hi lng khch hng v dch v
giao nhn hng khng ti cng ty VINALINK.
1.3 Phm vi v phng php nghin cu
1.3.1 Phm vi nghin cu
Nghin cu c thc hin i vi cc khch hng ca VINALINK
thuc vng kinh t trng im pha Nam: Thnh Ph H Ch Minh, Bnh
Dng, ng Nai, c th l cc khch hng c nhu cu v c kinh nghim
mua dch v giao nhn hng khng t cng ty VINALINK. Thi gian thu thp
kin ca khch hng l thng 09 nm 2008.
i vi dch v giao nhn hng khng, vic lm hi lng khch hng
cn ph thuc vo cht lng ca mt s dch v khc cng thuc lnh vc
hng khng, c th l cht lng bay (thi gian bay, vn x l hng ha)
ca cc hng hng khng, cht lng x l hng ha ti mt t ca Cng ty
TNHH Dch v hng ha Tn Sn Nht (Tan Son Nhat Cargo Services, Ltd).
Cc cng ty giao nhn hng khng nh gi chung c cht lng ca cc
hng hng khng, tuy nhin cc vn pht sinh cho cc l hng c th li
khng thuc kh nng kim sot ca cc cng ty giao nhn hng khng. iu
ny gii hn phm vi nghin cu ca ti ch trong cc vn thuc kh
nng kim sot ca cc cng ty giao nhn hng khng.
Dch v giao nhn hng khng ca cng ty bao gm mng hng xut,
hng nhp, pht chuyn nhanh v dch v h tr. Tuy nhin, do thi gian v

-4-

chi ph c hn, ti ch dng li vic kho st mc hi lng i vi


mng hng xut ca phng hng khng cng ty Vinalink. Trong 04 mng dch
v ca phng hng khng Vinalink th mng hng xut chim t trng ln
hn 60% doanh thu ca phng.
1.3.2 Phng php nghin cu
Nghin cu c tin hnh qua hai bc: nghin cu s b v nghin
cu chnh thc. Nghin cu s b c thc hin thng qua phng php
nh tnh vi k thut tho lun tay i dng khm ph b sung m hnh
thang o s hi lng ca khch hng giao nhn hng khng.
Nghin cu chnh thc cng c thc hin thng qua k thut phng
vn trc tip khch hng c nhu cu v tng mua dch v giao nhn hng
khng ti cng ty VINALINK. Thang o lng s hi lng ca khch hng
giao nhn hng khng c kim nh bng h s tin cy Cronbach Alpha v
phn tch nhn t khm ph EFA thng qua phm mm x l s liu thng k
SPSS. Sau , t cc s liu thu thp c, tc gi thc hin cc phn tch
lin quan n o lng nh gi tha mn khch hng t c mc tiu 1
ca ti v t a ra xut v cc gii php ci thin mc hi lng
khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng ti cng ty Vinalink tc thc
hin mc tiu 2 ca ti.
1.4 ngha thc tin ca nghin cu
Qua qu trnh lm vic ti Phng Hng Khng ca Cng Ty C Phn
Giao Nhn Vn Ti V Thng Mi VINALINK, ti nhn thy tm quan
trng ca vn lm hi lng khch trong hot ng kinh doanh ca cng ty.
Cng ty Vinalink t vn cht lng dch v ln hng u chnh l nhm
mc ch lm tha mn khch hng, c th Vinalink l mt trong nhng cng
ty giao nhn u tin c cp chng ch v h thng qun l cht lng theo
tiu chun ISO 9001 : 2000 vi chnh sch cht lng: Hnh ng v li ch

-5-

ca khch hng v to ra li nhun bng vic cung cp nhng dch v giao


nhn vn ti c cht lng tt nht l phng chm tn ti v pht trin ca
Cng ty Vinalink [9].
kim sot v cht lng dch v, c mi 02 nm cc phng ban ca
cng ty li c t chc nh gi quc t DNV (Det Norske Veritas - Na uy)
nh gi li v vic thc hin h thng qun l cht lng theo tiu chun
ISO. Hng nm, 100% cc phng ban tham gia y vo cc k nh gi
ni b ca cng ty. Ngoi ra, hng nm cng ty thc hin vic thu thp kin
ca khch hng bng cch gi cc bng cu hi thm d kin n khch
hng thng qua cc nhn vin lm c s lnh o cng ty hp xem xt v
ra cc bin php ci tin cht lng. Tuy nhin, cc cu hi cng ty t ra
(Ph lc 1) cha bao qut ht cc vn v cht lng dch v v ch yu tp
trung vo phn tch cc khiu ni, phn nn ca khch hng. Phn tch khiu
ni, phn nn ca khch hng l mt phng php th ng khng th gip
hiu c mc hi lng ca khch hng mt cch hon ton. Cc doanh
nghip ngy cng c xu hng p dng phng php kho st bng bng cu
hi. Theo phng php ny, thang o Likert c s dng th hin mc
hi lng, thng im s cng cao th hin mc hi lng cng cao. Khch
hng s nh gi cht lng ca hng ha hoc dch v t nhiu thnh phn
hoc yu t m h cho l quan trng, v vy cc thnh phn cu to nn cht
lng dch v trong bng cu hi phi c thit k t quan im ca khch
hng. Kt qu ca vic o lng s cho cng ty c ci nhn ton din hn v
cc yu t nh hng n s hi lng khch hng ca dch v giao nhn hng
khng ti cng ty, im mnh, im yu trong hot ng ca cng ty, t
tp trung tt hn trong vic hoch nh ci thin dch v v phn phi ngun
lc, cng nh c cc bin php khuyn khch nhn vin ci thin cht lng

-6-

dch v tng bc to c lng trung thnh vi khch hng v cng


chnh l nn tng cho li th cnh tranh.
Thang o v cch thc o lng tng t c th c p dng i vi
cc cng ty cng trong ngnh giao nhn vn ti hng khng. Ngoi ra, kt qu
nghin cu cn c th l c s cho cc nghin cu i vi cc loi hnh dch
v tng t nh: giao nhn hng ng bin, pht chuyn nhanh trong nc
v quc t, vn chuyn hng bng ng hng khng, ng st, ng b
hoc ngay c i vi vn chuyn hnh khch
1.5 Kt cu ca lun vn
Lun vn gm 05 chng. Chng 1: Tng quan v nghin cu.
Chng 2: C s l thuyt v s hi lng khch hng, cc m hnh o lng
tha mn khch hng trong dch v v c s l thuyt v ngnh giao nhn
hng khng. Chng 3: Phng php nghin cu, kt qu nghin cu nh
tnh, nh lng, xy dng thang o s hi lng khch hng trong dch v
giao nhn hng khng. Chng 4: Kt qu v bin lun v thc trng mc
hi lng ca khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng ti cng ty
Vinalink. Cui cng, Chng 5: Kin ngh nhm ci thin s hi lng khch
hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng ti cng ty Vinalink v kt lun.

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CHNG 2: TNG QUAN L THUYT


2.1 Tng quan l thuyt v s hi lng ca khch hng trong dch v
Chng ny s cp n cc l thuyt v s hi lng ca khch hng
trong dch v, s cn thit ca o lng nhu cu v tha mn khch hng v
cc m hnh o lng tha mn khch hng trong dch v.
2.1.1 nh ngha v dch v
Ngy nay ngnh dch v c xem nh b phn em li gi tr v hnh
cho nn kinh t. Cc nh nghin cu marketing hin i Kotler v Armstrong
nh ngha dch v [26] nh sau:
Dch v l bt k hnh ng hay li ch no mt bn c th cung cp
cho bn khc m v c bn l v hnh v khng em li s s hu no c
Dch v c 04 tnh cht di y:
- Tnh v hnh (intangibility): mt dch v thun ty khng th c
nh gi bng cch s dng bt k gic quan c th no trc khi n c
mua. V vy, gim s khng chc chn, ngi mua s tm kim cc bng
chng ca cht lng dch v t nhng i tng h tip xc, trang thit b
m h thy c.
- Tnh khng th tch ri (inseparability): c th ca dch v l
c sn xut v tiu th ng thi cng mt lc. Nu mt ngi no thu
dch v th bn cung cp dch v s l mt phn ca dch v, cho d bn cung
cp dch v l con ngi tht hay my mc. Bi v khch hng cng s c mt
lc dch v c cung cp nn s tng tc gia bn cung cp dch v v
khch hng l mt c tnh c bit ca marketing dch v.
- Tnh hay thay i (variability): th hin c im cht lng dch
v ph thuc vo ngi cung cp dch v, thi gian, a im v cch thc
dch v c cung cp.

-8-

- Tnh d b ph v (perishability): dch v khc vi cc hng ha


thng thng ch n khng th c ct gi. Ni cch khc, dch v nhy
cm hn cc hng ha thng thng trc nhng thay i v s a dng ca
nhu cu. Khi nhu cu thay i th cc cng ty dch v thng gp kh khn
chnh v vy cc cng ty dch v lun phi tm cch lm cung v cu ph
hp nhau, chng hn nh cc nh hng thu thm nhn vin bn thi gian
phc v vo cc gi cao im.
Ngoi cc tnh cht trn, dch v cn c th c m t vi cc thuc
tnh chnh sau:
- Thiu tnh cht c th chuyn ch c: dch v phi c tiu th ti
ni sn xut dch v.
- Thiu tnh ng nht: dch v thng c sa i ph hp cho
mi khch hng hay mi tnh hung mi (lm theo yu cu ca khch hng).
Vic sn xut hng lot rt kh i vi dch v. iu ny c th c xem l
mt vn cht lng khng ng nht. C nhp lng v xut lng ca cc
qu trnh bao gm trong vic cung cp dch v th rt d bin i, cng nh
nhng mi quan h gia cc qu trnh ny, lm cho kh c th duy tr cht
lng ng nht.
- Cn nhiu nhn lc: dch v thng bao gm ng k cc hot ng
ca con ngi, hn l cc qu trnh c nh ra mt cch chnh xc. V vy,
qun tr ngun nhn lc l rt quan trng. Nhn t con ngi thng l nhn
t ch yu em li thnh cng trong ngnh dch v.
- Bin ng nhu cu: rt kh d on nhu cu. Nhu cu c th thay
i theo ma, thi gian trong ngy, chu k kinh doanh
- Phi c mt ngi mua dch v: hu ht vic cung cp dch v u i
hi phi c mc tng tc cao gia khch hng v ngi cung cp dch v.

-9-

2.1.2 nh ngha s hi lng khch hng v ti sao phi lm hi lng


khch hng
2.1.2.1 nh ngha s hi lng khch hng
S hi lng khch hng [28] l tm trng/ cm gic ca khch hng v
mt cng ty khi s mong i ca h c tha mn hay c p ng vt
mc trong sut vng i ca sn phm hay dch v. Khch hng t c s
tha mn s c c lng trung thnh v tip tc mua sn phm ca cng ty.
C cc gi quan trng sau trong nh ngha ny:
Bi v s hi lng khch hng l mt trng thi ch quan, khng nh
lng, vic o lng s khng chnh xc v i hi phi ly mu v
phn tch thng k.
o lng s hi lng khch hng cn phi hiu c khong cch gia
dch v mong i v dch v khch hng nhn thc c.
2.1.2.2 Ti sao phi lm hi lng khch hng [29]
S hi lng ca khch hng c th gip doanh nghip t c li th
cnh tranh ng k. Doanh nghip hiu c khch hng c cm gic nh th
no sau khi mua sn phm hay dch v v c th l liu sn phm hay dch v
c p ng c mong i ca khch hng.
Khch hng ch yu hnh thnh mong i ca h thng qua nhng kinh
nghim mua hng trong qu kh, thng tin ming t gia nh, bn b v ng
nghip v thng tin c chuyn giao thng qua cc hot ng marketing,
nh qung co hoc quan h cng chng. Nu s mong i ca khch hng
khng c p ng, h s khng hi lng v rt c th h s k nhng ngi
khc nghe v iu . Trung bnh khch hng gp s c s k cho 9 ngi
khc nghe v s c ny v ch 4% khch hng khng hi lng s phn nn
[28].

- 10 -

S hi lng khch hng tr thnh mt yu t quan trng to nn li


th cnh tranh. Mc hi lng cao c th em li nhiu li ch bao gm:

Lng trung thnh: mt khch hng c mc hi lng cao l mt


khch hng trung thnh. Mt khch hng rt hi lng th kh nng gp
6 ln c th tr thnh khch hng trung thnh v tip tc mua sn phm
v/ hoc gii thiu sn phm so vi khch hng ch mc hi lng.
Lng trung thnh tng 5% c th lm tng li nhun 25%-85%[28]

Tip tc mua thm sn phm: mt khch hng c mc hi lng


cao s tip tc mua thm sn phm.

Gii thiu cho ngi khc: mt khch hng c mc hi lng cao s


k cho gia nh v bn b v sn phm v dch v . Mt khch hng
hi lng s k cho 5 ngi khc nghe [28].

Duy tr s la chn: mt khch hng c mc hi lng cao t c kh


nng thay i nhn hiu.

Gim chi ph: mt khch hng c mc hi lng cao tn t chi ph


phc v hn mt khch hng mi.

Gi cao hn: mt khch hng c mc hi lng cao sn sng tr


nhiu hn cho sn phm hay dch v .

2.1.3 S cn thit ca o lng nhu cu v tha mn khch hng


2.1.3.1 S cn thit ca o lng nhu cu ca khch hng [1]
Vic o lng nhu cu ca khch hng l c s doanh nghip hoch
nh vic thit k cc sn phm v dch v vi cc c tnh m khch hng
mong i; hoch nh qu trnh sn xut v cung cp dch v m bo cc
c tnh thit k v gip doanh nghip c thay i kp thi v sn phm v
dch v phn nh thay i v nhu cu ca khch hng

- 11 -

2.1.3.2 S cn thit ca o lng tha mn ca khch hng [1]


o lng tha mn khch hng l mt khi nim tng i mi i vi
nhiu cng ty hin vn ang ch ch trng n bo co thu nhp v bng cn
i k ton. Cc cng ty hin nay nhn ra rng nn kinh t ton cu mi
lm mi th lun lun thay i. S cnh tranh ngy cng gay gt, th trng
ng c tp np v tnh hnh kinh doanh ngy cng kh khn lm cho cc
doanh nghip hiu rng h phi thay i cch nhn v nhn ra rng o lng
tha mn khch hng l iu then cht. Ch bng cch th cng ty mi gi
c khch hng c v bit c lm th no thu ht thm khch hng
mi. Cc cng ty thnh cng nhn ra rng tha mn khch hng l mt v kh
chin lc quyt nh c th gip lm tng th phn v tng li nhun [28].
Vic o lng tha mn ca khch hng gip t c cc mc ch
sau:
Hiu c mc tha mn ca khch hng quyt nh cc hot
ng nhm nng cao tha mn ca khch hng
Hiu lc ca cc hot ng nhm nng cao tha mn khch hng c th
c nh gi.
Cc thng tin, kt qu iu tra c th gip so snh mc tha mn
ca khch hng
Nu kt qu khng t c hoc mc tha mn khch hng thp
hn th nguyn nhn c th c tm hiu v hnh ng khc phc c
th c thc hin.
So snh vi i th cnh tranh, thc hin phn tch so snh vt hn
i th cnh tranh.

- 12 -

2.1.4 Cc m hnh o lng tha mn khch hng trong dch v


2.1.4.1 M hnh ch s tha mn khch hng ca M [31]
Cht lng c nhn
thc (Perceived
Quality)

S than phin
(Customer Complaints)
Gi tr c
nhn thc
(Perceived
Value)

S tha
mn ca
khch hng
(ACSI)

S mong i
(Customer expectations)

S trung thnh
(Customer Loyalty)

Hnh 2.1: M hnh ch s tha mn khch hng ca M


Ngun: http://www.theacsi.org/ [31]
Ch s tha mn khch hng M (ACSI) l mt ch s kinh t da trn
vic lp m hnh cc nh gi ca khch hng v cht lng hng ha v dch
v c mua M v c sn xut bi c cc cng ty trong v ngoi nc
vi th phn kh ln M. Ch s tha mn khch hng M c pht trin
bi Trung tm nghin cu cht lng quc gia (NQRC) ti trng Kinh
doanh Stephen M. Ross thuc i hc Michigan, dn u l gio s Claes
Fornell.
Ch s tha mn khch hng M s dng cc cuc phng vn khch
hng nh l d liu u vo cho mt m hnh ton kinh t a phng trnh.
M hnh ACSI l mt m hnh vi cc ch s nh hng n s tha mn bn
pha tay tri (s mong i, cht lng c nhn thc v gi tr c nhn
thc), s tha mn (ACSI) gia, v kt qu ca s tha mn bn tay phi
(s than phin, s trung thnh bao gm s duy tr khch hng v chp nhn
gi cao hn).
Cc ch s trong m hnh l cc thnh phn a bin c o lng bi
nhiu cu hi m c nh gi mc quan trng trong m hnh. Cc cu

- 13 -

hi th hin nh gi ca khch hng v cc yu t quyt nh n mi ch


s. Cc ch s c bo co trn thang o t 0 n 100. Cuc iu tra v
phng php lp m hnh lng ha sc mnh nh hng ca ch s bn tri
n ch s mi tn ch n bn phi. Cc mi tn ny th hin s nh
hng. M hnh ACSI t nh gi tm quan trng ti a ha s gii thch
ca tha mn khch hng i vi lng trung thnh khch hng. Nhn vo cc
ch s v s nh hng, ngi s dng m hnh c th xc nh c cc yu
t nh hng s tha mn, nu cc yu t ny c ci thin s c tc ng
tt n lng trung thnh khch hng.
2.1.4.2 M hnh cht lng dch v SERVQUAL
2.1.4.2.1 Thang o SERVQUAL
Mt cch o lng cht lng dch v c s dng rng ri l m
hnh SERVQUAL c pht trin bi Parasuraman v cc tc gi khc (1985,
1986, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1994) [20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25]. SERVQUAL l cch
tip cn c s dng nhiu nht o lng cht lng dch v, so snh s
mong i ca khch hng trc mt dch v v nhn thc ca khch hng v
dch v thc s c chuyn giao (Parasuraman et al., 1985) [20].
SERVQUAL l thang o a mc c xy dng nh gi s nhn
thc ca khch hng v cht lng dch v trong ngnh dch v v bn l.
Thang o phn tch khi nim cht lng dch v thnh 05 yu t sau:
- hu hnh (Tangibility): c s vt cht, trang thit b, din mo ca
nhn vin
- tin cy (Reliability): kh nng thc hin dch v ph hp v ng
thi hn ngay t ln u
- p ng (Responsiveness): s sn sng gip v p ng li nhu
cu ca khch hng

- 14 -

- S m bo (Assurance): kh nng ca nhn vin to c lng tin


vi khch hng
- thu cm (Empathy): th hin s quan tm chm sc n tng c
nhn khch hng.
SERVQUAL th hin cht lng dch v nh l s khc nhau gia
mong i ca khch hng v mt dch v v nhn thc ca khch hng v
dch v thc s c chuyn giao. Nh vy, nu nhn thc ca khch hng
nh hn mong i ca khch hng th cht lng cm nhn nh hn 0 v cn
phi ci tin.
Trong cng c SERVQUAL, thang o gm 22 cu (Bng 2.1) o lng
s thc hin dch v thng qua 5 kha cnh nu trn, s dng thang o Likert
7 im o lng c hai s mong i ca khch hng v nhn thc ca khch
hng v dch v c chuyn giao (Gabbie and O'neill, 1996) [16]. Rt quan
trng bit rng nu khng c thng tin y v cht lng dch v c
mong i v nhn thc ca khch hng v dch v c chuyn giao th kt
qu ca cuc nghin cu c th dn n sai lm ln v c chnh sch v quan
im hot ng
Bng 2.1: Thang o SERVQUAL
tin cy (reliability)
Khi cng ty xyz ha lm iu g vo thi gian no th h s lm.
Khi bn gp tr ngi, cng ty xyz chng t mi quan tm thc s mun
gii quyt tr ngi .
Cng ty xyz thc hin dch v ng ngay t ln u.
Cng ty xyz cung cp dch v ng nh thi gian h ha.
Cng ty xyz lu khng xy ra mt sai st no.
p ng (responsiveness)
Nhn vin cng ty xyz cho bn bit khi no thc hin dch v.

- 15 -

Nhn vin cng ty xyz nhanh chng thc hin dch v cho bn.
Nhn vin cng ty xyz lun sn sng gip bn.
Nhn vin cng ty xyz khng bao gi qu bn n ni khng p ng
yu cu ca bn.
S m bo (assurance)
Cch c x ca nhn vin xyz gy nim tin cho bn.
Bn cm thy an ton trong khi giao dch vi cng ty xyz.
Nhn vin cng ty xyz lun nim n vi bn.
Nhn vin cng ty xyz c hiu bit tr li cu hi ca bn.
thu cm (empathy)
Cng ty xyz lun c bit ch n bn.
Cng ty xyz c nhn vin bit quan tm n bn.
Cng ty xyz ly li ch ca bn l iu tm nim ca h.
Nhn vin cng ty xyz hiu r nhng nhu cu ca bn.
Cngty xyz lm vic vo nhng gi thun tin.
hu hnh (tangibility)
Cng ty xyz c trang thit b rt hin i.
Cc c s vt cht ca cng ty xyz trng rt bt mt.
Nhn vin cng ty xyz n mc rt tm tt.
Cc sch nh gii thiu ca cng ty xyz c lin quan n dch v trng
rt p.
Nghin cu v vic o lng cht lng dch v tp trung ch yu vo
cch thc tho mn hay p ng vt mc s mong i ca khch hng
bn ngoi v xem cht lng dch v nh s o lng mc dch v p
ng ph hp vi mong i ca khch hng nh th no. Khi nim o lng
s khc nhau gia mong i v cm nhn v dch v di hnh thc ca im

- 16 -

khong cch SERVQUAL chng t l rt hu ch cho vic nh gi cc


mc ca cht lng dch v. Parasuraman v cc tc gi cho rng, nu
c sa i i cht, SERVQUAL c th thch hp cho bt k t chc cung
cp dch v no. ng cho bit thm rng thng tin v cc khong cch ca
cht lng dch v c th gip nh qun tr chn on khu no cn phi ci
thin hot ng. Cc khong cch mang du - ln nht, cng vi vic nh
gi khu no s mong i l cao nht, th khu cn phi ci thin hot
ng. Tng t, nu im khong cch trong mt s kha cnh ca dch v l
dng, c ngha l mong i tht s khng ch c tha mn m cn vt
qu s tha mn, th khi cho php nh qun tr xem xt c phi h p
ng qu nhiu cho c tnh ny ca dch v v c phi c tim nng phn
phi thm ngun lc cho cc c tnh khc cha c p ng y .
2.1.4.2.2 M hnh cc khong cch ca cht lng dch v [13]
C 7 khong cch chnh trong khi nim cht lng dch v c th
hin trong Hnh 2.2. M hnh l s m rng ca Parasuraman v cc tc gi
(1985). Theo s gii thch sau y (ASI Quality Systems, 1992 [14]; Luk and
Layton, 2002 [19]) th 03 khong cch quan trng lin quan nhiu hn n
khch hng bn ngoi l khong cch 1, khong cch 5 v khong cch 6 v
chng c mi quan h trc tip vi khch hng.
Khong cch 1: S khc bit gia mong i ca khch hng v cht
lng dch v v mc nh qun tr dch v nhn thc v k vng ny
ca khch hng: do s thiu nh hng nghin cu marketing, thiu s
truyn t ln cp trn v qu nhiu tng lp qun tr.
Khong cch 2: S khc bit gia nhn thc ca nh qun tr v
dch v v cc c tnh ca dch v: do s cam kt khng y v cht
lng dch v, do nhn bit kh nng khng th thc hin, hay do tiu chun
ha cng vic khng y v do thiu vic thit lp mc tiu.

- 17 -

Khong cch 3: : S khc bit gia c tnh ca dch v v dch v


c chuyn giao: do s m h v mu thun v vai tr, do nhn vin v
cng ngh thiu s ph hp vi cng vic, do h thng gim st khng thch
hp, do thiu s kim sot c nhn thc v thiu tinh thn ng i.
Khong cch 4: S khc bit gia dch v c chuyn giao v
thng tin bn ngoi: do thng tin theo chiu ngang khng y v do s
tht ha.
Khong cch 5: S khc bit gia s mong i ca khch hng v
nhn thc ca khch hng v dch v c chuyn giao: do nhng nh
hng t pha khch hng v nhng thiu st pha ngi cung cp dch v.
Trong trng hp ny, mong i ca khch hng b nh hng bi mc
nhu cu ca c nhn, nhng ngh bng ming v cc kinh nghim dch v
trong qu kh.
Khong cch 6: S khc bit gia mong i ca khch hng v
nhn thc ca nhn vin cung cp dch v: do nhn vin trc tip cung cp
dch v c cch hiu khc nhau v mong i ca khch hng.
Khong cch 7: S khc bit gia nhn thc ca nhn vin v nhn
thc ca nh qun tr: do nh qun tr v cc nhn vin trc tip cung cp
dch v c cch khc nhau v mong i ca khch hng.
Theo Brown and Bond (1995), "m hnh khong cch l mt trong
nhng ng gp c tha nhn nht v c gi tr nht qua th nghim i
vi l thuyt v dch v". M hnh xc nh 7 khong cch chnh lin quan
n nhn thc qun tr v cht lng dch v v cc cng vic lin quan n
vic chuyn giao dch v n khch hng. Khong cch 5 gn lin vi khch
hng v v vy c xem l s o lng tht s ca cht lng dch v.
Khong cch m phng php SERVQUAL c nh hng l khong cch 5.
Cht lng dch v l hm s ca khong cch th 5. Khong cch th 5 ny

- 18 -

ph thuc vo 06 khong cch cn li. V vy, rt ngn khong cch th 5,


hay lm tng cht lng dch v, nh qun tr dch v phi n lc rt ngn
khong cch ny. M hnh cht lng dch v c th c biu din sau y:
CLDV = F {(KC5 = f(KC1, KC2, KC3, KC4, KC6, KC7))}
Trong , CLDV l cht lng dch v v KC1,2,3,4,6,7 l cc khong
cch 1,2,3,4,6,7
Giao dch ming

Nhu cu c nhn

Kinh nghim qu kh

Dch v mong i
Khch hng
KC5
KC6

Dch v nhn thc c

KC4

Chuyn giao dch v


KC1

Giao dch bn ngoi vi


khch hng

KC3
Nhn thc ca
nhn vin v
mong i ca
khch hng
KC7

Chuyn nhn thc thnh


cc c tnh cht lng
dch v
KC2
Nhn thc ca nh qun
tr dch v v mong i
ca khch hng

Hnh 2.2: M hnh cc khong cch cht lng dch v


Ngun: Dr. Arash Shahin, Department of Management, University of Isfahan,
Iran [13]

- 19 -

2.1.4.3 M hnh nh gi v ra quyt nh trn c s tm quan trng


v mc tha mn
2.1.4.3.1 M hnh nh gi tha mn khch hng [1]
Cc bc thc hin:
Tnh mc tha mn trung bnh ca mi yu cu
Tnh sai s tiu chun ca cc cu tr li cho mi yu cu
Tnh mc tha mn trung bnh chung cho tt c cc yu cu
V biu cc kt qu
Phn tch biu :
- Cc yu cu c kt qu di ng trung bnh cn c quan tm.
- Cc kt qu cch xa di ng trung bnh cng c u tin

Mc

tha
mn
Mc tha mn trung bnh

Yu cu cht lng

Hnh 2.3: M hnh nh gi tha mn khch hng


Ngun: Cng ty T vn Gii php Qun l Nng sut Cht lng (2007) [1]
2.1.4.3.2 M hnh nh gi tm quan trng ca yu cu [1]
Cc bc thc hin:
Tnh tm quan trng trung bnh mi yu cu
Tnh sai s tiu chun ca cc cu tr li cho mi yu cu

- 20 -

Tnh tm quan trng trung bnh chung cho tt c cc yu cu


V biu cc kt qu
Phn tch biu :
-Cc yu cu c kt qu trn ng trung bnh cn c quan tm
-Cc kt qu cch xa trn ng trung bnh cng c u tin.
Tm
quan
trng

Tm quan trng trung bnh

Tm quan
trng TB

Yu cu cht lng

Hnh 2.4: M hnh nh gi tm quan trng ca yu cu


Ngun: Cng ty T vn Gii php Qun l Nng sut Cht lng (2007) [1]
2.1.4.3.3 Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan trng [1]
Cc bc thc hin:
Biu din cc gi tr tm quan trng v mc tha mn trn cng mt
biu .
Phn tch biu :
- Gc phn t th nht l khu vc gi tr gia tng. Khng cn thay
i i vi khu vc ny
- Gc phn t th hai l khu vc t cn ch . Cc thay i cho
khu vc ny c u tin thp

- 21 -

- Gc phn t th ba l khu vc cn ci tin. Cc ci tin vi khu


vc ny cn c u tin.
- Gp phn t th t l khu vc cht lng cao. Cn duy tr khu
vc ny.
Tm quan
trng TB

IV

Mc

tha
mn

Mc tha
mn TB

II
1

III
3

Tm quan trng

Hnh 2.5: Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan trng


Ngun: Cng ty T vn Gii php Qun l Nng sut Cht lng (2007) [1]
2.2 Tng quan l thuyt v giao nhn hng khng
Ra i sau nhng phng thc vn ti khc, song n nay vn ti hng
khng ng vai tr rt quan trng trong vn ti quc t. S pht trin ca
ngnh giao nhn hng khng i cng vi s pht trin ca ngnh vn ti hng
khng.
Ban u, cc cng ty vn ti ng bin trin khai dch v hng khng
nh mt chc nng ph ca n v cho n by gi cc i l hng khng
tr thnh cc cng ty c lp gp phn ch yu vo s pht trin ca ngnh
giao nhn hng khng

- 22 -

2.2.1 Nh giao nhn hng khng


2.2.1.1 nh ngha nh giao nhn hng khng
Nh giao nhn hng khng [18] l mt c nhn hay mt cng ty thc
hin gi hng bng my bay v t gi ch hoc thu xp ch cho cc l hng
ny. Cc nh giao nhn hng khng thu xp vic vn chuyn hng n mt
ch n quc t. H c chuyn mn cho php chun b chng t v thc
hin cc hot ng c lin quan n cc l hng quc t. Mt s cc thng tin
in hnh m mt nh giao nhn hng khng phi xem xt n l ha n
thng mi, t khai xut hng ca ngi gi hng v cc chng t khc m
nh vn chuyn hay nc xut khu, nc nhp khu hay nc chuyn ti yu
cu. Phn ln cc thng tin ny th hin nay c x l trong mt mi trng
khng c giy t.
2.2.1.2 Chc nng ca nh giao nhn hng khng
Cc nh giao nhn hng khng cung cp dch v cho ngi gi hng
lin quan n vic xut khu hng v h tr ngi nhn pha bn nhp khu
hng. Cc cng vic thng xuyn ca mt i l ca IATA nh sau [18]:
- H tr khch hng cc thng tin lin quan n cc yu cu ca nc
nhp khu hng, khng ch khi hp ng mua bn xut khu c k kt
m ngay c khi ang thng lng hp ng.
- Cung cp cc phng tin tip nhn cc l hng xut t ngi gi
hng.
- Thu xp ly hng t ni ca ngi gi hng vn chuyn ra sn bay.
- Chun b cc chng t nh vn n hng khng, m bo cc ha
n v chng t thng mi tha mn cc nhu cu ca vn chuyn hng
khng v thng quan.
- Kim tra giy php xut/ nhp hng c ph hp vi quy nh ca cc
nc.

- 23 -

- m bo vic ng gi ph hp v cung cp cc t khai hay giy


chng nhn i vi cc l hng nguy him hay ng vt sngdo ngi gi
hng cung cp ph hp vi quy nh ca chnh ph v IATA.
- Mua bo him theo yu cu ca khch hng
- Thu xp vic vn chuyn hng, t gi ch vi hng hng khng v
ln k hoch giao nhn hng sn bay.
- Theo di lch trnh i ca hng v can thip vi hng hng khng khi
cn thit.
2.2.2 c im ca vn ti hng khng [10]
- Cc tuyn ng vn ti hng khng hu ht l cc ng thng ni
hai im vn ti vi nhau.
- Tc ca vn ti hng khng cao, tc khai thc ln, thi gian vn
chuyn nhanh.
- Vn ti hng khng an ton hn so vi cc phng tin vn ti khc.
- Vn ti hng khng lun i hi s dng cng ngh cao.
- Vn ti hng khng cung cp cc dch v tiu chun hn hn so vi
cc phng thc vn ti khc.
- Vn ti hng khng n gin ho v v chng t th tc so vi cc
phng thc vn ti khc.
* Bn cnh u im trn, vn ti hng khng cng c nhng hn
ch sau:
- Cc vn ti hng khng cao.
- Vn ti hng khng khng ph hp vi vn chuyn hng ho kng
knh, hng ho c khi lng ln hoc c gi tr thp.
- Vn ti hng khng i hi u t ln v c s vt cht k thut cng
nh o to nhn lc phc v.

- 24 -

2.2.3 C s vt cht k thut ca vn ti hng khng [10]


- Cng hng khng (airport)
Cng hng khng l ni cng nh ct h cnh ca my bay, l ni
cung cp cc iu kin vt cht k thut v cc dch v cn thit lin quan ti
vn chuyn hng ho v hnh khch.
Cng hng khng c cc khu vc lm hng xut, hng nhp v hng
chuyn ti.
- My bay: My bay l cng c chuyn ch ca vn ti hng khng.
My bay c nhiu loi: loi chuyn ch hnh khch cng c th nhn chuyn
ch hng di boong, loi chuyn ch hng v loi ch kt hp c khch c
hng.
- Trang thit b xp d v lm hng: Trang thit b xp d v lm hng
cng hng khng cng a dng v phong ph, c cc trang thit b xp d
v vn chuyn hng ho trong sn bay, c trang thit b xp d hng ho theo
n v. Ngoi ra cn c cc trang thit b ring l nh pallet my bay,
container my bay, container a phng thc...
2.2.4 Hng ho thng c vn chuyn bng ng hng khng [10]
- Cc l hng nh
- Hng ho i hi giao ngay, an ton v chnh xc
- Hng ho c gi tr cao
- Hng ho c c ly vn chuyn di
2.2.5 Cc yu t nh hng n s hi lng khch hng v dch v vn
chuyn hng khng [12]
Theo cng b ca Vin cht lng tip vn quc t (The International
Logistics Quality Institute) trn tp ch Air Cargo World sau khi kho st hn
800 ngi gi hng s dng dch v vn chuyn hng khng trong cuc kho
st cht lng hng ha hng khng nm 2003 (The 2003 Air Cargo Quality

- 25 -

Survey), cc yu t quan trng nht nh cung cp dch v vn chuyn hng


khng cn phi c l: (1) tin cy ca dch v (Service reliability); (2) Gi
cc cnh tranh (Competitive rates); (3) Thi gian vn chuyn nhanh. Trong
, tin cy ca dch v l yu t quan trng nht (43% kin ng ), tip
theo l gi cc xp th hai vi 27% kin ng v thi gian vn chuyn
th ba vi 19% kin ng . Cc thuc tnh khc nh dch v khch hng
(Customer service), mng li hot ng (Network coverage), cng ngh
(Technology) khng l cc yu t quyt nh cn thit i vi ngi gi hng.
Cc yu t cht lng quan trng ca nh vn chuyn hng khng
Mng li hot
ng
Dch v khch
Cng ngh/ Qun
4%
hng
l
6%
1%
tin cy ca dch v
Gi cc
Thi gian vn chuyn
Thi gian vn
chuyn
19%
Gi cc
27%

tin cy ca
dch v
43%

Dch v khch hng


Mng li hot ng
Cng ngh/ Qun l

Hnh 2.6: Cc yu t cht lng quan trng ca nh vn chuyn hng khng


Ngun: Vin cht lng tip vn quc t nm 2003 [12]

Chng 2 trnh by tng quan l thuyt v s hi lng ca khch hng


trong dch v v tng quan l thuyt v giao nhn hng khng. nh ngha v
dch v, v hi lng khch hng, s cn thit ca o lng nhu cu v tha
mn khch hng, cc m hnh o lng tha mn khch hng v l thuyt v
giao nhn hng khng c trnh by c ci nhn khi qut v vn v l
c s l lun cho cc chng tip theo v phng php nghin cu, nh gi
thc trng mc hi lng ca khch hng v a ra cc gii php ci thin
mc hi lng khch hng.

- 26 -

CHNG 3: PHNG PHP V KT QU NGHIN CU


L thuyt v s hi lng khch hng trong dch v v l thuyt v giao
nhn hng khng c trnh by Chng 2. Chng 3 s trnh by
phng php, kt qu nghin cu nh tnh, nghin cu nh lng v xy
dng thang o s hi lng khch hng trong dch v giao nhn hng khng.
Quy trnh nghin cu c trnh by trong Hnh 3.1 di y:
C s l
thuyt

Thang o
1

Nghin cu nh lng

Cronbachs Alpha v EFA

Phn tch hi quy bi

Vit bo co tng hp
- nh gi mc hi lng
- xut gii php

Hnh 3.1: Quy trnh nghin cu

Tho lun
tay i

Thang o
2

- 27 -

3.1 Nghin cu nh tnh


3.1.1 Thit k nghin cu nh tnh
Thang o 1 c xy dng da trn c s ca l thuyt v s hi lng
khch hng trong dch v, c th l thang o SERVQUAL (Parasuraman. &
ctg. 1988), cng b ca Vin cht lng tip vn quc t (The International
Logistics Quality Institute) v cc yu t quan trng m nh cung cp dch v
vn chuyn hng khng cn phi c trn tp ch Air Cargo World trong cuc
kho st cht lng hng ha hng khng nm 2003 (The 2003 Air Cargo
Quality Survey) [12]. C th, tc gi xc nh c cc kha cnh nh hng
n s hi lng khch hng v dch v vn chuyn hng khng l: (1) tin
cy ca dch v (Service reliability); (2) Gi cc (Rates); (3) Thi gian vn
chuyn (Transit time); (4) Dch v khch hng (Customer service); (5) Mng
li vn phng v i l (Network coverage); (6) Cng ngh (Technology).
Bng 3.1: Thang o 1 v cc yu t nh hng n mc hi lng ca
khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng
tin cy ca dch v (Service reliability)
1. Khi cng ty ha phn hi vic g vo thi gian no th cng ty s
lm nh vy
2. Dch v c thc hin ng nh tha thun/ gii thiu
3. Hng c giao n ni ng lch
4. Gii quyt tha ng vn pht sinh/ khiu ni phn nn ca khch hng
5. Thng bo khch hng ngay khi c s thay i hay kh khn pht sinh
trong ni dung phc v nh: lch bay, l trnh i ca hng, thng quan
6. Cng ty lu khng xy ra sai st
Gi cc (Rates)
1. Mc gi ca cng ty a ra ph hp vi cht lng dch v
2. Gi cc ca cng ty cnh tranh so vi cc cng ty khc

- 28 -

3. Gi cc ca cng ty a ra ph hp vi mong i
4. Cng ty c hp ng gi vi nhiu hng hng khng
5. Cng ty c kh nng thng lng vi cc hng hng khng c gi tt
6. Cng ty c chnh sch gi tt cho khch hng
Thi gian vn chuyn (Transit time)
1. Thi gian hng n ng theo lch trnh
2. Mc chm tr ca hng nu c khng gy nhiu kh khn cho khch
hng
Dch v khch hng (Customer service)
1. Nhn vin lun phc v nhanh chng, ng hn
2. Nhn vin lun sn sng gip khch hng
3. Nhn vin lun phc v chu o ngay c trong ma cao im
4. Nhn vin lun t ra lch s, nh nhn
5. Nhn vin tr li tha ng cc cu hi/ yu cu ca khch hng
6. Nhn vin cung cp chng t nhanh chng, chnh xc
7. Nhn vin c nng lc chuyn mn tt
8. Thi ca nhn vin hp tc v tn tm trc nhng yu cu ca khch
hng
Mng li vn phng v i l (Network coverage)
1. Cng ty c mng li vn phng v i l rng khp p ng nhu cu vn
chuyn hng ha
2. Cng ty c mi quan h tt v tin cy vi h thng i l
3. H thng i l cung cp cht lng dch v tt
4. H thng i l cung cp gi tt
5. H thng i l lun c phn hi nhanh
Cng ngh (Technology)

- 29 -

1. Cng ty c cng ngh hin i v lun c nhng ci tin v cng ngh


(my mc, trang thit b, phn mm, quy trnh, internet)
2. C s vt cht ca cng ty (i ng xe, nh kho, phng tin lm hng )
phc v tt cho nhu cu ca khch hng
Tuy nhin, do s khc nhau v mc pht trin kinh t ca tng th
trng cng nh c th ca tng ngnh dch v c th cho nn c th thang
o c thit lp cha tht s ph hp vi ngnh giao nhn vn ti hng
khng ti th trng Vit Nam. V vy, vic dng nghin cu nh tnh
iu chnh thang o cho ph hp l iu cn thit.
Sau khi xc nh c cc yu t chnh cu to nn s hi lng khch
hng trong dch v giao nhn hng khng nh trn, iu chnh thang o,
nghin cu s b c thc hin thng qua phng php nh tnh vi k
thut tho lun tay i dng khm ph b sung m hnh thang o s hi
lng khch hng trong dch v giao nhn hng khng. Tc gi tho lun vi
10 chuyn vin c kinh nghim lu nm trong ngnh giao nhn hng khng,
ng thi tc gi tin hnh tho lun vi 10 khch hng thng xuyn ca
Vinalink khm ph b sung m hnh thang o cht lng dch v giao
nhn hng khng. Nghin cu ny c thc hin ti Thnh Ph H Ch
Minh thng 08/ 2008 (Ni dung tho lun: Ph lc 2). Thng qua kt qu ca
nghin cu ny, thang o 1 c iu chnh v c gi l thang o 2.
3.1.2 iu chnh thang o
Kt qu nghin cu nh tnh cho thy tiu ch Gi cc cn c
chnh sa thnh Gi cc v ph dch v v trong ngnh giao nhn hng
khng ngoi gi cc m nh giao nhn phi tr mua li dch v bay ca
cc hng hng khng th ph dch v cng rt quan trng quyt nh n vic
la chn ca khch hng i vi dch v khai quan, x l hng ha. Cc yu
t Cng ty c hp ng gi vi nhiu hng hng khng, Cng ty c kh

- 30 -

nng thng lng vi cc hng hng khng c gi tt, Cng ty c chnh


sch gi tt cho khch hng khng ph hp cn loi b. C s loi b l
a s cc kin cho rng khch hng s khng bit c v cng khng cn
bit cc vn ny v y l nhng vn thuc v cng ty. Khch hng ch
quan tm gi cc v ph dch v ca cng ty c cnh tranh v p ng c
yu cu ca h hay khng.
Kt qu nghin cu nh tnh cho thy cn b sung tiu ch S a dng
ca sn phm dch v v a s kin cho rng khch hng cn phi c
cung cp nhiu s la chn l hng ca h c vn chuyn vi dch v
tt nht v chi ph thp nht, ph hp vi nhu cu, iu kin v hon cnh ca
h.
Kt qu nghin cu nh tnh cho thy cn loi b tiu ch Thi gian
vn chuyn (Transit time). C s loi b l cc kin a s u cho rng
l tiu ch quan trng i vi cc hng hng khng nhng i vi cc nh
giao nhn thi gian vn chuyn c th khng cn rt nhanh, vn quan trng
l mc tin cy ca dch v. Khch hng vn hi lng nu hng c vn
chuyn chm nhng vi gi r hoc vi mt tha thun no vi khch
hng, min nh giao nhn m bo c tin cy ca dch v, hng n ni
ng thi hn cam kt.
tiu ch Mng li vn phng v i l, yu t H thng i l
cung cp gi tt khng cn thit v a s cc kin cho rng khch hng ch
quan tm rng gi hay mc ph dch v a ra l ca Vinalink, h khng bit
v cng khng cn bit i l ca Vinalink l ai. a s kin cng cho rng
yu t H thng i l lun c phn hi nhanh nn c gom vo chung vi
yu t H thng i l cung cp cht lng dch v tt v phn hi ca i
l cng l mt tiu ch ca cht lng dch v.

- 31 -

Ngoi ra, kt qu nghin cu nh tnh cn cho thy mt s cc yu t


khc nh: Cng ty c thi gian lm vic thun tin; V tr ca vn phng cng
ty thun tin cho vic giao dch v x l hng ha; Cch b tr, trang tr phng
c, t chc gia cc b phn, trang phc nhn vin to c n tng v hnh
nh ca cng ty; Thng hiu uy tn cng l cc yu t khch hng quan tm.
Trn c s kt qu nghin cu nh tnh, thang o c iu chnh nh
sau gm 26 bin:
Bng 3.2: Thang o 2 v cc yu t nh hng n mc hi lng ca
khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng
tin cy ca dch v (Service reliability)
1. Khi cng ty ha phn hi vic g vo thi gian no th cng ty s lm
nh vy
2. Dch v c thc hin ng nh tha thun/ gii thiu
3. Hng c giao n ni ng lch
4. Gii quyt tha ng vn pht sinh/ khiu ni phn nn ca khch hng
5. Thng bo khch hng ngay khi c s thay i hay kh khn pht sinh
trong ni dung phc v nh: lch bay, l trnh i ca hng, thng quan
6. Cng ty lu khng xy ra sai st
Gi cc, ph dch v v s a dng ca sn phm dch v (Rates,
charges and service diversification)
1. Sn phm dch v ca cng ty a dng d la chn
2. Gi cc ca cng ty cnh tranh so vi cc cng ty khc
3. Mc ph dch v ca cng ty cnh tranh so vi cc cng ty khc
Dch v khch hng (Customer service)
1. Nhn vin lun phc v nhanh chng, ng hn
2. Nhn vin lun sn sng gip khch hng
3. Nhn vin lun phc v chu o ngay c trong ma cao im

- 32 -

4. Nhn vin lun t ra lch s, nh nhn


5. Nhn vin tr li tha ng cc cu hi/ yu cu ca khch hng
6. Nhn vin cung cp chng t nhanh chng, chnh xc
7. Nhn vin c nng lc chuyn mn tt
8. Thi ca nhn vin hp tc v tn tm trc nhng yu cu ca khch
hng
Mng li vn phng v i l (Network coverage)
1. Cng ty c mng li vn phng v i l rng khp p ng nhu cu vn
chuyn hng ha
2. Cng ty c mi quan h tt v tin cy vi h thng i l
3. H thng i l cung cp cht lng dch v tt
Cc yu t hu hnh (Tangibility)
1. Cng ty c cng ngh hin i v lun c nhng ci tin v cng ngh
(my mc, trang thit b, phn mm, quy trnh, internet)
2. C s vt cht ca cng ty (i ng xe, nh kho, phng tin lm hng )
phc v tt cho nhu cu ca khch hng
3. Cng ty c thi gian lm vic thun tin
4. V tr ca vn phng cng ty thun tin cho vic giao dch v x l hng
ha
5. Cch b tr, trang tr phng c, t chc gia cc b phn, trang phc nhn
vin to c n tng v hnh nh ca cng ty
6. Thng hiu Vinalink to c uy tn trn th trng
3.2 Nghin cu nh lng
3.2.1 Thit k nghin cu nh lng
3.2.1.1 i tng nghin cu
i tng nghin cu l cc cng ty thng mi, cng ty sn xut trc
tip c nhu cu v dch v giao nhn hng khng v c kinh nghim xut

- 33 -

hng bng ng hng khng qua dch v ca Vinalink. Bng cu hi c


gi ti nhng ngi trc tip t gi ch, quyt nh vic la chn dch v
cho cc l hng.
3.2.1.2 Mu iu tra v cch thc iu tra
Mu iu tra c chn theo phng php chn mu thun tin. C s
d liu khch hng hng xut ca Vinalink tnh n thng 9 nm 2008 hin c
981 khch hng. Kch thc mu d tnh cho nghin cu khong 100 (khong
10% s khch hng hin c). Thng l s dng mt t l phn trm ca m
ng xc nh kch thc mu l khng c ngha thng k. Tuy nhin,
trong a s cc trng hp, theo kinh nghim th t l 10% c th c p
dng [27]. Thng thng, vi dch v hoc hng tiu dng, mu khong 100
cho mi phn on l thch hp [1].
Bng cu hi c gi n khch hng bng email, fax v gi trc tip.
3.2.1.3 Thit k bng cu hi
Ni dung bng cu hi gm 2 phn chnh, Phn 1 gm nhng cu hi
v cc yu t nh hng n mc hi lng ca khch hng. Phn ny c
chia thnh 2 bn:
- Bn tri: nh gi ca khch hng v mc quan trng ca tng yu

t. Trong , 1: Hon ton khng quan trng; 2: Khng quan trng; 3:


Tng i quan trng; 4: Quan trng; 5: Rt quan trng.
- Bn phi: nh gi ca khch hng v cht lng ca yu t (khch

hng c hi lng v yu t hay khng). Trong , 1: Hon ton


khng ng ; 2: Khng ng ; 3: C th ng ; 4: ng ; 5: Hon
ton ng .
Phn 2 gm cc cu hi nhm thu thp thng tin v khch hng.

- 34 -

Bng cu hi c thit k qua cc giai on:


Giai on 01: Xy dng bng cu hi da trn cc yu t thnh
phn trong thang o tc ng n mc hi lng ca khch hng
Giai on 02: Sau khi thit k bng cu hi, tc gi tin hnh ly
kin ng gp ca ng nghip v trc tip phng vn th 3 khch
hng ti cng ty kim tra v hnh thc cng nh ni dung ca
bng cu hi
Giai on 03: Chnh sa v hon tt bng cu hi trc khi trc
khi tin hng iu tra khch hng.
Ni dung chi tit ca Bng cu hi c trnh by Ph lc 3.
3.2.1.4 Phng tin nghin cu
Phn mm SPSS 11.5 c s dng x l v phn tch d liu.
thun tin cho vic nhp d liu, phn tch v trnh by, cc bin nghin cu
c m ha theo Ph lc 4.
thc hin nh gi mc hi lng ca khch hng v dch v giao
nhn hng khng ti cng ty Vinalink, thang o cc yu t nh hng n
mc hi lng ca khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng c kim
nh thng qua h s tin cy Cronbach Alpha, phn tch nhn t khm ph
EFA v phn tch hi quy tuyn tnh bi thng qua phn mm x l s liu
thng k SPSS:
- Cng c Cronbach Alpha dng kim nh mi tng quan gia cc
bin (Reliability Analysis). Nu bin no m s tn ti ca n lm gim
Cronbach Alpha th s c loi b Cronbach Alpha tng ln, cc bin cn
li gii thch r hn v bn cht ca khi nim chung .

- 35 -

- Phn tch nhn t khm ph EFA (exploratory factor analysis) dng


thu nh v tm tt d liu. Trong nghin cu chng ta thu thp lng bin
kh ln nhng cc bin c lin h vi nhau nn chng ta gom chng thnh cc
nhm bin c lin h xem xt v trnh by di dng mt s t nhn t c
bn c tc ng n mc hi lng ca khch hng. Phng php trch h
s c s dng l Principal Component Analysis vi php xoay Varimax v
im dng khi trch cc yu t c eigenvalue l 1. Cc bin quan st c trng
s factor loading nh hn 0.50 s b loi. Thang o c chp nhn khi tng
phng sai trch bng hoc ln hn 0.50
- Sau khi phn tch nhn t, thang o c a vo phn tch hi quy
tuyn tnh bi vi u vo l s nhn t c xc nh nhm xem xt mc
nh hng ca cc nhn t ny i vi mc hi lng ca khch hng.
Sau qu trnh kim nh trn, thang o c a vo phn tch nh gi
thc trng dch v giao nhn hng khng ti cng ty Vinalink thng qua cc
m hnh o lng hi lng khch hng. Kim nh Independent-samples Ttest v kim nh One way ANOVA c dng xem xt nh hng ca
cc bin nh tnh n cc yu t cn ci tin ci thin mc hi lng
khch hng.
3.2.2 M t mu
3.2.2.1 Mu
t c mu khong 100, 150 bng cu hi c gi cho khch
hng, tng s bng cu hi phng vn khch hng thu v c l 115. Sau khi
loi b 16 bng do c qu nhiu trng, tng s bng cu hi c a vo
x l l 99.

- 36 -

3.2.2.2 Thng tin mu


Bng 3.3 Bng tng hp thng tin mu
Tiu ch

S ngi

T l (%)

99

100.00

Cng ty sn xut

24

24.20

Cng ty thng mi

75

75.80

99

100.00

8.10

31

31.30

4.00

56

56.60

Mc thng xuyn

99

100.00

Hng ngy

1.00

Mi tun

35

35.40

Mi thng

36

36.40

Lu hn na

27

27.30

99

100.00

Chu / Chu c

25

25.30

Chu u/ Chu M/ Chu Phi

17

17.20

C hai

57

57.60

Loi hnh cng ty

Mc trng lng tnh cc


<=100kgs
101-500kgs
>500kgs
Tt c cc mc trn

Ni n

- 37 -

V loi hnh cng ty, trong 99 bng cu hi hon tt, c 75 khch hng
c phng vn thuc loi hnh cng ty thng mi (chim 75.80% kch
thc mu), 24 khch hng thuc loi hnh cng ty sn xut (chim 24.20%
kch thc mu). Vinalink hng n khch hng mc tiu l loi hnh cng
ty thng mi v cng ty sn xut.
V mc trng lng tnh cc ca hng, c 8 khch hng c phng
vn i hng mc trng lng tnh cc <=100kgs, chim 8.10% kch thc
mu. 31 khch hng i hng mc trng lng tnh cc 101-500kgs, chim
31.30% kch thc mu. 4 khch hng i hng mc trng lng tnh cc
>500kgs, chim 4.00% kch thc mu. 56 khch hng i hng tt c cc
mc trng lng tnh cc trn, chim 56.60% kch thc mu.
V mc thng xuyn, c 1 khch hng i hng qua Vinalink hng
ngy, chim 1% kch thc mu. 35 khch hng i hng qua Vinalink mi
tun, chim 35.40% kch thc mu. 36 khch hng i hng qua Vinalink mi
thng, chim 36.40% kch thc mu. 27 khch hng i hng qua Vinalink
vi mc thng xuyn lu hn na, chim 27.30% kch thc mu. Khch
hng cng thng xuyn i hng qua dch v ca Vinalink s c nhng nhn
xt chnh xc hn v dch v ca Vinalink.
Trong tng s 99 bng cu hi hon tt, c 25 khch hng i hng n
khu vc Chu / Chu c, chim 25.30% kch thc mu. 17 khch hng i
hng n khu vc Chu u/ Chu M/ Chu Phi, chim 17.20% kch thc
mu. 57 khch hng chim 57.60% kch thc mu i hng n c hai khu
vc ny. Khu vc Chu / Chu c l khu vc gn vi thi gian vn chuyn
nhanh v gi cc r, trong khi khu vc Chu u/ Chu M/ Chu Phi l khu
vc xa vi thi gian vn chuyn hng lu hn v gi cc cao hn.

- 38 -

3.2.3 Kt qu kim nh thang o


3.2.3.1 H s tin cy Cronbach Alpha
Kt qu Cronbach alpha ca cc thnh phn thang o mc hi lng
khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng c trnh by Bng 3.4.
Thnh phn tin cy ca dch v c Cronbach alpha l .8297. Cc h
s tng quan bin tng ca cc bin o lng thnh phn ny u cao. Nh
nht l .5295 (c4). V vy, cc bin o lng thnh phn ny u c s
dng trong phn tch EFA tip theo.
Thnh phn Gi cc, ph dch v v a dng ca sn phm c
Cronbach alpha l .8460. Cc h s tng quan bin tng ca cc bin o
lng thnh phn ny u cao. Nh nht l .6635 (c8). V vy, cc bin o
lng thnh phn ny u c s dng trong phn tch EFA tip theo.
Thnh phn Dch v khch hng c Cronbach alpha l .8571. Cc h s
tng quan bin tng ca cc bin o lng thnh phn ny u cao. Nh
nht l .5521 (c13). V vy, cc bin o lng thnh phn ny u c s
dng trong phn tch EFA tip theo.
Thnh phn Mng li vn phng c Cronbach alpha l .7900. Cc h
s tng quan bin tng ca cc bin o lng thnh phn ny u cao. Nh
nht l .6084 (c18). V vy, cc bin o lng thnh phn ny u c s
dng trong phn tch EFA tip theo.
Thnh phn Cc yu t hu hnh c Cronbach alpha l .7948. H s
tng quan bin tng ca bin c24 (V tr vn phng) kh nh (.2801), nh
hn tiu chun cho php 0.30. Khi loi bin c24 th h s Cronbach Alpha ca
thang o tng t 0.7948 ln 0.8160. V vy, bin c24 b loi trong phn tch
EFA tip theo.

- 39 -

Bng 3.4: Cronbach alpha ca cc thnh phn thang o mc hi lng


khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng
Bin quan st

Trung bnh thang


o nu loi bin

Phng sai thang


o nu loi bin

Tng quan bin


tng

Alpha nu loi
bin

tin cy ca dch v
C1

17.6061

6.4045

0.5953

0.8034

C2

17.6061

6.1187

0.6352

0.7951

C3

17.5455

7.0260

0.5975

0.8068

C4

17.8384

6.6471

0.5295

0.8168

C5

17.7172

5.8988

0.6271

0.7988

C6

17.8485

6.5788

0.6602

0.7924

Alpha = .8297
Gi cc, ph dch v v a dng ca sn phm
C7

7.1616

1.6879

0.7438

0.7604

C8

6.8990

1.6836

0.6635

0.8324

C9

7.8384

1.5042

0.7388

0.7614

C10

26.3030

8.6623

0.6321

0.8362

C11

27.0606

8.5881

0.6743

0.8314

C12

27.2020

8.3873

0.6574

0.8329

C13

26.2727

9.3228

0.5521

0.8458

C14

27.5354

7.9043

0.6203

0.8416

C15

26.6970

9.0297

0.5911

0.8413

C16

26.6263

9.5426

0.5614

0.8464

C17

26.4040

8.5902

0.5818

0.8426

C18

7.3737

1.1344

0.6084

0.7400

C19

7.7374

1.0528

0.6711

0.6705

C20

8.0404

1.2432

0.6198

0.7299

C21

19.5152

3.9258

0.6357

0.7410

C22

18.5051

4.0893

0.6321

0.7432

C23

19.4747

4.2519

0.4995

0.7757

C24

18.3333

5.0204

0.2801

0.8160

C25

19.6263

4.3589

0.6031

0.7533

C26

19.1919

3.8710

0.6480

0.7376

Alpha = .8460
Dch v khch hng

Alpha = .8571
Mng li vn phng

Alpha =

.7900

Cc yu t hu hnh

Alpha =

.7948

- 40 -

3.2.3.2 Kt qu phn tch nhn t khm ph (EFA)


Theo Hair & ctg (1998, 111) [17], Factor loading l ch tiu m bo
mc ngha thit thc ca EFA. Factor loading ln hn 0.30 c xem l t
mc ti thiu, Factor loading ln hn 0.40 c xem l quan trng, ln hn
0.50 c xem l c ngha thit thc. Factor loading ln nht ca cc bin
quan st phi ln hn hoc bng 0.50. Chn Suppress absolute values less
than bng 0.50 m bo c ngha thit thc ca EFA.
Phng php trch yu t Principal Component Analysis vi php xoay
Varimax v im dng khi trch cc yu t c eigenvalue l 1 c s dng
cho phn tch nhn t i vi 25 bin quan st.
Kt qu kim nh Barletts cho thy gia cc bin trong tng th c mi
tng quan vi nhau (sig = 0.000), ng thi h s KMO=0.892 chng t
phn tch nhn t nhm cc bin li vi nhau l thch hp (xem Ph lc 5).
Vi gi tr Eigenvalue 1.188, 25 bin c nhm li thnh 04 nhn t.
Tng phng sai trch c 62.101, ngha l kh nng s dng 04 nhn t ny
gii thch cho 25 bin quan st l 62.101%.
Bng Rotated Component Matrix (a) ca Ph lc 5 cho thy 04 bin c
Factor loading ln nht nh hn 0.50 l Hng n ng lch, Phn hi i vi
khch hng, Thi gian lm vic v Phng c. 04 bin quan st ny c loi
b v khng tha mn tiu chun trn. Nh vy, tng cng c 04 nhn t c
rt trch bao gm 21 bin:
Nhn t th nht bao gm 08 bin: quan h i l, cc cnh tranh, ph
dch v cnh tranh, mng li i l, sn phm a dng, cht lng i l,
dch v ng nh tha thun, chuyn mn tt. Cc bin ny c ni dung lin
quan n h thng vn phng v i l, mc cnh tranh ca cc ph v

- 41 -

ph dch v, a dng ca sn phm dch v, cc yu t ca dch v: chuyn


mn ca nhn vin, dch v ng. Nhn t ny c t tn l p ng.
Nhn t th hai bao gm 07 bin: cung cp chng t, gii quyt tha
ng vn / khiu ni, thng bo vn , tr li tha ng cc yu cu, chu
o ma cao im, khng sai st, phc v ng hn. Nhn t ny c t tn
l chuyn nghip.
Nhn t th ba bao gm 03 bin: c s vt cht, cng ngh v thng
hiu. Nhn t ny c t tn l hu hnh.
Nhn t th t bao gm 03 bin: lch s nh nhn, tn tm vi cc yu
cu, gip khch hng. Nhn t ny c t tn l tn tm.
3.2.3.3 Kt qu phn tch hi quy bi
Phng trnh hi quy bi biu din mi quan h gia cc nhn t v
mc hi lng ca khch hng c dng nh sau:
Y = o + 1X1 + 2X2 + 3X3 + 4X4
Trong :
- Y l bin ph thuc th hin gi tr d on v mc hi lng ca
khch hng
- o, 1, 2, 3, 4 l cc h s hi quy
-

X1, X2, X3, X4 l cc bin c lp theo th t: p ng, chuyn


nghip, hu hnh, tn tm
Sau khi chy hi quy tuyn tnh bi vi phng php a vo mt lt

(Enter), ta c R2 = 0.573 v R2 iu chnh = 0.555 (Ph lc 6). Kt qu ny


cho thy m hnh l ph hp, c mi tng quan tng i mnh gia bin

- 42 -

ph thuc v cc bin c lp ca m hnh. Biu phn tn cho thy cc


mi quan h c xu hng theo ng thng.
Kim nghim F vi Sig F = 0.000 < 0.05 cho thy m hnh hi quy
tuyn tnh bi c xy dng ph hp vi tp d liu.
Quan st cc h s chun ha, ta thy c 4 nhn t: p ng,
chuyn nghip, hu hnh, tn tm u c mi quan h tuyn tnh vi
Mc hi lng ca khch hng vi Sig t = 0.000 < 0.05
Phng trnh hi quy bi c xc nh nh sau:
Mc hi lng khch hng = 3.859 + 0.339 ( p ng) + 0.306
( chuyn nghip) + 0.222 ( hu hnh) + 0.241 ( tn tm)

- 43 -

CHNG 4: KT QU V BIN LUN


Trn c s m hnh o lng mc hi lng ca khch hng
Chng 2, phng php v kt qu nghin cu Chng 3, kt qu v bin
lun s c trnh by chng 4 thng qua cc nh gi ca khch hng
thy c thc trng mc hi lng ca khch hng v dch v giao nhn
hng khng ti cng ty Vinalink
Nhn chung, khch hng c kho st kh hi lng v dch v giao
nhn hng khng ti cng ty Vinalink (im hi lng trung bnh 3.86). Trong
99 bng cu hi a vo x l, c 20.20% khch hng hon ton hi lng v
dch v ca Vinalink, 46.50% hi lng, 32.30% c th hi lng v 1% khng
hi lng.

Hon ton
hi lng,
20.20%

Khng hi
lng, 1.00%

C th hi
lng,
32.30%

13

Hi lng,
46.50%

Hnh 4.1: Mc hi lng

Khng hi lng
C th hi lng
Hi lng
Hon ton hi lng

- 44 -

4.1 Mi yu t c khch hng nh gi quan trng nht


Bng 4.1: Tng hp tm quan trng ca cc yu t
S

Tm quan trng

th
t

1
(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

TB im

Yu t
p ng

01

Quan h i l

0.00

0.00

7.10

35.40

57.60

4.51

02

Cc cnh tranh

0.00

0.00

0.00

33.30

66.70

4.67

03

Ph dch v cnh
tranh
Mng li i l
Sn phm a dng
Cht lng i l
Dch v ng
Chuyn mn tt

0.00

0.00

0.00

40.40

59.60

4.60

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

2.00
3.00
8.10
0.00
1.00

38.40
39.40
33.30
33.30
31.30

59.60
57.60
58.60
66.70
67.70

4.58
4.55
4.51
4.67
4.67

0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

0.00
7.10

35.40
34.30

64.60
58.60

4.65
4.52

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

8.10
0.00
16.20

50.50
57.60
25.30

41.40
42.40
58.60

4.33
4.42
4.42

0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

8.10
8.10

26.30
41.40

65.70
50.50

4.58
4.42

04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15

chuyn nghip
Cung cp chng t
Gii quyt vn /
khiu ni
Thng bo vn
Tr li tha ng
Chu o ma cao
im
Khng sai st
Phc v ng hn

0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

0.00
16.20

66.70
34.30

33.30
49.50

4.33
4.33

18

tn tm
Lch s, nh nhn
Tn tm vi cc yu
cu
Gip khch hng

0.00

0.00

8.10

58.60

33.30

4.25

19
20
21

hu hnh
C s vt cht
Cng ngh
Thng hiu

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

4.00
21.20
8.10

40.40
24.20
35.40

55.60
54.50
56.60

4.52
4.33
4.48

Trung bnh

0.00

0.00

6.02

38.82

55.18

4.49

16
17

- 45 -

Ghi ch: Cc s liu t ct 3 n ct 7 ca Bng 4.1 th hin t l phn


trm kin ca khch hng nh gi cc ch tiu cc mc : 1: hon ton
khng quan trng; 2: khng quan trng; 3: tng i quan trng; 4: quan
trng; 5: rt quan trng.
4.80

Tm quan trng

4.70

4.60
4.50
4.40

7 8 9
3 4
14
Tm5quan
bnh chung
6 trng trung10
12 13
15
11

4.30

19
16 17

21
20

18

4.20
4.10
4.00

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Yu t

Hnh 4.2: Phn b tm quan trng ca cc yu t

- Trong Hnh 4.2, cc yu t c nh s theo s th t cc yu t trong


Bng 4.1
Bng 4.1 v Hnh 4.2 cho thy 10 yu t khch hng nh gi quan
trng nht (nm pha trn ng tm quan trng trung bnh chung) bao gm:
Yu t
Yu t 2
Yu t 8
Yu t 7
Yu t 9
Yu t 3
Yu t 4
Yu t 14
Yu t 5
Yu t 19
Yu t 10

Tn yu t
Cc cnh tranh
Chuyn mn tt
Dch v ng
Cung cp chng t
Ph dch v cnh tranh
Mng li i l
Khng sai st
Sn phm a dng
C s vt cht
Gii quyt vn / khiu ni

im s tm quan trng
4.67
4.67
4.67
4.65
4.60
4.58
4.58
4.55
4.52
4.52

- 46 -

4.2 Mi yu t khch hng t hi lng nht


Bng 4.2: Tng hp mc hi lng khch hng i vi cc yu t
S

Mc hi lng

th
t

TB

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

im

Yu t
p ng

01

Quan h i l

0.00

0.00

29.30

57.60

13.10

3.84

02

Cc cnh tranh

0.00

0.00

22.20

50.50

27.30

4.05

03

Ph dch v cnh
tranh
Mng li i l
Sn phm a dng
Cht lng i l
Dch v ng
Chuyn mn tt

0.00

19.20

53.50

24.20

3.00

3.11

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00

11.10
34.30
49.50
46.50
11.10

57.60
52.50
47.50
38.40
81.80

31.30
13.10
3.00
13.10
7.10

4.20
3.79
3.54
3.63
3.96

0.00
0.00

25.30
10.10

46.50
41.40

26.30
47.50

2.00
1.00

3.05
3.39

0.00
0.00
0.00

12.10
0.00
4.00

31.30
51.50
57.60

49.50
44.40
34.30

7.10
4.00
4.00

3.52
3.53
3.38

0.00
0.00

3.00
0.00

58.60
20.20

35.40
70.70

3.00
9.10

3.38
3.89

0.00
0.00

0.00
1.00

1.00
10.10

66.70
58.60

32.30
30.30

4.31
4.18

0.00

0.00

7.10

57.60

35.40

4.28

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
5.10
0.00

4.00
50.50
36.40

49.50
42.40
53.50

46.50
2.00
10.10

4.42
3.41
3.74

0.00

3.90

32.08

49.83

14.18

3.74

04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

19
20
21

chuyn nghip
Cung cp chng t
Gii quyt vn /
khiu ni
Thng bo vn
Tr li tha ng
Chu o ma cao
im
Khng sai st
Phc v ng hn
tn tm
Lch s, nh nhn
Tn tm vi cc
yu cu
Gip khch
hng
hu hnh
C s vt cht
Cng ngh
Thng hiu
Trung bnh

- 47 -

Ghi ch: Cc s liu t ct 3 n ct 7 ca Bng 4.2 th hin t l phn


trm kin ca khch hng nh gi cc ch tiu cc mc : 1: hon ton
khng ng ; 2: khng ng ; 3: c th ng ; 4: ng ; 5: hon ton
ng .

Mc hi lng

5.00
4.50
4.00

17

18

19

15
Mc
5 hi lng trung bnh chung

3.50
3.00

16

10

11 12

13 14

21
20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Yu t

Hnh 4.3: Phn b mc hi lng ca khch hng i vi cc


yu t

- Trong Hnh 4.3, cc yu t c nh s theo s th t cc yu t trong


Bng 4.2
Bng 4.2 v Hnh 4.3 cho thy 10 yu t khch hng t hi lng nht
(nm pha di ng mc hi lng trung bnh chung) bao gm:
Yu t
Yu t 9
Yu t 3
Yu t 14
Yu t 13
Yu t 10
Yu t 20
Yu t 11
Yu t 12
Yu t 6
Yu t 7

Tn yu t
Cung cp chng t
Ph dch v cnh tranh
Khng sai st
Chu o ma cao im
Gii quyt vn / khiu ni
Cng ngh
Thng bo vn
Tr li tha ng
Cht lng i l
Dch v ng

im s hi lng
3.05
3.11
3.38
3.38
3.39
3.41
3.52
3.53
3.54
3.63

- 48 -

4.3 Mi yu t c khong cch ln nht gia im s tm quan trng v


im s hi lng
Bng 4.3: Tng hp khong cch gia im s tm quan trng v im s
hi lng
S

TB mc

TB tm

TB

th

hi lng

quan trng

chnh lch

(1)

(2)

(3 = (2)-(1)

Yu t
p ng

01

Quan h i l

3.84

4.50

0.67

02

Cc cnh tranh

4.05

4.67

0.62

03

Ph dch v cnh
tranh
Mng li i l
Sn phm a dng
Cht lng i l
Dch v ng
Chuyn mn tt

3.11

4.60

1.49

4.20
3.79
3.54
3.63
3.96

4.58
4.55
4.51
4.67
4.67

0.38
0.76
0.97
1.04
0.71

3.05
3.39

4.65
4.52

1.60
1.13

3.52
3.53
3.38

4.33
4.42
4.42

0.81
0.89
1.04

3.38
3.89

4.58
4.42

1.20
0.53

4.31
4.18

4.33
4.33

0.02
0.15

4.28

4.25

-0.03

4.42
3.41
3.74

4.52
4.33
4.48

0.10
0.92
0.74

3.74

4.49

0.75

04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

19
20
21

chuyn nghip
Cung cp chng t
Gii quyt vn /
khiu ni
Thng bo vn
Tr li tha ng
Chu o ma cao
im
Khng sai st
Phc v ng hn
tn tm
Lch s, nh nhn
Tn tm vi cc
yu cu
Gip khch
hng
hu hnh
C s vt cht
Cng ngh
Thng hiu
Trung bnh

- 49 -

Bng 4.3 cho thy 10 yu t c khong cch ln nht gia im s tm


quan trng v im s hi lng bao gm:
Yu t
Yu t 9
Yu t 3
Yu t 14
Yu t 10
Yu t 13
Yu t 7
Yu t 6
Yu t 20
Yu t 12
Yu t 11

Tn yu t
Cung cp chng t
Ph dch v cnh tranh
Khng sai st
Gii quyt vn / khiu ni
Chu o ma cao im
Dch v ng
Cht lng i l
Cng ngh
Tr li tha ng
Thng bo vn

Khong cch chnh lch


1.60
1.49
1.20
1.13
1.04
1.04
0.97
0.92
0.89
0.81

Kt qu kho st cho thy 10 yu t c khong cch ln nht gia im


s tm quan trng v im s hi lng cng l 10 yu t khch hng t hi
lng nht.

- 50 -

4.4 Phn tch cc yu t theo ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm


quan trng (Hnh 4.4)

4.60

19

Mc tha mn

4.40

16
18

4.20
4.00

17

15

Mc tha mn TB

3.80
3.60

II

3.40

20

11

12

21

Tm
quan
trng
1 TB

4
2
8

07

6
10

13

14

3.20

3.00
4.20

4.30

4.40

IV

4.50

4.60

III

4.70

4.80

Tm quan trng

Hnh 4.4: Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v


tm quan trng

Ghi ch:
- Trong Hnh 4.4, cc yu t c nh s theo s th t cc yu t trong
Bng 4.3
4.4.1 Bn yu t nm trong vng I Khu vc gi tr gia tng khng cn
thay i
Yu t

Yu t 15
Yu t 17
Yu t 18
Yu t 16

Tn yu t

Phc v ng hn
Tn tm vi yu cu
Gip khch hng
Lch s, nh nhn

im s

im s tm

hi lng

quan trng

3.89
4.18
4.28
4.31

4.42
4.33
4.25
4.33

Khong cch
chnh lch
0.53
0.15
-0.03
0.02

- 51 -

4.4.2 Nm yu t nm trong vng II Khu vc t cn ch , cc thay i


c u tin thp
Yu t

Yu t 13
Yu t 20
Yu t 11
Yu t 12
Yu t 21

Tn yu t

im s

im s tm

hi lng

quan trng

3.38
3.41
3.52
3.53
3.74

4.42
4.33
4.33
4.42
4.48

Chu o ma cao im
Cng ngh
Thng bo vn
Tr li tha ng
Thng hiu

Khong cch
chnh lch
1.04
0.92
0.81
0.89
0.74

4.4.3 Su yu t nm trong vng III Khu vc cn ci tin, cc ci tin


cn c u tin
Yu t

Yu t 9
Yu t 3
Yu t 14
Yu t 10
Yu t 6
Yu t 7

Tn yu t

im s

Cung cp chng t
Ph dch v cnh tranh
Khng sai st
Gii quyt vn / khiu ni
Cht lng i l
Dch v ng

im s tm Khong cch

hi lng

quan trng

3.05
3.11
3.38
3.39
3.54
3.63

4.65
4.60
4.58
4.52
4.51
4.67

chnh lch
1.60
1.49
1.20
1.13
0.97
1.04

4.4.4 Su yu t nm trong vng IV Khu vc cht lng cao, cn c


duy tr
Yu t

Yu t 5
Yu t 1
Yu t 8
Yu t 2
Yu t 4
Yu t 19

Tn yu t

Sn phm a dng
Quan h i l
Chuyn mn tt
Cc cnh tranh
Mng li i l
C s vt cht

im s hi

im s tm

lng

quan trng

3.79
3.84
3.96
4.05
4.20
4.42

4.55
4.51
4.67
4.67
4.58
4.52

Khong cch
chnh lch
0.76
0.67
0.71
0.62
0.38
0.10

- 52 -

4.5 Phn tch cc yu t theo tng nhn t


4.5.1 V nhn t p ng
Bng 4.4: Tng hp mc hi lng khch hng v tm quan trng i
vi nhn t p ng
S

Mc hi lng

th
t

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

Yu t

TB

TB

TB

im

tm

chnh

(1)

quan

lch

trng(2)

(3)
=(2-(1

01

Quan h i l

0.00

0.00

29.30

57.60

13.10

3.84

4.51

0.67

02

Cc cnh tranh

0.00

0.00

22.20

50.50

27.30

4.05

4.67

0.62

03

Ph dch v cnh
tranh
Mng li i l
Sn phm a dng
Cht lng i l
Dch v ng
Chuyn mn tt

0.00 19.20

53.50

24.20

3.00

3.11

4.60

1.49

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00

11.10
34.30
49.50
46.50
11.10

57.60
52.50
47.50
38.40
81.80

31.30
13.10
3.00
13.10
7.10

4.20
3.79
3.54
3.63
3.96

4.58
4.55
4.51
4.67
4.67

0.38
0.76
0.97
1.04
0.71

p ng

0.00

2.65

32.19

51.26

13.88

3.77

4.60

0.83

04
05
06
07
08

4.5.1.1 V mng li vn phng v i l


4.5.1.1.1 V mc bao ph ca mng li vn phng v i l (Yu t
04)
Bng 4.4 cho thy: 31.30% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 57.60% khch
hng nh gi cao v 11.10% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t 4.20. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 0.38 cho
thy Vinalink p ng c phn ln mong mun ca khch hng i
vi yu t ny.

- 53 -

C th Vit Nam, Vinalink c vn phng chi nhnh cng ty ti H


Ni, Hi Phng; vn phng giao nhn ti Bnh Dng (Khu cng nghip Vit
nam - Singapore). nc ngoi, Vinalink c mng li i l rng khp cc
chu lc v y chnh l li th rt ln ca Vinalink i vi rt nhiu cc cng
ty giao nhn khc trong ngnh.
Trong ngnh giao nhn hng khng, i l l yu t rt quan trng m
bo hng ha c x l hp l v kp thi ti cc sn bay n trn ton cu
c bit vi tnh cht gp v lun cn giao hng nhanh ca hng ha vn
chuyn bng ng hng khng. i l chnh l mt nh giao nhn c tr s
hoc vn phng ti mt nc/ sn bay n m Vinalink c mi quan h kinh
doanh/ x l hng ha vi i l ny thng qua mt hp ng i l. c
c mt mng li h thng i l rng khp, cng ty phi u t thc hin
cng tc i ngoi mt cch hiu qu. Cc cng ty giao nhn quy m nh
hoc khng c thm nin trong ngnh u khng th pht trin c mng
li i l rng khp cc chu lc. C nhiu l hng c thc hin qua dch
v ca Vinalink ch s dng i l x l hng ha ti ni n, c bit
l i vi cc l hng khch hng yu cu phi c giao tn tay khch hng
ti nc n, khi i l chnh l bn s thay mt Vinalink thc hin dch v
khai hi quan, giao hng ti nc n. i vi khch hng, cht lng dch v
ca i l cng chnh l cht lng dch v ca Vinalink.
4.5.1.1.2 i vi yu t mi quan h tt v tin cy vi h thng i l
(Yu t 01)
Bng 4.4 cho thy: 13.10% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 57.60% khch
hng nh gi cao v 29.30% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t 3.84. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng i vi yu
t ny 0.67 cho thy khch hng tng i hi lng vi yu t ny.

- 54 -

Mi quan h tt v tin cy vi h thng i l l c s Vinalink c


c gi cc v ph dch v cnh tranh cho cc dch v do i l cung cp v
c i l h tr v mi mt cho vic x l hng ha ni n. Mi quan h
tin cy c bit quan trng v mt ti chnh Vinalink c th thng qua i
l thc hin vic thu cc ph ni n v i l cng tin cy thc hin
dch v ti ni n vi chi ph s c thanh ton vo s d hng thng gia
hai bn m khng yu cu Vinalink phi thanh ton trc khi thc hin dch
v. y l li th rt ln ca Vinalink i vi cc l hng cn thu tin cc
ti nc n.
Mi quan h tt v tin cy vi cc i l c thc y thng qua cc
cuc thm ving cc i l, xc tin k kt hp ng i l. Pht trin cc
giao dch c li cho hai bn cng chnh l c s bn vng cho mi quan h tin
cy lu di gia Vinalink v cc i l. Mng li i l ca Vinalink rng
khp tuy nhin mc tin cy vi i l mt s nc cn hn ch. iu ny
th hin thc t vic nh i l thu tin cc ti mt s ni n vn cha
th c thc hin, gi cc v ph dch v do i l cung cp cho cc dch
v vn cha cnh tranh mt s ni n.
4.5.1.1.3 i vi yu t cht lng dch v ca i l (Yu t 06)
Bng 4.4 cho thy: 3.00% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 47.50% khch
hng nh gi cao v 49.50% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng 3.54. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng i vi yu
t ny 0.97 cho thy Vinalink p ng c rt t so vi mong mun
ca khch hng i vi yu t ny.
Kt qu kho st cho thy Vinalink cn phi ch trng nhiu hn na
vo cht lng dch v ca i l. Mt s tuyn Vinalink c c h thng
i l tt nh Nht, Hn Quc, i Loan, Hng Kng, Trung Quc, cc nc

- 55 -

Bc M, Ty u, Bc u, ng Nam , Trung ng tuy nhin vn xy ra


nhiu trng hp tr ni trong giao hng lm pht sinh ph lu kho v nh
hng n uy tn i vi khch hng. Vinalink vn cha c i l cht lng
dch v tt ti mt s nc nh Campuchia, Nga, cc nc ng u, Chu
Phi, Chu M La Tinhgi c dch v cc khu vc ny kh cao v cht
lng dch v khng p ng c yu cu khch hng.
Cht lng dch v ca i l cn th hin phn hi ca i l. Do
tnh cht gp ca hng ha vn chuyn bng c hng khng, khch hng
lun yu cu cung cp thng tin lin tc v l hng ca h. Chnh v vy
Vinalink phi c phn hi nhanh chng t pha i l cung cp thng tin
cho khch hng. Thc t cho thy vic tr ni trong phn hi ca i l lm
nh hng n mc hi lng ca khch hng.
4.5.1.2 V cc ph, ph dch v v s a dng ca sn phm dch v
4.5.1.2.1 V cc ph (Yu t 02)
Bng 4.4 cho thy: 27.30% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 50.50% khch
hng nh gi cao v 22.20% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t 4.05 cho thy khch hng hi lng
vi yu t ny. Trung bnh chnh lch gia im s tm quan trng v
im s hi lng ca khch hng 0.62 cho thy khch hng mong mun
c p ng hn na yu t ny.
Con s phn nh chnh xc thc t Vinalink rt c li th v gi cc
hng khng so vi nhiu cc cng ty giao nhn khc cng ngnh. C c li
th l nh thi gian hot ng lu nm trong ngnh cng vi nhng n lc
ca cng ty khng nh sn lng hng ha n nh v m bo tn dng tt
i vi cc hng hng khng. Mc cnh tranh ca cc ph da trn c s
Vinalink c hp ng bn hng c bit vi hu ht cc hng hng khng ln
nh ang c mt ti Vit Nam. Nh vo uy tn ca Vinalink i vi cc hng

- 56 -

hng khng, Vinalink c kh nng thng lng gi v ti tt c bit vo cc


ma cao im. Gi cc tt cng chnh l l do Vinalink nhn c rt nhiu
hng co-load - hng c t ch t cc cng ty giao nhn khc. Cc ph
cnh tranh cn th hin Vinalink c chnh sch gi tt v linh hot i vi cc
i tng khch hng khc nhau.
4.5.1.2.2 V ph dch v (Yu t 03)
Bng 4.4 cho thy: 3.00% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 24.20% khch
hng nh gi cao, 53.50% nh gi trung bnh v 19.20% nh gi
thp yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng thp ch t 3.11 Trung bnh chnh
lch gia im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng
rt ln 1.49 cho thy Vinalink cn tp trung ci thin yu t ny lm
hi lng khch hng.
i vi cc cng ty giao nhn hng khng, ngoi vic bn cc hng
khng th mng dch v h tr cng rt quan trng m bo cht lng dch
v i vi khch hng v ng gp ng k vo li nhun ca cng ty. Dch
v h tr bao gm tt c cc dch v khai thu hi quan, vn chuyn hng ha
trong nc, chun b cc chng t cn thit cho vic xut khu mt l hng
nh giy chng nhn hun trng, giy chng nhn kim dch hng ha, giy
chng nhn xut x hng hav nhiu dch v pht sinh khcc thc
hin bi b phn hin trng ca Vinalink. y l kh khn rt ln ca cng
ty trong tnh hnh cnh tranh ngy cng gay gt trong ngnh giao nhn vi s
ra i ca rt nhiu cng ty giao nhn ln nh sn sng tnh ph dch v rt
thp ginh ly cc lung hng, c bit l cc lung hng ln thng
xuyn nhy cm v gi.

- 57 -

4.5.1.2.3 V s a dng ca sn phm dch v (Yu t 5)


Bng 4.4 cho thy: 13.10% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 52.50% khch
hng nh gi cao, 34.30% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t 3.79. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 0.76 cho
thy khch hng tng i hi lng vi yu t ny.
Kt qu kho st nh gi ng thc t sn phm hng xut dch v
giao nhn hng khng ca Vinalink kh a dng bao gm
Bn cc vi hp ng vn chuyn nhiu hng hng khng ln trn th
gii nh: Singapore Airlines, Vietnam Airlines, Eva Airways, Thai
Airways, Bristish Airways, Brunei Airways,...
Vn chuyn hng ha xut khu. Nhn vn chuyn tt c cc loi hng
ho t hng thng thng (general cargo), cc mt hng thu hi sn
ng lnh, ti sng (perishable cargo), n hng nguy him
(Dangerous cargo) t Vit Nam i cc nc.
Gom hng l xut khu
Vn chuyn kt hp : ng bin v ng hng khng (Sea- Air);
ng hng khng v ng bin (Air-Sea); ng hng khng v
ng hng khng (Air-Air)
Dch v chuyn pht nhanh quc t v trong nc. Nhn chuyn v
pht nhanh cc loi chng t, hng mu, v hng thng phm t Vit
Nam i cc nc; chuyn pht nhanh chng t v hng ha cc thnh
ph ln trong nc nh :Tp. H Ch Minh, Nng v H Ni.
Dch v khai thu hi quan, khai quan. Nhn lm th tc hi quan i
vi cc l hng l v k hp ng khai thu hi quan cho cc lung
hng ln v thng xuyn ca cc cng ty xut nhp khu.

- 58 -

4.5.1.3 V chuyn mn ca nhn vin (Yu t 8)


Bng 4.4 cho thy: 7.10% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 81.80% khch
hng nh gi cao, 11.10% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t 3.96 cho thy khch hng hi lng
vi yu t ny. Trung bnh chnh lch gia im s tm quan trng v
im s hi lng ca khch hng 0.71 cho thy khch hng mong mun
c p ng hn na yu t ny.
Thc t, hn 160 nhn vin ca cng ty a s u c trnh i hc
qua cc kha o to nghip v trong v ngoi nc. Nhn s l yu t
quyt nh i vi dch v ca cng ty v i ng nhn vin c chuyn mn
tt gp phn to dng thng hiu Vinalink i vi khch hng.
4.5.1.4 V yu t dch v c thc hin ng nh tha thun/ gii
thiu (Yu t 7)
Bng 4.4 cho thy: 13.10% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 38.40% khch
hng nh gi cao, 46.50% nh gi trung bnh v 2.00% nh gi thp
yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t 3.63. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng t 1.04
cho thy khch hng cha hi lng vi yu t ny.
Uy tn ca cng ty v cng quan trng trong vic m bo dch v c
thc hin ng nh gii thiu vi khch hng. Dch v khng c thc
hin ng, tr nhng nguyn nhn bt kh khng, c 02 nhm nguyn nhn
chnh:
Do dch v khng c thc hin ng t pha cc nh cung cp dch
v cho Vinalink: lch bay khng ng nh xc nhn khi t gi ch,
nh vn chuyn khng x l hng ng theo tnh cht hng ha i vi
hng ng lnh, hng ti, rau qu

- 59 -

Do t pha nhn vin ca Vinalink: hng khng c x l kp khi


hnh trn chuyn bay xc nhn vi khch hng, ng kin hng ha
khng ng theo yu cu ca khch hng v tnh cht hng ha, kin
hng khng c dn nhn ng theo tnh cht hng ha, chng t khng
c km theo hng kp chuyn bay
4.5.2 V nhn t chuyn nghip
Bng 4.5: Tng hp mc hi lng khch hng v tm quan trng i
vi nhn t chuyn nghip
S

Mc hi lng

th
t

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

Yu t

TB

TB

TB

im

tm

chnh

(1)

quan

lch

trng(2)

(3)
=(2)-(1)

09
10
11
12
13
14
15

Cung cp chng t 0.00 25.30


Gii quyt vn / 0.00 10.10
khiu ni
Thng bo vn 0.00 12.10
Tr li tha ng
0.00 0.00
Chu o ma cao 0.00 4.00
im
Khng sai st
0.00 3.00
Phc v ng hn 0.00 0.00
chuyn nghip 0.00 7.79

46.50
41.40

26.30
47.50

2.00
1.00

3.05
3.39

4.65
4.52

1.60
1.13

31.30
51.50
57.60

49.50
44.40
34.30

7.10
4.00
4.00

3.52
3.53
3.38

4.33
4.42
4.42

0.81
0.89
1.04

58.60
20.20

35.40
70.70

3.00
9.10

3.38
3.89

4.58
4.42

1.20
0.53

43.87

44.01

4.31

3.45

4.48

1.03

4.5.2.1 V yu t cung cp chng t nhanh chng, chnh xc (Yu t 9)


Bng 4.5 cho thy: 2.00% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 26.30% khch
hng nh gi cao, 46.50% nh gi trung bnh v 25.30% nh gi
thp yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng ch t 3.05. Trung bnh chnh lch
gia im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 1.60

- 60 -

cao nht so vi cc yu t khc cho thy khch hng cha hi lng vi


yu t ny.
Vic cung cp chng t cho khch hng thc t khng t c s hi
lng cao so vi mong mun ca khch hng do nhiu nguyn nhn. Chng t
Vinalink cung cp cho khch hng bao gm cc loi giy t sau:
Vn n do Vinalink pht hnh cho khch hng (house airway billhawb) gm vn n nhp v vn n hon chnh: Hawb do
Vinalink pht hnh nhng thc t vic gi hawb cho khch hng
thng chm tr, khi khch hng yu cu hay nhc li th nhn vin
chng t mi cung cp. Sai st trong ni dung th hin trn vn n
vn thng xy ra do li ca nhn vin chng t trong qu trnh nh
my, do nhn vin chng t khng kim tra vi khch hng v cc b
phn khc v s ph hp trn chng t c cung cp
Vn n ca hng hng khng (master airway bill-mawb): Vn n
ca hng hng khng tr mt s hng hng khng Vinalink t nh
mawb th a s vn phi ph thuc vo hng nh mawb. Do khng
ch ng c nn chm tr thng xy ra i vi vic fax mawb cho
khch hng v phi ch hin trng ln hng ly mawb v hoc hin
trng ln ly nhng mawb hng cha nh xong.
T khai: chm tr cng thng xy ra i vi vic fax hoc gi t
khai gc cho khch hng do t khai hin trng gi nhng hin
trng li thng khng c trong vn phng. Mt vn kh khn l
tuy b phn chng t nhc nh hin trng yu cu cung cp mawb
hay t khai gp fax cho khch hng tuy nhin do hin trng ang
c hng phi x l gp hoc thiu ngi khng th i ly mawb hoc
tm l cho rng chng t khng quan trng bng cc cng vic khc

- 61 -

nn vic cung cp chng t cho khch hng thng b chm tr. Con
s ca kt qu kho st phn nh ng thc t c vn ny.
Ha n thanh ton: chm tr trong vic fax ha n nhp, cung cp
ha n gc cho khch hng do 02 nguyn nhn chnh: do cc b
phn bn hng v chng t cung cp chng t thanh ton chm cho
b phn k ton v do qu ti b phn k ton ch c 03 nhn vin
nhng cng vic qu nhiu.
4.5.2.2 V yu t gii quyt tha ng cc vn pht sinh/ khiu ni ca
khch hng (Yu t 10)
Bng 4.5 cho thy: 1.00% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 47.50% khch
hng nh gi cao, 41.40% nh gi trung bnh v 10.10% nh gi
thp yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng 3.39. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 1.13 cho
thy Vinalink p ng c rt t so vi mong mun ca khch hng,
khch hng cha hi lng vi yu t ny.
Cng vic giao nhn hng khng khng trnh khi cc vn pht
sinh/ khiu ni ca khch hng. Khi vn pht sinh, mong mun ca khch
hng l cng ty s cng n lc hp tc gii quyt nhng kh khn. Vic
gii quyt nhng vn pht sinh/ khiu ni cha lm khch hng hi lng do
02 nhm nguyn nhn chnh sau y:
Khng c c s gii quyt tha ng t cc nh cung cp dch v
cho Vinalink: cc hng hng khng khng c ngi chuyn ph trch
cho gii quyt khiu ni, cng vic hng ngy li rt bn rn chnh v vy
cc vn pht sinh nh hng n tr, tht lc chng t gi km theo
hng, hng b v, h hng, tht lcthng h khng ch ng thng
bo v cng khng ch ng gii quyt khiu ni. Vic n b t cc

- 62 -

hng hng khng nu c khng c gii quyt ngay cho khch hng m
ch c cn tr sau ny vo cc l hng c gi cao hn gi sn bn ra
ca cc hng hng khng v vic cn tr vo tng l hng cng khng
c cc hng hng khng ch ng thc hin m phi ch Vinalink c
th yu cu th mi xem xt thc hin.
Nguyn nhn t pha nhn vin ca Vinalink: do nhn vin cha nhn
bit c tm quan trng ca vic x l khiu ni ca khch hng. Vic
gii quyt khiu ni i hi nhiu thi gian trong khi cng vic hng ngy
bn rn v nhn vin khng c thi gian tp trung gii quyt cc vn
pht sinh cho khch hng. Nhn vin ngi thng bo cc vn pht sinh
ln cp trn n khi lnh o phng v cng ty bit th qu tr v pht
sinh nhiu chi ph lin quan.
4.5.2.3 V yu t thng bo vn pht sinh (Yu t 11)
Bng 4.5 cho thy: 7.10% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 49.50% khch
hng nh gi cao, 31.30% nh gi trung bnh v 12.10% nh gi
thp yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng 3.52. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 0.81 cho
thy Vinalink ch p ng c phn no mong mun ca khch hng
i vi yu t ny.
Nhng vn c th pht sinh hng ngy nh hng n tr, tht lc
chng t, chng t c sai st, hng b v, mt mtthc t t c nhn
vin theo di v ch ng bo vi khch hng. Vic theo di lch bay ca l
hng l rt cn thit can thip kp thi vi hng hng khng khi hng b rt
chuyn bay hay tht lcnhng thc t s l hng rt nhiu v cha c nhn
vin chuyn thc hin vic ny dn n tnh trng c nhng l hng b rt
chuyn rt lu cha bt c chuyn ni hay tht lc nhng n khi khch

- 63 -

hng thng bo th nhn vin mi bit v can thip. Vic theo di vi i l


ly chng c giao hng (P.O.D) ni n cho mi l hng cng rt cn
thit tuy nhin vn cha c ch ng thc hin, ch khi khch hng yu cu
th nhn vin mi thc hin vic ny.
Khch hng s cm thy hi lng hn nu vn pht sinh c nhn
vin theo di v thng bo n h trc khi h t bit.
4.5.2.4 V yu t tr li tha ng cc cu hi/ yu cu ca khch hng
(Yu t 12)
Bng 4.5 cho thy: 4.00% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 44.40% khch
hng nh gi cao, 51.50% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng 3.53. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 0.89 cho
thy khch hng t hi lng vi yu t ny.
C rt nhiu vn khch hng cn s tr li tha ng t nhn vin:
t vic la chn sn bay n gn nht, la chn dch v bay tt nht, cch
ng gi hng ha ph hp, cch khai quan hng ha. khch hng hi
lng, nhn vin cn c kinh nghim lm hng, cn thn kim tra vi cc b
phn lin quan, cc nh cung cp v kh nng c th p ng c nhu cu
ca khch hng v c thi tn tm trong vic hng dn khch hng. Thc
t cho thy nhiu vn nhn vin tr li vi khch hng m khng kim tra
dn n tnh trng khch hng c hng dn sai lm mt uy tn i vi
khch hng. Ngoi ra, khch hng cng c nhiu yu cu c bit i vi cc
l hng ca h i hi nhn vin phi h tr v p ng.

- 64 -

4.5.2.5 V yu t phc v chu o ngay c trong ma cao im (Yu t


13)
Bng 4.5 cho thy: 4.00% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 34.30% khch
hng nh gi cao, 57.60% nh gi trung bnh v 4.00% khch hng
nh gi thp yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng 3.38. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 1.04 cho
thy khch hng cha hi lng vi yu t ny.
Sn lng hng ha vn chuyn bng ng hng khng c tnh cht
tng gim theo ma. Vo ma cao im (peak season) ca hng ha vn
chuyn bng ng hng khng c bit t khong thng 10 hng nm phc
v cho vic bn hng dp noel v tt dng lch ti cc nc, hng xut vn
chuyn bng ng hng khng tng ln t bin v khi lng cng vic ca
nhn vin tr nn qu ti dn n thc t khch hng khng c phc v chu
o vo ma cao im. Vo ma cao im, vic t gi ch vi cc hng
hng khng gp nhiu kh khn do s lng ti cc hng hng khng hn ch
trong khi lng hng tng ln t bin v hu ht cc hng u trong tnh
trng y ti. Cc b phn khc nh b phn bn hng, chng t cng lm
vic vi khi lng cng vic tng ln rt nhiu, c bit b phn hin trng
sn sng tc trc k c ban m x l hng ha bt c khi no hng ra n
sn bay.
4.5.2.6 V yu t lu khng xy ra sai st (Yu t 14)
Bng 4.5 cho thy: 3.00% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 35.40% khch
hng nh gi cao, 58.60% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng 3.38. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 1.20 cho
thy khch hng cha hi lng i vi yu t ny.

- 65 -

Vinalink xy dng v duy tr h thng qun l cht lng theo tiu


chun quc t ISO 9001 da trn s hiu bit v thc chp hnh ca ton
th thnh vin trong cng ty nhm mc tiu Khng sai st v Lin tc ci
tin l chnh sch nht qun ca cng ty. Tuy nhin trn thc t vic thc
hin mc tiu ny vn c nhiu kh khn. Qu trnh x l mt l hng xut
bng ng hng khng l s kt hp cht ch gia tt c cc b phn: b
phn bn hng, t gi ch vi hng hng khng, chng t v hin trng,
bt k mt thiu st nh ca mt c nhn cng s gy nn kh khn cho qu
trnh x l hng ha thm ch dn n nhng vn ln pht sinh. Thc t
cho thy c nhng sai st vn thng xy ra: hng dn lm hng sai t nhn
vin bn hng lm vic x l hng ha ca cc b phn khc cng sai theo
hng tng t, vn n ca hng hng khng nh sai chi tit lm pht sinh
ph chnh sa hoc thm ch xy ra sai st ln khi mt nhn vin hin
trng dn nhn sai cho cc kin hng lm cho 02 l hng c chuyn
nhm n 02 sn bay nc n khc v hu qu l hng n tay ngi nhn
tr trong khi chi ph pht sinh rt ln chuyn tr 02 l hng v ng sn
bay n ca n
4.5.2.7 V yu t phc v nhanh chng ng hn (Yu t 15)
Bng 4.5 cho thy: 9.10% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 70.70% khch
hng nh gi cao, 20.20% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t 3.89. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 0.53 cho
thy khch hng kh hi lng vi yu t ny.
c im ca giao nhn hng khng l mi cng vic u din ra rt
nhanh chng gp rt. Do tnh cht gp ca hng ha vn chuyn bng ng
hng khng, mt l hng c th pht sinh v c x l rt nhanh kp thi
gian ct hng ca chuyn bay, thng my bay hnh khch i hi hng phi

- 66 -

c x l xong trc 2,5-03 ting trc gi ct cnh, i vi my bay


chuyn ch hng ha x l hng phi thc hin xong trc 4 ting.
Vic phc v khch hng nhanh chng c thc hin tt c cc b
phn: t khu bo gi, hng dn khch hng ca b phn bn hng, cung cp
lch bay cho khch hng khu t gi ch, n vic cung cp chng t b
phn chng tHin trng l khu quyt nh trong vic x l hng ha
sn bay v theo kin ca nhiu khch hng hin trng ca Vinalink c
nh gi tt. Mc d lun v tr so vi cc b phn khc v phi c mt ngay
c vo ban m nu khch hng ra hng mun nhng khch hng vn nhn
c s phc v chu o t cc nhn vin hin trng.
4.5.3 V nhn t tn tm
Bng 4.6: Tng hp mc hi lng khch hng v tm quan trng i
vi nhn t tn tm
S

Mc hi lng

th
t

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

Yu t

TB

TB

TB

im

tm

chnh

(1)

quan

lch

trng(2)

(3)
=(1)-(2)

16
17
18

Lch s, nh nhn
Tn tm vi cc
yu cu
Gip khch
hng
tn tm

0.00
0.00

0.00
1.00

1.00
10.10

66.70
58.60

32.30
30.30

4.31
4.18

4.33
4.33

0.02
0.15

0.00

0.00

7.10

57.60

35.40

4.28

4.25

-0.03

0.00

0.33

6.07

60.97

32.67

4.26

4.30

0.05

4.5.3.1 V yu t Lch s nh nhn (Yu t 16)


Bng 4.6 cho thy: 32.30% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 66.70% khch
hng nh gi cao, 1.00% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t rt cao 4.31. Trung bnh chnh
lch gia im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng

- 67 -

t 0.02 cho thy Vinalink p ng c rt tt mong mun ca khch


hng v yu t ny.
4.5.3.2 Tn tm vi nhng yu cu ca khch hng (Yu t 17)
Bng 4.6 cho thy: 30.30% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 58.60% khch
hng nh gi cao, 10.10% nh gi trung bnh v 1.00% nh gi thp
yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t 4.18. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 0.15 cho
thy Vinalink p ng c tt mong mun ca khch hng v yu t
ny.
4.5.3.3 Gip khch hng (Yu t 18)
Bng 4.6 cho thy: 35.40% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 57.60% khch
hng nh gi cao, 7.10% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t rt cao 4.28. Trung bnh chnh
lch gia im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng
t -0.03 cho thy Vinalink p ng c vt mc so vi mong mun
ca khch hng v yu t ny.
4.5.4 V nhn t hu hnh
Bng 4.7: Tng hp mc hi lng khch hng v tm quan trng i
vi nhn t hu hnh
S

Mc hi lng

th
t

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

Yu t

TB

TB

TB

im

tm

chnh

(1)

quan

lch

trng(2)

(3)
=(1)-(2)

19
20
21

C s vt cht
Cng ngh
Thng hiu
hu hnh

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
5.10
0.00

4.00
50.50
36.40

49.50
42.40
53.50

46.50
2.00
10.10

4.42
3.41
3.74

4.52
4.33
4.48

0.10
0.92
0.74

0.00

1.70

30.30

48.47

19.53

3.86

4.44

0.59

- 68 -

4.5.4.1 V yu t c s vt cht (Yu t 19)


Bng 4.7 cho thy: 46.50% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 49.50% khch
hng nh gi cao, 4.00% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng t rt cao 4.42. Trung bnh chnh
lch gia im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng
t 0.10 cho thy Vinalink p ng tt yu cu ca khch hng i vi
yu t ny.
Con s phn nh ng thc t Vinalink c c s vt cht tt bao gm:
+ Khu vn phng lm vic vi din tch 2.700 m2 ti 145 147 Nguyn
Tt Thnh, Qun 4, Thnh ph H Ch Minh.
+ Vn phng giao nhn hng hng khng ti 44 Trng Sn, qun Tn
Bnh, TP.HCM.
+Vn phng Chi nhnh cng ty ti H Ni , Hi Phng; Vn phng giao
nhn ti Bnh Dng ( Khu cng nghip Vit Nam - Singapore).
+ Khu kho bi vi din tch 14.000 m2 trong kho kn rng 10.000 m2
v kho ngoi quan rng 1,000 m2 (cn c th m rng thm)
+ i xe nng phc v bc d hng ti kho
+ i xe container v xe ti nh vn chuyn hng ha.
4.5.4.2 V yu t cng ngh (Yu t 20)
Bng 4.7 cho thy: 2.00% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 42.40% khch
hng nh gi cao, 50.50% nh gi trung bnh v 5.10% nh gi thp
yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng 3.41. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 0.92 cho
thy khch hng cha hi lng i vi yu t ny.
Thc t cho thy c nhiu vn v cng ngh cn c ci thin [8]:

- 69 -

Phn mm ang c s dng trong hot ng thng ngy nhp d


liu cc l hng v in chng t thng gp trc trc dn n mt thng
tin v chm tr trong vic pht hnh vn n. Hn na, phn mm
khng c tnh cht qun l v lnh o cng ty khng th kim sot bao
qut c hot ng ca tt c cc b phn, li l ca tng l hng
thng qua phn mm qun l ny.
Trang web cng ty hnh thc khng cun ht, chuyn nghip v thng
tin cung cp cho khch hng cn rt hn ch.
H thng mng internet, email vn thng b gin on dn n tnh
trng thng tin b tt nghn lm chm tr qu trnh x l hng ha.
4.5.4.3 V yu t thng hiu (Yu t 21)
Bng 4.7 cho thy: 10.10% khch hng nh gi rt cao, 53.50% khch
hng nh gi cao, 36.40% nh gi trung bnh yu t ny.
Mc hi lng ca khch hng 3.74. Trung bnh chnh lch gia
im s tm quan trng v im s hi lng ca khch hng 0.74 cho
thy khch hng tng i hi lng vi yu t ny.
Vinalink c bnh chn Thng hiu mnh 2006 trn website
www.thuonghieuviet.com.vn. Ngy 19/10/2008 ti khch sn Melia ( H
Ni) Cng ty Vinalink l 1 trong 35 ngn hng v cng ty c phn cha nim
yt c nhn Gii thng - Cp vng "Cng ty c phn hng u Vit nam
" nm 2008. L trao gii c t chc vi s tham d ca i din
lnh o Quc hi, Chnh ph, B ti chnh, Ngn Hng Nh Nc Vit Nam,
y Ban Chng Khon Nh Nc...v c truyn hnh trc tip trn VTV1.
Gii thng ni trn do Hip hi Chng khon Vit Nam, Tp ch Chng
Khon - y Ban Chng Khon Nh Nc, Trung tm thng tin tn dng
Ngn Hng Nh Nc Vit Nam v mt s c quan chc nng khc phi hp
t chc. y l 02 s kin ni bt thng hiu Vinalink to c uy tn

- 70 -

trn th trng tuy nhin vn khng nhiu khch hng bit n 02 s kin ny.
Thc t, thng hiu Vinalink c bit n nhiu trong ngnh giao nhn
nhng vn cha c ph bin rng ri i vi nhng khch hng ngoi
ngnh do thiu s qung b thng hiu trn cc phng tin truyn thng.
4.6 nh hng ca cc bin nh tnh n cc yu t nm trong vng II
v vng III Khu vc cn ci tin ca Ma trn nh gi mc tha
mn v tm quan trng (Hnh 4.4)
4.6.1 nh hng ca bin nh tnh Loi hnh cng ty n cc yu t cn
ci tin ca Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan trng (Hnh
4.4)
T kt qu kim nh Independent-samples T-test Ph lc 7 ta thy
c 5 yu t c s khc bit c ngha v mc hi lng gia 02 nhm
khch hng Cng ty sn xut v Cng ty thng mi.
Yu t 10 gii quyt vn / khiu ni, Yu t 14 Lu khng
xy ra sai st v Yu t 13 Chu o ma cao im c gi tr Sig trong kim
nh Levene nh hn 0.05. Kt qu kim nh t phn Equal Variances not
assumed c Sig nh hn 0.05 nn ta kt lun c s khc bit c ngha v
mc hi lng gia 02 nhm khch hng Cng ty sn xut v Cng ty
thng mi.
Yu t 9 - Cung cp chng t nhanh chng chnh xc v Yu t 3 Ph
dch v cnh tranh c gi tr Sig trong kim nh Levene ln hn 0.05. Kt
qu kim nh t phn Equal Variances assumed c Sig nh hn 0.05 nn ta
kt lun c s khc bit c ngha v mc hi lng gia 02 nhm khch
hng Cng ty sn xut v Cng ty thng mi.
Kt qu cho thy cc Cng ty sn xut c yu cu cao hn v tnh
chuyn nghip ca Vinalink so vi cc Cng ty thng mi. Cc Cng ty sn

- 71 -

xut cng c yu cu cao hn v mc cnh tranh ca ph dch v ca


Vinalink so vi cc Cng ty thng mi.
4.6.2 nh hng ca bin nh tnh Mc trng lng n cc yu t cn
ci tin ca Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan trng (Hnh
4.4)
T kt qu kim nh One way ANOVA Ph lc 8a ta thy ch c
yu t 03 Mc cnh tranh ca ph dch v c Sig nh hn 0.05. Ta kt
lun c s khc bit c ngha v mc hi lng gia cc nhm khch hng
gi hng cc mc trng lng <= 100kgs, 101-500kgs, > 500kgs v tt c
cc mc trn.
Kt qu cho thy Vinalink p ng tt hn v ph dch v cho cc l
hng c trng lng ln hn 100kgs. i vi cc l hng t 100kgs tr xung
ph dch v ca Vinalink khng cnh tranh cha p ng c yu cu ca
khch hng.
4.6.3 nh hng ca bin Mc thng xuyn n cc yu t cn ci
tin ca Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan trng (Hnh
4.4) T kt qu kim nh One way ANOVA Ph lc 8b ta thy c 11 yu
t cn ci tin nm trong Vng II v Vng III ca Hnh 4.4 u c Sig nh
hn 0.05. Ta kt lun c s khc bit c ngha v mc hi lng gia cc
nhm khch hng c Mc thng xuyn i hng khc nhau: hng ngy,
mi tun, mi thng v lu hn na.
Kt qu kim nh cho thy nhng khch hng thng xuyn i hng
qua Vinalink c mc hi lng cao hn i vi cc yu t dch v ca
Vinalink so vi nhng khch hng t thng xuyn i hng.

- 72 -

4.6.4 nh hng ca bin Ni n i vi cc yu t cn ci tin ca Ma


trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan trng (Hnh 4.4)
T kt qu kim nh One way ANOVA Ph lc 8c ta thy ch c
Yu t 21- Thng hiu c Sig nh hn 0.05. Ta kt lun c s khc bit c
ngha v mc hi lng gia cc nhm khch hng i hng n cc khu vc
Chu / Chu c, Chu u/ Chu M/ Chu Phi v c hai i vi yu t
thng hiu.
Kt qu kim nh cho thy nhng khch hng c hng i n cc khu
vc xa nh gi thng hiu ca cng ty cao hn nhng khch hng ch i
n cc khu vc gn.

- 73 -

CHNG 5: GII PHP V KT LUN


Trn c s kt qu v bin lun Chng 4, Chng 5 s xut mt
s gii php nhm khc phc cc im hn ch nng cao mc hi lng
khch hng s dng dch v giao nhn hng khng ti cng ty Vinalink.
Gii php c a ra mt cch c chn lc v c th t u tin c
chia thnh 02 nhm da trn Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm quan
trng (Hnh 4.4) v kh nng v ngun lc ca cng ty. 11 yu t c a ra
gii php di y cng bao gm 10 yu t t c khch hng hi lng nht
v 10 yu t c khong cch ln nht gia im s tm quan trng v im s
hi lng c phn tch mc 4.2 v 4.3.
5.1 Nhm gii php u tin 1
Gc phn t III ca Hnh 4.4 l khu vc cn ci tin, cc ci tin cho
khu vc ny cn c u tin. Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm
quan trng cho thy c 06 yu t cn c u tin ci tin. Vic ci tin s
c u tin cho cc yu t i hi t hn v mt ti chnh v thi gian
thc hin c sp xp theo th t u tin di y:
5.1.1 V vic cung cp chng t nhanh chng chnh xc (Yu t 9)
tha mn hn mong mun ca khch hng v vic cung cp chng
t nhanh chng chnh xc cn tp trung mt s gii php sau:
- Thc hin ng quy nh v thi hn giao chng t cho khch hng theo
ISO theo Hawb nhp phi c nhn vin chng t fax hoc gi bng
email cho khch hng trong vng 04 gi lm vic k t khi nhn c chi tit.
Hawb hon chnh phi c gi cho khch hng trong vng 01 gi lm vic
k t khi hin trng bo s kg thc t c cn o ti kho hng. 100%
vn n phi c nhn vin m bo k xc nhn kim tra v s ph hp v
giao cho khch hng ng thi hn qui nh.

- 74 -

- C nhn vin chuyn chu trch nhim ly mawb t cc hng hng khng
trnh tnh trng chm tr, nhn vin hin trng bn lm hng khng c thi
gian i ly mawb.
- Quy nh nhn vin hin trng c trch nhim fax v gi t khai gc cho
khch hng ngay sau khi lm hng v thc xut t khai nhm khc phc
tnh trng khch hng yu cu nhn vin chng t nhng nhn vin hin
trng khng cung cp t khai kp thi do ang bn ngoi hoc i nhc
nh nhiu ln mi cung cp.
- B phn bn hng v chng t thc hin cung cp chng t thanh ton cho
b phn k ton ngay 01 ngy sau khi hng bay m bo vic cung cp ha
n cho khch hng c nhanh chng trnh tnh trng khch hng yu cu
nhng b phn k ton khng h hay bit v l hng.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.1, nhm khch hng cng ty sn xut c yu cu
cao hn v nhanh chng chnh xc ca cc chng t cung cp, v vy cn
u tin lm hi lng hn nhm khch hng ny.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.3, cc gii php cn c u tin hn cho nhm
khch hng i hng mc t thng xuyn mi thng v lu hn na.
5.1.2 V mc tiu khng sai st (Yu t 14)
t c mc tiu khng sai st, cn ph bin v nghim tc thc
hin cc quy nh ca ISO nh sau:
- 100% qu trnh nghip v ca cc b phn phi c kim sot bi lnh o
cng ty, lnh o phng, trng b phn v cc nhn vin nghip v.
- 100% chng t giao nhn vn chuyn phi c nhn vin nghip v cc b
phn lin quan k xc nhn kim tra
- Hn ch cc sai st c pht sinh chi ph mc khng qu 03 v/ nm/
phng
- Mt li nghip v khng c lp li qu 02 ln mt nhn vin.

- 75 -

- 100% nhn vin cc phng ban phi am tng nghip v, thu hiu chnh
sch cht lng, mc tiu cht lng c ban hnh v c th ha nhng
iu hiu bit qua hot ng nghip v.
- Nhn vin bn hng cn c hng dn c th i vi cc b phn khc
cc yu cu ca khch hng c p ng y v chnh xc.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.1, nhm khch hng cng ty sn xut c yu cu
cao hn v yu t ny v vy cn u tin lm hi lng hn nhm khch hng
ny.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.3, cc gii php cn c u tin hn cho nhm
khch hng i hng mc t thng xuyn mi thng v lu hn na.
5.1.3 Dch v c thc hin ng nh tha thun/ gii thiu (Yu t
7) v Gii quyt vn / khiu ni (Yu t 10)
- Lnh o phng v ban QA (ban m bo cht lng) kim sot thc
hin nghim tc quy nh ca ISO t c mc tiu cht lng: hn ch
cc phn nn ca khch hng mc khng qu 8 ln/ nm/ phng.
- X l tc thi khi c s khng ph hp xy ra: Khi c s khng ph hp
xy ra, Trng phng ban, cc b phn v nhn vin c lin quan phi thc
hin ngay vic x l c th cc s khng ph hp ny. C th nh sau:
Nu chng t khng ph hp th phi:
Chnh sa hoc lp li chng t mi sau khi kim tra xc nhn s
ph hp
Nu chng t lp sai c gi i th phi lin h vi i l giao
hng chnh sa.
Nu s khng ph hp xut pht t li nghip v ca cc nhn vin th
phi x l k thut ngay s khng ph hp v bo co cho trng
phng ban

- 76 -

Nu s khng ph hp xut pht t vic phi hp khng ng b gia


cc b phn trong mt phng ban hay gia cc phng ban khc nhau th
phi hp cc b phn hay cc phng ban lin quan cng gii quyt,
khc phc.
Nu s khng ph hp xut pht t ngi cung ng th nhn vin chu
trch nhim mua thu dch v tin hnh:
Khiu ni ngi ny v yu cu tin hnh khc phc
Yu cu bi thng (nu cn thit)
Bo co cho trng phng
Nu s khng ph hp do cc nhn vin nghip v t pht hin v c
th ch ng khc phc trong quyn hn ca mnh th tin hnh ngay
hnh ng khc phc.
i vi cc vng mc, than phin nh ca khch hng th trng
phng hay ngi c y quyn chu trch nhim x l v gii quyt
dt im ngay khi nhn c thng tin ca cp di.
- Sau khi xc nh c nhm nguyn nhn ca s khng ph hp v khng
ph hp tim n, Trng phng ban, cc b phn v nhn vin c lin quan
phi thc hin ngay cc hnh ng khc phc phng nga cn thit tng
ng nhm loi b nguyn nhn ca s khng ph hp ngn chn s ti
din v ngn chn s khng ph hp tim n xut hin, qua thc hin mc
tiu hn ch phn nn v ci tin thng xuyn. C th nh sau:
Nhm 1: Thc hin o to hay o to li cho nhn vin h nm
vng qui trnh nghip v, phn phi ti liu hng dn n cc b phn
cn thit.
Nhm 2: B tr li nhn lc, b sung, thay th, thuyn chuyn nhn
vin cho ph hp vi cng vic.

- 77 -

Nhm 3: Xem xt li hp ng, kh nng cung cp sn phm/ dch v


ca ngi cung ng, tin ti chnh sa hp ng v nu cn th hy hp
ng xem xt, tm chn ngi cung ng mi.
Nhm 4: Tin hnh cc hnh ng khc phc - phng nga ty tng
nguyn nhn c th.
- Thc hin vic o to nhn vin v tm quan trng ca gii quyt cc khiu
ni/ phn nn ca khch hng. Cc vn pht sinh l khng th trnh khi
trong hot ng thng ngy ca cng ty, vn l chng c gii quyt
nh th no. Gii quyt cc khiu ni/ phn nn ca khch hng mt cch
tha ng s lm cho khch hng ngy cng gn b vi cng ty.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.1, nhm khch hng cng ty sn xut c yu cu
cao hn v gii quyt khiu ni/ phn nn v vy cn u tin lm hi lng hn
nhm khch hng ny.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.3, cc gii php cn c u tin hn cho nhm
khch hng i hng mc t thng xuyn mi thng v lu hn na.
5.1.4 V mc cnh tranh ca ph dch v (Yu t 05)
tha mn hn mong mun ca khch hng v mc cnh tranh
ca ph dch v cn tp trung mt s gii php sau:
- Pht trin mng li vn phng min Trung v ng Nai cung cp
c dch v gi c cnh tranh ti cc khu vc ny trnh tnh trng phi mua
li dch v t cc cng ty giao nhn khc, khng cung cp c gi dch v
tt lm mt khch hng. trnh vic phn tn vn v nhn lc c th tnh
n phng n gp vn mc chi phi hoc mua li cng ty c sn trin
khai hot ng di thng hiu Vinalink.
- Tuyn dng v o to nhn vin hin trng trnh tnh trng thiu nhn
vin hin trng thc hin dch v cho cc lung hng i hi gi dch v
cnh tranh.

- 78 -

- C chnh sch gi linh hot hn i vi cc khch hng nhy cm v gi


dch v c c mi quan h cho cc mng khc nh bn cc hng xut,
hng nhp, chuyn pht nhanh
- Pht trin tm kim cc lung hng khch hng php nhn ln thin v cht
lng dch v tt hn l gi c dch v. Hn ch t trng cc khch hng c
nhn v hng co-load (hng t cc cng ty giao nhn khc) vn rt nhy cm
vi gi c dch v. Cn u t c s vt cht kho bi, phng tin cho bn
dch v tham gia u thu cho cc d n ln, cc khch hng ln cng vi
mc hi nhp nhanh ca nn kinh t cc c hi dch v ln s xut hin
nhiu hn.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.1, nhm khch hng cng ty sn xut c yu cu
cao hn v yu t ny v vy cn c chnh sch ph dch v cnh tranh hn
cho nhm khch hng ny.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.2, cn c chnh sch ph dch v tt hn cho nhm
khch hng i hng mc trng lng nh (t 100kgs tr xung).
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.3, cn c chnh sch ph dch v cnh tranh hn
cho nhm khch hng i hng mc t thng xuyn mi thng v lu
hn na.
5.1.5 V cht lng i l (Yu t 06)
- Tip tc tm kim pht trin mng li i l la chn cc i l c cht
lng tt nht cc chu lc.
- C i ng chuyn vin chuyn lm cng tc i ngoi pht trin h thng
i l. T chc ving thm, k kt hp ng tha thun cc u i v gi c,
dch v, c im ca cc lung hng vi i l.
- Pht trin cc lung hng ch nh cho i l v gi Sales lead (cc ch nh
sales hng) cho i l yu cu s hp tc tm kim khch hng t i l to
c s cho mi quan h bn vng cng c li gia 02 bn.

- 79 -

* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.3, nhm khch hng i hng mc t thng


xuyn mi thng v lu hn na cn c lm hi lng hn v yu t
ny.
5.2 Nhm gii php u tin 2
Gc phn t II ca Hnh 4.4 l khu vc t cn ci tin, cc ci tin cho
khu vc ny c u tin thp hn. Ma trn nh gi mc tha mn v tm
quan trng cho thy c 05 yu t cn c ci tin. Vic ci tin s c u
tin cho cc yu t i hi t hn v mt ti chnh v thi gian thc hin
c sp xp theo th t u tin di y:
5.2.1 V thng bo vn pht sinh (Yu t 11)
- Thc hin tt vic kim tra tnh trng hng ha bng cch kim tra trn
website ca cc hng hng khng, gi in trc tip hi cc hng hng khng
tnh trng l hng hoc yu cu i l gi P.O.D (Proof of delivery) thng
bo cho khch hng bit hng ti ni v c giao cho khch hng hay
cha. Thc t cc nhn vin hu nh t ch ng kim tra v bo khch hng,
ch khi khch hng hi th nhn vin mi thc hin vic kim tra dn n tnh
trng nhiu l hng b rt chuyn bay chm tr rt lu so vi lch bay bo
vi khch nhng nhn vin cng khng hay bit.
- Cn b tr nhn vin chuyn thc hin cng vic kim tra tnh trng hng
ha.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.3, nhm khch hng i hng mc t thng
xuyn mi thng v lu hn na cn c ch trng lm hi lng hn v
yu t ny.
5.2.2 V tr li tha ng cc cu hi/ yu cu ca khch hng (Yu t
12)
- Thc hin qui nh v tiu chun o to, tuyn chn nhn s theo chc
danh cng vic, theo nhn vin kinh doanh, chng t, dch v khch hng

- 80 -

thc hnh tc nghip ti cc phng nghip v phi t trnh ti thiu v


o to nh sau:
t k thi tuyn chn nhn s vi cc yu cu sau:
Tt nghip cao ng cc ngnh kinh t/ thng mi/ qun tr kinh
doanh/ vn ti
S dng thnh tho ngoi ng Anh Vn (trnh B tr ln)
S dng thnh tho cc phn mm ng dng trong vn phng
Nm vng kin thc v nghip v giao nhn
- 100% cc nhn vin mi phi qua o to ni b cp phng do trng
phng/ ngi c y quyn thc hin m bo p ng cc yu cu cng
vic hng ngy.
- Nhng thng tin mi, kin thc mi phi c cung cp, cp nht cho cn
b nhn vin n np v kp thi.
- B tr nhn vin tham gia cc k thi ly bng IATA v kin thc giao
nhn hng khng, v x l hng nguy him, tham gia cc kha o to bn
ngoi b sung kin thc mi v giao nhn, khai quan
- Trc khi xc nhn vi khch hng, nhn vin phi kim tra k lng vi
cc nh cung ng dch v v kh nng c th p ng i vi cc yu cu ca
khch hng cho mi l hng trnh tnh trng c s thay i t nh cung ng
nhng khng c thng bo.
- Thc hin qui nh ca ISO, cc phng nghip v m bo khng cc
yu cu, thc mc v thng tin dch v ca khch hng lp li qu 2 ln m
cha c tr li tha ng.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.3, nhm khch hng i hng mc t thng
xuyn mi thng v lu hn na cn c lm hi lng hn v yu t
ny.

- 81 -

5.2.3 V phc v chu o ma cao im (Yu t 13)


- Tuyn dng v chun b nhn s trnh tnh trng qu ti vo ma cao
im, tng cng nhn s theo hng cc chc danh phi c ngi d b va
gim bt cng lm vic nhng chc danh qu ti, va c iu kin ch
ng i ph vic bin ng nhn s s cn tip tc din bin phc tp.
- Thc hin vic tr lng lm vic ngoi gi cho cc nhn vin, tin thng
cho nhn vin phi c tnh theo mc hon thnh k hoch nhn vin
c ng lc lm vic. Hin ti ch c nhn vin hin trng c chi tr
lng lm vic ngoi gi cn cc b phn khc vn cha c ch ny.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.1, nhm khch hng cng ty sn xut c yu cu
cao hn v yu t ny v vy cn c phc v chu o hn vo ma cao im
i vi nhm khch hng ny.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.3, cn phc v chu o hn vo ma cao im
cho nhm khch hng i hng mc t thng xuyn mi thng v lu
hn na.
5.2.4 V cng ngh (Yu t 20)
- Xy dng phn mm mi c tnh cht qun l s dng trong hot ng
thng ngy ca tt c cc b phn. Lnh o cng ty c th kim sot bao
qut c hot ng ca tt c cc b phn, li l ca tng l hng thng qua
phn mm qun l ny.
- H thng mng internet, email cn c ci tin m bo lun hot ng tt
24/24, hn ch ti thiu tnh trng thng tin b tt nghn nh hng xu n
vic x l hng ha.
- Trang b my tnh xch tay cc nhn vin kinh doanh c th ch ng
trong cng vic khi ra ngoi gp khch hng. Nhn vin s chu trch nhim
bo qun v c trch nhim hon tr cng ty khi c nh thay i cng vic.

- 82 -

- Trang b nhn vin c th s dng in thoi internet quc t lin h vi


i l d dng trong cc trng hp cn thng tin gp vi chi ph thp.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.3, nhm khch hng i hng mc t thng
xuyn mi thng v lu hn na cn c lm hi lng hn v yu t
ny.
5.2.5 V thng hiu (Yu t 21)
- Dnh chi ph cho vic gii thiu qung b thng hiu Vinalink trn cc tp
ch, trang web chuyn ngnh. Tp trung gii thiu cc dch v mi, ch lc
ca Vinalink to ra th mnh cnh tranh cho cc mng dch v c th.
- Nng cp trang web b sung nhiu thng tin hu ch cho khch hng, i
tc. Hnh thc trang web cn c ci thin li cun hn, chuyn nghip hn
to c n tng cho khch hng v thng hiu Vinalink.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.3, nhm khch hng i hng mc t thng
xuyn mi thng v lu hn na cn c gii thiu qung b nhiu hn
v dch v ca Vinalink.
* Theo phn tch mc 4.6.4, nhm khch hng i hng n nhng khu vc
gn Chu / Chu c cn c gii thiu qung b nhiu hn v dch v ca
Vinalink.
5.3 Kt lun
Trn c s l lun v dch v v hi lng khch hng trong dch v,
ti c thc hin bng phng php nghin cu nh tnh v nh lng
xy dng thang o cc yu t nh hng n mc hi lng ca khch hng
v dch v giao nhn hng khng, lm c s nh gi thc trng dch v
giao nhn hng khng ti cng ty Vinalink v xut cc gii php ci
thin s hi lng khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng ti cng ty.
Nghin cu nh tnh vi k thut tho lun tay i xc nh c
cc kha cnh nh hng n s hi lng khch hng v dch v giao nhn

- 83 -

hng khng l: (1) tin cy ca dch v; (2) Gi cc, ph dch v v s a


dng ca sn phm dch v; (3) Dch v khch hng; (4) Mng li vn
phng v i l; (5) Cc yu t hu hnh.
Trong nghin cu chnh thc bng phng php nh lng, tc gi s
dng bng cu hi iu tra khch hng v thng qua kim nh h s tin cy
Cronbach Alpha, phn tch nhn t khm ph EFA v phn tch hi quy tuyn
tnh bi kim nh v hnh thnh thang o chnh thc v s hi lng khch
hng gm 04 nhn t tc ng n s hi lng ca khch hng vi 21 bin
quan st: (1) p ng (08 bin); (2) chuyn nghip (07 bin); (3)
tn tm (03 bin); (4) hu hnh (03 bin). Kt qu kho st mc hi
lng khch hng, tm quan trng ca cc yu t cng vi thang o chnh thc
c s dng nh gi thc trng mc hi lng ca khch hng v
xut cc gii php da trn c s l thuyt m hnh o lng tha mn khch
hng trong dch v. Kim nh Independent-samples T-test v kim nh One
way ANOVA cng c s dng xem xt nh hng ca cc bin nh
tnh n cc yu t cn ci tin h tr cho vic a ra cc gii php hiu
qu.
Kt qu phn tch nh gi cho thy cc yu t u tin 1 Vinalink cn
ci tin l: Cung cp chng t nhanh chng chnh xc, Mc tiu khng sai st,
Dch v c thc hin ng nh tha thun/ gii thiu, Gii quyt vn /
khiu ni, Mc cnh tranh ca ph dch v, Cht lng i l. Cc yu t
ci tin u tin 2 l Thng bo vn pht sinh, Tr li tha ng cc cu
hi/ yu cu ca khch hng, Phc v chu o ma cao im, Cng ngh v
Thng hiu. T vic xc nh r cc vn hn ch nh hng n s hi
lng khch hng, tc gi xut mt s gii php thit thc cho vic ci thin
mc hi lng khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng ti cng ty
Vinalink.

- 84 -

Do hn ch v chi ph, thi gian, kh nng tip cn khch hng nn


kch thc mu iu tra ca ti cha ln. Mu nu c chn theo phng
php chn mu xc sut thay v chn mu thun tin th tnh i din v kh
nng tng qut ha s cao hn. Nghin cu ch c thc hin i vi cc
khch hng ca Vinalink thuc vng kinh t trng im pha Nam: Thnh Ph
H Ch Minh, Bnh Dng, ng Nai, nu nghin cu c thc hin ti cc
thnh ph v tnh thnh khc na v c thc hin o lng mc hi
lng cho c h thng vn phng ca Vinalink min bc th tnh khi qut
ha s cao hn. Hn na, nghin cu ch c thc hin cho mng hng xut
ca Vinalink m khng cp n cc mng dch v khc nh hng nhp,
pht chuyn nhanh, dch v h tr nn cha khi qut c ht dch v giao
nhn hng khng ca Vinalink.
Mc khc, do s mong i ca khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng
khng lun thay i theo khuynh hng ngy cng cao hn, kt qu nghin
cu ca ti ch c gi tr thi im hin ti. Cng tc nghin cu cn
c tin hnh thng xuyn nm bt nhu cu ca khch hng v kp thi
ci tin phc v khch hng ngy cng tt hn.

TI LIU THAM KHO


Ting Vit
1. Cng ty T vn Gii php Qun l Nng sut Cht lng (2007), o
lng tha mn khch hng, H Ni.
2. Khnh Duy (2007), Phn tch nhn t khm ph (Exploratory Factor
Analysis) bng SPSS, Chng trnh ging dy kinh t Fullbright, Hc k
thu nm 2007, tr. 09.
3. c Hong (7/2006), Dch v logistics: yu ton din!, Thi Bo Kinh
T Si Gn.
http://www.vienkinhte.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/xemtin.asp?idcha=3439&ca
p=4&id=3551
4. Nguyn nh Th - Nguyn Th Mai Trang (2007), Nghin cu th trng,
NXB i Hc Quc Gia TP. H Ch Minh.
5. Nguyn nh Th (2003), o lng cht lng dch v vui chi gii tr
ngoi tri ti TP. H Ch Minh, MS: CS2003-19.
6. Hong Trng (1999), Phn tch d liu a bin ng dng trong kinh t v
kinh doanh, NXB Thng K.
7. Hong Trng Chu Nguyn Mng Ngc (2005), Phn tch d liu nghin
cu vi SPSS, NXB Thng K.
8. Ti liu ni b: Bo co tng kt hot ng ca Vinalink nm 2006, 2007
9. Ti liu ni b ISO ca Vinalink
10. http://orc.com.vn/docs/TuVanXNK/GN_HangKhong.html
11. http://www.vinalink.com.vn

Ting Anh
12. Air Cargo World (2003) What Do Shippers Think? - Industry Trends
and Issues in Intercontinental Air Freight,.
http://www.aircargoworld.com/features/1003_2.htm
13. Dr. Arash Shahin, SERVQUAL and Model of Service Quality Gaps: A
Framework for Determining and Prioritizing Critical Factors in
Delivering Quality Services, Department of Management, University of
Isfahan, Iran
14. ASI Quality Systems (1992), Quality function deployment Practitioner
workshop, American Supplier Institute Inc., USA.
15. Curry, A. (1999), "Innovation in public service management", Managing
Service Quality, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 180-190.
16. Gabbie, O. and O'Neill, M.A. (1996), SERVQUAL and the northern
Ireland hotel sector: A comparative analysis Part 1, Managing Service
Quality, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 25-32.
17. Hair & ctg (1998, 111), Multivariate Data Analysis, Prentice-Hall
International, Inc.
18. IATA (2000), International Cargo Agents, Aviation Training and
Development Institute.
19. Luk, Sh.T.K. and Layton, R. (2002), "Perception Gaps in customer
expectations: Managers versus service providers and customers, The
service Industries Journal, Vol.22. No. 2, April, pp. 109-128.
20. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1985), "A conceptual
model of service quality and its implication", Journal of Marketing, Vol.
49, Fall, pp. 41-50.
21. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1986), "SERVQUAL:
a multiple-item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service

quality", Report No. 86-108, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge,


MA.
22. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1988), "SERVQUAL:
a multi-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of the service
quality", Journal of Retailing , Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 12-40.
23. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1991), "Refinement
and reassessment of the SERVQUAL scale|", Journal of Retailing, Vol.
67, pp. 420-450.
24. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1993), "Research note:
more on improving service quality measurement", Journal of Retailing,
Vol. 69, No. 1, pp. 140-147.
25. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1994), "Reassessment
of expectations as a comparison standard in measuring service quality:
implications for future research", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, pp. 111124.
26. Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong (1999), Principles of Marketing, PrenticeHall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA, pp. 238; 258-260.
27. Richard Elvins (1993), A simple random sampling technique: 03 case
studies, Department of the Treasury, Victory.
28.http://www.nbrii.com/Customer_Surveys/Customer_Satisfaction.pdf
29.http://www.netregistry.com.au/news/articles/194/1/CustomerSatisfaction/Page1.html
30.http://www.aboutsurveys.com/how-to-measure-customer-satisfactionsatisfaction-measurement-and-theory/
31.http://www.theacsi.org/
32.http://www.qualitydigest.com/sept00/html/satisfaction.html

-1-

PH LC 2: NI DUNG THO LUN ( nghin cu nh tnh)


Xin cho anh/ ch.
Chng ti ang tin hnh kho st mc hi lng ca khch hng v
dch v giao nhn hng khng ti cng ty C Phn Giao Nhn Vn Ti v
Thng Mi VINALINK. Chng ti rt mong nhn c kin v nhn xt
ca cc anh/ ch v cc yu t nh hng n mc hi lng ca khch
hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng theo ni dung di y.
Nhng ng gp ca anh/ ch khng c quan im no l ng hay sai.
Tt c u l nhng thng tin rt qu bu gip chng ti hon thin cc hot
ng, phc v khch hng mt cch tt nht. Xin chn thnh cm n.
I. Theo quan im ca anh/ ch khi ni n s hi lng ca khch hng v
dch v giao nhn hng khng th nhng yu t no l quan trng? V sao?
(Khng gi )
II. Xin anh/ ch cho kin nhng im cn b sung/ chnh sa/ loi b i vi
gi di y ca chng ti v nhng yu t nh hng n mc hi lng
ca khch hng v dch v giao nhn hng khng.

tin cy ca dch v (Service reliability)


1. Khi cng ty ha phn hi vic g vo thi gian no th cng ty s
lm nh vy
2. Dch v c thc hin ng nh tha thun/ gii thiu
3. Hng c giao n ni ng lch
4. Gii quyt tha ng vn pht sinh/ khiu ni phn nn ca khch hng
5. Thng bo khch hng ngay khi c s thay i hay kh khn pht sinh
trong ni dung phc v nh: lch bay, l trnh i ca hng, thng quan
6. Cng ty lu khng xy ra sai st

-2-

Gi cc (Rates)
1. Mc gi ca cng ty a ra ph hp vi cht lng dch v
2. Gi cc ca cng ty cnh tranh so vi cc cng ty khc
3. Gi cc ca cng ty a ra ph hp vi mong i
4. Cng ty c hp ng gi vi nhiu hng hng khng
5. Cng ty c kh nng thng lng vi cc hng hng khng c gi tt
6. Cng ty c chnh sch gi tt cho khch hng
Thi gian vn chuyn (Transit time)
1. Thi gian hng n ng theo lch trnh
2. Mc chm tr ca hng nu c khng gy nhiu kh khn cho khch
hng
Dch v khch hng (Customer service)
1. Nhn vin lun phc v nhanh chng, ng hn
2. Nhn vin lun sn sng gip khch hng
3. Nhn vin lun phc v chu o ngay c trong ma cao im
4. Nhn vin lun t ra lch s, nh nhn
5. Nhn vin tr li tha ng cc cu hi/ yu cu ca khch hng
6. Nhn vin cung cp chng t nhanh chng, chnh xc
7. Nhn vin c nng lc chuyn mn tt
8. Thi ca nhn vin hp tc v tn tm trc nhng yu cu ca khch
hng
Mng li vn phng v i l (Network coverage)
1. Cng ty c mng li vn phng v i l rng khp p ng nhu cu vn
chuyn hng ha
2. Cng ty c mi quan h tt v tin cy vi h thng i l
3. H thng i l cung cp cht lng dch v tt
4. H thng i l cung cp gi tt

-3-

5. H thng i l lun c phn hi nhanh


Cng ngh (Technology)
1. Cng ty c cng ngh hin i v lun c nhng ci tin v cng ngh
(my mc, trang thit b, phn mm, quy trnh, internet)
2. C s vt cht ca cng ty (i ng xe, nh kho, phng tin lm hng )
phc v tt cho nhu cu ca khch hng
III. Trong cc yu t ny, anh/ ch cho cc yu t no l quan trng nht/ nh/
ba/ khng quan trng t no? V sao?
IV. Anh/ ch cn thy yu t no khc m anh/ ch cho l quan trng na
khng? V sao?
Xin chn thnh cm n cc anh/ ch dnh thi gian tham gia kho st ca
chng ti.

PH LC 3: BNG CU HI IU TRA
Xin cho anh/ ch.
Nhm mc ch nng cao s hi lng ca khch hng v dch v giao
nhn hng khng ti cng ty C Phn Giao Nhn Vn Ti v Thng Mi
VINALINK, chng ti ang tin hnh kho st mc hi lng ca khch
hng tm hiu nhng mong mun ca khch hng v nhng im mnh,
im yu trong hot ng ca cng ty.
Xin anh/ ch vui lng dnh t thi gian tr li gip chng ti mt s cu
hi sau bng cch khoanh trn s im m anh/ ch nh gi. Khng c cu
tr li no l ng hay sai. Tt c cu tr li ca cc anh/ ch u c gi tr i
vi nghin cu ca chng ti.
Hng dn tr li:
Mc quan trng ca yu t

nh gi v dch v ca VINALINK

Hon ton khng quan trng

Hon ton khng ng

Khng quan trng

Khng ng

Tng i quan trng

C th ng

Quan trng

ng

Rt quan trng

Hon ton ng

Mc quan

Yu t

nh gi v

trng ca yu

dch v ca

VINALINK

1 2 3 4 5

01. Cch b tr, trang tr phng c, t chc gia cc 1 2 3 4 5


b phn, trang phc nhn vin to c n tng
v hnh nh ca cng ty

1 2 3 4 5

02. C s vt cht ca cng ty (i ng xe, nh kho, 1 2 3 4 5


phng tin lm hng ) phc v tt cho nhu cu

ca khch hng
1 2 3 4 5

03. Cng ty c mng li vn phng v i l rng 1 2 3 4


khp p ng nhu cu vn chuyn hng ha

1 2 3 4 5

04. Cng ty c mi quan h tt v tin cy vi h 1 2 3 4


thng i l

1 2 3 4 5

05. Cng ty c thi gian lm vic thun tin

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

06. Cng ty c cng ngh hin i v lun c nhng 1 2 3 4 5


ci tin v cng ngh (my mc, trang thit b,
phn mm, quy trnh, internet)

1 2 3 4 5

07. Cng ty lu khng xy ra sai st

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

08. Gi cc ca cng ty cnh tranh so vi cc cng 1 2 3 4 5


ty khc

1 2 3 4 5

09. H thng i l cung cp cht lng dch v tt

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 5

10. Khi c vn pht sinh/ khiu ni, ti c gii 1 2 3 4 5


quyt tha ng

1 2 3 4 5

11. Khi cng ty ha phn hi vic g vo thi gian 1 2 3 4 5


no th cng ty s lm nh vy

1 2 3 4 5

12. Mc ph dch v ca cng ty cnh tranh so vi cc 1 2 3 4 5


cng ty khc

1 2 3 4 5

13. Nhn vin c nng lc chuyn mn tt

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 5

14. Nhn vin cung cp chng t nhanh chng, chnh 1 2 3 4


xc

1 2 3 4 5

15. Nhn vin lun phc v chu o ngay c trong 1 2 3 4 5


ma cao im

1 2 3 4 5

16. Nhn vin lun t ra lch s, nh nhn

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

17. Nhn vin tr li tha ng cc cu hi/ yu cu 1 2 3 4 5


ca khch hng

1 2 3 4 5

18. Thi ca nhn vin hp tc v tn tm trc 1 2 3 4

nhng yu cu ca khch hng


1 2 3 4 5

19. Thng hiu Vinalink to c uy tn trn th 1 2 3 4 5


trng

1 2 3 4 5

20. Ti c thng bo ngay khi c s thay i hay 1 2 3 4 5


kh khn pht sinh trong ni dung phc v nh:
lch bay, l trnh i ca hng, thng quan

1 2 3 4 5

21. Ti thy dch v c thc hin ng nh tha 1 2 3 4 5


thun/ gii thiu

1 2 3 4 5

22. Ti thy hng c giao n ni ng lch

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

23. Ti thy sn phm dch v ca cng ty a dng

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

24. Ti thy nhn vin lun phc v nhanh chng, 1 2 3 4 5


ng hn

1 2 3 4 5

25. Ti thy nhn vin lun sn sng gip khch 1 2 3 4 5


hng

1 2 3 4 5

26. V tr ca vn phng cng ty thun tin cho vic 1 2 3 4 5


giao dch v x l hng ha
27. Tm li, ti hi lng v dch v giao nhn hng 1 2 3 4 5
khng ca Vinalink

28. Qu khch hng l: 1- Cng ty sn xut: 

2- Cng ty thng mi: 

29. Qu khch thng i hng mc trng lng no:


1- <=100kgs: 
cc mc trn: 

2- 101- 500kgs: 

3- > 500kgs: 

4- Tt c

30. Mc thng xuyn qu khch c hng qua Vinalink:


1- Hng ngy: 
2- Mi tun:  3- Mi thng: 
4- Lu hn na: 
31. Qu khch thng c hng i n khu vc:
1- Chu / Chu c: 
2- Chu u/ Chu M/ Chu Phi: 
Xin chn thnh cm n s hp tc ca anh/ ch.

3- C hai

-1-

PH LC 04: BNG M HA BIN


M

TN BIN

NI DUNG

BIN
c1

Phan hoi doi voi

Cng ty ha phn hi vic g vo thi gian

khach hang

no th cng ty s lm nh vy

Dich vu dung nhu

Dch v c thc hin ng nh tha

thoa thuan

thun/ gii thiu

c3

Hang den dung lich

Hng c giao n ni ng lch

c4

Giai quyet van de/

Gii quyt tha ng vn pht sinh/ khiu

khieu nai

ni

Thong bao van de

Thng bo khch hng ngay khi c s thay i

c2

c5

hay kh khn pht sinh


c6

Khong sai sot

Cng ty lu khng xy ra sai st

c7

San pham da dang

Sn phm dch v ca cng ty a dng d la


chn

c8

Cuoc canh tranh

Gi cc cnh tranh so vi cc cng ty khc

c9

Phi dich vu canh

Ph dch v ca cng ty cnh tranh so vi cc

tranh

cng ty khc

Phuc vu dung han

Nhn vin lun phc v nhanh chng, ng

c10

hn
c11

Giup do khach hang Nhn vin lun sn sng gip khch hng

c12

Chu dao mua cao

Nhn vin lun phc v chu o ngay c trong

diem

ma cao im

c13

Lich su nha nhan

Nhn vin lun t ra lch s, nh nhn

c14

Tra loi thoa dang

Nhn vin tr li tha ng cc cu hi/ yu

cac yeu cau

cu ca khch hng

-2-

c15

Cung cap chung tu

Nhn vin cung cp chng t nhanh chng,


chnh xc

c16

Chuyen mon tot

Nhn vin c nng lc chuyn mn tt

c17

Tan tam voi cac yeu Thi ca nhn vin hp tc v tn tm trc


cau

nhng yu cu ca khch hng

c18

Mang luoi dai ly

Mng li vn phng v i l rng khp

c19

Quan he dai ly

Mi quan h tt v tin cy vi h thng i l

c20

Chat luong dai ly

H thng i l cung cp cht lng dch v tt

c21

Cong nghe

Cng ty c cng ngh hin i v lun c


nhng ci tin v cng ngh

c22

Co so vat chat

C s vt cht ca cng ty

c23

Thoi gian lam viec

Thi gian lm vic thun tin

c24

Vi tri

V tr ca vn phng cng ty thun tin cho


vic giao dch v x l hng ha

c25

Phong oc

B tr phng c, t chc cc b phn, trang


phc nhn vin

c26

Thuong hieu

Thng hiu Vinalink to c uy tn trn th


trng

-1-

PH LC 5
KT QU PHN TCH NHN T KHM PH (EFA)
Factor Analysis
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling
Adequacy.
Bartlett's Test of
Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square
df
Sig.

.892
1492.878
300
.000

Total Variance Explained

Component
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Total
11.171
1.749
1.418
1.188
.986
.833
.795
.776
.679
.598
.583
.541
.483
.401
.380
.369
.359
.332
.293
.250
.221
.186
.171
.125
.113

Initial Eigenvalues
% of Variance Cumulative %
44.682
44.682
6.995
51.677
5.673
57.351
4.751
62.101
3.943
66.045
3.331
69.376
3.180
72.556
3.102
75.658
2.718
78.376
2.394
80.770
2.333
83.103
2.163
85.266
1.933
87.199
1.605
88.803
1.519
90.323
1.477
91.800
1.438
93.237
1.328
94.565
1.170
95.736
1.001
96.737
.885
97.622
.744
98.366
.683
99.048
.500
99.548
.452
100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings


Total
% of Variance Cumulative %
11.171
44.682
44.682
1.749
6.995
51.677
1.418
5.673
57.351
1.188
4.751
62.101

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings


Total
% of Variance Cumulative %
5.137
20.546
20.546
4.637
18.548
39.094
2.929
11.718
50.812
2.822
11.289
62.101

-2-

Component Matrixa

1
San pham da dang
Phi dich vu canh tranh
Chat luong dai ly
Dich vu dung nhu thoa
thuan
Phan hoi doi voi khach
hang
Thuong hieu
Khong sai sot
Phong oc
Cuoc canh tranh
Chu dao mua cao diem
Quan he dai ly
Cung cap chung tu
Hang den dung lich
Giup do khach hang
Tra loi thoa dang cac
yeu cau
Phuc vu dung han
Thong bao van de
Chuyen mon tot
Tan tam voi cac yeu cau
Mang luoi dai ly
Giai quyet van de/ khieu
nai
Thoi gian lam viec
Cong nghe
Co so vat chat
Lich su, nha nhan

Component
3

.780
.777
.772
.769
.719
.713
.712
.711
.700
.686
.681
.679
.677
.674
.673
.657
.646
.639
.632
.594
.580
.556
.534
.515
.527

.623

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.


a. 4 components extracted.

.561

-3-

Rotated Component Matrixa

1
Cuoc canh tranh
Quan he dai ly
Phi dich vu canh tranh
San pham da dang
Mang luoi dai ly
Dich vu dung nhu thoa
thuan
Chat luong dai ly
Chuyen mon tot
Hang den dung lich
Phan hoi doi voi khach
hang
Thoi gian lam viec
Cung cap chung tu
Giai quyet van de/ khieu
nai
Thong bao van de
Tra loi thoa dang cac
yeu cau
Chu dao mua cao diem
Khong sai sot
Phuc vu dung han
Co so vat chat
Cong nghe
Thuong hieu
Phong oc
Lich su, nha nhan
Tan tam voi cac yeu cau
Giup do khach hang

2
.743
.742
.675
.654
.650

Component
3

.522

.591
.588
.544

.775
.662
.658
.638

.508

.633
.571
.566

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.


Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
a. Rotation converged in 11 iterations.

.834
.792
.591
.793
.731
.624

-1-

PH LC 6
KT QU PHN TCH HI QUY BI
Regression
Variables Entered/Removedb
Model
1

Variables
Entered
Do tan
tam, Do
huu hinh,
Do chuyen
nghiep, Do
a
dap ung

Variables
Removed

Method

Enter

a. All requested variables entered.


b. Dependent Variable: HAI LONG KHACH HANG

Model Summaryb
Model
1

Adjusted
R Square
.555

R
R Square
.757a
.573

Std. Error of
the Estimate
.49553

a. Predictors: (Constant), Do tan tam, Do huu hinh, Do


chuyen nghiep, Do dap ung
b. Dependent Variable: HAI LONG KHACH HANG
ANOVAb
Model
1

Regression
Residual
Total

Sum of
Squares
30.938
23.082
54.020

df
4
94
98

Mean Square
7.735
.246

F
31.498

Sig.
.000a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Do tan tam, Do huu hinh, Do chuyen nghiep, Do dap ung
b. Dependent Variable: HAI LONG KHACH HANG
Coefficientsa

Model
1

(Constant)
Do dap ung
Do chuyen nghiep
Do huu hinh
Do tan tam

Unstandardized
Coefficients
B
Std. Error
3.859
.050
.339
.050
.306
.050
.222
.050
.241
.050

a. Dependent Variable: HAI LONG KHACH HANG

Standardized
Coefficients
Beta
.457
.412
.298
.324

t
77.477
6.781
6.107
4.426
4.809

Sig.
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000

-2-

Residuals Statisticsa
Predicted Value
Residual
Std. Predicted Value
Std. Residual

Minimum
2.6568
-1.2517
-2.139
-2.526

Maximum
5.1605
.9434
2.317
1.904

Mean
3.8586
.0000
.000
.000

Std. Deviation
.56187
.48532
1.000
.979

a. Dependent Variable: HAI LONG KHACH HANG

Charts
Histogram
Dependent Variable: HAI LONG KHACH HANG
12
10
8
6

Std. Dev = .98

Mean = 0.00
N = 99.00

00
2. 5
7
1. 0
5
1. 5
2
1. 0
0
1.
5
.7
0
.5
5
.2 0
0
0.
5
-.2
0
-.5
5
-.7 0
.0
-1 5
.2
-1 0
.5
-1 5
.7
-1 0
.0
-2 5
.2
-2 0
.5
-2

Regression Standardized Residual

Normal P-P Plot of Regression Stand


Dependent Variable: HAI LONG KHA
1.00

.75

Expected Cum Prob

Frequency

.50

.25

0.00
0.00

.25

.50

Observed Cum Prob

.75

1.00

N
99
99
99
99

-1-

PH LC 7
KT QU KIM NH INDEPENDENT-SAMPLES T-TEST
T-Test
Group Statistics

Dich vu dung nhu thoa


thuan

Loai hinh cong ty


Cong ty san xuat

24

Mean
3.63

Std. Deviation
.647

Std. Error
Mean
.132

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.63

.767

.089

Giai quyet van de/


khieu nai

Cong ty san xuat

24

3.13

.537

.110

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.48

.704

.081

Khong sai sot

Cong ty san xuat

24

3.13

.537

.110

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.47

.600

.069

Cong ty san xuat

24

3.33

.868

.177

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.57

.774

.089

Tra loi thoa dang cac


yeu cau

Cong ty san xuat

24

3.42

.504

.103

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.56

.598

.069

Chu dao mua cao diem

Cong ty san xuat

24

3.21

.415

.085

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.44

.683

.079

Cong ty san xuat

24

2.75

.608

.124

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.15

.800

.092

Cong ty san xuat

24

3.46

.588

.120

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.56

.551

.064

Cong ty san xuat

24

3.42

.584

.119

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.41

.639

.074

Cong ty san xuat

24

2.83

.702

.143

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.20

.735

.085

Cong ty san xuat

24

3.58

.504

.103

Cong ty thuong mai

75

3.79

.664

.077

Thong bao van de

Cung cap chung tu


Chat luong dai ly
Cong nghe
Phi dich vu canh tranh
Thuong hieu

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test
for Equality of
Variances

Dich vu dung
nhu thoa thuan

Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed

1.500

Sig.

.224

t-test for Equality of Means

Sig.
(2-tailed)

df

Mean
Difference

Std. Error
Difference

95%
Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower

Upper

-.010

97

.992

.00

.174

-.346

.343

-.010

45.493

.992

.00

.159

-.322

.318

-2-

Giai quyet van


de/ khieu nai

Khong sai sot

Thong bao van


de

Tra loi thoa


dang cac yeu
cau

Chu dao mua


cao diem

Cung cap
chung tu

Chat luong dai


ly

Cong nghe

Phi dich vu
canh tranh

Thuong hieu

Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed
Equal
variances
assumed
Equal
variances not
assumed

10.65
1

8.060

.450

2.078

14.44
5

1.984

.083

.314

.021

.594

.002

.006

.504

.153

.000

.162

.774

.576

.886

.443

-2.264

97

.026

-.36

.157

-.666

-.044

-2.602

50.571

.012

-.36

.136

-.629

-.081

-2.487

97

.015

-.34

.137

-.614

-.069

-2.635

42.962

.012

-.34

.130

-.603

-.080

-1.283

97

.202

-.24

.187

-.611

.131

-1.209

35.481

.235

-.24

.198

-.643

.163

-1.059

97

.292

-.14

.135

-.412

.125

-1.157

45.570

.253

-.14

.124

-.393

.106

-1.569

97

.120

-.23

.148

-.525

.061

-2.003

64.961

.049

-.23

.116

-.463

-.001

-2.228

97

.028

-.40

.178

-.750

-.043

-2.564

50.730

.013

-.40

.155

-.707

-.086

-.774

97

.441

-.10

.131

-.362

.159

-.748

36.835

.459

-.10

.136

-.377

.174

.023

97

.982

.00

.147

-.288

.295

.024

42.088

.981

.00

.140

-.279

.286

-2.149

97

.034

-.37

.171

-.705

-.028

-2.202

40.433

.033

-.37

.167

-.703

-.030

-1.378

97

.171

-.20

.148

-.496

.090

-1.586

50.785

.119

-.20

.128

-.461

.054

-1-

PH LC 8a
KT QU KIM NH ONE WAY ANOVA
Oneway
Descriptives

Dich vu dung nhu


thoa thuan

<=100kgs
101-500kgs
>500kgs

Giai quyet van de/


khieu nai

Maximum

3.38

.744

.263

2.75

4.00

31

3.81

.703

.126

3.55

4.06

.000

.000

4.00

4.00

3.54

.762

.102

3.33

3.74

Total

99

3.63

.737

.074

3.48

3.77

2.88

.991

.350

2.05

3.70

31

3.32

.653

.117

3.08

3.56

3.50

.577

.289

2.58

4.42

Tat ca cac muc tren

56

3.50

.632

.085

3.33

3.67

Total

99

3.39

.682

.069

3.26

3.53

<=100kgs

<=100kgs

3.00

.756

.267

2.37

3.63

31

3.48

.677

.122

3.24

3.73

3.50

.577

.289

2.58

4.42

Tat ca cac muc tren

56

3.61

.867

.116

3.37

3.84

Total

99

3.52

.800

.080

3.36

3.67

<=100kgs

2.88

.641

.227

2.34

3.41

31

3.35

.608

.109

3.13

3.58

3.25

.500

.250

2.45

4.05

Tat ca cac muc tren

56

3.48

.572

.076

3.33

3.64

Total

99

3.38

.601

.060

3.26

3.50

2.38

.744

.263

1.75

3.00

31

3.19

.654

.117

2.95

3.43

3.00

.000

.000

3.00

3.00

Tat ca cac muc tren

56

3.18

.765

.102

2.97

3.38

Total

99

3.11

.741

.074

2.96

3.26

3.25

.707

.250

2.66

3.84

31

3.48

.508

.091

3.30

3.67

101-500kgs
>500kgs

<=100kgs
101-500kgs
>500kgs

<=100kgs
101-500kgs
>500kgs

Chu dao mua cao


diem

Minimum

4.00

>500kgs

Tra loi thoa dang


cac yeu cau

95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Lower
Upper
Bound
Bound

101-500kgs

Phi dich vu canh


tranh

Std. Error

56

>500kgs

Khong sai sot

Std.
Deviation

Tat ca cac muc tren

101-500kgs

Thong bao van de

Mean

4.00

.000

.000

4.00

4.00

Tat ca cac muc tren

56

3.55

.601

.080

3.39

3.71

Total

99

3.53

.578

.058

3.41

3.64

3.38

.916

.324

2.61

4.14

31

3.26

.575

.103

3.05

3.47

3.00

.000

.000

3.00

3.00

Tat ca cac muc tren

56

3.48

.632

.084

3.31

3.65

Total

99

3.38

.634

.064

3.26

3.51

<=100kgs
101-500kgs
>500kgs

-2-

Cung cap chung


tu

<=100kgs

2.63

1.061

.375

1.74

3.51

31

2.97

.752

.135

2.69

3.24

3.00

.000

.000

3.00

3.00

Tat ca cac muc tren

56

3.16

.757

.101

2.96

3.36

Total

99

3.05

.774

.078

2.90

3.20

101-500kgs
>500kgs

Chat luong dai ly

<=100kgs
101-500kgs
>500kgs

Thuong hieu

3.38

.744

.263

2.75

4.00

3.48

.508

.091

3.30

3.67

3.75

.500

.250

2.95

4.55

Tat ca cac muc tren

56

3.57

.568

.076

3.42

3.72

Total

99

3.54

.559

.056

3.42

3.65

3.38

.744

.263

2.75

4.00

31

3.77

.497

.089

3.59

3.96

3.75

.500

.250

2.95

4.55

Tat ca cac muc tren

56

3.77

.687

.092

3.58

3.95

Total

99

3.74

.632

.064

3.61

3.86

<=100kgs
101-500kgs
>500kgs

Cong nghe

8
31

<=100kgs

3.50

.756

.267

2.87

4.13

31

3.35

.551

.099

3.15

3.56

3.50

.577

.289

2.58

4.42

Tat ca cac muc tren

56

3.43

.657

.088

3.25

3.60

Total

99

3.41

.623

.063

3.29

3.54

101-500kgs
>500kgs

-3-

ANOVA
Sum of
Squares
Dich vu dung nhu thoa
thuan

Giai quyet van de/ khieu


nai

Thong bao van de

Khong sai sot

Phi dich vu canh tranh

Tra loi thoa dang cac


yeu cau

Chu dao mua cao diem

Cung cap chung tu

Chat luong dai ly

Thuong hieu

Cong nghe

Between Groups

df

Mean Square

2.529

.843

Within Groups

50.642

95

.533

Total

53.172

98

2.987

.996

Within Groups

42.649

95

.449

Total

45.636

98

Between Groups

Between Groups

2.628

.876

Within Groups

60.099

95

.633

Total

62.727

98

Between Groups

2.710

.903

Within Groups

32.704

95

.344

Total

35.414

98

Between Groups

4.850

1.617

Within Groups

48.928

95

.515

Total

53.778

98

Between Groups

1.606

.535

Within Groups

31.081

95

.327

Total

32.687

98

Between Groups

1.622

.541

Within Groups

37.793

95

.398

Total

39.414

98

Between Groups

2.351

.784

Within Groups

56.396

95

.594

Total

58.747

98

.545

.182

Within Groups

30.081

95

.317

Total

30.626

98

Between Groups

Between Groups

1.145

.382

Within Groups

38.026

95

.400

Total

39.172

98

Between Groups

.209

.070

Within Groups

37.811

95

.398

Total

38.020

98

Sig.

1.582

.199

2.218

.091

1.385

.252

2.624

.055

3.139

.029

1.636

.186

1.359

.260

1.320

.272

.574

.634

.954

.418

.175

.913

-1-

PH LC 8b
KT QU KIM NH ONE WAY ANOVA
Oneway
Descriptives

Mean

Std.
Deviation

Std.
Error

95% Confidence Interval for


Mean
Lower Bound

Dich vu dung
nhu thoa
thuan

Giai quyet
van de/ khieu
nai

Thong bao
van de

Khong sai
sot

Phi dich vu
canh tranh

Tra loi thoa


dang cac yeu
cau

Chu dao
mua cao
diem

Minim
um

Maxi
mum

Upper Bound

Hang ngay
1

4.00

Moi tuan

35

4.09

.781

.132

3.82

4.35

Moi thang

36

3.58

.554

.092

3.40

3.77

Lau hon nua

27

3.07

.474

.091

2.89

3.26

Total

99

3.63

.737

.074

3.48

3.77

4.00

Moi tuan

35

3.80

.473

.080

3.64

3.96

Moi thang

36

3.36

.543

.090

3.18

3.54

Lau hon nua

27

2.89

.751

.145

2.59

3.19

Total

99

3.39

.682

.069

3.26

3.53

4.00

Moi tuan

35

4.00

.642

.108

3.78

4.22

Moi thang

36

3.42

.649

.108

3.20

3.64

Lau hon nua

27

3.00

.832

.160

2.67

3.33

Total

99

3.52

.800

.080

3.36

3.67

4.00

Moi tuan

35

3.74

.611

.103

3.53

3.95

Moi thang

36

3.22

.540

.090

3.04

3.41

Lau hon nua

27

3.11

.424

.082

2.94

3.28

Total

99

3.38

.601

.060

3.26

3.50

4.00

Moi tuan

35

3.60

.695

.117

3.36

3.84

Moi thang

36

3.00

.632

.105

2.79

3.21

Lau hon nua

27

2.59

.501

.096

2.39

2.79

Total

99

3.11

.741

.074

2.96

3.26

4.00

Moi tuan

35

3.91

.562

.095

3.72

4.11

Moi thang

36

3.39

.494

.082

3.22

3.56

Lau hon nua

27

3.19

.396

.076

3.03

3.34

Total

99

3.53

.578

.058

3.41

3.64

4.00

Hang ngay

Hang ngay

Hang ngay

Hang ngay

Hang ngay

Hang ngay

-2-

Cung cap
chung tu

Chat luong
dai ly

Thuong hieu

Cong nghe

Moi tuan

35

3.74

.657

.111

3.52

3.97

Moi thang

36

3.31

.467

.078

3.15

3.46

Lau hon nua

27

3.00

.555

.107

2.78

3.22

Total

99

3.38

.634

.064

3.26

3.51

3.00

Moi tuan

35

3.60

.695

.117

3.36

3.84

Moi thang

36

2.86

.593

.099

2.66

3.06

Lau hon nua

27

2.59

.694

.134

2.32

2.87

Total

99

3.05

.774

.078

2.90

3.20

4.00

Moi tuan

35

3.83

.568

.096

3.63

4.02

Moi thang

36

3.56

.504

.084

3.39

3.73

Lau hon nua

27

3.11

.320

.062

2.98

3.24

Total

99

3.54

.559

.056

3.42

3.65

Hang ngay

Hang ngay

Hang ngay

4.00

Moi tuan

35

4.06

.591

.100

3.85

4.26

Moi thang

36

3.72

.615

.102

3.51

3.93

Lau hon nua

27

3.33

.480

.092

3.14

3.52

Total

99

3.74

.632

.064

3.61

3.86

Hang ngay

3.00

Moi tuan

35

3.66

.591

.100

3.45

3.86

Moi thang

36

3.47

.609

.101

3.27

3.68

Lau hon nua

27

3.04

.518

.100

2.83

3.24

Total

99

3.41

.623

.063

3.29

3.54

-3-

ANOVA
Sum of
Squares
Dich vu dung nhu
thoa thuan

Giai quyet van de/


khieu nai

Thong bao van de

Khong sai sot

Phi dich vu canh


tranh

Tra loi thoa dang cac


yeu cau

Chu dao mua cao


diem

Cung cap chung tu

Chat luong dai ly

Thuong hieu

Cong nghe

Between Groups

df

Mean Square

15.827

5.276

Within Groups

37.345

95

.393

Total

53.172

98

13.064

4.355

Within Groups

32.572

95

.343

Total

45.636

98

Between Groups

15.977

5.326

Within Groups

46.750

95

.492

Total

62.727

98

7.840

2.613

Within Groups

27.575

95

.290

Total

35.414

98

16.859

5.620

Within Groups

36.919

95

.389

Total

53.778

98

9.314

3.105

Within Groups

23.372

95

.246

Total

32.687

98

9.090

3.030

Within Groups

30.325

95

.319

Total

39.414

98

Between Groups

17.523

5.841

Within Groups

41.224

95

.434

Total

58.747

98

Between Groups

Between Groups

Between Groups

Between Groups

Between Groups

Between Groups

8.099

2.700

Within Groups

22.527

95

.237

Total

30.626

98

8.064

2.688

Within Groups

31.108

95

.327

Total

39.172

98

Between Groups

Between Groups

6.199

2.066

Within Groups

31.821

95

.335

Total

38.020

98

Sig.

13.421

.000

12.701

.000

10.822

.000

9.003

.000

14.461

.000

12.620

.000

9.492

.000

13.461

.000

11.385

.000

8.209

.000

6.169

.001

-1-

PH LC 8c
KT QU KIM NH ONE WAY ANOVA
Oneway
Descriptives

Dich vu dung
nhu thoa thuan

Giai quyet van


de/ khieu nai

Thong bao van


de

Khong sai sot

Phi dich vu
canh tranh

Tra loi thoa


dang cac yeu
cau

Chu dao mua


cao diem

Chau A/ Chau
Uc
Chau Au/ Chau
My/ Chau Phi

Mean

Std.
Deviation

Std.
Error

95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Lower
Upper
Bound
Bound

Minimum

Maximum

25

3.44

.712

.142

3.15

3.73

17

3.76

.752

.182

3.38

4.15

Ca hai

57

3.67

.740

.098

3.47

3.86

Total

99

3.63

.737

.074

3.48

3.77

25

3.20

.816

.163

2.86

3.54

17

3.24

.664

.161

2.89

3.58

Ca hai

57

3.53

.601

.080

3.37

3.69

Total

99

3.39

.682

.069

3.26

3.53

25

3.36

.860

.172

3.00

3.72

17

3.53

.800

.194

3.12

3.94

Ca hai

57

3.58

.778

.103

3.37

3.79

Total

99

3.52

.800

.080

3.36

3.67

25

3.28

.542

.108

3.06

3.50

17

3.29

.686

.166

2.94

3.65

Ca hai

57

3.46

.600

.079

3.30

3.62

Total

99

3.38

.601

.060

3.26

3.50

25

2.84

.688

.138

2.56

3.12

17

3.06

.659

.160

2.72

3.40

Ca hai

57

3.25

.763

.101

3.04

3.45

Total

99

3.11

.741

.074

2.96

3.26

Chau A/ Chau
Uc

25

3.40

.500

.100

3.19

3.61

Chau Au/ Chau


My/ Chau Phi

17

3.65

.493

.119

3.39

3.90

Ca hai

57

3.54

.629

.083

3.38

3.71

Total

99

3.53

.578

.058

3.41

3.64

25

3.24

.523

.105

3.02

3.46

17

3.24

.664

.161

2.89

3.58

Chau A/ Chau
Uc
Chau Au/ Chau
My/ Chau Phi

Chau A/ Chau
Uc
Chau Au/ Chau
My/ Chau Phi

Chau A/ Chau
Uc
Chau Au/ Chau
My/ Chau Phi

Chau A/ Chau
Uc
Chau Au/ Chau
My/ Chau Phi

Chau A/ Chau
Uc
Chau Au/ Chau
My/ Chau Phi

-2-

Cung cap
chung tu

Chat luong dai


ly

Thuong hieu

Cong nghe

Ca hai

57

3.49

.658

.087

3.32

3.67

Total

99

3.38

.634

.064

3.26

3.51

25

3.12

.726

.145

2.82

3.42

17

2.94

.748

.181

2.56

3.33

Ca hai

57

3.05

.811

.107

2.84

3.27

Total

99

3.05

.774

.078

2.90

3.20

25

3.44

.583

.117

3.20

3.68

17

3.65

.493

.119

3.39

3.90

Ca hai

57

3.54

.569

.075

3.39

3.69

Total

99

3.54

.559

.056

3.42

3.65

25

3.44

.583

.117

3.20

3.68

17

3.76

.562

.136

3.48

4.05

Ca hai

57

3.86

.639

.085

3.69

4.03

Total

99

3.74

.632

.064

3.61

3.86

25

3.20

.645

.129

2.93

3.47

17

3.53

.514

.125

3.26

3.79

Ca hai

57

3.47

.630

.083

3.31

3.64

Total

99

3.41

.623

.063

3.29

3.54

Chau A/ Chau
Uc
Chau Au/ Chau
My/ Chau Phi

Chau A/ Chau
Uc
Chau Au/ Chau
My/ Chau Phi

Chau A/ Chau
Uc
Chau Au/ Chau
My/ Chau Phi

Chau A/ Chau
Uc
Chau Au/ Chau
My/ Chau Phi

-3-

ANOVA
Sum of
Squares
Dich vu dung nhu
thoa thuan

Giai quyet van de/


khieu nai

Thong bao van de

Khong sai sot

Phi dich vu canh


tranh

Tra loi thoa dang cac


yeu cau

Chu dao mua cao


diem

Cung cap chung tu

Chat luong dai ly

Thuong hieu

Cong nghe

Between Groups

df

Mean Square

1.286

.643

Within Groups

51.885

96

.540

Total

53.172

98

2.367

1.184

Within Groups

43.269

96

.451

Total

45.636

98

Between Groups

Between Groups

.837

.419

Within Groups

61.890

96

.645

Total

62.727

98

.704

.352

Within Groups

34.710

96

.362

Total

35.414

98

2.915

1.458

Within Groups

50.863

96

.530

Total

53.778

98

.664

.332

Within Groups

32.023

96

.334

Total

32.687

98

1.550

.775

Within Groups

37.864

96

.394

Total

39.414

98

Between Groups

Between Groups

Between Groups

Between Groups

Between Groups

.324

.162

Within Groups

58.423

96

.609

Total

58.747

98

Between Groups

.444

.222

Within Groups

30.183

96

.314

Total

30.626

98

3.076

1.538

Within Groups

36.096

96

.376

Total

39.172

98

Between Groups

Between Groups

1.574

.787

Within Groups

36.446

96

.380

Total

38.020

98

Sig.

1.190

.309

2.626

.078

.649

.525

.974

.381

2.751

.069

.996

.373

1.965

.146

.266

.767

.705

.496

4.090

.020

2.073

.131

-3-

- 85 -