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Chapter Outline Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility Toughness Hardness

University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

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Introduction To Materials Science, Chapter 6, Mechanical Properties of Metals

Introduction

To understand and describe how materials deform (elongate, compress, twist) or break as a function of applied load, time, temperature, and other conditions we need first to discuss standard test methods and standard language for mechanical properties of materials.

**Stress, σ (MPa) Strain, ε (mm / mm)
**

University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 2

Engineering strain: ∆l is change in length. Mechanical Properties of Metals Concepts of Stress and Strain (tension and compression) To compare specimens of different sizes. Chapter 6. A0 is cross-sectional area (perpendicular to the force) before application of the load. negative for compressive loads University of Tennessee. of Materials Science and Engineering 4 . ε = ∆l / lo (× 100 %) These definitions of stress and strain allow one to compare test results for specimens of different crosssectional area A0 and of different length l0. Mechanical Properties of Metals Types of Loading Tensile F Compressive F A0 l l0 l0 l A0 Shear A0 F F τ Torsion τ F F University of Tennessee. Engineering stress: σ = F / Ao F is load applied perpendicular to specimen crosssection.Introduction To Materials Science. Chapter 6. the load is calculated per unit area. of Materials Science and Engineering 3 Introduction To Materials Science. Dept. lo is the original length. Dept. Stress and strain are positive for tensile loads.

Shear strain: strain angle γ = tan θ (× 100 %) θ is the Torsion is variation of pure shear. of Materials Science and Engineering 6 . Plastic deformation Irreversible: when the stress is removed. the material returns to the dimension it had before the loading. the material does not return to its previous dimension. shear strain is related to the angle of twist. A shear stress in this case is a function of applied torque T. Chapter 6.Introduction To Materials Science. Usually strains are small (except for the case of plastics). Dept. φ. τ Shear A0 Torsion τ F F University of Tennessee. Stress Strain University of Tennessee. Chapter 6. Dept. Mechanical Properties of Metals Concepts of Stress and Strain (shear and torsion) Shear stress: τ = F / Ao F is load applied parallel to the upper and lower faces each of which has an area A0. Mechanical Properties of Metals Stress-Strain Behavior Elastic Plastic Elastic deformation Reversible: when the stress is removed. of Materials Science and Engineering 5 Introduction To Materials Science.

Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 7 Introduction To Materials Science. Mechanical Properties of Metals Stress-Strain Behavior: Elastic deformation In tensile tests. N/m2 or Pa Unload Stress Slope = modulus of elasticity E 0 0 Load Strain Higher E → higher “stiffness” University of Tennessee.Introduction To Materials Science. of Materials Science and Engineering 8 . Chapter 6. Dept. the stressstrain relationship is called Hooke's law: σ = Eε E is Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity. Chapter 6. Mechanical Properties of Metals Geometric Considerations of the Stress State σ Α0 σ’ θ τ’ A’ θ σ σ’=σcos2θ τ’= σsinθcosθ University of Tennessee. has the same units as σ. if the deformation is elastic.

but it is still reversible. Chapter 6. Mechanical Properties of Metals Elastic Deformation: Atomic scale picture Chapter 2: the force-separation curve for interacting atoms High modulus Strongly bonded Force.). F Separation.. concrete.Introduction To Materials Science. ∆σ/∆ε = tangent modulus at σ2 Definitions of E ∆σ/∆ε = secant modulus between origin and σ1 University of Tennessee. Dept. Dept. Mechanical Properties of Metals Elastic Deformation: Nonlinear elastic behavior In some materials (many polymers. elastic deformation is not linear. r Low modulus Weakly bonded E ~ (dF/dr) at ro (r0 – equilibrium separation) University of Tennessee.. of Materials Science and Engineering 9 Introduction To Materials Science. of Materials Science and Engineering 10 . Chapter 6.

0. This time dependent elastic behavior is known as anelasticity.24 . Dept. Dept. applied stress produces instantaneous elastic strain) • However.50. Those subject to compression. υ is dimensionless.30 University of Tennessee. in reality elastic deformation takes time (finite rate of atomic/molecular deformation processes) . University of Tennessee. of Materials Science and Engineering 11 Introduction To Materials Science. of Materials Science and Engineering 12 . and after load release. Typical value: 0. Chapter 6.Introduction To Materials Science.25 Maximum value: 0. • The effect is normally small for metals but can be significant for polymers (“visco-elastic behavior”).continues after initial loading. Chapter 6. Mechanical Properties of Metals Elastic Deformation: Poisson’s ratio Unloaded Loaded ν =− εy εx =− εz εz Materials subject to tension shrink laterally.e. The ratio of lateral and axial strains is called the Poisson's ratio υ. Mechanical Properties of Metals Elastic Deformation: Anelasticity (time dependence of elastic deformation) • So far we have assumed that elastic deformation is time independent (i. bulge. sign shows that lateral strain is in opposite sense to longitudinal strain Theoretical value for isotropic material: 0.

of Materials Science and Engineering 13 Introduction To Materials Science. of Materials Science and Engineering 14 . Chapter 6. Mechanical Properties of Metals Elastic Deformation: Shear Modulus ∆y Zo Unloaded Loaded τ Relationship of shear stress to shear strain: τ = G γ. Mechanical Properties of Metals Stress-Strain Behavior: Plastic deformation Plastic deformation: • stress and strain are not proportional • the deformation is not reversible • deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of atomic bonds (in crystalline materials primarily by motion of dislocations. see Chapter 3) University of Tennessee.4E (Note: most materials are elastically anisotropic: the elastic behavior varies with crystallographic direction. Dept. where: γ = tan θ = ∆y / zo G is Shear Modulus (Units: N/m2) For isotropic material: E = 2G(1+υ) → G ~ 0. Chapter 6. Dept.Introduction To Materials Science. Chapter 7) University of Tennessee.

Chapter 6. of Materials Science and Engineering 15 Introduction To Materials Science.002 Stress Yield point P .is chosen as that causing a permanent strain of 0. of Materials Science and Engineering 16 . the stress vs. strain curve includes both an upper and lower yield point.Introduction To Materials Science. University of Tennessee. Dept. Mechanical Properties of Metals Tensile properties: Yielding Stress Strain For a low-carbon steel.the strain deviates from being proportional to the stress (the proportional limit) The yield stress is a measure of resistance to plastic deformation Strain University of Tennessee. Chapter 6. The yield strength is defined in this case as the average stress at the lower yield point. Mechanical Properties of Metals Tensile properties: Yielding Elastic Plastic Yield strength σy . Dept.

Chapter 6. of Materials Science and Engineering 17 Introduction To Materials Science. the yield stress is usually a more important property than the tensile strength. the structure has deformed beyond acceptable limits. Dept. Chapter 6. University of Tennessee. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 18 . Mechanical Properties of Metals Tensile properties: Ductility Ductility is a measure of the deformation at fracture l −l Defined by % EL = f 0 × 100 l 0 percent elongation or A − Af ×100 %RA = 0 percent reduction in area A 0 University of Tennessee.Introduction To Materials Science. since once the it is passed. Mechanical Properties of Metals Tensile Strength If stress = tensile strength is maintained then specimen will eventually break Fracture Strength Stress. ε For structural applications. σ “Necking” Tensile strength: maximum stress (~ 100 .1000 MPa) Strain.

Mechanical Properties of Metals Typical mechanical properties of metals The yield strength and tensile strength vary with prior thermal and mechanical treatment. The yield and tensile strengths and modulus of elasticity decrease with increasing temperature. ductility increases with temperature. University of Tennessee. Chapter 6. e.Introduction To Materials Science. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 20 . of Materials Science and Engineering 19 Introduction To Materials Science. Chapter 7. J/m3 Can be measured by an impact test (Chapter 8). etc. This variability is related to the behavior of dislocations in the material. Chapter 6. But elastic moduli are relatively insensitive to these effects. Dept. impurity levels.g. Mechanical Properties of Metals Toughness Toughness = the ability to absorb energy up to fracture = the total area under the strain-stress curve up to fracture Units: the energy per unit volume. University of Tennessee.

Dept. the material again responds elastically at the beginning up to a new yield point that is higher than the original yield point. the material ends up with a permanent strain.Introduction To Materials Science. continues to rise to the point of fracture. Mechanical Properties of Metals Elastic Recovery During Plastic Deformation If a material is deformed plastically and the stress is then released. University of Tennessee. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 22 . The amount of elastic strain that it will take before reaching the yield point is called elastic strain recovery. in contrast to the engineering stress. Mechanical Properties of Metals True Stress and Strain σT = F/Ai ε = ln(li/lo) σ = F/Ao ε = (li-lo/lo) True stress = load divided by actual area in the necked-down region. University of Tennessee. If the stress is reapplied. Chapter 6. of Materials Science and Engineering 21 Introduction To Materials Science. Chapter 6.

Vickers. cone. Mechanical Properties of Metals Hardness (I) Hardness is a measure of the material’s resistance to localized plastic deformation (e. Usually a small indenter (sphere. of Materials Science and Engineering 23 Introduction To Materials Science. Chapter 6. determined by the ability of a material to scratch another material: from 1 (softest = talc) to 10 (hardest = diamond). Brinell. dent or scratch) A qualitative Moh’s scale. Mechanical Properties of Metals Hardness University of Tennessee. The depth or size of indentation is measured. etc.Introduction To Materials Science. or pyramid) is forced into the surface of a material under conditions of controlled magnitude and rate of loading.g. The tests somewhat approximate.). but popular because they are easy and non-destructive (except for the small dent). Chapter 6. Different types of quantitative hardness test has been designed (Rockwell. Dept. Dept. University of Tennessee. of Materials Science and Engineering 24 .

Hardness is proportional to the tensile strength . of Materials Science and Engineering 26 Tensile strength (103 psi) . Dept. University of Tennessee.but note that the proportionality constant is different for different materials. Mechanical Properties of Metals Hardness (II) Tensile strength (MPa) Brinell hardness number Both tensile strength and hardness may be regarded as degree of resistance to plastic deformation. of Materials Science and Engineering Brinell hardness 25 Introduction To Materials Science. Dept.Introduction To Materials Science. Mechanical Properties of Metals Hardness Diamond Nitrided steels Cutting tools File hard Easily machined steels Rockwell C Brasses and aluminum Rockwell alloys B Most plastics Corrundum or sapphire Topaz Quartz Orthoclase Apatite Fluorite Calcite Knoop hardness Gypsum Talc Mohs hardness University of Tennessee. Chapter 6. Chapter 6.

Chapter 6. torsion. modulus. Dept. toughness. tension. Want to make sure that σd < σy Safe or working stress: σw = σy/N where N is “factor of safety” > 1. the yield strength is usually the important parameter Strain Design stress: σd = N’σc where σc = maximum anticipated stress. Dept. strain. shear modulus. yield strength. toughness. compression. Mechanical Properties of Metals What are the limits of “safe” deformation? Stress For practical engineering design. torsion – Elastic vs. plastic deformation – Measures of deformation: yield strength. shear. hardness University of Tennessee. ductility. Mechanical Properties of Metals Take Home Messages • Make sure you understand – Language: (Elastic. fracture strength. compression. N’ is the “design factor” > 1.Introduction To Materials Science. tensile strength. Poisson ratio – Geometries: tension. anelasticity. University of Tennessee. shear. plastic. hardness) – Stress-strain relationships – Elastic constants: Young’s modulus. of Materials Science and Engineering 28 . Chapter 6. of Materials Science and Engineering 27 Introduction To Materials Science. fracture strength. tensile strength. ductility. resilience. stress.

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