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Chapter 2

Energy Requirement

The purpose of any power system is ultimately to supply electrical energy to devices that convert this energy into some directly usable form. Before a power plant is build the project engineers should have certain information on loads such as :i. ii. iii. Estimate of probable load Future load condition Location of loads

Classification of loads 1. Residential This classified as using energy in the home. Typified by a rich variety of small devices and dispersed over large geographical areas. Industrial Using large amount of energy for manufacturing and other scale processes. Commercial Intermediate between residential and industrial. Uses by hospitals, shopping centers, airports, small business centers and hotels.

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BASE LOAD The unvarying load, which, occurs almost the whole day on the power station, is called base load. Eg. Coal, oil and nuclear PEAK LOAD As the various peak demands of the load over and above the base load of the power station is called peak load. Eg. Gas, hydro power plant

LOAD (kW)

PEAK LOAD

BASE LOAD

Time (Hr)

Figure 1 : Power Variation Important terms in Load Study 1. Load Study is the determination of the voltage, current, power and power factor or reactive power at various points in an electrical network under existing or completed conditions of normal operation. Demand of a system meant its load requirement (kW or kVA) averaged over a suitable and specified interval of short duration.

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Average Demand meant its average power requirement during some specified period of time of considerable duration such as a day or month or year giving us daily or monthly or yearly power respectively. Average power = kWh consumed in the period Hours in the period

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Maximum Demand defined as the greatest of all the demand which have occurred during a given period. It is used for estimating the capacity (cost) of the generator and other electrical apparatus required for serving a certain specific load.

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Demand Factor is the ratio of actual maximum demand made by the load to the rating of connected load. Demand Factor = maximum demand = < 1 Connected load

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Diversity Of Demand is implies that max demands of various consumers belong to different classes and the various circuit elements in a distribution system are not coincident. This will results in lower cost of electrical energy. Diversity Factor is the ratio of the sum of the individual max demand of the different elements of a load during a specified period to the coincident max demand of all these element of the load during the same period. Diversity Factor = Sum of individual max demand = > 1 Max demand of the whole load

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If the diversity factor = 1 meant all loads impose their max demand at the same time.

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Load factor is the unit of electricity exported by the generator in a given period divided by the product of the maximum load in this period and the length of the period in hours. Yearly load factor = No of units supplied in a year max demand x 8760 kWh supplied in a month Max demand x 24 hr x 30 days

Monthly load factor

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Plant Factor is the ratio of average demand to the rated capacity. Plant Factor = Total kWh generated / Rated capacity of the plant x number of operating hours

This shows how best the plant capacity has been utilized. 10. Capacity factor is defined as the ratio of the average load to the rated capacity of the power plant. Capacity Factor = Average Demand Rated capacity of the plant

Load Curve is represents the load in its proper time sequence. It is plotted for one-day period of 24 hours. The area represents total energy consumed by the load. Information observed from load curve: 1. 2. 3. Load in (kW) 8k 7k 6k 5k 4k 3k 2k 1k 0 Maximum load imposed on the station. Size of the generating unit required. Daily operating schedule of the station.

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Time in Hours

Load Duration Curve is represent the load and time but the ordinate are rearranged in magnitude sequence. Load in kW 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 4 8 12 16 20 24

Duration in hours

Example 1 The peak load on a 50 MW power station is 39 MW. It supplies power through 4 transformers whose connected loads are 17,12,9 and 10 MW. The maximum demands on these transformers are 15,10,8 and 9 MW respectively. If the annual load factor is 50 % and the plant operating for 65 % of the period in the year, find out: i. ii. iii. iv. v. The average load on the station. Energy supplied per year. The demand factor. The diversity factor. The use factor of the station.

Solution Capacity = 50 MW Max.Demand = 39 MW Sum Of connected load = = = = = = = = = = = 50000 kW 39000 kW 17 + 12 + 9 +10 48 MW =

48000 kW

Sum of max. demand Load factor Plant operating hours

15 +10 + 8 + 9 = 42 MW 0.5 0.65 x 24 hours x 365 days 5694 hours

(i).

Average load

Maximum Demand x load factor 39000 x 0.5 19500 kW average load(kW) x 24 x 365 19500 x 8760 170.82 x 106 kWh Maximum Demand___ x 100 Sum of connected load 39000 x 100 48000 81.25 % Sum of maximum demands Maximum demand 42000 39000 1.077 Energy generated per year_____x 100 rated capacity x operating hours 170.82 x 106 x 100 50000 x 5694 60 %

(ii).

Energy supplied per year = = = = = =

(iii). Demand Factor

(iv). Diversity Factor

= = =

(v).

Use Factor

= = =

Example 2 A power station supplies the load as tabulated below.


Time (hr) Load (kW) 12pm -2 am 1200 2 am- 3 am- 6 8 8-12 3 am 6 am am pm 2000 3000 1500 2500 12-2 pm 1800 2-3 pm 2000 3-7 pm 1000 7-11 pm 500 11-12 pm 800

(i).

Draw the load curve and find out the load factor on the basis of 24 hours. (ii). Choose the proper number and size of generator to supply this load. (iii). Find the reserve capacity of plant and plant capacity factor. (iv). Find out the operating schedule of the units selected.

(i).

The load curve

Unit generated during 24 hours = 2 x 1200 + 1 x 2000 + 3 x 3000 + 2 x 1500 + 4 x 2500 + 2 x 1800 +1 x 2000 + 2 x 1000 + 6 x 500 + 1 x 800 = 37800 Average load = Unit generated Time in hours = 37800 24 = 1575 kW

Load factor

Average load x 100 = 1575 x 100 = 52.5 % Max Demand 3000

(ii).

4 units of 1.0 MW with 1.0 MW of stand by may be chosen.

(iii). Capacity of plant = Reserve capacity = Plant capacity factor = = =

4 x 1.0 MW = 4.0 MW 4.0 3.0 = 1.0 MW Average Demand x 100 Rated capacity of the power plant 1575 x 100 4000 39.375 %

(iv). Operating schedule One set of 1.0 MW Second set of 1.0 MW Third set of 1.0 MW 24 hours from 12 .00 to 3 pm (15 hours) from 3 am to 6.00 am and 8.00 am to 12 pm (7 hours)

TUTORIAL 2 CHAPTER 2 : ENERGY REQUIREMENT

1. Explain the following terms: (i). Load Factor (iii). Peak Demand (v). Plant Capacity Factor

(ii). (iv).

Diversity Factor Demand Factor

2. A base load station having a capacity of 18 MW and a standby station having a capacity of 25 MW shares a common load. Find the annual load factors and capacity factors of two power stations form the following data: Annual standby station output Annual base load station output Peak load on standby station Hours of use by standby station/year = = = = 7.5 x 106 kwh 110 x 106 kwh 15 MW 2290 hours.

3. A consumer has the following load schedule for a day: 12 pm to 6 am 6 am to 12 noon 12 noon to 1 pm 1 pm to 4 pm 4 pm to 9 pm 9 pm to 12 pm (i). (ii). (iii). Q4. Time (hr) Load (kW) Sketch the load curve. Sketch load duration curve. Find the load factor 200 W 3000 W 100 W 4000 W 2000 W 1000 W

A power station supplies the load as tabulated below. 6-8 am 1200 (i). (ii). (iii). (iv). 8-9 am 2000 9-12 noon 3000 12-2 pm 1500 2-6 pm 2500 6-8 pm 1800 8-9 pm 2000 9-10 pm 1000 11pm -5 am 500 5-6 am 800

Draw the load curve and find out the load factor on the basis of 24 hours. Choose the proper number and size of generator to supply this load. Find the reserve capacity of plant and plant capacity factor. Find out the operating schedule of the units selected.