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П75 Лекции по теоретической грамматике английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов Ш - IV курсов лингвист, специальностей / И.И. Прибыток. - Саратов: Изд-во Научная книга, 2006. - 408 с.
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Прибыток И.И.

Учебное пособие включает в себя лекции по основным проблемным вопросам морфологии и синтаксиса английского языка. В конце пособия приводится список теоретической литературы, которую студенты могут использовать при подготовке к семинарским занятиям. Для студентов III - IV курсов лингвистических специальностей. Выражаю искреннюю благодарность П.С. Жуйковой, О.А. Уфимцевой и Н.В. Шершуковой за помощь при подготовке пособия к печати.

Любимому учителю Настоящему ученому Кристально честному человеку ОЛЬГЕ БОРИСОВНЕ СИРОТИНИНОЙ посвящается

linguists take pains to set up their rules following a careful analysis of the way the English language actually works. Nonetheless, there is no gainsaying the fact that English grammar is far from being simple.

MRH L G OP OO Y INTRODUCTION Why Study Grammar?

1.

The study of grammar goes back to the time of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Indians, and from its earliest days has caught the interest of the learned and the wise. As a result, the subject has developed around itself a scholarly, and somewhat mysterious atmosphere. In the popular mind, grammar was practised chiefly by a race of shadowy people, grammarians, and was of no practical use to ordinary people. The early English grammars met with a negative reaction for two reasons. 1.Textual samples selected for analysis or commentary were commonly taken from literary, religious, or scholarly sources. Informal styles of speech were ignored, or condemned as incorrect. This meant that the language which most children used and heard around them received no positive reinforcement in grammar lessons. To many, accordingly, the subject became distant and unreal. 2.Children were made to analyze English texts by applying the categories and terminology of Latin grammar which were alien to English. To many, accordingly, the subject seemed arbitrary and arcane. Nowadays, things have changed fundamentally. Modem

If you want to communicate intelligibly, however, you must know grammar because the rules controlling the way a communication system works are known as its grammar [D. Crystal]. People master the grammar of the native and foreign languages in different ways. Mastering the grammar of the native language is to a considerable degree an unconscious process, especially when we are young children. Mastering the grammar of a foreign language is a conscious, reflective process. The History of English Grammars There does not exist a generally accepted periodization of the history of English grammars, but it is possible to divide it into two periods. The first period is the age of pje_scientific__^ammar beginning at the end of the 16th century and lasting till about 1900. It includes two types of grammars: early descriptive and prescriptive. Early descriptive grammarians [e.g. W. Bullokar] merely described language phenomena. By the middle of the 18 th century, when many of the grammatical phenomena of English had been described, descriptive grammar gave way to prescriptive grammar [R. Lowth], which stated strict rules of grammatical usage. The main drawback of prescriptive grammar lies in the fact that it subjected to criticism many constructions and forms used by educated English people. The second period is the age of s,ci_ejitific.grammar. By the end of the 19th century, prescriptive grammar had reached the peak of its development. A need was felt for a grammar of a higher type, which could give a scientific explanation of the grammatical phenomena. The appearance of H. Sweet's grammar in 1891 met this demand. There are three chief methods of explaining language phenomena, namely by means of: 1) historical grammar, 2) comparative grammar, and 3) general grammar. Historical grammar tries to explain the phenomena of a language by studying their history. Thus. Old English nouns had gender, number, and case distinctions. There were three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter), two numbers (singular and plural), and four cases (nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative). The decay of noun inflections that began in the Middle English period is due to the following:

1) the functional devaluation of inflections: some of their syntactic functions came to be expressed by prepositions and word order, i.e. by analytical means; 2) the Scandinavian invasion. The two languages (English and Scandinavian) were closely related. Since the roots of the words often sounded alike, the speakers tended to ignore the inflections which hindered the process of communication. The loss of inflections, which began in the Middle English period, resulted in the disappearance of the grammatical category of gender and the reduction of the case paradigm in Modern English to two forms: common and genitive. Comparative grammar compares the grammatical phenomena of a language with those of cognate languages, i.e. languages that are related to it through having arisen from a common parent language. Thus, the suppletive case system of personal pronouns is common to all the languages of the Indo-European family. Cf.: Russian: x-Meux; English: I-me; German: ich - mich. General grammar is not concerned with the details of one language or a family of languages, but with the general principles which underlie the grammatical phenomena of all languages. Thus, all languages, according to H. Greenberg, have pronominal categories involving at least three persons and two numbers. The period of scientific grammar may be divided into two parts, the first - from the appearance of H. Sweet's book till the 3940's, when there were only two types of grammars: prescriptive [J.C. Nesfield] and explanatory [C.T. Onions; H.R. Stokoe; G. Curme; H. Poutsma; E. Kruisinga; O. Jespersen]; the second -from the 1940's, when several new types of grammars appeared: 1) structural (descriptive) grammar, 2) transformational grammar, 3) communicatively orientated grammar, 4) semantically orientated grammar, 5) pragmatically orientated grammar, 6) textual grammar. The aim of structural grammar [Ch. Fries] is to give a formalized description of language system as it exists, without being concerned with questions of correct and incorrect usage. The purpose of transformational grammar [Z. Harris; N. Chomsky] is to show how different sentences are derived from a few kernel sentences, e.g.:

The door opened. —» The door did open. —» Did the door open? Communicatively orientated grammar [V. Mathesius; J. Firbas] studies the theme-rheme integration in a sentence. The theme is a part of a sentence seen as corresponding to what the sentence as a whole, when uttered in a particular context, is about. The rheme is a part of a sentence communicating information relative to whatever is indicated by the theme. For instance, in Our biggest problem is lack of money (Longman Language Activator), the theme is our biggest problem, and the point of the sentence is to explain what it is. The rheme, then, is lack of money. Semantically orientated grammar [Ch.J. Fillmore; W.L. Chafe] concentrates its attention on the semantic structure of sentences. Pragmatically orientated grammar [J. Austin; J. Searle] focuses its attention on the functional side of language units. Textual grammar places text in focus. The authors suggest different methods of text analysis ranging from formal [Z. Harris] to semantic [T. van Dijk] and pragmatic [V. Bogdanovj. The aims of the analysis are also different. The authors of the first period [Z. Harris; V. Waterhouse] put forward the idea of the dependence of the text type on the type of sentences making it up. The authors of the second period [W. Hendricks; T. van Dijk] explore the text as a whole and try to discover the lower units which constitute the given text. M.A.K. Halliday makes an attempt at giving a theoretical basis of text grammar. Objects and Tasks of Grammar Grammar may be regarded either from a practical or a theoretical point of view. From the practical point of view, grammar is the art of language. The main object of practical grammar is to help the student acquire master)' of the native or foreign language. From the theoretical point of view, grammar is the science of language. The task of theoretical grammar is to provide an insight into the structure of the language under examination in the light of the general principles of linguistics. The latter requires serious consideration of moot points with an obligatory suggestion of a way to solve the particular problem involved. In other words, practical

A grammeme may be analytical in .C. e.C. singular number. Inflectional morphemes are not recursive. accidence dealt with such matters as the number.g. MORPHOLOGICAL UNITS Grammatical units represent bilateral elements possessing a directly observable material structure and directly unobservable content (or meaning). L.' Thus. the higher is its position on the scale. and the voice. Derivational morphemes do not form morphological sets and so cannot be fully accounted for in grammar. When we speak of a word as a grammeme we disregard its lexical meaning but concentrate our attention on the kind of grammatical information it gives. 2. a rank scale. its concerns being handled as the 'syntax of the word'. they always form part of a grammeme (or word form). third person. Nesfield as 'the collective name for all those changes that are incidental to certain parts of speech. mood. which realizes the plural number. person. Muir to the conclusion that they are radically different.g. The lowest grammatical unit is the morpheme. Derivational morphemes form one word from another.eating ~ eaten. If both a derivational and an inflectional morpheme occur in the structure of a word. e. as is well-known. grammatical.B. The grammatical meaning of an inflectional morpheme is purely relational: it is revealed only by contrast with some other morpheme. while theoretical grammar pursues analytical aims. Although syntactic matters in J. A comparison of inflectional and derivational morphemes has led J. They cannot occur alone. Morphology studies the grammatical structure of words and the categories realized by them. lexical morphemes. gender.: boy + ish + ness. and in some grammars the notion of morphology is dispensed with altogether.: eat — eats . Thus. An inflectional morpheme as a unit of morphology is an exponent of grammatical meaning. Inflectional morphemes form morphological sets. i. The next grammatical unit on the rank scale is the word (a free naming unit) and its grammeme [I.: runs. most of a modern grammar of English is given over to syntax. and tense of verbs. The Main Branches of Grammar The field of grammar is generally divided into two domains: morphology and syntax.: govern — government. and case of nouns.g. number. as well as the question of their classification into regular and irregular types. Derivational morphemes may be recursive.g. e. Inflectional morphemes are always bound morphemes. Syntax studies the grammatical relations between words and other units within the sentence.ate . Nesfield's grammar are to be found throughout the book. only two chapters are officially assigned to the subject. e.: novel + ist +s.grammar is prescriptive.e. Bloomfield defines the morpheme as 'a minimal meaningful unit'. inflectional.e. There are. and derivational. the morpheme -ed is felt to render the meaning of the past tense because it is opposed to the morpheme -(e)s of the present tense. It is not clear from his definition what kind of meaning is understood. clearly distinct both from morphology and lexicology. e. There is relatively little in the English language to be accounted for under the heading of inflectional morphology. Khlebnikova]. the grammeme speaks shows the present tense. e. then the derivational morpheme must precede the inflectional morpheme. Most of a traditional grammar of English was devoted to aspects of morphology. e. They form a hierarchy of interconnected elements. Russian linguists single out word formation (cjioeoo6po3oeanue) into a specific branch of linguistics.: play -plays -played.g. Inflectional morphemes form new grammatical forms of the same word. a morphological analysis will divide the word girls into the root girl and the inflection -s. The position of a unit on this or that step of the rank scale depends on its size: the longer is the unit. Accidence is defined by J.g. only one inflectional morpheme may occur in the structure of any word. called accidence in those days. they may be considered to be on the border of grammar and lexicology. By contrast.g. Thus. i.

if two units X and Y occur one after another in a larger unit. GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY. whereas the choice relationship is an 'or' relationship.F.g. Parts of speech are usually considered a lexico-grammatical category since.g.N. R. they are in a choice relationship: X/Y.will play. and grammemes are not purely paradigmatic. Sweet]. An analytical grammeme is equivalent to one word on the rank scale as it expresses one lexical and one grammatical meaning. Vorontsova identify the grammatical category with grammatical meaning.g. sentence. However. Therefore.B. and grammemes makes up the morphological system of the language [I. words as parts of speech. they are in a chain relationship: X + Y. They can be registered and enumerated in any language. is at the same time a grammeme. Fortunatov -with grammatical form. these groupings present generalized classes. F. I. Words as parts of speech are characterized by a set of paradigms predetermined by the part of speech nature of the word. on the other. Matthews). Nevertheless. for it concerns itself not with concrete meanings of separate words. e. especially in analytical languages. Inflectional morphemes. Quirk. words as parts of speech. Thus. Leech and L Svartvik call syntagmatic relationships chain relationships. on the one hand. as 'zero'. Shakhmatov and G. the inflectional morphemes and grammemes of tense form a paradigm the members of which are associated on the ground of the 10 grammatical category of tense e.: plays . they show lexical groupings of words. each with a unified abstract meaning of its own. For instance. grammatical meaning -abstract [H. in her opinion. has spoken. Not every word. They unite similar units on one paradigmatic axis to form a paradigm in which units relate to each other by association with some category. e.: The rain has stopped (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). e. The paradigmatics of inflectional morphemes.g. The chain relationship is an 'and' relationship. But if X and 7 can be substituted for one another in a larger unit. There is no gainsaying the fact that grammatical meaning is usually more abstract than lexical. AND FORM Definition of Grammatical Category A. Khlebnikova does not recognize the existence of the so-called zero inflectional morphemes. Khlebnikova].A. e. Greenbaum. But inflectional morphemes. Tradition says that the difference between grammatical and lexical meaning lies in the degree of the inherent abstraction.: I saw the cat/dog/house (P.g. MEANING. That's why the majority of linguists regard the grammatical category as a two-fold unity of grammatical meaning and grammatical form. The syntagmatic properties of inflectional morphemes are realized at the grammeme level. words as parts of speech. G. there exist neither formless grammatical meanings nor meaningless grammatical forms. The linguistic relationships between forms fall into two fundamentally distinct types: syntagmatic and paradigmatic. the syntagmatic properties of words as parts of speech and grammemes are realized at the word combination. Lexical meaning is considered to be concrete. For instance. e. nouns have number and case paradigms. too. They possess certain syntagmatic characteristics.B.played .). S. Inflectional morphemes and grammemes are characterized by a definite material structure of their own. the grammatical II . the system of morphological units is a closed system. the noun milk is not a grammeme because it is not marked either for the grammatical category of case or the grammatical category of number common to English nouns.B. but with meanings characteristic of whole classes of words. (I. The latter makes parts of speech a grammatical notion since wide-range abstraction is characteristic of grammar. Grammatical Meaning Grammatical meaning is closely interwoven with lexical meaning.structure.H. paradigmatic relationships -choice relationships. and sentencoid levels. 3. means no morpheme at all.g. Khlebnikova holds that every word is a unit of grammar as a part of speech. and grammemes are paradigmatic by nature.

What is more. Steblin-Kamensky and goes deeper into it.these houses (R. etc. the meanings of 'defmiteness .I. Knyazeva. According to another current conception. 2.g. the meaning of number in nouns that reflects the existing distinctions between one and more than one. they are 12 independent.Grammatical meanings predetermined linguistically.g. word order. past. Some lexical meanings. The English noun.S. the imperative and the conjunctive — as something desired. At the second stage. for lexical meaning also represents a generalized reflection of reality. or future). S. Sieblin-Kamensky suggests that grammatical and lexical meanings should be differentiated with regard to thought.g. Grammatical meanings based on the phenomena of extra linguistic reality. the adjective . for instance. However. it is not a higher degree of abstraction that differentiates grammatical meaning from lexical meaning. Let us take the grammatical meaning of number in nouns.I. Grammatical meanings organize thought. grammatical meanings that reflect extra linguistic reality are further subdivided in accordance with the presence or absence of subjective evaluation of the speaker into subjectiveobjective and objective.Grammatical meanings based on the subjective attitude of the speaker to the phenomena of extra linguistic reality. they are dependent on the lexical meanings they accompany. Cf: this house .the grammatical meanings of degrees of comparison.A. But there exist words that convey purely grammatical meanings. the meaning of mood in verbs.by forms of words. hence. e. In the opinion of M. has the grammatical meanings of number and case. they are lexical because in Russian there are no constant grammatical means to express the meanings of 'deflniteness . G. are even more general than grammatical meanings. Sankin]: lexical meaning is rendered by words and word combinations. Since grammatical meanings only help organize thought. The indicative mood presents the action as real. In Russian. 3. probable. stress. however. the grammatical meanings characteristic of a certain part of speech are not obligatorily to be found in all the words of the given part of .A. But if one follows M. and other function words. hence. Compare the lexical meaning of the word time and the grammatical meanings of verbal tenses (present. the same meanings (e. he will see that grammatical meaning does not always express relations in the proper sense of the word. V. or problematic. auxiliary verbs. The majority of linguists think that grammatical meanings are heterogeneous in this respect. in view of the fact that parts of speech possess the structure of a field. that room . articles. The classification will only profit if every stage of analysis is based on one principle. grammatical meaning .I. e. e.g. the singular or plural form of the demonstrative pronouns this and that depends on the singular or plural form of the following nouns. according to M.indeflniteness'. Steblin-Kamensky. with a compact core and a diffuse periphery. grammatical meaning is relational: it expresses the relations between words in sentences. it only actualizes a certain property common to things. etc. Murphy).those rooms (R. In English. A.S.g. Other linguists [e.g. Shakhmatov who singled out three types of grammatical meanings. M.meaning of number is characteristic of nouns. the difference between grammatical and lexical meanings lies in the form of their expression [R. namely plurality. the grammatical meaning of aspect is characteristic of verbs. Steblin-Kamensky. At the first stage. In view of the fact that language is an immediate actuality of thought..G. e. Lexical meanings form the basis of thought. The first classification of grammatical meanings goes back to A. Each part of speech has a specific set of grammatical meanings. the question arises whether they reflect any relations of extra linguistic reality. Lexical meaning is naming. Khidekel. Murphy). they are grammatical (articles serve the purpose of their realization). Ginzburg. we classify grammatical meanings in accordance with the presence or absence of extra linguistic basis into those that reflect extra linguistic reality and those that have nothing to do with extra linguistic reality.M Nikitevich] hold that the difference between grammatical and lexical meanings lies in their content.I. It does not realize any relations.indefmiteness') can be represented differently in different languages. Grammatical meaning is really opposed to lexical meaning as relational to naming. !.

They are always common to the words forming the centre of 13 .speech.

the inherent grammatical meaning is the same. OKHO .e. K. One and the same form can render the meanings of different grammatical categories. intonation. we would be bound to recognize the existence of formless words and even of formless languages. word order. and 'grammatical category' build up a three-level hierarchy. According to A.e.: Who did they arrest? . Thus. Have you arty soft drinks? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). He drinks like a fish (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). It follows from it that there are no formless grammatical meanings. Grammatical Form The logicians [e. i. The sound forms are different (a. lack the grammatical meaning of number. Uncountable nouns. K. if we looked upon grammatical form as a formbuilding component. 2. the generalized grammatical meaning of tense.g. Neither can we identify grammatical forms with form-building components as N. e. The future tense grammeme comprises the analytical combination of the infinitive with the auxiliary verb -will. where nouns do not change in accordance with the existing genders but as whole units refer to this or that concrete gender.V. This conclusion is quite naturally drawn by F. consonant change. past. present tense. Otherwise. 'grammeme'. the notions 'grammatical form'. for instance. where the inflection -s shows that the verb rise is in the third person. A. -It'si(M. Cf.feminine. y). The past tense grammeme comprises the inflection ~(e)d for regular verbs and vowel change.(the inflection -a) . It is theoretically wrong.neuter. lying at the basis of the present.g.masculine. Thus. but of lexico-grammatical categories. for irregular verbs. e.). It's me. Bondarko qualify the sum 14 total of grammatical means used to convey a certain grammatical meaning as a grammeme. active voice.the grammatical category as a unity of homogeneous grammemes. Take. and future tense grammemes. Fortunatov.: cmoji . The main drawback of this conception is that outwardly dissimilar forms can render identical grammatical meanings. the grammatical meaning of number is characteristic only of countable nouns that denote things in the proper sense of the word. 15 .L Buslaev] identity grammatical form with sound form.A. Nekrasov does. 1. It goes without saying that grammatical forms are heterogeneous.this or that part of speech. The grammatical form constitutes the lowest ladder on the rank scale. Form represents inner organization of content. In other words.Whom did they arrest? (M. build up a grammatical category. etc. auxiliary elements.g. It never characterizes the word as a whole.F. and vice versa: different grammatical meanings can find expression in similar forms.: Kynu caxapa/caxapy_. which have the grammatical meaning of 'thingness'. generates the grammatical category of tense. the present tense grammeme comprises the zero exponent for the first and second persons singular and plural and the third person plural and the inflection (e)s for the third person singular. grammemes possessing a common generalized grammatical meaning. Grammatical meaning is always realized in this or that form. deeowa . non-continuous aspect. then comes the grammeme as a unity of homogeneous grammatical forms. Vince.(the inflection -o) . Swan). the words that possess the lexicogrammatical meaning of the pan of speech in question.I. Besides.: The sun rises in the east (M. McNicholas). we would have to speak not of grammatical.P. indicative'mood. singular number. Homogeneous grammemes. They comprise form-building components. the category of gender in Russian. F. Pike and A..V. Swan). A. the grammatical form is the sum total of all the formal means constantly employed to render this or that grammatical meaning. then .(zero exponent) . and many other means. Smirnitsky points out the following characteristics of the grammatical form. Bondarko. Potebnya has proved that sound changes do not always bring about changes in grammatical meaning. i. (A zero exponent represents meaningful absence of any outward sign which serves the purpose of rendering some grammatical meaning when opposed to forms with positive inflections. It is the meaning of the accusative case. For instance. Cf.

Synthetic forms are built up by a change in the body of the word.But one form cannot combine in itself two meanings of one and the same grammatical category. The latter. such as Russian. If perfect were a tense form. Inflected languages. Types of Grammatical Forms The ways of building up grammatical forms depend on the structure of the language. It is not the presence or absence but the relative proportion of synthetic and analytical forms that differentiates languages. and infixes that are inserted within the root. Affixes are traditionally divided into prefixes that come before the root to which they are joined.3. Linguists usually draw a distinction between two main types of form-building: synthetic and analytical.There are no isolated grammatical forms. e. English. Synthetic Forms To synthetic forms belong affixation and sound interchange. we would have a unity of two tenses in one form (present and perfect in present perfect. 16 . primarily. does not mean that inflected languages never make use of analytical forms or that synthetic forms are alien to analytical languages. Affixation Affixation consists in attaching grammatical morphemes to the root. which is clearly out of the question. Analytical forms consist of at least two words. That's why we say that the present perfect is not a tense form. suffixes that come after the root to which they are joined. resort to synthetic forms. give preference to analytical forms. 4. Thus. Each grammatical form makes part of this or that grammatical category. Analytical languages. the other — the lexical meaning of the analytical complex. no form exists which could simultaneously render the meanings of two cases or two numbers. Synthetic and analytical forms go hand in hand. one rendering the grammatical meaning. future and perfect in future perfect). but one of the members of a specific grammatical category of phase. however.g. past and perfect in past perfect.

Prefixation Those who recognize the existence of aspects in Old English say that prefixation was used to form the perfective aspect.: wntan . we find suffixation in the category of number in nouns [the suffix -(e)s of the plural number].. can perhaps be regarded as an infix of the present tense. In spite of the fact that suffixes play an important role in Modern English. The scarcity of grammatical suffixes is easy to .the__firet r-rjlace English is an analytical language. Infixation Infixation has never been typical of English. nsan . although Indo-European languages like Latin.prefixless verbs' was not common to all the verbs in the language. etc.here as an infix with a specific meaning of the present tense because it is the only example of an infix used to differentiate the present tense of verbs from other forms. Smirnitsky thinks that the component -n. In the first place. both prefixed verbs and prefixless verbs could render the meanings of completeness and incompleteness.e.M. think that the Old English prefixes ge~ and a. however. In. In the second place. Greek.orison.I. suffixation is the commonest.g. and Sanskrit made a considerable use of infixes for similar purposes. i. Doubtful in Old English. A. For instance.in stand. P. oor in . they are rather few in number.gewnlan. The majority of linguists. grammatical prefixation has completely disappeared in Modern English. e.^ung^ersjand^. Suffixation Of all the types of affixation.cannot be regarded as a means of expressing aspect distinctions. as grammatical prefixes for two reasons. Berezin doubts the possibility of regarding the component -n. as opposed to stood. in the category of degrees of comparison of adjectives (the suffix -er of the comparative degree and the suffix -est of the superlative degree). the opposition 'prefixed verbs .

wives (consonant interchange). suffixes that have the same form but realize different grammatical meanings. clearly distinct from the grammatical level to which analytical forms belong. which occurs nowadays in the plural number of some nouns (e. Smirnitsky. active voice of a verb or the plural number of a noun.g. e. where the suffix [z] admits of two interpretations. Nevertheless. the second has lost its grammatical characteristics.e.H. singular number. Tauli]. A. Kunin]. [driyks]. e.: they-them.g. Barkhudarov and D. the analytical form is defined as a unity of a notional word and an auxiliary word.g. Sound interchange may be divided into vowel and consonant interchange. Sound interchange is not a productive means of form-building in Modern English. irregular verbs differentiate their main forms. But they are grammatical forms.more . By means of sound interchange nouns differentiate the category of number. i.met ~ met).g. analytical -combinations of words [P. In the opinion of L.most (vowel and consonant interchange).sent (consonant interchange). so it seems more likely that it is not the lexical. pronouns differentiate cases and numbers.: foot-feet (vowel interchange). Traditionally. Other linguists say that analytical forms are easily divided into their components as opposed to synthetic forms that represent more closely connected units [V. Some homonymous suffixes characterize one part of speech.g.g.place. Shteling. According to A.: thou . e. Some linguists identify analytical forms with phraseological units. Smirnitsky is right: perfect and passive forms are easily distinguished in the language. we may regard it as a suffix of the plural number. vowel interchange falls under ablaut (or gradation).g. non-continuous aspect.g. where the suffix [s] may represent the third person. present tense.In the third place. man . on the other hand. He adduces the following proofs. If we accepted this definition. this ~ these (vowel and consonant interchange). indicative mood. Historically.S.: much . the notion of analytical form loses its defmiteness because the question arises how to gauge the degree of integrity of the components under examination. 1. e. Sound Interchange Analytical Forms Analytical forms admit of several interpretations. we would be bound to admit that all languages are analytical because the number of word combinations is always greater than the number of words.). On the one hand. e. [boiz].sang .sung (vowel interchange).I. the first component in the analytical form always retains some of its lexical meaning.I.thee (vowel interchange). Matthews].: to sing . the zero exponent of the positive degree in adjectives.A. This conception is theoretically wrong since phraseological units constitute a specific level of language structure [A. Cf: has written is written. e. although in Old English it played an important role. the first component in the analytical form is devoid of lexical meaning. Other homonymous suffixes mark off different parts of speech. wife . English is rich in homonymous suffixes. Sound interchange is often combined with affixation. Some linguists think that synthetic forms represent words. woman— women). which is found in the forms of irregular verbs (e.V. etc. e. but the grammatical meanings of the first components that help differentiate them. Perfect and passive forms are identical in their second component (Participle II). In this case. to send ~ sent . and umlaut (or mutation). 18 19 . to meet .men. we never fail to distinguish these forms because their first components has and is are lexically different.g. there are a lot of zero exponents in Modern English (the zero exponent of the singular number in nouns. we may look upon it as a means of forming the genitive case. adjectives differentiate degrees of comparison.

Take. Swan).B.most beautiful). For instance. Viney). the limited span of immediate memory. past. conjunctive mood. e. On the face of it. Don't go out now. which also testifies to its having a certain lexical meaning.: You're wasting your time (P.Which ones? . he does (R. Swan).he is sleeping. Miller and V. especially in the system of the verb. functionally they are equivalent to words. Evans). /'// call you tomorrow (B. Analytical forms cannot form a system without the existence of parallel synthetic formations. it is not only words with full or weakened lexical meanings that can be used in an independent function in the sentence. and passive constructions. the continuous aspect . when the first component preserves some of its lexical meaning. Khlebnikova. linguists are still at variance as to how to treat combinations with more and most (more beautiful . and grammatical meaning is one of many types of meaning. 21 . Gutcheon). The first component of an analytical form may be used independently in short answers. I did (P. the perfect phase — she has cooked dinner. Otherwise.A. Viney).The red ones (M. too. continuous aspect. the so-called prop-words that are completely devoid of any lexical meaning and still perform the function of this or that part of the sentence. The most frequent type of contracted auxiliary verb is with personal pronouns. 20 they should be referred to free word combinations because the first components more and most belong to notional words. for example.g. Murphy).Yes. of course. It's raining (R. considerations of euphony are very important. However. The second group comprises transitional cases that cause much controversy among linguists. analytical forms are word combinations.D. I am (R. where each component was used in accordance with its own lexical meaning.). is usually limited to four items for two reasons. It carries the grammatical meaning of the analytical complex. The analytical form is a regressive structure. Murphy). We've bought a new car (R. not grammatical forms of one and the same word. Strictly speaking. etc. Did you pack the bags yourself? . which means that the main meaningful item of the construction is placed at the end. Some have become pure auxiliaries.I. a c c o r d in g t o I. Second.g. Structurally. The latter. Salinger). The first group of analytical forms are analytical forms in the proper sense of the term (e. T h e l en g th of an a n a l yt i c a l f o r m . we would have to admit that writes — is -written represent two different words.S. Lexically. B. Khaimovich and B. There is a growing tendency in Modern colloquial English to abbreviate the first finite auxiliary component of an analytical form. then one will find it possible to regard them as analytical degrees of comparison in the making (in the process of being made). and a human being cannot grasp and hold in his memory a longer unit with a single generalized meaning. First.Yes. That's why it seems better to exclude the first component of an analytical form from lexical units. PA have told you earlier if I'd known (Get Your Tenses Right). one should not disregard the nature of the conveyed meaning and the current tendencies in the development of the language. .2. The depth hypothesis was formulated by G. the first components of analytical forms are heterogeneous. Contracted auxiliary verbs also occur in the following cases. It's broken (V. But if one bears in mind that they realize the same grammatical meanings of degrees of comparison as the suffixes -er and -est and that the number of analytical forms in Modern English is constantly on the increase. Yngve. Cf. the complex should be regarded as a combination of words and not as a word form. Who'd you talk to? (J. and future tenses. where the prop-word ones is a direct object. However. The analytical way of form building is productive in Modern English. Does he work hard? .: I'd like a pound of apples. does not mean that the first component in the analytical form is an 'empty' word. e. Cf: I've got a cousin who lives in Athens (M. Murphy). for analytical forms go back to free word combinations. others still preserve their original lexical meanings to a certain extent. Contraction is to be found in the forms of the present. perfect phase. Murphy).: Are you listening to the radio? — Yes.g. Rogovskaya hold that the first component in the analytical form has no lexical meaning.

In view of the fact that contracted auxiliary verbs render grammatical meaning and are not autonomous. has become an affix supplying information regarding tense. aspect.D.: Charlie's helping Phoebe sort out the computer (B.better . always comprise a vowel. all the predicative categories find their expression in the nominal component. the predicative category of person — usually in the nominal component. short answers to general questions.: The gas has gone out (H.Frankly. 2. Hall). 1. e. in affirmative general questions. In sentences with full forms of auxiliary verbs.: Where 've I been since supperl (T. and other verbal categories to the whole sentence.: go — w ent — gone. According to V. the question arises if they can be regarded as traditional inflectional morphemes.g. Contracted auxiliary verbs are separated from the nominal component by an apostrophe. Pinter). Does your sister still live in Canada? — Yes. Barren. Contracted auxiliary verbs are not autonomous: they are joined to the preceding nominal component by an apostrophe. words are autonomous. the predicative categories of modality and tense are expressed in the verbal component. e. Thus. Cf. and interrogative pronouns. In our opinion. In Russian. and tag-questions. However. 3. haveyoul (M. too. In sentences with contracted forms of auxiliary verbs.g. According to A. including function words. Since all English words.e. If they fully coincide in their lexical meaning. What is more. O'Neill). But they are less frequent than contracted auxiliary verbs with personal pronouns. D. different roots constitute suppletive forms on the following conditions. the occurrence of a similar sound in the nominal component makes the auxiliary verb contraction highly improbable.I.S Gardner). over time. I'd just as soon not go into details (J.g. What's going on here"? (H. Contracted auxiliary verbs cannot form new grammatical forms of the nominal component because they belong to different parts of speech.g.: good . That kid's got talent (S. contracted forms of auxiliary verbs cannot be regarded as words. contracted auxiliary verb forms are not used if the nominal component ends in the same sound. The use of contracted auxiliary verbs brings about a significant redistribution of predicative categories in the English sentence.: Have the police been hereyetl (E. because it is usually impossible to pronounce the resultant sound combination. With some indefinite. Smirnitsky. You haven't met my wife. Gardner). Foley. we find it possible to qualify them as grammatical morphemes. Traditional inflectional morphemes create word forms (or grammemes). e.1. Suppietive Forms Suppletive forms go back to different roots. Williams).S. the auxiliary verb. The morphemic status of contracted auxiliary verbs seems indisputable. Someone's comin' out (E. The only exception to the rule is the auxiliary verb do in the present indefinite. Traditional inflectional morphemes form an organic whole with the base of the word. This is a peculiarity of the English language. When opening general questions in colloquial speech.With some adverbs introducing direct questions. According to J. Salinger). Buzarov. e.With proper names and other nouns. instead of saying Do you have any of the letter si (E. we can say D'you have any of the letters! The contraction of a finite auxiliary verb results in its losing a vowel. Finite auxiliary verbs are generally not abbreviated when they are stressed. it can sometimes be contracted.: What'd" he do? .g. i.g. 23 22 . e. Pinter).best. Gutcheon). Heym).V. only the verbal component can render all the predicative categories. Swan). We suggest that contracted auxiliary verbs should be called specific grammatical morphemes. negative. e. she does (M.

better . The morphological principle would have been invulnerable if all the languages had been inflected and if all the words belonging 25 . A.: good . Parts of Speech as Morphological Categories In the epoch of universal grammars constructed on the basis of the inflected Latin language. 'No language can be found with one grammatical person or one case. When there are at least two constant grammatical forms of expressing the grammatical meaning in question. the grammatical category of tense is a property of the verb. and suppletive forms cannot be synonymous with non-suppletive formations.seen (Participle II). which is non-suppletive. etc. Conditions of Singling Out Grammatical Categories Grammatical categories are singled out on the following conditions. big . they must be lexically identical. Cf. 1. e. e. That's why A.nicest. Evans).: Where are the children? . i. Smirnitsky writes apropos of this. some regard people as a suppletive plural from person. In the second place. Bondarko regards the grammatical category not only as a system but also as a property.e. 3. 24 2. One person or one case is nothing but the absence of the grammatical category of person and case in the language. For instance.better . Nevertheless.seeing (Participle I) . the forms good .best are qualified as suppietive degrees of comparison of the adjective good because the English language has a great number of adjectives that form degrees of comparison nonsuppjetively. As to suppletive forms. parts of speech were regarded as morphological categories. Every grammatical category must be represented by at least two forms.V.' In other words. while classifying words into parts of speech. PARTS OF SPEECH There are different approaches to classifying words into parts of speech. Thus. linguists took into consideration only their morphological characteristics. If there are no synonymous non-suppletive forms to express the same grammatical meaning. In the case of to see (infinitive) .g. we also deal with forms of one word. Tfjey always play football after school (V.g.goodest do not exist. grammatical categories represent systems of grammemes with homogeneous generalized grammatical meaning. The meanings of a higher and the highest degree of the given quality can be conveyed only by suppletive forms. more than oneness . Isolated grammatical forms do not constitute grammatical categories because the grammatical category is the genera! in the particular. If other words of the same category have non-suppletive forms to express the same grammatical meaning. we speak about the grammatical category of aspect in verbs because its generalized grammatical meaning of showing the way in which the action develops is usually expressed in two ways: continuous and noncontinuous forms.in the singular. 2. True. Smirnitsky draws the conclusion that people is not a suppletive plural from person. English nouns have no suppletive forms. 4. the opposition of the singular and the plural numbers (a pen -pens) lies at the basis of the grammatical category of number because both forms comprise numerical characteristics: oneness .bigger .The three forms have the same meaning of moving.in the plural. Thus. a property of a certain part of speech. A.I.I. the grammatical category of number is a property of the noun.best.They are playing football. etc.: nice — nicer . the noun people has a collective meaning that is alien to the noun person. 3. The nonsuppletive forms *gooder .biggest. For instance. When the generalized grammatical meaning is to be found in this or that modification in all the constituents. When the generalized grammatical meaning has constant grammatical forms of its expression. persons. they cannot be regarded as constituting a specific grammatical category since they do not possess any grammatical meaning characteristic of all the three members. But the noun person has another plural form.

taking function as a starting point. John's. is far more universal than the morphological principle. The words that might substitute the word concert. it was first applied to the classification of words by A. should be regarded as words of Class I (traditionally called nouns). Three in three of us is a noun-numeral. H. Fries).: in a melting voice (A. Fries). Fries): no. e.: The concert was very good (Ch.M. are and were (Class II).g. Group B . too. e. my in my book.. Hornby. As for verbals. incapable of inflection (adverbs. those that might substitute the word was .as words of Class IT (traditionally called verbs). those that might substitute the word there .: / wanted to go. this. interjections). on the other. there are analytical languages.as words of Class III (traditionally called adjectives). Parts of Speech as Syntactic Categories The syntactic principle. such as English. Group A . rather.g. But alongside of inflected languages. e.the words that can stand in the position of and in the sentence The concert and the lectures are and were interesting and profitable now and earlier (Ch. Fries finds it possible to single out 15 Groups of function words. Group E . etc. Fries singles out four main positions in the English sentence. Group C . The syntactic (or functional) principle is consistently applied to the classification of words by American structural linguists. but we haven't decided for certain yet (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). capable of inflection (nouns.g. he could not help noticing that not all words are functionally homogeneous. Sweet. True. must. Cf. Fries's four classes comprise the bulk of the vocabulary.the words that can occur in the position of very immediately before a Class III word: quite. etc. A. they represent a class of words intermediate between verbs. Fries): might. in his opinion.the word not. verbs).g. Adjective-verbals comprise participles. Having divided parts of speech into declinable. Gimson).e. and indeclinable. e.e.P. they. A. e. rather than. Analyzing the sentence The concert •was good there. Cowie. The same is true of numerals. interesting and profitable (Class HI). the coincidence is not complete. In English. those that might substitute the word good .the words that can occur in the position of may in the sentence The concert may be good there (Ch. In Russian.g. The representatives of the American linguistic school have made the 26 notion of syntactic function more precise by identifying it with a fixed position in the sentence. or. now and earlier (Class IV).the words that can occupy the position of the definite article in the sentence The concert was good there (Ch. Ch. Ch. 27 . while others function as adjectives. and nouns and adjectives.as words of Class IV (traditionally called adverbs). Ch. At the same time. Fries). The concert was not good (Ch. They serve as markers of Class I words. Thus.. Traditionally they are called coordinators. that in that man. We're thinking of going to France for our holidays. in three men -an adjective-numeral. etc. while verbs of sense perception stand outside the category of aspect (they are generally not used in the continuous aspect). there are a lot of words in every part of speech that lack all or at least some of its paradigms. I. but she wanted to stay (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). nor. fairly. Only a very few words make up this group: and. will. etc. with poorly developed morphologies. They serve as markers of Class II words. prepositions. could. i. Thus. elements of the syntactic principle are used by the founder of English grammar. Group D . etc.C. each. most abstract nouns and relative adjectives are morphologically invariable. conjunctions. Peshkovsky.to this or that part of speech had shared its typical morphological categories. but. All the words of this group stand only between words of the same class: the concerts and the lectures (Class I).S. adjectives. their. can. On the other hand. would. They do not express predication but keep all the other meanings and grammatical functions of the verb from which they are formed. Noun-verbals comprise infinitives and gerunds. some pronouns function as nouns. on the one hand. i.

regard parts of speech as lexico-gramrnatical categories. e. No. Fries).g. listen. Fries). nouns occur in the functions of all parts of the sentence). This conception seems to be the most convincing. function.the word there: There is a man at the door (Ch. The only trouble is that the three mentioned criteria do not always point the same way. They operate as signals of question sentences.Group F .S. there is no gainsaying the fact that some morphologically non-marked words are unmistakably referred to this or that part of speech even when taken in isolation. a step forward in comparison. all linguists will qualify it as a noun. It is not surprising for. Look. Fries).: Let's do the invitations right away (Ch. Fries). and even nouns in the 28 genitive case). Why. the majority of linguists. e. Fries). However. SCerba. i. But they lack the most typical morphological categories of nouns .case and number.the words look.: Please take these two letters (Ch. one and the same part of speech can perform different functions (e.the words that can stand in the position of at in the sentence The concerts at the school are at the top (Ch. The words of Group F are generally followed by Class I words but may be preceded by words of Class I. I just wish you both could see it (Ch. they are. etc. Group N . Group O .g. and why that occur very frequently at the beginning of response utterance units.the words yes and no.g. Thus. It follows from it that meaning is a most important factor in classifying words into parts of speech. now. Oh. Fries). Tn my opinion. he's not here now (Ch. A. Fries). Group K — the words well. on the one hand. Let us take such units as the rich and the poor.g. Group G . i. almost all parts of speech are registered in the function of the subject). As is seen from the composition of the four classes and fifteen groups of words.the words used in the position of when in the sentence When was the concert good? (Ch. Class II. This conception is. Fries). Fries). or Class III. one and the same function can be fulfilled by different parts of speech (for example. Parts of Speech as Lexico-Gratnmatical Categories The Dutch linguist O. everything should be kept in view: form. they are called prepositions.the words that stand in the position of after in the sentence The orchestra was good after the new director came (Ch. Fries's classification of pans of speech often unites into one class heterogeneous phenomena (e. e. Now. I want to ask you two questions (Ch.e. The boys do/did not do their -workpromptly (Ch. Fries). Fries). used as attention-getting signals. Group A includes pronouns. Semantically (they have the meaning of 'thingness') and functionally (they can perform the functions of subject and object). adjectives. Fries). certainly. on hearing just one invariable word r. Group L . it would be nice if you would (Ch. do it your own way (Ch.g. writes L. did you get any shoes? (Ch. V.g.aKady but knowing that it is the name of a bird. Jespersen was one of the first to postulate the necessity of a three-fold approach to the classification of words into parts of speech. The words of Group J introduce dependent clauses.: Yes. they take into account both their morphological and syntactic characteristics. Group M . 29 . Traditionally. He writes. on the other hand.g. Fries). Barkhudarov define pans of speech as grammatical categories. oh.e. and meaning/ Nowadays. Fries). Parts of Speech as Grammatical Categories A. Group I . I have another suit (Ch.: Well. does. Reformatsky and L. did: Do/Did the boys do their work promptly1? (Ch. certainly. I know (Ch.the word do that appears in various forms: do. e. with the one-sided morphological and syntactic interpretations. numerals. say. both in Russia and abroad. Fries). in the absence of both morphological and syntactic characteristics.: Listen.the form let's that turns a request sentence into a request or proposal that includes the speaker. Group H . e. Fries). Ch.the word please in request sentences. Group J . nouns.

A typical noun has singular. adverbs .V. Tne little boy's eyes grew round with delight (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) . Sunik gives examples of nouns whose generalized meaning of 'thingness' has nothing to do with concrete things. part-of-speech meaning is lexical.properties of things. form. On the other hand. etc. verbs . information (which is invariable and cannot be preceded by the indefinite article) and Sarah (which does not normally occur in the plural or combine with articles). The syntactic criterion is not reliable either because many of the same orthographic words (orthographic words are word forms separated by spaces in written text) can function as different parts of speech. Primary meanings are basic and etymologically prior to secondary meanings. Recently. 2) morphological . But what about the periphery? The absence of what noun properties shifts a noun into the periphery of the class of nouns and the absence of what noun properties changes the nature of the noun completely and places it in the periphery of some other part of speech? In other words. Such nouns are boy. O. Cf.: table. The peripheral phenomena are those that lack some characteristics of the given part of speech or have a number of features of another part of speech but still belong to the given part of speech. The thing that raises doubts is the nature of part-of-speech meaning. Those language units that comprise all the characteristic features of a part of speech constitute the centre of the part of speech. processes. Thus. one should regard parts of speech not as boxes with clear-cut boundaries. plural. while part-of-speech meaning is rather abstract. or function is the most important in the process of differentiating parts of speech? The use of the morphological criterion is limited by the fact that there are a lot of languages in the world that have few or no morphological forms at all. it is lexical because it appears on the basis of the concrete lexical meanings of the words constituting the part of speech in question.preposition. after all? To answer this question. Cf. dog. actions. the centre of the lexico-grammatical field of nouns is constituted by those nouns that have all the characteristic properties of nouns: 1) semantic . 3) syntactic — can perform the functions of subject and/or object.: beauty. adjectives . We sat round the table (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). They are usually found in words that denote concrete things. etc. there appeared a tendency to regard part-of-speech meaning as purely grammatical. red. To prove his theory.adverb. e.The Field Structure of Parts of Speech As the authors of the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English put it. it is grammatical because. knowledge. but as formations with a compact core and a gradual transition into a diffuse periphery. it does not create words as such.properties of actions and processes. In view of it. Skrebnev.have the categories of case and number. or some other entity. run. which of the three criteria: meaning. one should bear in mind that parts of speech have primary and secondary meanings. On the one hand. L. Scerba's analysis of the word xamdy has proved quite convincingly that in classifying words into parts of speech meaning is most important.e. The field has a fence all round (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) . it can be preceded by the definite or the indefinite article. nouns can be more or less 'nouny'. primary meanings of parts of speech are lexicogrammatical. and it typically refers to a person or thing.adjective. But lexical meaning is always more or less concrete.M. it only accompanies the lexical meaning of words. . and genitive forms.actions and processes.: Put a little round of butter on each steak (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) . Cf. as opposed to lexical meaning proper.g. etc. Yet in the class of nouns we regularly include words that have only some of the features characteristic of nouns. Practically everybody agrees that nouns denote 'thingness'. what is part-of-speech meaning. etc.P. The Nature of Part-of-Speech Meaning According to Y.denote 'thingness'. part-of-speech meaning is looked upon as lexico-grammatical. i. and properties.noun. So. Traditionally.

30 31 .

the meaning of process in the adjectival verb soften. so lucky (D. .: her gold watch (D.Head of phrase. At the first stage.by substituting nouns and adjectives. crab .verb phrase. or indicating the way in which a lexical or larger unit is to be interpreted. Function words are characteristically short and lack internal structure.Stress. adjectives. 2.e.S.) .e. Numerals render the above-mentioned meanings through a quantitative characteristic. and those denoting non-things (or properties). all words are divided into those denoting things. Lexical words are the main carriers of meaning in a text.with the suffix -ish. and have no syntactic independence in the sentence. 2)regular word formation processes. Lexical words can be the heads of phrases.Secondary meanings are the result of a much higher degree of abstraction.e. etc. lexical words are generally stressed. bird . Biber et al.) . Cf. 5.g. function words are usually unstressed.S. nouns. Length.gossipee. 32 1. parts of speech are classified into notional (nouns. very quickly (D. In speech. 4. i. The two main avenues for the introduction of new members are: 1)borrowing from other languages (as with the noun sputnik. Biber et al. the meaning of property in the verbal adjective irritable. Closed classes are highly restricted in membership.Lexical meaning.birdish. i. True. Many Russian linguists nowadays deny the existence of structural parts of speech because they only possess a certain generalized grammatical meaning of relation. Openness. i. pronouns .adverb phrase. i. Notional and Structural Parts of Speech Traditionally. 6. adjectives . structural parts of speech . while open classes have very large numbers of members. Kubryakova thinks that the essence of parts of speech lies in different relations of words to extra linguistic reality. The latter also fall into two sub-groups: non-temporal properties of nouns.adjective phrase. but lack all the other properties of parts of speech: they do not name anything. function words serve two major roles: indicating relationships between lexical words or larger units.function words. adjectives.e. Lexical words form open classes of words. Parts of Speech as Onomaseotogical Categories E. As a rule. and adverbs . verbs — with the suffix -ize. Open classes are so called because they readily accommodate the addition of new members. adverbs.Morphology.crabwise. e.). Lexical words may take inflections that distinguish different grammatical forms of the same lexical unit. Kubryakova has worked out a multi-stage classification of parts of speech. adverbs) and structural (prepositions. Cf. can see (D. function words cannot be the heads of phrases.with the suffix -wise. i. They differentiate them on the following grounds.e. function words are members of closed classes. Most English grammarians stick to the classification of parts of speech into notional and structural. verbs. Words expressing properties are subjected to further analysis into those denoting temporal properties. Function words are generally invariable. are morphologically invariable. for example). we can easily form new nouns with the suffix -ee. verbs. and non-temporal properties of verbs. They call notional parts of speech lexical words. Some call them 'particles of speech'. etc. E. they use other terms. Biber et al. 3. Lexical words may consist of a single morpheme. Cf: gossip . and those denoting non-temporal properties. They generally iose the connection with concrete images and can be qualified as grammatical. Biber et al. period ~ periodize. conjunctions. but they are often more complex in structure. Function words have no lexical meaning: they provide the mortar that binds the text together. in the onomaseological aspect.) .: the meaning of 'thingness' in the verbal noun opposition.noun phrase.) .

e. nylon.A third avenue for adding to the membership of a class. very rarely used in comparison with the other two. which was coined in the 1930's.g. is the creation of a new simple stem from the phonological resources of the language. 33 .

5) response elicitors. But there is no doubt that they play an important role in conversation. or by punctuation marks in writing.: Let's go and see Pip. Biber et al.Right. regarding) and sequences of orthographic words (e. They characteristically carry emotional and interactional meanings and are especially frequent in conversation. 2)greetings and farewells. In addition to lexical arid function words. ukhuh.g. . 10) apologies. 35 . the adjective has become an uninflected part of speech except for the category of degrees of comparison in qualitative adjectives. makes the boundaries of parts of speech rather vague since it is very difficult to say which word combinations have already turned into word equivalents and which have not. As with function words. please.: Hey look . For instance.: Not West Italy? ~ Well.I. ugh. and adverbs varies greatly in frequency and is bound to the topic of the text. feminine. Biber et al. and instrumental. Function words are frequent and tend to occur in any text. According to NJ.g. e. e.). e. e. e. Inserts sometimes have a deviant phonological structure. but are inserted rather freely in the text. and three degrees of comparison: positive. verbs. semantical!}'.). Inserts are more marginal than lexical words and function words. genitive. etc. 8)thanks. They are often marked off by intonation. by contrast. 7. e. Other types of inserts can be created rather freely.g. 4) attention signals. What Language Units Do We Classify into Parts of Speech ? Traditionally. are highly resistant to the addition of new members. Rome was suggested (A Corpus of English Conversation). dative. the adjective in Old English had three genders: masculine. I mean. They do not form an integral part of a syntactic structure. accusative.Closed classes. 34 11) expletives. inserts are generally invariable. But while the development of new function words is a very slow process that may take centuries. Frequency.) or of an invariable lexicalized sequence (you know. come over here in about twenty-five minutes. the creation of new lexical words may be instantaneous. It can indeed be doubted whether some of the forms in our conversation should be recognized as words at all. Biber et al. 6) responses. no.g. two numbers: singular and plural.). we can do this (D. on account of). whereas the occurrence of individual nouns.g.: Oh Jesus. Lyatina. the authors of the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English single out inserts. five cases: nominative.g. it is only words that are classified into parts of speech. and superlative. Ididn !t know it was that cold (D. Biber et al. word combinations can be referred to parts of speech.). Development of Parts of Speech The category of parts of speech is slowly but constantly changing. If we are to describe spoken language adequately. The authors of the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English refer to inserts: 1)interjections. on condition that they are grammatically. 3)discourse markers.g.: Pat. Rojsenson and A. greetings.M. okay! (D. etc. and response words yes and no.Okay (D. comparative. too. pauses. Avaliany. adjectives. Inserts contain some sub-groups that are more or less closed. etc.g. we need to pay more attention to them than has traditionally been done. Inserts are a relatively newly recognized category of word. L. we may find that new prepositions develop out of verb forms (e. e. and neuter. Thus. This conception. farewells. 7) hesitators. e. Francis).g.that's the way to do it (D. excuse me. 9)the politeness marker please'. however.g. In Modern English.: hm. and phraseologically equivalent to words. They may consist of a single morpheme (yes.: Oh this 'II be a good idea! . though the term 'closed' should not be taken to imply that expansion is strictly impossible.).

2. and the evenings were long and happy. nouns fall under the following types. Walk (v) — Let's go for a walk (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). on the other hand. chair. 1. the prefix is attached to a noun base to form a new noun with a different meaning. b) generalized grammatical secondary meaning of'thingness'.and sub-. 36 Simple nouns have neither prefixes nor suffixes. e.: table..g. i. e.g. (S.Functions: a) subject. 3. A reason why derivational prefixes are less productive than derivational suffixes is perhaps that many of them are of Greek origin.:joy..: book.: group . Williams). The noun often acquires more specific meanings with conversion. (S. d) prepositive articles and other determiners. Syntactic . MorphologicaJ Structure. etc.D. however.. It is noticeable that the two most productive prefixes are in fact Latinate ones: co. effective (adj) — effectiveness (n). Cf. e.e. b)derived. Although derivational suffixes are characterized by a higher frequency of occurrence than derivational prefixes.could be due to the fact that they arrived in English more recently and are frequently used nowadays to create new lexical items. Cf. There are.g. e. e.S.. there is also zero derivation (or conversion). whereas almost all the suffixes are of Romance or native Germanic origin. the extent to which they are used to build new words. Fitzgerald). Sheldon).: Father decided to take a holiday from his office. THE NOUN General Characteristics The English noun is a pan of speech that is characterized by the following features. e) prepositions.: infant (n) — infancy. e. often change the word class. table. pencil. the suffix is often attached to a verb or adjective base to form a noun with a different meaning. etc. a)simple.g. Noun derivational prefixes typically do not change the word class.S... mono-. b) adjectives. b) object.g.: agree (v) — agreement (n). Cpmbinabijity with: a) verbs.e. 4. lamp. also many nouns that are derived by suffixes from other nouns.: Wait a minute (E. Adjectives and verbs may be converted to nouns. (n). pen. e. (J. e. The productivity of the Greek prefixes hyper-. etc. milk. I saw it in the Chicago newspaper (F.subgroup.g. Apart from derivation by affixes. both in preposition and in postposition. peace.C. Noun derivational suffixes.e. Hemingway). polysyllable. c)compound. both in the genitive and in the common case. Cf.. and poly. Meaning: a) generalized lexi co-grammatical primary meaning of 'thingness'.g. Murdoch). (W. Mori).5. there are 37 .g. Leacock).: . As far as their morphological structure is concerned. don't you? (J.g. Affixes vary in frequency and productivity. Cheever). i. t. My heart sank a little (W. usually in preposition. c) prepositive nouns.: She was a beautiful girl.g..: He read a letter from his wife to me (T.: He closed the door ..g. Hale). lamp. chair. Biber et aL). because Robert's father was there (N. e...g.: hyperinflation.: cochairman. Maugham). The father tried his best. monosyllable. mainly in specialized scientific areas. Noun derivational prefixes are considerably less frequent and less productive than noun derivational suffixes. sub-committee. e.. i. The door closed (I. Cf: White (adj) — You could see the whites of his eyes (D. Salinger). e.: You love your parents. Derived nouns have either a prefix or a suffix or both.

e. The Stoics restricted the use of the term 'case1 to noun paradigms. When a noun is used for the sake of address. 'Noun + noun compounds' are the most productive type structurally. derivational affixes are by far the most productive in academic prose. B. genitive. as opposed to inflected Latin. Compounds are over twice as frequent in news than in conversation. case is usually regarded as a morphological form of a declinable word used to express a certain meaning or to denote a certain relation to other words [C. both nouns and verbs had cases. etc. 5. e. J. development. Number of Cases Linguists are still at variance as to the number of cases in Modern English.T.e. it is said to be in the nominative case. the greater variety of compound patterns in news fits in with the tendency of this register to use a more varied vocabulary. vocative.: 39 38 . for the overall frequency of nouns in conversation is much smaller than in news. Modem English is an analytical language. But English has its own peculiarities that should not be disregarded. Thus. -ism. property. too.: eye-witness. Cf. This definition does not stand criticism: being a linguistic notion. e. they apply the Latin system to the English language. realism.: Rainfalls (J. income.C. What is more.extensive differences in the productivity of noun derivational suffixes. When a noun is used as subject. Nesfield).Categones.C. situation. vocative. outfit. case cannot connect objects of extra linguistic reality. etc. according to Aristotle. e. accusative.noun and those beginning or ending with a particle. In his opinion. i. In English. case is a category of the noun expressing relations between the thing denoted by the noun and another thing. they understood it differently then. For example. Ilyish gives another definition. and dative remarking at the same time that the genitive is the only case that is now indicated by change of form.: newspaper. education.Mprphplo^cal. Nowadays. one unbroken orthographic word. bigwig. Nouns that possess a generalized lexico-grammatical primary meaning of 'thingness' and are consequently placed in the centre of the noun field have the morphological categories of case and number. e. Nesfield mentions 5 cases: nominative. They were the first to call them 'nominative.A. It is not surprising. cookbook. rocking-chair. Representatives of universal grammar speak of 6 cases. and instrumental'. writer.: ability. it is said to be in the vocative case.g.: action. Partly this is because there is no clear dividing line between compounds and free combinations.: highway. genitive. communication. The Category of Case Definition of Case The notion of case goes back to Ancient Greece. darkness. or action.g. i.g. feedback. dative. accusative. and -ment are relatively productive. or a hyphenated word. self-control. The other cases have lost their case inflections and are indicated only by grammatical relation. Practice varies as to whether to represent a compound as two orthographic words. -er.g. compounding is a highly productive process.g. In compound nouns two or more than two words are combined to form a single noun.g. However. Onions]. The next most common types of compounds are those consisting of adjective 4. operation. Since in academic discussions frequent reference is made to abstract concepts that usually find their expression in derived abstract nouns. lamp-post. etc. e. e. Aristotle defined cases as deviations from names and verbs due to the logically dependent position in the sentence. The derivational suffixes -ity. The suffix -ion is by far the most productive. -ness.

Curme.Every grammatical category should comprise a limited number of members. These cases did exist in Old English. genitive.: Mary took the money (M. dative. When a noun is an indirect object.Are you coming. nor dative exist in Modern English because there are no formal distinctions between them. nor vocative.g. Whitehall single out 3 cases in Modern English nouns by analogy with case forms of personal pronouns: nominative. When a noun is a direct object. e. Rogovskaya deny their existence on the following grounds. it is said to be in the dative case. Vince. 3.g. there are 4 cases in Modern English: nominative. Khaimovich and B. Bryant and H. Nesfield). McNicholas). however. e. nor accusative. However. it is different.S. too. M. it is debatable. 1. According to G. Nesfieid).C. Jespersen). In the course of time. With prepositional constructions. case is a morphological category. K.I. genitive.: 1 gave the boy a penny (J. and accusative coincided in one form that is opposed nowadays to the inflected genitive.Analytical forms are generally singled out as opposed to synthetic forms.: the house of your neighbour = your neighbour's house (O. and we would be merely creating the illusion of classification. and accusative. and objective. If we stick to the definition of case as a morphological category. the original nominative. There is much subjectivity in the choice of prepositions. If we referred prepositional combinations to case forms. e. dative. B. and word order is a syntactic factor. Curme thinks that the relations that were earlier expressed by special case inflections are now indicated by word order and prepositional combinations. 40 Pronouns: Nouns: . As for the theory of the so-called analytical cases that consist of a preposition and a noun.g. the number of cases would grow immensely. 2. But G.C. They are often synonymous with the so-called synthetic cases. it is said to be in the accusative case. my friend"? (J. we shall have to admit that neither nominative.

: Suddenly the weather changed (L. He touched my hand (G. What is more.S. The common case is unmarked both in meaning and in form.. The grocer gave the baby a stick of candy . It has a very general meaning that is specified by means of word order and prepositions and that may be characterized only negatively as a non-genitive form. A.attribute.I. Smirnitsky puts forth the following arguments. Garland) -non-prepositional indirect object. Cf.The group of personal pronouns is rather small. Genitive Case Form of the Genitive Case The genitive case is marked both in meaning and in form.: 41 . The regular way of forming the genitive case of singular nouns is by adding 's. That's why it is doubtful that the case system of personal pronouns could influence the case system of nouns. 2. MacLeverty) .predicative. He had not seen Mabel for seven years (W. Nouns in the common case can perform any syntactic function in the sentence.Nouns and personal pronouns belong to different parts of speech. Garland) -prepositional indirect object. nouns lack special inflections for the nominative and the objective. The majority of linguists recognize the existence of 2 cases in Modern English: common and genitive.subject. He was a shy man (B.. e. Untermeyer) . 1.Nominative he man Genitive his man's Objective him ma Criticizing this point of view.g. Hail did not ask about her affairs (H. Mrs. She's in the souvenir shop (English Course) .direct object. (H. Maugham) -adverbial. Jones) . It is represented by a zero exponent.

Possessive genitive. the genitive case is restricted to the following nouns. In Old English. Quirk et al. 3.). Quirk et al. That's why A.). Greenbaum). e.).: the general's letter —> The general wrote a letter (R. Lawrence).)5. e. Quirk et al.g.S. the genitive case had a wide range of meanings. e. denoting a period of time.g. the genitive case was freely formed from all nouns. Smirnitsky suggests that the genitive case should be called the possessive case. but such transformations can be regarded only as quasi transformations [Z. Quirk et al.g. 4. Lawrence). both abroad and in this country. 1.: Mrs. Collective nouns.g.). 5. 2. Johnson has a passport (R.g. 2.: the horse's tail (R. No wonder that L. There are two ways of forming the genitive case of plural nouns.: Nick's school (L.My sister's little girl fell downstairs (J. in particular those denoting 'higher animals'. For example. Harris] because they do not give an opportunity to clearly formulate the rules of generating constructions with the genitive case.: the government's economic plans (R. Personal nouns. 7. Objective genitive.: Kennedy's assassination —» Somebody assassinated Kennedy (S. The semantic classification. Barkhudarov sometimes finds it difficult to name the kerne! sentence from which the construction with the genitive case has been derived.g. (D. Quirk et al. Quirk et al. If the plural ends in -s. we add 's.). 6.g. countries: China's development (R.S. Cheever). indicating the doer of the action. Animal nouns. e. e. Meaning of the Genitive Case The central meaning of the genitive case is that of possession.). Genitive of source. e. 3. Cf. Quirk et al. The distance is a Barkhudarov).g.: Even grandmothers' dreams don't always come true.: ten days' absence —> The absence lasted ten days (R. 43 a mile's distance 42 . Australia's exports —» the exports that come from Australia (S. Nevertheless. Quirk et al.: a women's college —»• a college for women (R. Barkhudarov). is in part arbitrary. Nick's school could be transformed into Nick goes to school.g. we just add an apostrophe. establishing the identity of the referent.).g. indicating the object of the action. 4. the scope of meanings of the genitive case has narrowed. Subjective genitive. Quirk etal.: Vinny would inherit her mother's money (D.S.: the boy's new bicycle (R. Quirk et al. Of course. Types of Nouns Used in the Genitive Case (L.g. e. which emphasize the aspect of 'organized individuals1. Nowadays.. however. linguists. mention several semantic types of the genitive case. e. Quirk et al.).: George Washington's statue (R. The meaning of possession. Temporal genitive. denoting such relationships as authorship and origin. In Old English. Equational genitive. Geographical names: continents: Europe's future (R. 1.). In Modern English. one could claim that cow's milk is not a genitive of origin (milk from a cow) but a subjective genitive (The cow provided the milk}. e. Personal names. Genitive of destination.H. Johnson's passport —» Mrs.). Greenbaum). Quirk et al.I.). Quirk et al.g.g. e. e.). e. Quirk and his co-authors.: the people's choice —» The people chose (S. the dog's collar (R. e. Greenbaum). is not the only meaning of the genitive case. the committee's decision (R. If the plural does not end in -s.H. in the opinion of R.: The children's toys are new (R. in particular those denoting authoritative and other organizational bodies..

Quirk et al. e. the novel's structure (R. Quirk et al. cities and towns: London's water supply (R.). varies depending upon a number of factors.: the world's economy (R. Quirk et al. Quirk et al. The frequency of o/phrases represents the current state of a historical shift towards of that has been ongoing ever since Old English.: the roof of this house (R. Use of the Genitive Case Other independent genitives have become conventional. the genitive case fails under dependent and independent. Let s have dinner at Tiffany's (R. Quirk et al. Quirk et al. Other nouns of 'special relevance to human activity'.). Quirk et al. heavenly bodies. Quirk et al. Register.).: a day's work(R.C. Gates). News has by far the highest frequency of the ^-genitive. Quirk and his co-authors call them local independent genitives. the play's philosophy (R.).). and they need no supporting noun head in the context.).).). today's payer (R. R.).states: Maryland's Democratic senator (R. e. bars. the poll's results (R. a word's function (R.). (he hotel's entrance (R. the Club !s pianist (R. duty's call (R.). Quirk et al. according to the authors of the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Quirk et al. the most important of which are: register. Quirk et al. Quirk et ai. shops. 8.). Many independent genitives involve ellipsis. Quirk et al. and specific collocations. etc.). Mary's was the prettiest dress (R. the book's true importance (R.). and other places. 7. where inflected genitive predominated. Quirk et a!. Temporal nouns.). but still rare compared with dependent genitives. the head noun can be inferred either from the preceding or from the following context. Quirk et al. Quirk et al.). Quirk et al.g. Quirk et al. Quirk et al.g.: My car is faster than John's (R. Conversation makes the most frequent use of independent genitives. universities: Harvard's Department of Linguistics (R. Cf. They generally refer to people's homes.). e. semantic relations between head and the dependent phrase. e.). (he school's history (R. Quirk et al.). / bought these buns at the baker's (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Dependent genitives are used with the nouns they modify and come before them. 6. Local independent genitives are more frequent. and are often written with initial capital letters. Locative nouns denoting regions. firms. I'm going to the dentist's (R. Quirk et al. the body's needs (R. Quirk et af. my life's aim (R. the treaty's ratification (R. Independent genitives reflect the greater simplicity of phrases in conversation. Quirk et al. the complexity of the dependent phrase. They can be very similar to geographical names. Quirk et al. a moment's thought (R. The low frequency of j-genitives in academic prose in 45 .). television's future (R. The (^phrase is normally used with inanimate concrete nouns. The choice between the i'-genitive and the q^phrase.g. e. Independent genitives occur without a following head noun.g. Quirk et al. the information status of the dependent phrase.). restaurants. Choice between S-Genitives and Of-Phrases As to its use. presumably because it represents a good way of compressing information. The far greater frequency of ey^phrases in all registers may be due to the fact that postmodification produces a less dense and more transparent means of expression.: He stared at his aunt's face (J.: the mind's development (R.). Quirk et al. 44 The genitive meaning can be rendered by a noun as head of a prepositional phrase with of.). Elliptical independent genitives are relatively rare in all registers.).g. Cf. Quirk et al. the type of dependent noun. S-genitives are outnumbered by o/-phrases in all registers.). institutions. In elliptical genitives.).: We 'H meet at Bill's (R.).

_dependent. several. an opera of Verdi's (R.g.head.pX. e. .).). The double genitive is far less common than corresponding constructions with possessive pronouns. Double Genitive The double genitive is a special construction in which the independent genitive occurs in an of-phrase.part reflects the suojcC* .. some friends of Jim's (R. for heaven 's sake.). namely the information principle. The choice agrees with one of the main ordering principles at the clause level.. Quirk et al..). one generally makes use of the ^-genitive. For the corresponding constructions with possessive pronouns there is no such alternative: a friend of hers —> *a friend of her (D. following the head noun. Plural nouns are generally more likely to occur in e/-phrases than singular nouns.g. Biber et al.deE^4eQt. Cf. stating that new information should be distributed later in the clause. etc.g.). Biber et al. Semantic.. Neither can the head combine with the definite article.). y/parases... coming before the head noun.collocations. one usually resorts to an q^phrase.dependent. Thus.£feMe.g. out of harm 's way. Constructions with of plus a possessive pronoun are often alternatives to double genitives. 5-genitive constructions are used in one-word dependent phrases. The postmodifier in the double genitive must be definite and human.). Brown's Mary (R.relations. Genitives tend to occur in fixed collocations.^ S-genitives.... The. information.patter of academic prose. Biber et al.. Quirk et al. a friend of hers (D. Most typically. life's work. Quirk et al.: for God's sake.npun. while we can say Mrs.arid. Biber et a!.. Biber et al. of-phr&ses are commonly used in much longer dependent phrases....type. Quirk et al. e.: He is a good friend of my husband's (S. Quirk et al. Specific. Cf: a friend of Deborah's —*• a friend of Deborah (D.). e. In contrast..between_. for old time 's/times' sake. The. Nouns with human/personal reference tend to occur with the s-genitive rather than an o/-phrase.). are preferred for presenting new information.: Johnny's good idea instead of *the good idea of Johnny's (D.of.).^e.. Brown's (R. Nouns with inanimate concrete reference and abstract impersonal nouns tend to occur in an of-phrase rather than the ^-genitive.complexj^... Academic prose has by far the highest frequency of o/phrases because the postmodiiying structure makes it clear which words go together and opens up more possibilities of qualifying the dependent noun. The.: a friend of Deborah's (D. Cf. the head cannot be a proper noun. When the noun preceding the o/-phrase has definite reference. To render the meaning of possession and to denote the doer of an action. To indicate the object of an action. Quirk et al.. are generally preferred for presenting given information. e. The genitive with the word sake is particularly productive. we cannot say *Mary of Mrs. Cf: at death !s door. and the like. The construction with of plus a possessive pronoun is particularly common in fiction. That's why it is most typically preceded by the indefinite article if it is expressed by a common noun in the singular or by such words as some. As a consequence of the condition that the head must be indefinite.: a friend of the doctor's (R..). where human beings and relationships play a less important roie than in other registers. The head noun in the double genitive must be essentially indefinite. phrase.. the sgenitive would be used in preference to the double genitive. several pupils of his (R.... The low frequency of the double genitive may in part be due to the fact that it competes with ordinary postmodi tying q^-phrases. for goodness' sake. Gibbons).

. 3.The 's can be separated from the noun it modifies.N. are very few. often resort to the o/phrase to render the meaning of the genitive case. even those nouns. / sat at the foot of the bed. Quirk and his co-authors call it an 'enclitic postposition'. Deeping). he could see her shoulders' softness.. a minute or two's rest (B. 4.: that irritating habit of her father's (R.N. Russian: McuibvuKa ~ genitive singular. Vorontsova. Matthews]. . Cf..). Vorontsova's conception. Group Genitive Sometimes the genitive suffix is attached not to the head noun. but to the last word of a genitive phrase. the genitive case had been developing in the same way. but cases of the kind the University of Minnesota's President are not as ... Durrell). Cf. The group genitive is most common with of-phrases and coordinate phrases.).But the double genitive is commonly found with demonstratives. 3. although the possessive construction the king his head was alien to them.... What is more.One and the same inflection occurs both in the singular and in the plural only in nouns that form the plural in an irregular way. Here are his arguments. which do admit of the genitive case. Hanley). the clock's tick was as heavy as feet (J. Sometimes the 's refers to a whole group of words.genitive singular. The mysteries of storm and the rain and tide were revealed (J. except that it is placed after the noun phrase. Biber et al. and such nouns. An enclitic is an independent word in syntax that forms a phonological unit with the word that precedes it [P. (L. It is the so-called group genitive. The 's does not make an inseparable part of the structure of a word. The latter can be proved by comparing English with the Scandinavian languages.: . Evans) .. he challenged the house's silence (W. Vorontsova calls it 'a postposition' (noc&enoe).g. is parallel to that of a preposition. according to G. Vorontsova denies the existence of the genitive case in Modem English. . Galsworthy). as is well known. Quirk et al.: the Museum of Modern Art's Director (R.g.: From the corner of my eye I had seen something small and white fly from Julian's body (L.. A. / could not see the body of Julian.Although the use of the genitive case is relatively restricted in Modern English and the o/-phrase is very often used in the same sense. . With nouns denoting inanimate things and abstract notions. The use of the genitive case inflection 's is optional It generally occurs with reference to human beings. Linguistic Status of's G. the genitive case relation is rendered by the o/-phrase. which had very much in common.). 1. Cf. e.: The University of Minnesota^ President (R. In the Scandinavian languages.genitive plural. but to the formations of the kind the king his head. the inflected genitive can be formed from any noun. which is usually not to be found in other languages.. (E. Durrell).Historically. He looks upon the 's as a grammatical morpheme of case. Cf.).M. The genitive case inflection goes back not to the Old English genitive ~es.Its general meaning 'the relation of a noun to another word' is typical case meaning. e.. the 's goes back to the Old English genitive case inflection -es.g.: English: the man's hat (V. 2.I. R. She offers the following proofs. Lawrence). The function of the 's. Evans) .. 4. One and the same inflection ('s) is used both in the singular and in the plural. Hemingway).H. 1.genitive plural. 2. Quirk et al. Quirk et al. 5.N. (D. That's why G.N. e. Smirnitsky does not share G. the men's umbrellas (V.

they constitute only about 4%.S.numerous as those where the 's morpheme is attached to the noun it modifies. Rogovskaya.I. According to B. 48 49 . Khaimovich and B.

Quirk and his co-authors. where one and the same morph [z] would have to be regarded as a morpheme when rendering the grammatical meaning of the plural number and as a word when rendering the grammatical meaning of the genitive case. John opened the door with the key (Ch. e. Fillmore). On the one hand. It is windy in Chicago (ChJ. ChJ. e. Locative . according to which we cannot insert into the word any other word. Fillmore). 2. Vorontsova and say that the 's is a word. — The conjunctional combination or so is inserted between the head noun week and the 's. the group genitive is not normally acceptable when the postmodifi cation is a clause.g. Fillmore). More recent work has been directed toward the analysis of the case systems of different languages.the case of the object or being resulting from the action or state indicated by the verb. the 's is hardly a traditional morpheme. The boy's brother —» the boy who lives across the street's brother (A. this can be done. .: The key opened the door (Ch. the 's differs from English prepositions phonetically. Fillmore). The door was opened by John (Ch. Fillmore).the case of the animate being affected by the state or action indicated by the verb. e. case is not an element of the surface. the preceding sequence of elements would have to be looked upon as a compound word. for a traditional morpheme always makes part of a word. Fillmore singles out 7 semantic cases.In the English language. 5.S.J.).g.: John opened the door (ChJ. if the 's were a traditional morpheme. L. It was apparent to John that he would win (ChJ.N. The latter is absurd. 2. e. as A.L Smirnitsky thinks. A great deal of research. Quirk et al. Factitive . Finally. 51 .J. 1.g. all words comprise a vowel.If the 's were a word. Fillmore). Barkhudarov thinks that neither of the two interpretations is convincing. has been devoted to an understanding of the evolution of case notions and of case morphemes. word combination.J.: A week's sunshine —*• a week or so's sunshine (R.the case of the inanimate force or object involved in bringing about the action or state indicated by the verb. 1.S.g. We persuaded John that he would win (ChJ. or clause. John used the key to open the door (ChJ. The existence of certain lexical restrictions in the use of the inflected genitive also testifies to the fact that the 's cannot be included into one group with prepositions for the use of a preposition is generally determined by the meaning of the preposition itself and not by the meaning of the noun it introduces. Agentive — the case of the typically animate instigator of the action indicated by the verb. Quirk et al. runs counter to the current definition of the word. Hence.). Instrumental . then it would be impossible to account for the morphological structure of such constructions as the boys' friends. On the other hand.6. 7. Fillmore). The structure of inflected genitive case forms. 3. In the constructions under examination. Fillmore). Fillmore). Many traditional studies have examined various uses of case. The deep (or basic) structure of a sentence. Fillmore. L. early and late. It is a specific 50 morpheme that can be attached not only to single words but occasionally also to combinations of words. each associated with the verb in a particular syntactic-semantic (or case) relationship. Cf. Barkhudarov draws the conclusion that the 's is neither a word nor a traditional morpheme.J. according to Ch. consists of a verb and one or more noun phrases. 4. Fillmore). Fillmore). (True. The teacher's room ~»• the teacher of music's room (R.: Chicago is windy (ChJ. Hill). Different Approaches to the Study of Case There are different approaches to the study of case as a morphological category. but of the deep structure of a sentence.J. For Ch. e.g. Fillmore and his adherents. however. we cannot follow G.: John believed that he would win (ChJ.The prepositional combination of music is inserted between the head noun teacher and the 's.: John built the house (ChJ. . in not having a vowel.The clause who lives across the street is inserted between the head noun boy and the 's. Really.the case that identifies the location or spatial orientation of the state or action indicated by the verb. Dative . according to R.).

a box .g. Fillmore).9. without being identical. a brick and a musical sound are not two. However.F. -z.A. Korneyeva. K. Fillmore). Besides.. according to them. Miller).g. Fortunatov]. it is impossible to use words like 'two' or 'three'. denotes something consisting of distinguishable parts. Some linguists say that the essential meaning of the category of number is not that of quantity. we know that the meaning of a word cannot be identified with the thing it is used to denote. presupposes difference.25.14. Bogdanov . Jespersen].P. ChJ. N. We can only speak of 'more than one'. W. in regard to things.boxes. while in the sentence Chicago is windy it is represented by the subject. So. In English. Locative in the sentence It is windy in Chicago corresponds to an adverbial. The higher the degree of detailization. 7. we cannot speak about the plural. the distinction is between one and more than one. The corresponding grammatical distinction is between singular and plural. [E.K.E.: a lamp — lamps. However. the greater is the number of the singled out semantic cases. Gak and I.A. scissors.tables. Fillmore thinks that the concept of the objective case should be limited to things which are affected by the action or state indicated by the verb.L. it is represented by the opposition 'oneness (singular) . -tch. The simplicity of the binary approach is tempting. Guzeyeva. for example.A. and -o. table (singular) and tables (plural) denote different objects of extra linguistic reality [F. i. (The inflection -es is added after -s. Leontyeva . For instance. e.N. Y. Apressyan . These nouns do indicate discrete things consisting of two parts. Chafe. which. Objective .: Jennie got skipping-ropes for the twins that day. but lexical since. In Modern English.the case of the typically animate being who benefits from the action or state indicated by the verb. (M. Some linguists single out two other types of the plural: lexicalized plural and the plural of approximation.V. e. -ch. But simplicity should not be an end in itself. Ossovskaya]. The plural.7. but if the difference is too great. Schank singles out 5 semantic cases. A semantic case may correspond to varying roles (or forms) in the surface structure.: John loves Mary (E.: a table . The door was opened by John (ChJ. At first sight.). The door opened (ChJ. M. there exist only two semantic cases: ucxodnu^uu and soMUKaiouiuu.g. Brown. V. it may seem that the difference between the singular and the plural is not grammatical. e. A.D. John opened the door with the key (ChJ. The Category of Number From a logical point of view. -x. Fillmore).more than oneness (plural)'.the semantically most neutral case. D. Benefactive . Plurality. In his opinion. R.: John opened the door (ChJ. and the plural and the singular are correlative notions: when there is no singular. 52 53 ..I. the classification loses its definiteness and finally disappears. Fillmore.g.g. the generalized grammatical meaning of number is that of quantity. Guminsky denies the central role of the verb in the sentence and places the noun in focus.G. Spark).e.P. and vice versa. John used the key to open the door (ChJ. etc. Lockwood . N. belong to the same kind [O. -ss. V. e. but that of discreteness.g. I. Fiflmore). The number of semantic cases varies from author to author. The key opened the door (ChJ. ChJ. But we are hardly justified in referring them to the plural number because they have no singular counterparts. e. e.G. Fillmore). Fillmore). To determine the optimum degree of detailization is extremely difficult.6. For instance.50.: spectacles. it is the inflection ~(e)s. trousers. Kobrina. thus. one thing is clear: when the number of semantic cases grows indefinitely. -sh. of the plural. we should not disregard the fact that the idea of plurality usually has constant grammatical forms of its expression. Susov . The question arises: does it contribute to a better understanding of the semantic structure of the sentence? The answer is lNo\ The abstraction of the binary semantic case system is so high that it can hardly be successfully applied in the process of analysis without some detailization.

mentioned by O. lexical.deer. e.: a knife . e.scarves (scarfs).e.g. and the flower children (J. Jespersen. Cf. a strong tendency to inflect such words in the English way. the nineties.oxen. Children. Colour (ifeem) .g. Quirk et a!.g.C. 3)the singular with the definite article. is closer to lexical forms. especially in everyday speech. for though. The regular way of forming the plural is by adding the -(e)s inflection.g. e. S. Richards.C. etc.sheep. for the components of the grammatical category of number should be lexically identical. Proctor). Richards. In a few nouns. e. Proctor). e. a woman .: a sheep .. and not the form-building. 5.: The early bird catches the worm (Proverb). grammatical nature of the morpheme -(e)s in formations of the kind the sixties. a deer . and so on till 'sixty-nine'.: Man should be lonely (J. -en plurals.: There are many things people remember about the sixties (J. The meaning of the generic number in English is rendered in the following ways: 1)the singular without any article. 54 There are several irregular ways of forming the plural. a change in the vowel.men. combines a vowel change and the irregular ending -en. Countable nouns that have the same form for singular and plural are said to have zero plural.The so-called lexicalized plural either introduces new shades of meaning into the singular or comes to render a totally different meaning. the plural of child.g.: curriculum . Others have regular plurals as well. it is the marked member of the opposition. the plural is formed by mutation. S.: a man . Zero plurals. J. 1. In many learned words scholars have introduced the plural as well as the singular form from foreign languages. Hull. a tooth teeth. e. 2)the singular with the indefinite article. hippies. i. in our opinion. That's why it should be excluded from the grammatical category of number.g. like grammatical plural.. He's had many odd experiences (R. The form of lexicalized plural is identical with that of grammatical plural: -(e)s.C. Updike).: a scarf. it is the non-marked member of the opposition. afoot —feet. Some nouns ending in -/or ~fe form their plurals by changing the ending to -ves. but 'sixty' + 'sixty-one' + 'sixty-two'.. In other words. There is.g. There are many things people remember about the sixties.: A barking dog does not bite (Proverb). it ends in -(e)s and denotes several objects. etc. Voicing of final consonant •+• -s plural. S. e. 2.women. 3.). Foreign plurals.e. e. Mutation plurals.: The sixties was a time when young people used to do whatever they wanted (J.H. Proctor).: Tragedy is lack of experience (D. Lawrence).'. the objects do not belong to the same kind. Some remember it for mini-skirts. however. There is no special form for the common (or generic) number.g. without changing the lexical meaning of the singular form. The singular form denotes 'oneness'. e. Cf. e.colours (<pnaz). But the meaning of lexicalized plural is always different from the corresponding singular. where sixties does not mean 'one sixty + another sixty + . The plural of approximation. i. J.curricula.g.knives.e. only those forms are qualified by us as plural that introduce the grammatical meaning of 'more than oneness'. Hull. Richards. 4. The category of number in English is represented by the opposition of the singular and the plural. Hull. formula -formulae. J. The combinability with singular verbs and the substitution by singular pronouns testifies to the word-building. e.: an ox .g. The plural form denotes 'more than oneness'. i.: a formula -formulas. 55 .g.

: a book . etc.: My trousers are getting too small round the waist (M. 57 . They are treated as singular when we see the group as an impersonal unit.plural'. Quirk et al). They are treated as plural. government. Those uncountable nouns that always combine with plural verbs and are substituted by plural pronouns are called Pluralia Tantum. e. Most Singularia Tantum are singular in form.: The police have caught the murderer (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). 5) livestock (animals kept on a farm). In these cases. e. The sugar-tongs were too wide for one of her hands.g. 2) nouns ending in -ics that denote subjects.g. Hornby). Smirnitsky.4) the plural without any article. gas. Quirk et al. They are: 1) the noun news.: Mathematics has the same educational function as classics used to have (M. Most Pluralia Tantum end in -s.: Well. a singular verb is used. e. does not seem convincing. Cf.g. Swan). and the group is referred to by the pronouns they and who. e..g. 2)police. Where_are my scissors? (A.g. In these cases. when the focus is on the group as individuals.: leisure. especially in British English. and she had to use both in wielding them (Ch. 6) vermin. They include the following nouns: I)people.. or abstract.. \vhatj_ the news? (W. They are either material.: My family are wonderful.: All his cattle were grazing in the field (R. both Singularia and Pluralia Tantum have the category of number.g. e..g. music.). They do all they can for me. e. Bronte). According to A. Countable nouns are those that have the opposition 'singular . etc.: Were there many people at the meetingl (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Quirk et al. Collins). sciences.g. Swan). Swan). Those uncountable nouns that always combine with singular verbs and are substituted by singular pronouns are called Singularia Tantum.: silver.g.: Poultry is cheaper than meat at the moment (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).)1. however. is not an inflection of the plural number. 3) cattle. e. Deeping). Quirk et al. Some Pluralia Tantum lack the final -s.g. water. and the 56 group is referred to by the pronoun it and the words which and that. Cf.S.: DraughtsJs an easier game than chess (M. (Th. e.g. e. His point of view. In the case of Singularia and Pluralia Tantum. e.: Our livestock are not as numerous as they used to be (R. etc.g. we deal with one form only. Hardy). As regards the category of number. 4)poultry (farmyard birds). Swan).I. e. Some Singularia Tantum end in -s. family.: But rich people do have their problems (N. team.) may be treated as either singular or plural.g. tact. Wilde)..: Sugar is not fashionable any more (O. e. all English nouns can be divided into two classes: countable and uncountable. Take the money out and countJt (M. e.g. That's why it seems more reasonable to accept the conception of But the noun poultry is treated as singular in the sense of'meat'.: Measles takes a long time to get over (M. success. not who. Swan). The final -5 in ail these cases. e. Singular collective nouns that refer to groups of people (e. e.g. e. however. White).books.: Where are your poultry? (R. e. Every grammatical category must be represented by an opposition of at least two forms. / know my hair is_ beautiful. Swan).: These vermin cause disease (R.g. The nurse's wages were good (W.).g. I don't know any other family who_ would do so much (M. Uncountable nouns do not call up the idea of any definite thing with a certain shape or precise limits.g. 3)names of certain diseases ending in -s. etc. 4)names of some games ending in -s. a plural verb is used. butter.: The average family (which now consists of four members at most) is a great deal smaller than it used to be (M. Monsarrat).

man .e. gender in Modern English is expressed neither morphologically. etc. etc. woman doctor. Criticizing the conception of H. We side with Y. i. However. lofik and say that both Singularia and Pluralia Tantum stand outside the grammatical category of number.: father — mother. Thus. but not vice versa.e.g. and neuter. there is no formal difference between the nouns boy and girl. _ he-goat . Objects are further subdivided into those having clear-cut boundaries and those having no definite boundaries. actor . 3.: water. Ruddock said she had been nominated as spokesperson for the wives (D. gender is defined as a morphological category that finds its expression in special noun inflections of gender and that is closely tied to the sex of the referent. which began in the Middle English period. Sweet.g.P. By using totally different nouns.: boy-friend .The continuing male sex bias in English society where men still hold more positions of power and authority than women.). gender disappears. In other words. "There is no unity of opinion concerning the category of gender in Modern English. all nouns are divided into those denoting objects and those denoting non-objects. milk. Ivanova and L. etc.waitress. Old English nouns distinguished 3 grammatical genders: masculine. the noun girl . Chafe.V. resulted in an almost complete disappearance of agreement. Vendryes. I.g. At the first stage. e.I. son .actress. i. female officer.daughter.L.L. There are two reasons for the preference of male terms over female terms.to the feminine gender. According to W. the distinction between countable and uncountable nouns is most important. when there is no agreement.By using compound nouns in -man and -woman.: waiter . i. 4. Sweet finds the same 3 genders in Modern English. Zhigadlo. feminine. In recent decades. But the noun boy is considered to belong to the masculine gender. 1.aunt. nor syntactically.woman. In the opinion of J. gender in Modern English nouns is expressed lexically. The Category of Gender Traditionally. Biber et al. male nurse. efforts have been made to avoid masculine bias by using gender-neutral compound nouns in -person instead of -man or -woman. e. Objects 59 . Gender in Modem English is a purely lexical category. uncle . A.: policeman -policewoman. By using derived nouns with masculine and feminine suffixes: -er/-or. H.g.g. bull — cow. 1.By using a modifier denoting sex. by special inflections of gender. For instance.girl-friend. e.V. but the things they denote that are classified into the so-called genders. The Semantic Classification of Nouns The semantic classification of nouns still causes much controversy among linguists. Jespersen and J. 58 English speakers use masculine terms more often than feminine terms.e. e.g.S. i. Tom-cat — Pussy-cat. abstract notions. Bogdanov takes the opposition "animate ~ inanimate' as a starting point for his noun classification.: Mrs. Smirnitsky emphasizes that in Modern English it is not nouns.N. 2.e. by forms of agreement. Vendryes define gender not as a morphological but as a syntactic category because it finds its expression in grammatical agreement.The masculine terms are often used to refer to both sexes. e.she-goat. material nouns. -ess. V. sand. this trend has had limited success so far. O. 2. e. in accordance with the presence or absence of direct connection with extra linguistic reality. The loss of inflections. Stepanov in regarding the relation to extra linguistic reality as a basis for a semantic classification of nouns.

b)predicative. introduces a new shade of meaning that is incompatible with the grammatical plural. e. Both terms and non-terms are registered in the singular and in the plural. Bogdanov. Eckersley). noun.: She had a small child in her arms (W. e. clever. tulip.g. Predicative adjectives have two syntactic roles: subject predicatives and object predicatives.: It is full of clean payer (W.: pen. Quirk and his co-authors. into proper and common. things. THE ADJECTIVE General Characteristics The following features are commonly considered to be characteristic of adjectives. Sheldon). Maugham). Mori). c) adverbs of degree in preposition. Burgess). e. national.: rose.: pen. Cf.g. ~ These are children (C. remark ~ remarks. etc.g.Functions: a)attributive. e.Meaning: a) generalized lexico-grammatical primary meaning of non-temporal property. in the opinion of R. possess person characteristics when they combine with plural verbs and/or are substituted by plural pronouns. verb.To wash in the waters of bitterness (A. honesty. cattle.These are hats (A. the dichotomy 'singularity . suggested by V.: sentence.: . e. Non-objects (or abstract notions) are classified into terms.g.. etc. 60 61 .g. e. 1 . the plural member of the opposition in non-objects is characterized by a far lower frequency of occurrence than its singular counterpart. etc. the adjective is part of a noun phrase: it generally precedes and modifies the head noun. Where are we going. e.g.: people.E.S. In common nouns denoting people and sometimes animals. e. graceful.g. characterizing the noun phrase in subject position. Subject predicatives complement a copular verb.g. Collective nouns denoting people. The only exception is constituted by common material nouns.E. seems superfluous for the English language because English nouns lack the grammatical category of gender. Eckersley).: comfortable. etc. beauty.having clear-cut boundaries fall into living and non-living. Predicative adjectives characterize a noun phrase that is a separate clause element. plants.nouns. Combinability with: a)nouns.g. possessing definite boundaries. e. i. Nouns denoting things. (C.: Britain. e.g. etc.V. police. e. water.g. dog.e. Rex. or possess person characteristics (people). Syntactic. Cf.: Th e wa t e r f e e l s v e r y c ol d o n wi nt e r m o r n i n g s . e. cat.: The committee have met and they have rejected the proposal (R. 2..g. . etc. people. e. rose. . The subdivision of non-objects into terms and non-terms comes very close to the subdivision of objects. b) generalized grammatical secondary meaning of non-temporal property. chair. and sometimes plants and materials can be classified into two large classes: common. Common nouns generally draw a distinction between singularity and plurality.S.: remark.: / married young (M. e.: black.e. Robins). mostly in postposition. 6. . Deeping). boy. big. etc. 3.g. lily. Burgundy. John. Cf. In attributive function. he was a deeply emotional man (S. and non-terms. e. This is a child. table. b)verbs in preposition.J. Animate living objects either lack person characteristics (animals). Grandpa? .: This is a hat..g. etc. e. The gender differentiation of singular and proper nouns. fox.g. and proper.). i. Hornby). e. as a rule.g. Quirk etal.plurality' is supplemented by collective nouns. Cronin). Living objects can be animate and inanimate.g.: cat.: She was wonderful to me (D. d) prepositional combinations in postposition.: He was a pleasant fellow (T.: noun . etc. etc. where the plural suffix. However.

excellent. for the ~ed form . Cf.). e.Object predicatives follow a direct object. high. -ive. and are relatively rare in fiction and conversation. The man seemed very offended. pleasure-giving. e. Derived adjectives have either a prefix or a suffix or both. in-. c)compound.). beautiful. 62 beautiful. The man was offended by the policeman (R. Cf. Quirk et al. Biber et al. present. useful. innocent. Attributive Use His surprising views. usual. Cf. D. and are therefore near the boundary between affixation and compounding. Hollywood-type.). the difference between the adjective and the Participle is not clear-cut. Quirk et al. e. The derivational suffixes -ent. Cf. child-like. Just a bit sniffy.). Cos I'm ~ I am cold. etc. In news and academic prose. and -ous are moderately common. Evidently. The verbal force of the Participle is explicit for the -ing form when a direct object is present. etc. active. Morphological Structure. Although the suffixes -like and -type are even less common. Derived adjectives are usually formed from nouns and verbs. and -less are relatively rare in all registers. Often. healthy (D. free. -ful. such as: What she intended to be was gay.: He made the children happy (R. Cf. moderate.-Smith-type. The derivational suffixes -ate. Derived adjectives are by far the most common in academic prose. They are moderately common in news. The most productive adjective-forming suffix is -al. useless. In conversation. prefixation is combined with suffixation.: different. nervous. English grammarians mention participial adjectives. expensive. attractive. etc. they can also be regarded as derived adjectives. premodification by the intensifier very is considered an explicit indication that the forms have achieved adjective status.when a fry-agent phrase with a personal agent is present. namely as adjectives formed by zero derivation (or conversion) from -ing and -erfparticiples. negative.).: international local.g. and non~. which reflects the heavy reliance of these registers on noun phrases to present information. natural. exuberant. etc. Quirk et al. e. nonexistent. b)derived.g. 63 . formal.: unhappy^ inattentive. in part because fictional descriptions sometimes include sequences of subject predicative adjectives. Quirk et al.g. etc. Adjectives can be derived from other adjectives by the negative prefixes un-.: You got a cold? .).No. Davy). Crystal. attributive adjectives are much more frequent than predicative adjectives. attributive and predicative adjectives are both relatively rare because conversation is more verbal than nominal. relative'. The roughly equal frequency of predi cati ve and attributive adjectives in conversation is in keeping with the general reliance on a clausal rather than nominal presentation of information. For both participle forms. Cf: You are frightening the children (R.: green. dangerous. The offended man. adjectives fall under the following types: a)simple. textbook-type.: Predicative Use His views were very surprising. As far as their morphological structure is concerned. Quirk et al.). curious. Quirk et al. serious.g. 4. (R. Cf: private. making a predication about that noun phrase. low. silent. As a matter of fact they retain the meanings of like and type as separate words. Predicative adjectives are somewhat more frequent in fiction than in the other registers. Simple adjectives have neither prefixes nor suffixes. they have interesting uses. Mr. In the last three examples. famous.: You are very frightening (R. etc. too. helpless. The man was very offended (R. fat. And I'll be all right once I've warmed up (D.: business-like.

number. Reduplicative compounds are more productive in conversation than in the other registers because they are lexicalized (the two parts rarely occur separately) and because they serve an emotive purpose (they usually play on sounds). integrated forms of expression. e. especially in news. No wonder that compound adjectives are common in the written registers. Cf. Wilde) -attribute. Compound adjectives are made from a combination of more than one word and represent compact.However.).: grayish-blue.: quick -quickly. Adjectives can be added to other adjectives.: The man was very offended (R. Wilde) . The most work is often done by the quietest worker (R. e.S. In Modern English.: politically-independent. good-looking. Attributive uses outnumber predicative uses for both -ing and -ed participial adjectives. Most qualitative adjectives have degrees of comparison.smaller . George did more work than anyone else (R.: many. compound adjectives take many shapes. adjectives can be classified into qualitative and relative. This class comprises such words as many. and can be used both attributively and predicatively. e.g. there is a rising tendency nowadays to use the intensifier very not oniy before participial adjectives in -ed but also before -ed participles.subjective predicative. e.: highlyeducated.: small . Hornby). much .S.).g. place (Italian).: wishy-washy . brown. and degrees of comparison. From most qualitative adjectives adverbs can be formed by the suffix ~ly. Zhigadlo. they have degrees of comparison.: wooden walls = walls made of wood (A. I have very little tune for reading (A.Categories^ In Old English.S. quite blue (O.g. i.: We have much work to do (R.P. quick. etc.A. 5. The centre of the lexico-grammatical field of adjectives is constituted by those adjectives that possess a lexicogrammatical meaning of non-temporal property.thin and without strength. or action (preparatory). Hornby). They do not form adverbs by the suffix -ty.: nice — nicer ..fat and round. I. Relative adjectives are chiefly used as attributes.L.nicest. Formally.smallest.. gender. etc. Qualitative adjectives denote qualities of a substance directly. Close). The class of adjectives can be represented as a lexicogrammatical field. e. beautiful — more beautiful — most beautiful. Qualitative adjectives are used both attributively and predicatively.e. Relative adjectives express qualities of a substance through their relation to materials (wooden). little . old-fashioned.A. Cf. e. Close).g. watery. Many adjective compounds involve participial forms. indirectly. Close). Quirk et ai. fiercelycompetitive. Cronin). Quirk et ai. A relative adjective can acquire the meaning of a qualitative adjective. There are no hard-and-fast lines between qualitative and relative adjectives. Compounds can also be composed of an adjective and a noun. roly-poly .less . but are relatively rare in conversation. Close). Cf. which are not easy to produce 'online' except for lexicalized components.A.least. But adverb-adjective sequences constitute by far the most productive type of compound adjectives. without determination or clear aims and principles. much. he found at the bottom of the box a pair of wooden skates which had been Kate's when she was a child (AJ. time (weekly). e. etc. Morphological .most.g. 64 Adjectives that lack one or more of these defining characteristics form the periphery of the lexi co-grammatical field of adjectives. only qualitative adjectives are marked for the grammatical category of degrees of comparison. Ernest] (O. etc.N. Cf. Relative adjectives have no degrees of comparison. Ivanova and L. a wooden smile = an inexpressive smile (A.g. They are quite. Hornby). e.g.A.more . and few. 65 .: .: What wonderfully blue eyes you have. The man was very offended by the policeman (R.g. adjectives were inflected for case. Please make less noise (R.g. e.g. have degrees of comparison. Like qualitative adjectives. Cf. such as tongue-lied. Classes of Adjectives According to their meaning and grammatical characteristics.: small. lofik mention also quantitative adjectives. e. little. V. few -fewer —fewest.: full-time.

: supreme. 4) adjectives expressing incomparable qualities. Thus. 3) comparison to a higher degree [O. But some qualitative adjectives stand outside the category of comparison.. the so-called quantitative adjectives characterize the given object numerically.: deaf. some tables (pronoun). whitish. there were very few people down there at the time. Jespersen. Cf: Jive tables (numeral). 2)adjectives having the suffix -ish.g. dead. Thompson. Number of Degrees of Comparison The next question is how many degrees of comparison the English adjective has.g. or rather to pronouns because their numerical characteristics are extremely general. comparative.: fine -finer -finest. With qualitative adjectives. Comparison in relation to a lower degree is expressed by less and least. Writers sometimes use them in degrees of comparison for stylistic effect. e. only qualitative adjectives admit of degrees of comparison because they denote properties capable of appearing in different degrees. First of all.g.M.. Harry made the fewest mistakes (R. but forms of the same word because they have the same stem long and are consequently characterized by identical lexical meaning. If one considers meaning to be the most important factor. extreme.g. and superlative. which can denote degrees of a given quality. 3)adjectives with a negative meaning. L.. For higher degree comparisons.A. Close). Degrees of Comparison Adjectives that Lack Degrees of Comparison As a rule. Relative adjectives have no degrees of comparison.]. there is no unity of opinion concerning the character of this category in Modem English.: This problem is less difficult than the previous one (R. which express qualities of an object directly. one should refer them to adjectives because they have degrees of comparison. Quirk et al. e. (A. e. A. which denote qualities of an object indirectly. e. many tables (the so-called quantitative adjective). three types of comparison are possible: 1)comparison to the same degree. Close). one should exclude them from the class of adjectives and refer them to numerals.: reddish.l.g. lame. etc.longest are not different words. long . In their opinion. If one gives precedence to form. e.). 2)comparison to a lower degree.: illiterate.: She's as pretty as her sister (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Old Man Fellows' housekeeper.A. etc. R. Close). as.g. Smirnitsky says that longlonger . etc.George gives me the least trouble (R. e.g.g. Fortunately. it is open to discussion whether many. e. They are: 1)adjectives that express the highest degree of a quality.longer . Criticizing this point of view. much. Quirk et al.. The 67 Linguistic Status of the Category of Degrees of Comparison The problem of degrees of comparison has given rise to much controversy. 66 .)..A.: Mrs. few can be considered adjectives. English has a three-term formal contrast: positive. Comparison in relation to the same degree is expressed by as . There were fewer people today than yesterday (R. just as numerals do. Quirk et al. But as opposed to qualitative adjectives. e. Mangum). Burrage). and in contrast to relative adjectives.. Some linguists think that degrees of comparison should be treated as a lexical category. not forms of one and the same word. little. had found him deader than a doornail when she went upstairs to see what had kept him so long before breakfast (R. This is the least difficult problem of all (R.longest represent three different words.

The examination was easier than we expected (R.I. The comparative degree indicates that the quality is found in the person or thing described in a higher degree than in some other person or thing. Vorontsova. .g. The superlative degree denotes the highest degree of a quality. were coined by analogy with the analytical forms built on the pattern 'more/most + adjective'.S. on the whole.by the suffix -est. so to speak.e.g. and the disyllabic adjectives ending in -er. is absolute. according to G. we shall discuss the problem of the combinations with less and least. Smirnitsky.I.so-called positive degree of comparison. Quirk and some other English grammarians call the positive degree the absolute degree. Smirnitsky thinks there is good ground to speak of two forms of comparison only: the positive degree and the relative degree. That's why H. the combinations with less and least. e. The meaning of-the positive degree.g.S. Krulik). This is a synthetic way of forming degrees of comparison. (Lingaphone English Course). Monosyllabic adjectives. the meaning of the superlative degree is also relative. She may be 75 years old. it forms the basis for comparison. This. when the first analytical forms came to be used. they are both relative in meaning. whereas her husband is 78. he finds it possible to combine the comparative degree and the superlative degree into one group that he calls 'relative' and to oppose it to the positive degree. -ly. e. 68 Taking into consideration the relative character of meaning of the comparative and the superlative degrees.S. One simply emphasizes that Mary has the highest degree of this quality (being young) as compared with the rest of the family..: He is the strongest of the three men (A. The classification of degrees of comparison put forward by A. when there are a lot of analytical forms in the system of the English language. First. But taking meaning as a starting point. A. Jespersen rightly points out. Bonner). M. Zaffran. Now. D. as opposed to the positive degree. in his opinion. we must prove that they represent analytical forms of the adjective important. The existence of synthetic forms of degrees of comparison is recognized by the majority of linguists. as O. The day we were married was the happiest day of my life (M. if one says Mrs. and -w. adjectives consisting of one syllable. Cf: The days get longer. and the superlative degrees. As to combinations with less and least. one does not mean that Mary is a little girl.g. As to the combinations with more and most. the existence of correlation with corresponding synthetic forms was absolutely necessary only in the Middle English period. is rather negative of comparison. It is the norm of some quality..: They are all strong men (A. Synthetic and Analytical Forms of Degrees of Comparison The problem of forms of degrees of comparison is also controversial. However. Hornby). one does not mean that Mrs. the question is debatable. the meaning of the comparative degree is relative. If one says Mary is the youngest in the family. Murphy). (B. -y. To qualify these constructions as analytical degrees of comparison.: less important . Thus. Hornby). e. Vasilevskaya mention only two degrees of comparison. they have no parallel synthetic forms to express a lower degree of this or that quality. e.S. Hornby). M. He also speaks about the positive. Black is young. Black has more of this quality (being young) than her husband.the comparative degree and the superlative degree. Ganshina and N. Hornby). does not differ from the traditional classification.: The man in the middle is stronger than the man on the left (A. As to the comparative and the superlative degrees. Thus.. So. True.. the comparative. i. Sweet. -le. however. is a debatable point since all the other 69 . these were the longest days of the year (J. Fuchs. they may appear independently. by analogy with other analytical forms. there is little justification for excluding the socalled positive degree from the classification because although it does not imply any comparison. less and least. Black is three years younger than her husband (A. The latter (the relative degree) exists in two varieties .N. R. form the comparative degree by the suffix -er and the superlative degree . Thus.. Curme and G. namely the comparative degree and the superlative degree. Cheever).least important. in their opinion. The sentence only indicates that Mrs.. than positive. Analytical forms are generally opposed to synthetic forms.

According to V. Quirk et al.g.and Lucille is the least sensible (C. Zhigadlo. Ivanova and L.: I found the memory much less vivid. Second. combinations with most can be used with the indefinite article to express a very high degree of quality. They speak of inflectional and phrasal comparison.). lofik is not universally accepted. Ivanova and L. V. Inflected comparative degree adjectives are about twice as frequent as inflected superlative degree adj ecti ves. Delia is the most effective publisher in the office (R. e.: Oh. If the superlative is used attributively.analytical forms in the English language have parallel synthetic forms. more and most form combinations with adjectives similar to those with less and least: more beautiful . analytical forms In Modern English are constantly on the increase.. Second.L.g. So. probably reflecting a focus on the extreme in the interests of attracting readers. at least.g. They were the most beautiful children she had ever seen (S.: Anna is the/their youngest child (R. an adverb synonymous with very. Quirk et al. They offer the following proofs. e. e. e.least beautiful. However. They really do. Quirk et al. Eckersley). Murphy). Constructions of the type *a prettiest girl do not occur in the English language. Third. In contrast. Now we shall take up the problem of the combinations with more and most.P. Deeping). Cf. Since the forms less beautiful and least beautiful are not degrees of comparison.. Murphy).: more beautiful -prettier. lofik consider it wrong to refer the forms with more and most to degrees of comparison because more and most fully retain their lexical meaning.: A most tragic thing happened to her early in the war (W. First. Finally. Zhigadlo. I. polysyllabic qualitative adjectives like beautiful express properties that can be present in different degrees and therefore they can have degrees of comparison. Sheldon). especially in conversation. Cf. I'm the most sensible person here . What is more. English grammarians do not use the terms synthetic and analytical forms of degrees of comparison. The essence of the two sets of terms is the same.E.P. Delia is our most effective publisher (R. The comparatively low frequency of superlatives in academic writing probably reflects a general reluctance to make extreme claims. This argument is not convincing since in the sentence 'A most tragic thing happened to her early in the war' most is not the superlative degree of much. Deeping). not analytical forms of degrees of comparison. The majority of linguists think that such combinations as more beautiful and most beautiful are analytical degrees of comparison or. the definite article or some other definite determiner is required.). the words less and least do not either lose or weaken their lexical meaning as auxiliary elements in analytical forms should.L.: 70 You'll be more comfortable if you turn the seat down (C.E. most beautiful . most beautiful -prettiest. I. Eckersley). the adjectival combinations with less and least are free word combinations. I.N.: Let's talk about something more interesting (R. The relative infrequency of phrasal comparison reflects the generally lower frequency of polysyllabic adjectives. Ivanova and L. the combinations with more and most cannot be considered degrees of comparison either. All the above-mentioned arguments sound rather convincing. First. 71 . analytical degrees of comparison in the making.P. it is doubtful whether the combinations 'more + adjective' and 'most + adjective' are forms of degrees of comparison. lofik.N.less beautiful.g.L. (W. This meaning is not to be found in the synthetic superlative degree. Therefore. they are also outside the grammatical category of degrees of comparison. Zhigadlo. He's the most interesting person I've ever met (R. the analytical degrees of comparison with more and most have corresponding synthetic forms in -er and -est. Cf.N. but an independent word.). the conception of V. news reportage has the greatest frequency of superlatives.

. e. When adjectives are converted into nouns.S. The eldest daughter does all the housework (M. Cheever). Cf: Their pool was perhaps the oldest in the country. .. Cf. i.. You 're a much better cook than your mother was. And the best men are married (A. Phrasal forms are usually used for emphasis in spoken English. Sillitoe).oldest (age in general). Biber et al. let's hope for the best (Lingaphone English Course). Sheldon)..older . In conversation. the villa in Sardinia was her favourite. Hail). Since the second set of forms (elder . Foley. don't blame me (Lingaphone English Course). Jones (D. e. Swan).). Foley.eldest (age within the family)..g.). But if the worst comes to the worst. (I.. Maugham).g.better . perhaps. Although monosyllabic adjectives normally form the comparative and superlative degrees by inflection.g. is largely determined by the length of the adjective. they 72 can hardly be regarded as grammatical forms of degrees of comparison. Substantivization of Adjectives Adjectives can be substantivized.. / think this is the one she is the most proud of (M. Absolute Use of the Superlative Degree Adjectives in the superlative degree imply limitation. Shaw). e.. carrying both inflectional and phrasal markers. D. grammatical degrees of comparison of the adjective old. A few adjectives have two sets of degrees of comparison..: Is Lucille a good dancerl (C.E. She's a bit more nicer than Mrs. Elisabeth (S. . Cf.. but come to express substances possessing these properties. adjectives are occasionally doubly marked for degree. Since adjectives preceded by the definite article are easily substantivized. 73 . Irregular Forms of Comparison Besides the already mentioned synthetic and analytical forms of degrees of comparison. Biber et al. Sheldon). My elder brother was in a car accident last week (M. In English. Substantivization can be whole and partial. (J. Sheldon).: All natives have good hands and feet (W.. become nouns. The best women are divorced.elder . .: It was one of the worst days for him (N.g. they no longer indicate properties of substances.e. White's was one of the oldest clubs in England. old. bad'. most monosyllabic and disyllabic adjectives can also form their degrees of comparison with more and most. Adjectives wholly converted into nouns acquire not only the grammatical meaning of nouns but also their typical morphological and syntactic characteristics: 1) ability to form the plural. (S. as has already been shown.: good . It was by no means the largest.: You should be more proud of the things you've already achieved (M.: // 's much more warmer in there (D. His friends were older than Vivian (S.. that's why the noun modified by an adjective in the superlative degree always combines with the definite article or one of the definite determiners.The choice between inflectional and phrasal comparison. Swan). Hale).eldest) has a meaning slightly different from the meaning of the positive degree (old). either with the head noun mentioned before or without any noun whatsoever. Cf. Hall).: old . the superlative degree is often used absolutely. Sheldon). but should be qualified as separate lexical units which originally were. there are irregular forms. Cf: She is an old woman. but it was the most colourful. e.. A few adjectives have suppleti've forms of comparison that are derived from different roots.best.worse .. D. the friendliest (S.worst. the process of substantivization is easier than in Russian due to the scantiness of inflections. Eckersley).

I.. Uncountable nouns stand outside the category of number. 74 75 . Some adjectives denoting nationality can be noun-phrase heads.: The very best is yet to come (R. Maugham) subject. Quirk et al.I. Quirk et al. A.S. 4) ability to be modified by an adjective.. Type C: the mystical. Thus. etc. (W. Although adjectives functioning as noun-phrase heads generally require a definite determiner. Quirk et al. nobody denies them the status of nouns. However.).g. Cf: He is acceptable to both old and young (R. it seems to me I saw everybody but the dead (S. 3) ability to be used with the indefinite article. Type C adjectives functioning as noun-phrase heads combine with singular predicate-verbs. Cf. postpositive phrases. the argument of A. Some adjectives can function as noun-phrase heads with abstract reference. an adjective must acquire number distinctions.: The poor must stand together everywhere (Th. Quirk et al.g.g.: I spoke the language like a native. Smirnitsky is not convincing. However. More often substantivization is but partial.S.: My uncle is my nearest living relative (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).). That's why he does not recognize partial substantivization and treats cases like the rich. the poor. and relative clauses.). they can be modified by prepositive adjectives. So. and -ese. adjectives acquire the grammatical meaning of nouns ('thingness'). Quirk et al.: The extremely old need a great deal of attention (R. In the case of partial substantivization. Bellow) -object. Type B cannot be modified by adverbs. Unlike Types A and B. Like Type A.object. as the use of adjectives without nouns. They include. The adjectives in question are restricted to words ending in (i)sh. But the category of number is common only to countable nouns. Maugham). Unlike Type A. Type A: the innocent. e.g. the supernatural. Smirnitsky thinks that in order to become a noun. the exciting. not as nouns converted from adjectives. . the unreal are more likely to occur than the lovely. e. 5) the functions of subject and/or object in the sentence.. the weak. Type C is restricted chiefly to certain fixed expressions. they can be modified by adverbs. Quirk et al. in particular. etc. -ch. The government of the island treated the natives badly (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) .2) ability to be used in the genitive case. as adjectives. The young in spirit enjoy life (R.: A native -was silently rowing up-stream. They single out three types of such adjectives. The number of jobless/unemployed is rising (R.). Quirk et al.: He is investigating the ancients' conception of the universe (R. These noun phrases have generic reference and combine with plural predicate-verbs. They can be premodified and postmodified. the foreign. superlatives. and the noun functions of subject and/or object. the exotic.). They treat cases of the kind the brave. Cf. Nevertheless. e. categories. Quirk and his co-authors do not recognize the existence of partial substantivization either.). or types of people. Type B: the Dutch. These adjectives are restricted to generic reference and combine with plural predicate-verbs. e. Adjectives that can premodify personal nouns (the young people} can be noun-phrase heads (the young} denoting classes. the noun combinability with the definite article or some other definite determiner. R. e.. Cf.: The industrious Dutch are admired by their neighbours (R.. for example. Quirk et al.). Dreiser) — subject.). they lack the grammatical categories of case and number and never combine with the indefinite article.g.. (W. The Irish who live in America retain sentimental links with Ireland (R. they can function without a determiner if they are conjoined or are used in an o/-construction.

Sweet by calling the first component an attributive noun. the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English presents family and business as nouns. He thinks that words of the category of state. Adjectivization of Nouns The question of adjectivization of nouns presents a number of difficulties. According to O.A. E. eece. e. e.S.made of silver. Really. the weak. Jespersen). which appear in the position associated with adjectives. many adjectives have no degrees of comparison either. Jespersen). etc.io.V. In the opinion of L. In the third place. Smirnitsky. Jerome). The first grammarian to mention statives in English was B. they can be followed by the prop-word one. morphological. in his opinion. e. The Problem ofStatives A. they have already turned into adjectives. Only time will show whether all the attributive nouns will turn into adjectives proper. silver (adj) .K. statives do not differ from adjectives as far as their meaning is concerned. Barkhudarov. Ilyish.a soft whitish precious metal. they can combine with adjectives. On the one hand. their tendency to turn into adjectives. e. peace talks. But he did not study the problem closely. But taking into consideration that it always performs the function of an attribute. Vinogradov who singled out such words as xonodno. as opposed to adjectives that express non-temporal property. statives seem to stand apart from adjectives.V.. On closer inspection.g.. stcwib into a separate part of speech. 76 The divergence of views. matter-of-fact are qualified there as adjectives.g. Sweet thinks that the first component in these constructions is a noun because it lacks the category of degrees of comparison.and lack the grammatical category of degrees of comparison.: in a more everyday tone (O. but their adjectivization is an indisputable fact. are adjectives. ctipo. Solid and hyphenated compounds of the type everyday.: two gold watches and a silver one (O. Here we shall deal with such constructions as stone wall.g.A. Scerba and V. For silver it has two entries: silver (n) . Thus.. In the opinion of B. It was L. if cases of the kind the brave. statives are marked by the presence of a seme of state. (J. Jespersen). he says. he finds it necessary to slightly modify the conception of H. which means that he had been in a state of sleep for some time. Jespersen). Ilyish.: . for instance.: her Christian and family name (O. It seems reasonable to follow D. the absence of degrees of comparison does not prove anything.: on merely business grounds (O. Vostokov was the first to draw attention to a specific nature of statives in the system of the Russian language. Quirk and his co-authors seems as vulnerable as that of A. However.I.g. In the fourth place. Jespersen). some of them can have degrees of comparison. asleep.P..The conception of R. So. H. Morphologically.g. alive constitute a separate part of speech because they possess semantic. Jespersen. how can they function as heads of noun phrases? We shall follow those linguists who recognize the existence in Modern English of both whole and partial substantivization of adjectives. there are a lot of adjectives that stand outside the grammatical 77 . too. etc. he had been asleep for some time. the meaning of state is merely a variety of the meaning of non-temporal property typical of adjectives. they can be modified by prepositive adverbs. In the first place. In the second place. e. is due to the gradual process of adjectivization. Semantically. Crystal and say that at the present stage nouns. Shubin also refers the first component in constructions of the type stone wall to nouns. He puts forward the following arguments to prove his point of view. The latter is reflected in dictionaries. it is practically impossible to prove whether stone in stone wall is a noun or an adjective. for they have a specific prefix a. in our opinion. and syntactic characteristics of their own. in the most matter-of-fact way (O. The term attributive noun stresses the transitional nature of such nouns. form a 'mixed' word class.

du Maurier). some 'statives' can be and are used attributively. however. 79 . THE ADVERB Although the adverb as a separate part of speech was singled out in Ancient Grammar.g. and morphological characteristics.S. Combinability with: a) verbs in preposition and in postposition. Ilyish thinks that statives possess the category of tense. his soul was ablaze with bliss (M.: He felt iWpoorfy/faint (R.). Sheldon). The most common are those referring to the health or lack of health of an animate being. In other words. cannot express any tense distinctions. which. syntactic. The criterion of syntactic function. there are some indisputable adjectives that are restricted to predicative position.: quickly. Quirk et al. . this point of view does not seem convincing. in his opinion. Thus. Quirk et al. will be). statives . the fast asleep children (R. I deeply regret the mistake (A.A. according to L. That's why we shall look upon words with the prefix a. In the first place. On the other hand. Deeping). Nevertheless.: She sings verv_ well (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).: She sings beautifully (A. Classes of Adverbs and Their Characteristics Russian linguists generally draw a distinction between two classes of adverbs: qualitative and circumstantial.: The two main meals of the day. He was conscious of a sense of adventure (W. Twain).). Qualitative adverbs have a generalized grammatical secondary meaning of non-temporal property of a non-substantive referent. In the second place.g. e. He is asleep. it is the morphological category of degrees of comparison that they possess. Deeping).category of degrees of comparison. Quirk and his co-authors write that it is tempting to say simply that the adverb is an item that does not fit the definitions for other word classes. Cf: She was very happy (W. an aloof character (R.g. which is past. some of the so-called statives form degrees of comparison just like most qualitative adjectives. 1. in itself. was.mainly predicatively: She is aloof from her classmates (S. the wide awake patient (R.as a specific subclass of adjectives. In a minute she was fast asleep (P. Adjectives are generally used both attributively and predicatively. if the so-called statives do have morphological categories. Abrahams). Barkhudarov. e. Yet he was aware of a sense of unreality (W. is also alike. nervously.g.S. is hardly sufficient for qualifying the words of a category of state as a separate part of speech.S. he will see that the category of tense finds its expression in the copular verb be (is. modern grammars try to make adverbs less of a 'dustbin' class by identifying their main semantic.). common to adjectives. Quirk et al.. The combinability of statives and adjectives.S. The only thing that differentiates statives from adjectives is their syntactic function in the sentence. e. Maugham). c) adverbs in preposition. As for the prefix a-. both adjectives and statives can be modified by adverbs and prepositional combinations. refers to the present tense as opposed to He was asleep.). e. e.g. clearly distinct from adjectives. However. the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English regards it as an adjective-forming prefix. Hornby). are both more or less alike (Lingaphone English Course). Cf: an alert manner (R. Quirk et al. Meaning.: Her exam results were very good (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). If one analyses the above-mentioned sentences. B. 7. R. especially when they are premodified. Qualitative adverbs have the following characteristics. lunch and dinner. Quirk et al. / was aware again of that feeling of discomfort (D. which is future. Hornby). Quirk et al.. slowly. 78 a somewhat afraid soldier (R.). and to He will be asleep. b) adjectives in postposition. 2.g. not in the stative asleep. its boundaries in English are still rather vague because the adverb is the most heterogeneous of all the English word classes. e.).

sideways (SOKOM. fast.).g. A.g. that man there (R.g.: headlong ).: well. Cowie. Qualitative adverbs modify the verbal component of predication and perform the function of an adverbial of manner. Steinbeck).P.g.P.: friendly. Hornby). tomorrow.: The big one went so slow (D. e. G£* The children were playing happily (A. Syntactic. The present-day suffix -fy goes back to the Old English suffix -lie that was an adjective-forming suffix.without the suffix -ly. etc.S. lively. To express an adverbial meaning one resorts to periphrastic constructions of the type: in a friendly way. the adverb without the suffix -ly generally has a more concrete meaning. lovely. Quirk et al. e.g. HCKOCH). Circumstantial adverbs have the following characteristics.g.more clearly . the other . The adverb with the suffix -ly usually has a more abstract or a figurative meaning. They are generally formed from adjectives with an -fy suffix.C.Morphological. Wilson). Combinability with: a) notional verbs in preposition. e.).g.: Samuel laughed loudly (J. Circumstantial adverbs denote various circumstances attending an action. Cf. In a number of cases there are two adverbs of the same root: one with the suffix ~fy. A.). Wilson). 4-Mprpholpgical.Functions.A. Cf: fast -faster -fastest. today.most clearly. d) adverbs in preposition and in postposition. Most qualitative adverbs are derived. etc.: calm . e. hard. e. e. Meaning. f) prepositional combinations in postposition.g.Categories.C. e. A few adjectives with the suffix -fy have survived in Modern English.: here. They have no corresponding adverbs. etc. there. far beyond (E. there is a growing tendency to use in conversation the adverb without the suffix -ly.Functions. 3. Simple qualitative adverbs are very few.: They travelled far from home (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).g.g. When the derived and the simple qualitative adverbs coincide in their meaning. lonely. e. e.g. Qualitative adverbs have the grammatical category of degrees of comparison. Gimson). e. etc. clearly . Cowie. 5.S.: How long have you lived here? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). She speaks very highly of your work (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). When circumstantial adverbs modify the predication as a whole. yesterday.: the meeting yesterday (R.g.: They^re here! (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Quirk et al.M.g.Stnjcture. The derivational suffixes -long and -ward(s) are not productive in the domain of qualitative adverbs.g. They laughed loud and long (A. c) nouns in preposition and in postposition. When circumstantial adverbs modify the verbal component of predication. 2.: 80 81 . e. Quirk et al.A.3.calmly.: She lives a few miles from here (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).S. Biber et al). the then President (E. A. Sometimes there is no essential difference between the adverb with the suffix -ly and the adverb without the suffix -ly. e. e. they perform the function of an adverbial.: She threw the ball high into the air (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). 1. an outside door (R.M. Hornby. in a lively manner. Hornby. e. Syntactic. particularly in colloquial American English. e) prepositions. Cf. b) the copular verb be in preposition.: Come and sit over here (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Gimson). A.: Come here (A. they perform the function of a situational modifier and are usually placed in the initial position.

etc.C. 4. both sets of degrees of comparison are used to refer to distance. Gimson). soon.I.: hard . which is inflectionally marked for the comparative and the superlative degrees: early . In British English. As for phrasal adverbs of the type: on purpose.most carefully.quicker (more quickly). circumstantial and qualitative adverbs are too heterogeneous to be united in one class.better . here. Cf. In American English. Hornby. A. Parsons). Cf. derived adverbs in -ly form their degrees of comparison with more and most.P. soon.: We shall need outside help for this job (A. e. often .g. A. A. we qualify them as adverb equivalents because they consist of several words. Since circumstantial adverbs give an external characteristic of an action. It is only qualitative adverbs and the circumstantial adverbs often. Cowie. etc. Circumstantial adverbs usually refer not to the verb.earlier — earliest.worst. 5. sometimes. Oftener is used by a small number of writers in fiction.S. badly . When circumstantial adverbs modify a substantival component. Cowie. The only exception is the adverb early formed by conversion from the adjective early. homeward(s). etc. qualitative adverbs are inwardly bound with the verb of the sentence and form with it an attributive word combination similar to that formed by an adjective with a noun.g. but to the sentence as a whole. Smirnitsky.He opened the doo*. Derivative circumstantial adverbs are few. Now the noise was very loud (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Cf. Giving an inward characteristic of an action. e.best.: We 're nearly there (A.later .latest. The adverbs often.oftener (more often).harder . and late have the grammatical category of degrees of comparison.P. qualitative adverbs give an internal characteristic of an action. there. everywhere. they perform the function of a predicative. from time to time. e.hardest.: backward(s). far -further -furthest.worse . First of all. Most adverbs are invariable. Second.g.: slowly . The superlative degree of adverbs is used very rarely. carefully — more carefully .C.: 83 82 . The adverb far has two sets of degrees of comparison: far -farther -farthest. The category of degrees of comparison of adverbs is similar to that of adjectives: simple adverbs are marked inflectionally for comparative and superlative degrees. they perform the function of an attribute. etc. English adverbs usually have two degrees of comparison: positive and comparative. quickly .Structure. The Conception ofAJ. Circumstantial adverbs are usually either simple. In some cases. only farther is used in this sense.: now. When circumstantial adverbs combine with a copular verb. forward(s). and late that have degrees of comparison. Evans). e. The light outside faded (J. The qualitative adverbs well and badly have suppletive forms of comparison that are derived from different roots: well . Degrees of Comparison Comparative and superlative forms are used more commonly for adjectives than adverbs.. soon.. All the other registers use more often. or compound. Cf.slower (more slowly). late . an adverb can be made comparative either with the -er inflection or with the use of more. downstairs. MprpholPBicalCate^gries. Most circumstantial adverbs are invariable.g. Gimson). somewhere. Morphological . then. they are not inwardly connected with the verb they are said to modify and do not form a word combination with it. A. at last.S.. with no difference of meaning: I have to walk farther/further than him (V. Smirnitsky According to A. they differ semantically: circumstantial adverbs give an external characteristic of an action. Hornby. they differ syntactically.

However. hardly. manner.g. Qualitative adverbs generally do not combine with the verb be. Cowie.I. qualitative adverbs have degrees of comparison. awfully dark . There is a grain of truth in his conception. since most linguists refer formations in -ly to qualitative adverbs. utterly. As for qualitative adverbs.He speaks slowly. ever. Adjectives. we shall regard them as adverbs. apparently. A.quantitative adverbs that show the degree. Gimson). Gimson).: When did that happen? (A. therefore. in his opinion. This class. B. (W. Barkhudarov and D.C. etc. Hornby. Qualitative adverbs can modify not only verbs but also adjectives.P. Khaimovich and B. the so-called conjunctive adverbs. The adjectival form is used in the function of an attribute to a noun. unfortunately. have two forms: adjectival and adverbial. quality.: then. so. twofold. Cf. — A slow speech. how.. somewhere. here. A. Cf.: I'm quite well. too. and morphologically closer to adjectives than to circumstantial adverbs. Thus. Cowie. Gimson).: We shall soon be there (A.awful darkness. My mother was quite a passionate woman (J.P. etc. 85 . there. e. typically. English grammarians do not classify adverbs into qualitative.). The relationship between a qualitative adverb and the adjective it modifies is similar to that between an adjective and the noun it modifies. or state. Rogovskaya single out a third class of adverbs . Hornby. Salinger). never. Cowie. everywhere. though. namely.g.C.S. A. they have a very general meaning.P. — A happy life. Since qualitative adverbs have the same stem as adjectives. Hornby. She was a rather big woman. mainly. In other words.I. A.S. D. measure. rather. quite.D. A. They merely enumerate the semantic categories covered by adverbs. too. etc. Circumstantial adverbs have no regular connection with any other part of speech. Smirnitsky recognizes the existence of circumstantial adverbs only. etc. really. introduce direct questions and dependent clauses. Just like qualitative adjectives. etc. / don't know when that happened (A. Cowie. e.S. Circumstantial adverbs freely combine with the verb be. All is well that ends well (Proverb). which is a productive adverb-forming suffix in Modern English.: wonderfully beautiful —~ wonderful beauty. e.: It's very warm today (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).S. The train was nearly full (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). stance adverbs (probably. A.P. or quantity of an action. sometimes. nearly.A. secondly. Third. actually. This dress is too small for me (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). thus. Gimson). Shteling call adverbs that point to 84 properties or circumstances pronominal adverbs because.. where. They live happily. thus. in their opinion.g. always. anywhere.S. The adverbial form in -ly is used in the function of an attribute to a verb or an adjective. L.C.) and linking adverbs (first. also. A. they are usually formed from adjectives with an -ly suffix. A. nowhere.I. Biber and his coauthors mention 7 semantic types of adverbs: adverbs of place.). just like pronouns. One of the few exceptions is the adverb well. In view of the fact that qualitative ^adverbs in -ly are semantically. circumstantial. altogether. A. thank you (A. syntactically.S.C. Cf. Adverbs can name properties and circumstances or point to them. fully. frankly. Maugham). definitely. Some pronominal adverbs.S. however. dictionary compilers very often do not make a separate entry for them. and quantitative. time. Hornby. Smirnitsky suggests that they should be regarded as grammatical forms of adjectives. thirdly. additive adverbs (too. includes such adverbs as very. degree. A. greatly. circumstantial and qualitative adverbs differ morphologically. when.

(outgrow). Gimson). i. 4. transitive verbs combine with nouns both in preposition and in postposition. Cf. We stopped working at tea-time (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Clipping is not typical of verbs since clipped verbs are generally formed by means of conversion from the corresponding clipped nouns. Intransitive verbs may combine with adverbs in postposition. are also characterized by a high frequency of occurrence in Modern English.a phone (n) <clipping> . un. Notional verbs perform the function of a predicate. or a generalized grammatical secondary meaning of temporal property.Syntactic:.: run. nationalize. Cf. better (adj) . go. You can use my computer (P.to edit (v). e. eat. Monsarrat). The most productive verb derivational suffixes are: -ize/ise (characterize). Verbs have either a generalized lexico-grammatical primary meaning of temporal property.g. Neither is the change of stress.: She smiled and laughed easily (Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English).: The British invented football (L. etc. Soars). black-blacken.S.g.classify.(to) ex'port. Lardner).8. Steinbeck). 2.: class . The most common verb derivational prefixes are: re.e. Cpmbinabijity.g.g. the creation of a new word from a false derivative by omitting the elements traditionally qualified as suffixes. flush =flash + blush.bleed. and -(i)fy (notijy). 1. aspectual. Cowie. Verb derivational suffixes usually change the word class.: cook — overcook. A.to phone (v) <conversion>. e. etc.P. Maugham)..(rewrite). The method of clipping consists in the cutting of one or several syllables of a word. Meaning. sleep.to beg (v). copular. verbs formed by means of merging parts of two words into one. come.: Your brother is waiting downstairs (A. e. Hornby. -en (moisten). The most productive way of forming new verbs is zero derivation (or conversion). Verb derivational prefixes usually do not change the word class. 87 . George grew red in the face (W. i. clash = clap + crash. e.(mislead). Cf. and compound. mis.(dislike). Viney).: a beggar (n) . over(overeat). and out.e.: 'export . Verbs can be simple (ask. auxiliary. say. 3. A.). Sound interchange is not productive either. C. Intransitive verbs combine with nouns in preposition. 86 a verb prefix is attached to a verb root to form a new verb with a changed meaning.to better (v).: a book (n) . etc.: They both lay still for a long time (E. blood . THE VERB General Characteristics The following features are commonly considered to be characteristic of the verb. . e. Derived verbs have either a prefix or a suffix or both.g. e. derived.. i.e.: food —feed. Intransitive and copular verbs may combine with adjectives in postposition.: quicken. /'// wake them (R.(unpack). etc. There are few derivational suffixes used for verb formation.Functions. e. A.C.Structure. -ate (differentiate). Blends.g.g.g. The derivational process can be represented in the following way: a telephone (n) .e. e.S. No servants had entered the room (N. e. Caldwell).Morphological . an editor (n) . dis. Cf: grumble = growl + rumble. Bill became serious (J. B. and modal verbs make part of a predicate. a verb suffix is attached to a noun or an adjective base to form a verb with a different meaning. Another productive means of verb building is back formation. and I.to book (v). i.g.

built . tense. sound interchange. e. aspect.g. verbs are divided into regular and irregular. The derivative nature of verbs formed by means of conversion. and Participle II. mood. strictly speaking. Are you still looking for a job? (A. obtain information. and change of stress becomes evident only at the diachronic level. with a change in the infinitive vowel for one or both. it is only verbs with prefixes or suffixes that are truly derived. look at. Regular verbs go back to the so-called weak verbs in Old English. But the preposition makes part of the following noun phrase. to look . since the meaning of phrasal verbs often cannot be predicted from the meanings of the individual parts. blending.: to show . Categories. about 200 verbs depart from the regular way of forming the past indefinite and Participle II. etc. radical changes have taken place in the domain of strong verbs. some have dropped out of use altogether.: 89 88 .raise. Cf. Class 3 verbs take the regular -ed suffix for the past indefinite but the -(e)n suffix for Participle II.: to feel-felt-felt. and voice. etc. The use of a preposition often does change the meaning of a verb.learnt ~ learnt. Major Verb Classes Morphplogical .: to move .looked.C.moved . Cf. it includes not only combinations of verbs with postpositions but also combinations of verbs with prepositions. back formation. which is usually referred to as postposition and.sold. The so-called phrasal verbs consist of two words: a verbal stem and an adverbial particle. the verb is the most developed part of speech. not of the verb.: broadcast.: to build .Classes of Verbs The English verb has three basic forms: infinitive. Unfortunately. bring up .: Who will look after the children while you go out to work? (R. look at. Class 4 verbs have no suffix for the past indefinite but take the suffix ~(e)n for Participle n. Cf. Synchronically. it is logical to call them regular verbs. educate.moved. MprpkQlQSical. In the course of time. to learn . or it may be added to the infinitive. Hornby. past indefinite. However. It can replace a final -d of the infinitive. Class 2 verbs take a -t or -d suffix to mark both the past indefinite and Participle II. Compound verbs include at least two stems. That's why combinations of the kind look after. Cf. whitewash. phase. Old English had seven classes of strong verbs that distinguished their main forms by means of vowel gradation. Cf. Cowie. 5. with a change in the infinitive vowel. Since they constitute the majority of verbs. should be excluded from the class of verbs. Besides weak verbs. give in — yield. According to the way the past indefinite and Participle II are formed. They form the past indefinite and Participle II by the suffix -(e)dft\aH originated from the verb do. to sell . e. No wonder that R.S. Here are a few examples: find out . Class 1 verbs take a voiceless -t suffix to mark both the past indefinite and Participle II. A. Carroll).g. can hardly be called phrasal verbs or verb equivalents.sold . This is one of the most productive ways of forming new verbs. the term 'irregular verbs'. etc. clipping. Gimson). they had better be called verb equivalents. At the synchronic level.'transport— (to) trans'port. e. look for.looked . number.discover.: look after. Courtney compiled a dictionary of phrasal verbs. posteriority. 3. Morphologically.built.showed — shown. 1. look for. 2.P. Compounding is not a productive means of forming new verbs. English grammarians single out seven classes of irregular verbs in the modern language.g. 4. It has the grammatical categories of person. Courtney). Nowadays. A. In our opinion. English grammarians regard them as a subclass of verbs. Some strong verbs have joined the weak conjugation. A cat may look at a king (L. Hence. they are regarded as simple verbs.

gave .: to cut . there are a number of etymologically weak verbs. Class 7 verbs have one or more suppletive forms. and modal verbs.: 1. grow. to find conversation more conservative than the written registers in using the irregular forms. turn.spoilt (spoiled) . The form gotten is used in American English and almost always has a perfective meaning.given.). both the sim ple and the perfective meanings are typically realized have got. Gimson). e.: remain.: M. A notional verb possesses a full lexical meaning of its own and forms a simple verbal predicate. A.began . to go . continue. e.g.g. A. look. taste.learnt (learned). smell. Have got in American English has a meaning roughly equivalent to have as a lexical verb. e. to be — was. Hornby. Functional verbs either lose or weaken their lexical meaning. stay. hide. Biber et al.g. In British E nglish. etc. Vasilevskaya think that the seven classes of irregular verbs can be reduced to three main types: consonantal.went — gone. to break . get.: Look at that face. The group of semi-notional verbs is constituted by aspectual verbs and verbs with a modal shade of meaning which do not weaken or lose their lexical meaning but which cannot form a predicate by themselves. This example means He doesn't have any teeth/He doesn't possess any teeth rather than the true perfective use of get with the meaning He hasn't obtained any teeth.: put. 91 . shave. to spoil . Hornby. Chevalier).: be.P. regular and irregular variants can be used both as past indefinite and Participle II forms. They make part of a compound verbal aspective or modal predicate.g. etc. and functional. A.: / can't believe Ginger's bike hasn't gotten stolen yet (D. but retain all the grammatical meanings common to the verb. 90 Actions speak louder than words (Proverb).dreamt (dreamed). e..been. e.).cut — cut. to dream .etc. to learn . laugh. e.P. etc. Auxiliary verbs constitute the first component of an analytical form of a simple verbal predicate. Chevalier). e.burnt (burned). I did not answer (T.S. The verbget has two irregular Participle II variants that occur following have: got and gotten.: grip.5. Biber et al. In a sentence.: become. There is no one-to-one correspondence between the group of regular and weak verbs. The historical trend is towards a greater use of the regular -ed pattern.S. vocalic.). to sit . Have you got an exam on Monday? (D. e. wash.begun. e. 3)copulas of remaining.sat. We have got ourselves into a rut (D. irregular and strong verbs. The group of regular verbs includes etymological ly both weak and strong verbs. and unchangeable. e. e. to give . linguists divide them into notional.C.g. walk. Functional verbs include auxiliary. Cowie.: to burn . Biber et al. lie.: 6. send.g.Cf: by Nptional/Semi-Ngtipnal/Fun^ Taking into consideration the lexical m eaning and the syntactic function of verbs.smelt (swelled). For many verbs. My daughter is tired today (T.spoilt (spoiled). Biber et al.sat .broke — broken. were .: Copular verbs form part of a compound nominal predicate.g. on the other. Cowie. copular. Class 6 verbs have past indefinite forms and Participle II forms identical to the infinitive forms. A.: It started raining (A.g. they form part of a predicate.dreamt (dreamed) . glide.g. Gimson). however. while in the group of irregular verbs etc.burnt (burned) . to begin . semi-notional. to smell . e. teach.g.: e..g. e. He hasn 'tgot any teeth (D.).C. 2)copulas of becoming. keep. help. Ganshina and N. feel. She wants to go to Italy (A.g. on the one hand. So it is not surprising that American English has a stronger preference for the regular variant of these verbs than British English..smelt (smelled) .learnt (learned) .g. C lass 5 verbs have the past indefinite and Participle II marked only by a change in the infinitive vowel. swallow. Cf.g. It is unexpected. It is customary to classify copular verbs into three groups: 1)copulas of being.

Mental verbs. doesn 't she? (M. Change your mind. A. Occurrence verbs. Can you see that ship on the horizon? (A.P. Cf.C. want. Hornby. exist. A. Hornby. Cf: / hear the tour went wonderfully.C. Communication verbs. 2. seem. Why didn 'tyou tell him? -Idid tell him (M. etc. state. Cowie. C o w i e . Swan).: / am telling the truth -you must believe me (M. A.S.: ask. Cowie. // was a nice party] (M.: Do sit down (M. Chevalier). announce.g. Gimson). live.S. buy.C. Gimson). and so take a subject with the semantic role of agent. love. Biber and his co-authors find it possible to classify verbs into seven major semantic domains. carry. enable. Causative verbs. A. speak. open. Cowie. explain.) and emotional meanings expressing various attitudes or desires (e. Mental verbs denote a wide range of activities and states experienced by humans. call. work. talk. / read that the new director is Spanish (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).g. Ida like the sun on my face (T. Auxiliary. see. and modal verbs are referred to the class of intensifiers when special emphasis is put on them. Swan). 6. hear. 5.: bring. tell.P. Robins). Existence verbs report a state that exists between entities.) and receipt of communication (e. Chevalier). know. say. . think. Hornby.P. D. Cf: / bought this car from Chris (A. Causative verbs. etc. A. include. She does talk a lot. Chevalier). Cf. etc. represent.: be.P. We went to France for our holidays (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).g. run. occur. 1. shout. such as allow. Auxiliary. Cf.C. contain. let. Semantic. e. leave. Activity verbs. cause. etc. Communication verbs can be considered a special subclass of activity verbs that involve communication activities (speaking and writing). Swan). taste.C. e. etc. Imperative sentences and declarative sentences with the predicate-verb in the present or past indefinite are made emphatic by means of the intensifier do. Hornby. A. H o r n b y . A. In autumn the leaves change from green to brown (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). force.g. read. Occurrence verbs report events (typically physical events) that occur apart from any volitional activities.). give. write.of Verbs Although many verbs have more than one meaning. Gimson). help. Sheldon). discuss. S . Cf: / don 't know what he wants (T. together with perception (e.g. Hornby. Gimson).: I told him my name (A. Gimson). They include such verbs as become.: His illness caused him to miss the game (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).S. Sheldon). Sheldon). 93 . A. involve. A. They include both cognitive meanings (e. copular. etc.). Swan). 3. Activity verbs primarily denote actions and events that could be associated with choice. In this case they are stressed. -lam (S.: The book seems quite interesting (A. Their subject often has the semantic role of recipient. They do not involve physical action and do not necessarily entail volition. / could go back to my parents (T. Existence verbs. increase. Cowie.g. e. copular.: H e b e c a m e a d o c t o r ( A. indicate that some person or inanimate entity brings about a new state of affairs. appear. e. suggest. Gimson). move. A. etc. stay. come.Domains.C. change.It did (S. develop. etc. permit. Cf. A. 4. / helped him find his things (A. -I can't (S. P. Swan). 92 George wrote me that he couldn 't come (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).S.g. Cf. etc.g. I love you (D. go. But I-want you to be proud of me. take. acquire. A .P.S. Cowie. grow. which is always pronounced with strong stress. and modal verbs can also function as verbsubstitutes. happen.Modal verbs form part of a compound verbal modal predicate.

Such grammatical meanings are called dependent grammatical meanings. Kruisinga and H. however. My parents kept encouraging me to study (M. Poutsma. Hornby. there are no grounds for qualifying the distinction as lexical since the meanings of terminativeness and nonterminativesness do not constitute words as such but only accompany the lexical meaning of words. A. suggested by G. Aspectual verbs. non-terminative. Cowie. bring. Zhigadlo. stop. E.C. I .N.g. Chevalier). As a rule. The aspective character of verbs of double nature varies in accordance with the situation. which is characteristic of grammatical meanings.N. stand.P. L. The almost complete absence of inflections makes it difficult to distinguish between direct and indirect objects. K o r n e y e v a . stop. such as begin. According to V. exist. Chevalier). M .. Shteling. N. Vorontsova. leave..non-terminative meaning.terminative meaning. Sweet). verbs are usually divided into transitive and intransitive. That's why A. rise. When this limit is reached. D. Cowie. A. I. 7. reach. it is not based on any difference in form. e. for instance. They answer the question ^fmo cdejiamb? Cf. of Verbs In accordance with their combinability. speak. and verbs of double nature. keep. such as Russian. continue.P. We must have walked ten miles today (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) . etc. in the sentence / gave David a book (A.P. She regards the distinction between terminative verbs. Classes. A. denote an action implying a certain limit beyond which it cannot go on. Swan). No further development is possible. Verbs that do not take a direct object after them are called by him intransitive. otherwise I go by bus (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) . Thus. Thus.S. of course. Cf. Hornby. G. finish.g. Vorontsova has overcome this drawback.A.A. sit. (A.N.: go. Terminative verbs. As for the distinction of terminative and non-terminative verbs.S. Sweet). e. catch.: / began to cry silently (T. we qualify the verb live as nonterminative. and verbs of double nature as lexical. Guzeyeva widen the domain of transitive verbs by including into them verbs that combine with prepositional objects. Barkhudarov.: He fell (H.g. The absence of the internal limit in non-terminative verbs is relative. A . The opposition 'terminative verbs . We are born and we die. Robins).: Boys like jam (H. etc.: come. They answer the question ^imo dejiamb? Non-terminative verbs are few in number. In English. A. Aspectual verbs. It is impossible to make a sharp distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs because transitive verbs can be used 94 95 .nonterminative verbs'. This definition is easily applied to inflected languages.S. Nevertheless. Richard stopped playing and came towards us (D. they are verbs denoting state. neither was a success because both failed to distinguish the aspective character in the meaning of the verb from the grammatical category of aspect.C. does not form a grammatical category because to constitute a grammatical category grammatical meanings must have constant grammatical forms of their expression. characterize the stage of progress of some other event or activity. Non-terminative verbs denote actions that do not imply any limit.L. Aspectiye Character of Verbs The first attempt to classify verbs in accordance with their aspective character was made by E. Syndetic. Sweet. Os s o v s k a y a a n d K. lofik. Cf: When it's a nice day I walk to work.: He was waiting for me (T. However. the action is regarded as completed. in her opinion. Ivanova and L. The division of verbs into terminative.L Smirnitsky gives the following definition: transitive verbs are those that take non-prepositional objects. things are different. Ko b r i n a . in the opinion of H. non-termi native verbs. intransitive verbs are those that take prepositional objects. combine with a direct object. Gimson) both the indirect object David and the direct object a book are inflectionally non-marked. is not devoid of drawbacks either.This atlas contains fifty maps. A. e. Transitive verbs. e. etc. start. in which the direct object is expressed by a substantive word in the accusative case. in the verb come the internal limit is constituted by the moment of coming. sleep. Gimson).g.

C.. Accordingly. 2.intransitively and intransitive verbs are often converted into transitive by a slight change of meaning.inside the predicate-verb. Cowie. Unfortunately. etc. you are. These distinctions. B. Gimson).S. The only person inflection of English regular verbs in the present tense is the -(e)s of the third person singular. That's why O. e. 4. Does he get up at 7 o 'clock? .: lam. Murphy) . Hornby. Jespersen suggests that we should speak not of transitive and intransitive verbs. it is generally the personal pronoun in the function of the subject that indicates the person and number of the verb.before the predicateverb.As regards the future tense. 2.S.S. A. walk.Verbs whose primary meaning is intransitive and whose secondary meaning is transitive. e. Wilson). 1. Jespersen). read. 3. 97 . Here belong such verbs as work.L. run. L. 96 1. a morpheme expressing person also expresses number. They can be coordinated with nouns. they single out two verb classes. A. A. Cf. the first person singular and plural (shall) is opposed to all the rest (will).A. i. are being gradually obliterated a) through the ousting of the verb shall by the verb will. The verb be has special forms for the first. Jespersen). His new novel is setting well (A. They can move about in the sentence. Following O. Cf.: He sold the car at a good price (E. non-continuous aspect. Smirnitsky. Gimson). Jespersen. 2.: Neither you nor I could do it (A. It was he (M. e. etc. Robins). Personal pronouns in the nominative case can be used not only as subjects.I. but rather of transitive and intransitive use of verbs.g. He was older and so much wiser than I (D. Swan). Cowie. personal pronouns preceding a finite verb can hardly be regarded either as being or tending to become verbal morphemes similar to the -(e)s morpheme of the third person singular.: He studies. In the past and future. Swan).g. he/she/it is.M. non-perfect phase. it is not always easy to say which meaning is primary and which is secondary. indicative mood. Hornby. The Grammatical Categories of Person and Number Person and number in Indo-European languages are expressed simultaneously. Here belong such verbs as sell. He puts forward the following arguments. the English verb has no number distinctions but for the only example was as opposed to the plural were. act.A. V.: Neither my father nor I were there (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). the only distinction between the singular and the plural is that the third person singular of the present tense. Modal verbs have no -(e)s in this case because their present tense form was originally past. Barkhudarov and D. hi the opinion of A.P.e. 3.A. Kaushanskaya and her coauthors. Nowadays. Shteling propose drawing a distinction between the primary and secondary meaning in verbs.C. 1.P. too. English verbs distinguish two numbers .g. He worked his servants hard (O. Ilyish regards pronouns in the nominative case as verbal prefixes rendering the grammatical meanings of person and number.Person distinctions do not go with the meaning of the past tense in English.Verbs whose primary meaning is transitive and whose secondary meaning is intransitive.: He gets up at 7 o'clock (R. For instance. and third persons. b) through the spreading of the contracted form '// for all persons in the singular and in the plural.singular and plural. active voice ends in ~(e)s in the singular. Cf. however. He worked hard (O. in formal English they are used as predicatives and adverbial s of comparison: It is I (M. They can be coordinated with the help of conjunctions. A. The category of person in Modern English has certain peculiarities. In all other cases. second.

etc. a day.The lexical meaning of time is absolute. However. For instance. one should not overestimate the role of the category of tense in the system of the verb.Lexically. 1. languages that do have the category of tense may have a number of verbs that are invariable in so far as tense distinctions are concerned. The past is the time preceding the present moment. a second. and the future is much more complicated.The arguments of A.S.: Ic cume (I come). the verb ought in English has only one form. a minute. there existed two tenses: the present and the past Cf.e. e. Khaimovich and B. and future. Tense is a verbal category that represents linguistic expression of time relations. which has no dimension but is constantly fleeting. present.: on the 11' of February. In the first place. e. the relation between the present.: Ic ga sona (I soon go). The . if a personal pronoun with the following verb formed an analytical word. Sheldon). a period of time is named directly. Time is universally conceived as something having one dimension only. it stands outside the grammatical category of tense. Neither of them includes the present moment. It is the borderline where the nature becomes the past. we may say that time is divided into two parts: the past and the future. there exist languages that do not have the category of tense in the verb. time distinctions can be expressed not only by forms of verbs. Thus. Neither can they be treated as auxiliary elements of analytical words. There was no special tense form for the future. Ic com (I came). and the future. the point of division being the present moment.I. Actions referring to the future used to be expressed by the form of the present tense. thus capable of being represented by a straight line: A: Past B: Present C: Future The main divisions of objective time are past. Very often the idea of futurity became clear from the context only. The present is reflected in speech not as a mere point.e. 2. In Old English. The starting point of the present-day analytical future tense form was the free phrase 'sculan (willan) + infinitive'.g. The future is the time following the present moment. it is possible to name any definite moment or period of time: a century. the English verb can express number independently in the absence of a personal pronoun in the nominative case. The concept of time is common to all mankind and is independent of language. goes denotes a present action because it is contrasted with -went denoting a past action and with will go naming a future action. The grammatical indication of time is extremely generalized. a week. In the third place. but as a more or less long period of time including the present moment. without saying when exactly. rather. often in conjunction with an adverbial. cases of the kind Doesn 't matter (W. Many linguists look upon tense distinctions as the main characteristic of 98 the verb. Trevor) would be impossible. e. grammatically. so far as these are indicated in verb forms. etc. 3. The Grammatical Category of Tense The verb usually denotes processes. In reality. an hour. i. But they do occur in English. the past. Thus. a verb in the past tense shows that the action took place in the past. the past. they are not used when a verb has a nounsubject. at nine o'clock in the morning. Rogovskaya mention the following points of difference between lexical and grammatical expression of time.g. In the first place. e.g. a month. i. B. Smirnitsky prove rather convincingly that personal pronouns in the function of the subject are independent words. In the second place. which would be natural if she rose were an analytical word. not *Lara she rose to her feet. The grammatical meaning of tense is an abstraction from only three tenses: the present.g. Or. For instance. the Hopi language. the grammatical meaning of tense is relative. not grammatical morphemes of person and number. but also lexically.Lexically. So.: on Monday. and processes proceed in time.I. we say Lara rose to her feet (S. In the second place.

development of the future tense belongs to the Middle English 99 .

in his opinion.I. The future tense is just a case in point. O. used to render futurity. In a number of cases. Hornby) and My father will be seventy-five in May (A. but for quite different reasons. The theory of oppositions has been worked out on the basis of phonology by N. on the other hand. But English is an analytical language. News uses both present and past tense forms to about the same extent. On analyzing the constructions with shall and will. Really. express mere futurity. to a certain degree. fiction writers use past tense forms much more frequently than present tense forms. But one grammatical form cannot express several grammatical meanings characteristic of the same grammatical category. H. the category of tense including.with the second and third persons.S. regardless of time.g. which are generally looked upon as future tense forms. perfect. In fact.S. past. consequently. It was also N. Consequently. All the verbal categories. free from any modal shades of meaning. English verbs are inflected only for present and past tenses. their original lexical meanings of volition and obligation and cannot be treated as pure tense auxiliaries. Jespersen draws the conclusion that the verbs shall and will retain. we have two oppositions: present . Hornby). Smirnitsky also stresses the fact that it stands somewhat apart from the present and the past. perfect and continuous cannot be regarded as tense forms. Jespersen denies the existence of the future tense in English. although they approach that function especially when applied to atmospheric conditions. and it often expresses grammatical meanings not by inflections. while the past tense is strongly associated with activity verbs and communication verbs.g. one form cannot express two or more tenses simultaneously. uses the present tense not so much to focus on the immediate context. Swan). e. etc. O. Nevertheless. A. and continuous in present perfect continuous. Hornby). If 100 perfect and continuous were tense forms.75 (AS. In conversation. They say that English verbs are not inflected for the future tense. 101 .: I will do as Hike (A. Trubetzkoy. The distribution of present and past tense forms differs considerably across registers. In contrast.period. i. can be represented in the form of oppositions. Cf. a representative of the Prague linguistic school. Sentences of the type: Tomorrow will be Sunday (A.: present and perfect in present perfect. Trubetzkoy who wrote on the applicability of the opposition theory to grammar. A morphological opposition is a contrast of two morphological units possessing a ground for comparison and a basis for distinction. There exist only three grammatical tenses in Modern English: present. are not always mere auxiliaries. Academic prose. A.S. A close study of present and past tense forms has led D. the reliance on present tense reflects the speakers' general focus on the immediate context. In the category of tense.past and present . as to convey the idea that the propositions are true. Sweet]. The future tense represents something as not yet realized. D.: On June the twenty-first the sun will rise at 3. Biber and his co-authors to the conclusion that the present tense is strongly associated with mental verbs and existence verbs. they preserve their modal meaning and cannot be looked upon as tense auxiliaries. but by auxiliary words. especially when will is used with the first person and shall . present.e. The wide use of the contracted form 'II both for shall and will also testifies to the fact that the verbs in question lose their respective meanings and turn into pure auxiliaries. Quirk and his co-authors. it is often modally coloured. You shall suffer for this\ (M.fature. Smirnitsky recognizes the existence of the future tense as a grammatical form. e.42 ana" set at 5.g. the verbs shall and -will. with present tense verbs being used only in the direct speech attributed to fictional characters. but for a different reason. Besides. Linguists who regard perfect and continuous forms as tense forms find a lot of tenses in Modern English [e. R.I. Biber and his co-authors also deny the existence of the future tense in English. we would have a unity of several tenses in one form. Hornby). and future. The preference for present tense forms is particularly strong in conversation and academic prose. many fictional narratives are written entirely in the past tense. when the verbs \villan and sculan gradually lost their primary lexical meaning and became auxiliaries. Speaking about the future tense.

Consequently. the past tense excludes the present moment. the past tense is characterized by the dental suffix -(e)d\ the future tense is formed by means of the word will with the following infinitive. Jespersen deny the existence of the category of aspect altogether. Each member of tense oppositions has a specific form. Hornby. but the meaning. 4) the category of aspect is a specific grammatical category. A. The problem of aspect in Modern English admits of four interpretations: 1)aspect is a semantic category.: Mother is baking a cake now (V.S. Oppositions as paradigmatic phenomena are realized on the syntagmatic axis in speech situations. and the terminative aspect is generally associated with the base of the verb. The modern English aspect based on the contrast of continuous and non-continuous forms begins to take root in the Middle English period. If it were so. A. 2)there is no category of aspect in Modern English. Curme's classification. They look upon continuous forms as tense forms. Gimson). expressing posteriority to it. should have constant grammatical forms of its expression. they cannot be referred to the grammatical category of aspect because they lack constant grammatical forms of their expression. Curme who finds it possible to single out five aspects: 1) the durative aspect representing the action as continuing. Hornby. future and continuous in future continuous. The grammatical category of aspect. ingressive. or rather one component of the meaning relevant for the given opposition and on which the opposition is built. the future tense also excludes the present moment. In the process of morphological neutralization.P. 102 103 .: When we were children. e. it is not the form that is neutralized. In view of the fact that tense oppositions are equipollent. 2) the ingressive aspect directing the attention to the initial stage of the action or state.g.: She began crying (A. But we know that no grammatical form exists that could combine in itself two meanings of one and the same grammatical category. they refer to permanent oppositions.C. Sweet and O. Since all the members of tense oppositions are characterized by their own specific meaning and form. those oppositions are generally neutralized.g. e. The present tense includes the present moment. expressing priority to it. we would go skating every week (M. like any grammatical category. 3) the effective aspect directing the attention to the final point of the activity or state. The Grammatical Category of Aspect Aspect is a verbal grammatical category showing the way in which the action develops. which can create conditions where one of the differential features of the opposition may prove irrelevant in the given context. The continuous aspect goes back to the Old English free phrase 'beon/wesan + Participle I'. e. The unmarked member that possesses a more general meaning appears in the position of neutralization. it is only the durative and the terminative aspects that can be looked upon as grammatical aspects since to express the durative aspect we usually employ the ing-form.P. e. the relations between whose members are not polar. tense oppositions are referred by T. polar. Cowie. i. The semantic classification of aspects in English is carried out by G.g. As for the so-called iterative. H. Evans). A. continuous forms would represent a unity of two tenses: present and continuous in present continuous.g. The present tense is homonymous with the base of the verb [in the third person singular the inflection -(e)s is added].B. Swan). 5) the iterative aspect naming a succession of like acts.C. A.The ground for comparison in these oppositions is the relation to the present moment. 3) the category of aspect is closely connected with the category of tense and cannot be severed from it. Khlebnikova to equipollent oppositions. and effective aspects. 4) the terminative aspect indicating an action as a whole. e.S. Cowie. In G.: We stopped talking (A.: She read about the murder in the paper (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). past and continuous in past continuous.e. Gimson).g.

D. Vasilevskaya look upon perfect forms as tense forms. The perfect form goes back to the Old English construction 'habban + direct object + attributive Participle IT'. The perfect form admits of four interpretations: 1)perfect is a tense form. With terminative verbs. Since the relations between the members of the privative opposition of aspect are not polar but isomorphous. 3)perfect is part of the tense-aspect system.e. As for Participle II. According to the rules of neutralization. Evans) .partial neutralization.: We were meeting them at the concert hall. are of opinion that although the grammatical categories of aspect and tense are interrelated. have points of contiguity. the opposition of aspect can be neutralized on the syntagmatic axis.by Hie absence of the same feature. Swan). I. for it usually brings about a change of meaning. Foley. the other .P. aspect neutralization is impossible.noncontinuous aspects.g. the unmarked non-continuous aspect finds itself in the position of neutralization because it has a more general meaning and no specific formal exponent. Cf: They were dancing while he was playing the guitar (V. The Grammatical Category of Phase The category of phase is constituted by the opposition of perfect and non-perfect forms. The noncontinuous aspect is unmarked both in form (no characteristic pattern 'be + Participle F) and in meaning (it represents an action as simply occurring with no reference to its duration).complete neutralization. but we didn 't know which entrance they were waiting at (M. for instance. / met Jill at the bus stop this morning (Longman Language Activator).L. This type of neutralization is often found in stage remarks. Ganshina and N. the present perfect. O. The majority of linguists.: Smith passes to Webster. Khlebnikova draws the conclusion that it can be qualified as a privative opposition. L. I.V. Hall). they can and should be separated for linguistic analysis because they characterize the verbal action from different angles: tense refers the action to this or that time sphere. The majority of linguists speak of two aspects in Modern English: continuous and non-continuous (or common). We can consider as neutralization of duration those cases when the present indefinite is used instead of the present continuous in describing the things that happen. i. aspect describes the manner in which the action develops in this time sphere.B. 104 They danced while he was playing the guitar . They danced while he played the guitar . Jespersen. 2)perfect is an aspect form. e. However. it gained in importance. Cf. —* They all sat round the fire. The terminative verb meet in the continuous aspect describes an arranged action that was about to take place at some later time. Sweet. The word order was changed. however. The continuous aspect is marked both in form ('be + Participle P) and in meaning (it represents an action in its development). neutralization of duration is more common on the axis of the past. too. The verb habban first weakened and then lost its lexical meaning. The terminative verb meet in the non-continuous aspect denotes an action that took place in the past. would represent a unity of two 105 . 4)perfect is a specific form of the category of phase. Ivanova.g.N.no neutralization. The perfect form came into existence: 1have/hadwritten my letter. e.partial neutralization. Zhigadlo. Aspect neutralization is typical of non-terminative verbs. If perfect were a tense form. M.: They were all sitting round the fire (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). They were dancing while he played the guitar . Its verbal nature was strengthened and it became syntactically connected immediately with the verb habban. lofik and some other linguists think that the category of aspect forms an inseparable whole with the category of tense. and Webster shoots and it's a goal\ (M. one member of which is characterized by the presence of a certain feature. Having analyzed the opposition of continuous . H.

N. e. used to denote a future action from the point of view of the past. The term phase is borrowed from physics.P. In the first place. perfect is not a tense form. Foley. Joos suggests that the category in question should be called a grammatical category of phase. perfect is an aspect form. That's why I. Hall). D.g.30'. Vorontsova and B. L.: She had already left when I got home (V. which also realizes time relations. I would move (M. Neither are they phase forms because they can be used in the perfect phase. they occur in indirect speech. we would have two aspects in perfect continuous forms. and in indirect speech the meanings of future in the past and dependent unreality come close together. dejiamb . Biber and his co-authors. Ivanova and L. Fuchs. Khlebnikova qualifies the opposition built up by perfect and non-perfect phases as equipollento-privative.ttanucamb. However. present a debatable problem.I. D. and it has been postulated that one grammatical form cannot express several grammatical meanings of the same grammatical category. M.L. they can hardly be regarded as constituting the grammatical category of aspect. The American linguist M. Foley. The term is not a happy one since it fails to differentiate the new category from the category7 of tense. Bonner). we shall see that both members are logically equal. Hall). etc.: Little did we know that we would still be waiting in three hours' time (M. He thinks that the opposition of perfect and nonperfect forms builds up a specific grammatical category. A detailed study of the forms in question shows that they are not mood forms. Smirnitsky. the forms 'should/would + infinitive' are not tense forms.P. Cf. But if we take meaning into consideration.30 (M. D. Zhigadlo. V. So. although it is closely connected with the two.should wait/finish and will wait/finish .cdejiamb. Evans).: When she was young she lived in a small flat (V. However.: The Cabinet thought the crisis would have finished before the election (M. Ivanova..would wait/finish is not that of tense: both are future. In the opinion of G. In the sentence 'If I had more money. The non-perfect phase shows that the action and its effect are in one phase.tenses: present and perfect. it will become evident that formal identity ('would + infinitive' in both cases) does not signal identity in meaning and function. which is characteristic of equipollent oppositions: the non-perfect phase expresses simultaneity. I would move'.A.I. would move cannot be opposed to will move. perfect is neither a tense nor an aspect. Vorontsova. Ilyish qualify them as the fourth tense in the system of the English verb. e. Here is his way of reasoning. lofik qualify perfect as part of the tense-aspect system. In the sentence 'Alex said she would meet us there again the next day at 3. would meet is opposed to will meet and denotes a real action following some other action in the past. 107 . Foley. The grammatical meanings of completion and lack of completion of events or states do form the grammatical category of aspect in Russian.N. Hence. In English. Evans). Quirk and his co-authors. They are not aspect forms because they can be used in the continuous aspect.N.g. According to A. lofik. A new approach to the problem is suggested by A. the perfect phase 106 expresses priority. If we compare the sentences djlex said she would meet us there again the next day at 3. If perfect forms were aspect forms. perfect should be excluded from the grammatical category of aspect.g. But one grammatical form cannot express two grammatical meanings of the same grammatical category. No wonder that V. It denotes an imaginary action simultaneous with or following the moment of speech. a category of time relation. e.B. R. I. Zhigadlo. but mood forms. the non-perfect phase lacks this pattern. The perfect phase emphasizes that the action and its effect are in different phases. Formally. Smirnitsky.N. In the second place. nucamb .L. the difference between shall wait/finish . the opposition of perfect and non-perfect phases is a privative opposition: the perfect phase is based on the pattern 'have + Participle II'. they are formally identical with the conditional mood. Hall) and If I had more money. I. D. G. The Grammatical Category of Posteriority The forms 'should/would + infinitive'. Cf.

The Grammatical Category of Mood 2. i. Cf. Do forgive me-1 didn 't mean to interrupt (M. however. a request. Open the window. Since the indicative mood represents an action as real. thinks that the hypothetical meaning is introduced into the clause by the conjunction if and does not affect the meaning of the verbal form snows.C. the forms 'should/would + infinitive' indicate posteriority to some moment in the past. Sweet. however.M. such as modal words and modal verbs. Khaimovich and B. Evans). because using the predicateverb in the indicative mood. Since all the members of the posteriority opposition are characterized by their own specific meaning and form. Evans).P. The expression of the speaker's attitude may be different. the speaker presents something as a fact. the opposition 'shall/will + infinitive — should/would' + infinitive' forms a category of posteriority. finally. mood is a grammatical. e. in the opinion of O. A.I. Nikitevich considers that the morphological category of mood has a number of syntactic characteristics.g. pleasel (V. will-mood (imperative). The Indicative Mood The indicative mood is a fact-mood. etc. we can draw the conclusion that mood is a grammatical category realizing the attitude of the speaker to the thought expressed in the sentence which finds its expression in the morphological forms of the verb and at the same time has a number of syntactic properties.S. there are grammatical devices . Morphologically. Evans). O. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky.A. The majority of linguists. Hence. He said he would see me later (V. Criticizing H.special forms of predicate-verbs. Rogovskaya. Gimson). O. the indicative mood is the most developed system including all the categories of the verb. it seems to lack the seme of subjective evaluation common to the category of mood. The typical meanings of moods undergo various modifications in different syntactic constructions. The syntactic character of the category of mood also manifests itself in the fact that it is common to one of the principal parts of the sentence. an entreaty. Peshkovsky and some other linguists exclude the indicative mood from the grammatical category of mood. or rather a morphological category. Evans) pose a serious problem. Some linguists say that the action denoted by the verb snows in the indicative mood is represented here not as a fact but as a possibility.In the opinion of B."N. And. sentences." it may be rendered with the help of this or that intonation pattern. 108 109 . Depending on the attitude of the speaker to the thought expressed in the sentence. recognize the existence of the indicative mood as a specific grammatical form opposed to the imperative and the conjunctive moods. fall into three main groups: fact-mood (indicative).: Don't smoke in your room! (V. Jespersen points out that it would be much more correct to say that mood expresses certain attitudes of the mind of the speaker towards the content of the sentence. and thought-mood (conjunctive). the posteriority opposition should be referred to permanent equipollent oppositions. too.S. 1. Jespersen. Evans). Thus.e. Taking all this into consideration. we 'II make a snowman (V. Using it. First of all. V. Ilyish. the imperative mood can express a command.M. depending on the context. namely the predicate. Sweet thinks that mood expresses different relations between the subject and the predicate. No wonder that D. A. H. Jespersen remarks that we speak of mood only if this attitude of mind is shown in the form of the verb. Swan). In the second place. all moods. we can make use of lexical means. Sentences of the type: If it snows.: The moon goes round the earth and the earth goes round the sun (A. Cf: I'll see you later (V. The forms 'shall/will + infinitive' show that the action is posterior to the present moment. A. B. the speaker also expresses his attitude to the action in question by qualifying it as real. Cowie. Hornby. For instance.

IP. Faulkner). It is a direct expression of the speaker's will. E.N. Those forms that combine with personal pronouns in the first person singular and with personal pronouns in the third person (singular or plural) are addressed to the second person. Cf. Some linguists (G. it is but natural. V. us. N. Cf.S. Morphologically. there is one synthetic form that is homonymous with the infinitive without the marker to. Shakespeare).N.. since these constructions also comprise an element of inducement and taking into consideration that with the first person plural personal pronoun us the verb let has already turned into a pure auxiliary.: 110 Let's play in the gardenl (V. the imperative mood is the least developed of all moods. 3) the imperative mood cannot be used in interrogative sentences.: Don't wake up the haby\ (V. 1. Imperative sentences realize non-real modality. Murphy). When the verb let combines with a personal pronoun in the first person singular. negative infinitive is formed by means of not. I want you to listen carefully (R. Irtenyeva denies the existence of the imperative mood in English on the following grounds: 1)the imperative mood has no tense forms. Evans). There are. that is the question.F. Tofik deny the existence of analytical forms of the imperative mood in the English language because the verb let.F. 2)the imperative mood lacks person distinctions. Rogovskaya and look upon the combinations of let with first person singular and third person singular and plural personal pronouns as analytical imperative mood forms in the making. her. Those forms that combine with a personal pronoun in the first person plural address the inducement both to the interlocutor and ill . Irtenyeva is right. According to G. In our opinion. Bolinger identify it with the infinitive. They are right.: You let me run thisl (W. e. him. Vorontsova's conception. at least. Zhigadlo. Ivanova and L. 2. analytical imperative mood forms with let comprise first or third person characteristics. while the infinitive has both right-hand and left-hand connections. Therefore. Khaimovich and B. Old English had two synthetic forms of the imperative mood: for the second person singular and plural. it loses its lexical meaning and can be regarded as an imperative mood auxiliary. G. They build up their negative forms on different patterns. Vorontsova.g. in their opinion. two different 'lets' in Modern English. it is much more subjective than the indicative mood. N. Still controversial is the problem of forms of the imperative mood. Since the imperative mood is homonymous with the infinitive. we follow B. However. Listen carefully (R. and them. the imperative and the infinitive differ in several points. Vorontsova is one of them) think that the verb let with the following infinitive forms an analytical construction because let in such cases is devoid of its primary lexical meaning and performs the function of an auxiliary element. me. however. (W. Nowadays. Kruisinga and D. and in the domain of non-real modality tense characteristics are irrelevant. However.F. The fixed nature of person characteristics does not require the use of special person markers. it retains its primary lexical meaning. Both synthetic and analytical forms of the imperative mood are united by the meaning of 'second person' because it is always to his interlocutor that the speaker addresses his command or request expressed by imperative mood forms.L.N.. They are characterized by diverse distribution: the imperative usually has no left-hand connection.. When the verb let combines with a personal pronoun in the first person plural. we do not think N. If synthetic forms are recognized by the majority of linguists. Irtenyeva is right: the imperative mood has no tense forms. The continuous and passive forms are very rare. analytical imperative forms are heterogeneous. Evans). can be used in accordance with its primary lexical meaning of allow. the problem of analytical forms is still open to discussion. is criticized by a number of linguists. However.N. To be or not to be.I. e. Murphy). The latter becomes evident when imperative sentences are made two-member. As for the lack of person distinctions in the imperative mood.The Imperative Mood The imperative mood is a will-mood. Negative imperative is formed with the help of don't.g. or with a personal pronoun in the third person (singular or plural).

for it is constantly acquiring more and more features in common with interjections. i. Historically. if I were in her position. Lester (Th. we cannot identify them. had done) as constituents of the conjunctive mood paradigm.the consequence of that condition.Although the subjunctive expresses a condition and the conditional .g. Cf. First. Non-perfect forms place the unreal action in the temporal plane of the present-future. Lester. the subjunctive and the conditional were two different moods. Dreiser). which is more independent than the subordinate clause. the conditional mood is sometimes used independently.Neither the subjunctive nor the conditional possesses the category of tense because in the domain of non-real modality tense characteristics are irrelevant. Characterizing the imperative mood.: S C If I were you. In questions.Both the subjunctive and the conditional draw a distinction between simultaneity (non-perfect forms) and priority (perfect forms).the speaker. Now. Irtenyeva does. he would have gone to university (V. 4. It expresses supposition. interjections are invariable.The aspect opposition is characterized by a low frequency of occurrence. constructions with let's are characterized by a synthesis of second and first person characteristics. makes the conditional a free category. 2. etc. In other words. possibility. but there is syntactically motivated coexistence: the conditional occurs in the subordinating clause. e. should have done) and the subjunctive mood (were. 1. did. interjections give only a general idea of volition.e. the general categorical meaning of both moods in English is the same: it is the problematic supposition of an action. Perfect forms place the unreal action in the temporal plane of the past. desire. As a free category. I wouldn't be in a hurry to do anything. Although both the imperative mood and interjections express volition directly.in the subordinate clause. So. the subjunctive .: Sh! You'll wake the baby (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). The Conjunctive Mood The conjunctive mood is a thought-mood.: If he had passed his exams. sentences with the imperative mood of a verb are semantically concrete: they name the necessary action. Dreiser). they have become varieties of a single conjunctive mood.: I wish he were with us now (V. Evans). Evans). Khlebnikova regards the conditional mood (would do. e. Secondly.V. Evans).g. according to B. / -wish my father would give me more pocket money (V.B. the imperative mood is not used. had been.F. The use of the conditional in the subordinating clause. with the condition implicitly included in various parts of the sentence or inferred from . should do. there seem to be no grounds for denying the existence of the imperative mood in English as N. Their common nature is evident enough. V. But the definition of mood. e. does not say anything about the possibility of using a form belonging to this or that mood in one or more types of sentences. The imperative mood has affirmative and negative forms.: S C Why.A. Cf. there is no opposition between the subjunctive and the conditional.g. would have done. Vinogradov writes that it belongs to the periphery of the verbal system. Ilyish. Stop making such a noise\ (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). I would let you go (Th. 3. I.

the context. e. Maugham). 112 113 .g.: In the circumstances any one would have done the same (W.S.

Gimson)] also stands outside the paradigmatic system of the conjunctive mood. D.: If only I were young again (M. 3. (Th. 2. So. both moods can be found. A. That's why it seems better to refer mood oppositions to equipollento-privative oppositions. Voice is a category of the verb that indicates the relationship between the subject and the predicate-verb of the sentence. Khlebnikova... The grammatical category of mood comprises two oppositions: indicative . A.g. My uncle suggested that I should get a Job in a bank (M. First. Therefore. Cf. one which the subject has no control over. e. The so-called present conjunctive [/ suggest we go to the theatre (A. In the opinion of I. however. they are privative oppositions.g. Second. but is acted upon. Subjunctive n).: I wish you'd stop shouting. indicative . Among the English modal verbs. Hornby. Swan). e. 'Wish + conditional' expresses a desire for someone to change their deliberate behaviour in the present or future. Khlebnikova.: 1 wish I had more time (M. D.conjunctive. I'm not deaf you know (M. it is a subordinate category.: The woman opened the door. Contractions like I'd hove come are impossible with the verbs could and might and are quite common with the conjunctive mood auxiliaries should and would. the conjunctive mood is based on the format!ves of the past tense. the conjunctive mood in Modern English comprises two basic moods: the conditional and the subjunctive with the further subdivision of each into non-perfect (Conditional 1. and at the same time combine with the nonperfect and perfect infinitive. They carry stress. but with a difference in meaning.g.: The door was opened by a Chinese girl.g. Hardy).g. (W.imperative. may — might). the category of voice has a number of syntactic characteristics because it is realized in such a syntactic unit as the sentence. they can be regarded as privative because the indicative mood is a fact-mood. it is interchangeable with other variants of the conjunctive mood. Foley. The independent use of the subjunctive is rare. while the imperative and the conjunctive are non-fact moods. They retain their lexical meaning of possibility. Hall). The active voice shows that the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action expressed by the predicate.g. But what about combinations with modal verbs? According to I. Hall). In object clauses. 'Wish 4.subjunctive' expresses a desire for something to be different in the present. they are rather equipollent. As far as grammatical meaning is concerned.P. Formally.. At the same time. On closer inspection.C. Thus.: 114 My uncle suggested that I get a job in a bank (M. Third. Hall).past dichotomy (can -could. for all the members of the mood oppositions have their own specific forms. Foley. D. Hall). 1. after verbs of desire. 115 . Cowie. it has a stylistic colouring in British English.B. where it sounds rather official. it becomes evident that could and might can hardly be considered auxiliaries of the conjunctive mood. Foley. Maugham). while the conjunctive mood auxiliaries should and would are devoid of lexical meaning. D. it has neither aspect nor phase. Subjunctive I) and perfect (Conditional II. The Grammatical Category of Voice Definition of Voice Voice is a morphological category that manifests itself in the forms of the verb. We cannot use would for an impossible change.The subjunctive is generally used in the subordinate clause. e. e. The passive voice shows that the subject does not act. while the first component in the conjunctive mood grammeme (should/would) is unstressed. Foley. e.: / wish sports cars weren 't so expensive (M. the verbs would and should are conjunctive mood auxiliaries. Swan). only can and may display the present .. e.B.S.S.

it is doubtful that it can be regarded as privative. 1. the process denoted by the verb issues from the subject and is directed outside: AV: S The woman opened the door.I. Veikhman. He looks upon it as the reverse of the active voice. is privative not only in form (the passive voice is characterized by the discontinuous morpheme be + -en. the process indicated by the verb characterizes the grammatical subject from without: PV: S *• The door was opened by a Chinese girl. The Passive Voice Voice Auxiliaries In Old English. in his opinion. Barkhudarov finds it necessary to modify the conception of A.: The chair was broken (R. Thus. but also in meaning (in the case of the passive voice. Deeping). the gelpassive conveys a more dynamic sense than the he-passive: the feepassive generally simply describes a state.. 3. The door opened (A. In the active voice. an active 117 .) typically implies that the window should have been shut. the subject here indicates a number of persons or things. He also represents the active and passive voices in the form of an opposition. According to G. Christie). The gel-passive often reflects an unfavourable attitude towards the action. Smirnitsky thinks that the category of voice expresses the direction of the action. they cannot take an agent specified in a fcy-phrase. the verb weorPan fell into disuse. But this opposition. but on another member of the same group. Quirk et al. But a passive construction is not always a converted active construction. The full development of the passive form belongs to the Middle English period. in the case of the active voice. However. But what kind of opposition is it then? The question is still open to discussion. 2.. state that the gef-passive is rare and restricted primarily to conversation. 116 Recently. In such cases. Quirk et al. the action of the verb is not directed onto the subject from without). Cf. it is not always that the process denoted by the verb issues from the subject and is directed outside. Privative oppositions can be neutralized on the syntagmatic axis. L. Barkhudarov is of opinion that in the case of the passive voice the process indicated by the verb does characterize the grammatical subject from without As for the active voice.V.I. It indicates the thing inside which the action is going on. The subject in sentences like these indicates both the agent and the object of the action. English grammarians. The existence of the voice auxiliary be is universally recognized. In the passive voice. (W. He dressed. Since the voice opposition is never neutralized.). L.S. the verb beon began to lose its lexical meaning. But as opposed to sentences of the type He. Bondarko. with a resultant meaning similar to become. Since most gel-passives are used as stative passives. the subject also expresses both the agent and the object of the action. and every member of the group performs the action not on himself. Quirk et al.A. The action issues from the subject and then returns to it. there existed the free phrase 'beon/weorl>an + Participle II of a transitive verb'. Linguistic Status of the Passive Voice H.). however. Smirnitsky. the utterance How did that window get opened? (R. the privative character of the voice opposition has been called in question by A. dressed. The subject here denotes neither the agent nor the object of the action. In Middle English.A. Taking all this into consideration. The impossibility of the passive transformation may be due to the nature of the direct object. while the gel-passive describes the process of getting into the state.. there is a rising tendency in Modern English to use the auxiliary get instead of the auxiliary be. (P. He analyzes the following three cases.S. Swinnerton). however. They kissed again. Thus. the active voice lacks this characteristic). the action of the verb is directed onto the subject from without. The chair got broken (R.. Poutsma does not recognize the existence of an independent passive voice.

1.g. e.g. —» *She is not suited by that colour.: We hope to see you soon (A. Although approximately four out of five English passive sentences have no expressed agent. Goldsmith). in some passive sentences the agent is obligator)'. 4) a clause.P. Gimson). Cowie..).S.g. A.: The two sons were killed in the Great War (W. Hornby. 3. In English.g. e. Hornby. e.: That's a thing I've not been accused of before (W. e. When the agent is unknown or cannot easily be stated. without a Ay-phrase .C.: The music was followed by a short interval (R. 5) an infinitival phrase.g. Gimson). e. —> Nobody ever heard of them again. A. The child shall be taken care of somehow (G. the impossibility of the passive transformation is due to the semantic nature of the verb.: They told each other about their families (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Jespersen). The passive construction with a by-phrase is called the long passive. it is only transitive verbs that admit of the passive construction. A.S. —> *The music was followed. such as resemble.g.g. The subject of a tertiary passive construction corresponds to a prepositional object or an adverbial of aparalle! active construction.P. suit. A.g. —> He showed us a room.: I've enjoyed talking to you about old times (A.: They were never heard of again (W. —» A girl opened the door.g. Tertiary passive embraces constructions with fixed prepositions attached to the verb. Sometimes there is no passive construction because the verb and the direct object are so closely connected that they form a set phrase and cannot be separated. 3) a noun with a possessive determiner referring to the same person as the subject of the sentence. She resembles her mother (A. e. e.C. e. 118 1.P.P.B. Thus. e.: He cut his face while shaving (A. In a number of cases. Deeping). e. etc.g.g.).construction cannot be made passive when the direct object in the active construction is expressed by: 1) a reflexive pronoun.: The door was opened by a girl (J.: / suddenly caught sight of her in the crowd (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Quirk et al. Maugham). —> Nobody had slept in the bed.: John told us that he'd seen you in town (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). The subject of a primary passive construction corresponds to the direct object of a parallel active construction..C. A.S. A. Secondary passive.S. e. e. The bed had not been slept in (O. e. 2) a reciprocal pronoun equivalent. 2. A. Eliot). Hornby.g. Primary passive. Cowie.. Gimson). Quirk et al. the passive cannot be used with verbs denoting state.: He saw himself in the mirror (R. e. —»• *ffer mother is resembled by her. Cowie.g. Deeping).: We were shown a room (O.: That colour doesn't suit her (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Use of the Passive Voice The passive voice is used in the following cases. Priestley).C. A. Types of Passive Constructions In Russian. possess.S. Tertiary passive. Joos singles out three types of passive constructions.the short (or agentless) passive. The presence of a prepositional fry-object expressing the agent is optional both in primary and secondary passive constructions. 6) a gerundial phrase. Hornby. Cowie. Gimson). M. The subject of a secondary passive construction corresponds to the indirect object of a parallel active construction. 119 .g.

: / was annoyed by mosquitoes all night (R. Jespersen). Shteling and G.). therefore. Onions. I'll be dressed in a minute (E. Barkhudarov.: You have been told three times this week that she is coming home for her health (B. Eliot). For example. usually expresses the agent as subject and rarely uses the passive voice. 2)they may express the state resulting from an action. When the verb is in the future tense because it is generally action verbs that admit of the future tense. When the verb is in the perfect phase because it is generally action verbs that admit of the perfect phase. The focus of a news story is often an event that involves a person or institution. When the agent of the action is indicated with the help of a 6y-phrase.H.: They married. e. It is natural in such cases to omit the agent and use the passive voice. L. or already mentioned. Hence. R. When the combination 'be + Participle II* indicates an action. When the agent is indicated. 1. D.: Enough has been said here of a subject which will be treated more fully in a subsequent chapter (O. The passive voice may facilitate the connection of one sentence with another. thereby giving them topic status.g. conversation is generally much more concerned with the experiences and actions of people.g. 3. Jespersen). Close). Connell). The agent of this event may be easy to guess.A. which allow the objects of study to be the subject of sentences.: Sir Percy and his lady were conducted to the platform (D. Galsworthy). time. as required by the Western scientific tradition.N. a horse was being saddled (G. Jespersen). Vorontsova. When the agent is self-evident from the context. In contrast. e.g.: . and he went back to the front and was killed (S.: His office is closed. news has somewhat different reasons for the use of the passive. the reason why the passive voice is preferred is generally the greater interest taken in the object of the action than in its agent.g. The extensive use of passive constructions also gives a sense of objective detachment from what is being described. which is desirable in newspaper writing. e. however. Lawrence). uninteresting.. Come back tomorrow (E.2. e. especially the short passive. C. Biber et al. 2. it should be qualified as a compound nominal predicate with the verb in the active voice.S.S. e. e. When there is a special reason for not mentioning the agent. your luggage will be brought straight away (Lingaphone English Course). e. It.: His son was run over by a motor-car (O. Onions writes apropos of this: The forms of the passive voice have two distinct meanings: 1)they may express continuous or habitual action. Naturally.T. Meaning of the Passive Voice According to G. When the verb is in the continuous aspect because it is generally action verbs that admit of the continuous aspect..g.: He was elected Member of Parliament for Leeds (O. The human actor (or agent) is not important in academic prose. e. when it renders the meaning of state. presenting only the new information can save space. Hemingway). 5. think that we deal with two different constructions here.g. 3. 121 120 .: They were thus introduced by Holly (J.g. it should be looked upon as the passive voice. Passive constructions are also common in news.T. e.g. Furthermore.g. we are more interested in the fact who was run over than by what. When the verb is qualified by an adverbial of place. Curme. Shaw). the combination 'be + Participle II' should in all cases be treated as a passive voice form. e. C. True. A.g. reference to 'the police' is omitted in the following sentence: Doherty was arrested in New York in June (D. Sheldon). The majority of linguists. Be with Participle II constitutes the passive voice in the following cases. Quirk and his co-authors call it 'pseudo-passive'. 5. a high frequency of passive constructions. 4.: When Milly got to the stables. 4. e. or frequency because it is actions that we place in space and time.g.

.g. Poutsma. namely as objects. The Problem of the Reciprocal Voice Still controversial is the problem of the reciprocal voice formed by a verb with one of the following pronominal combinations: each other or one another. The Problem of the Reflexive Voice The most popular view is that there are two voices in English: active and passive. in their opinion.H. The reflexive voice is mentioned by H.: She is very excited about getting a part in a film (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). it is different from the passive construction. Syntactically. Zhigadlo. The Problem of the Middle Voice The problem of the middle voice arises in connection with sentences of the type: The door opened (W. The most striking peculiarity of pronouns is that they can be used both as notional and as auxiliary elements..N. On the one hand. Deeping). Deeping). in the sentence The door opened. we can say that we deal in such cases with phraseological combinations of reflexive pronouns with verbs in the active voice. When auxiliary ^//"-pronouns cannot be omitted. Since the pronominal combinations each other and one another function as objects.g. e. But auxiliary self-pronouns can and often are omitted. When auxiliary self-pronouns can be omitted. Consequently. the combination of a verb with the following reflexive pronoun could be regarded as a specific reflexive voice on condition that the reflexive pronoun could not be omitted. Morphologically. Lawrence). They knew one another very well indeed. two interpretations seem possible. In sentences of the type: But he never trusted himself (D. Barkhudarov puts it. we can regard the combination of a verb with the following reflexive pronoun as a specific reflexive voice. hi such cases. Some say it is passive. (P. acts on itself.g.B. Lawrence). Shaw). The problem of the reflexive voice arises in connection with verbs followed by sd^pronouns. 6. Whitehall. we must prove that the reflexive pronoun forms with the verb an analytical form and that it cannot perform an independent syntactic function in the sentence. H. the subject is acted upon.S. it is not identical with the passive construction either. the subject is neither the agent nor the object of the action. Arline threw herself face down on the bed and sobbed (I. I. it is not passive because it lacks the pattern 'be + Participle IF. lofik.H. V. it can often be modified by the word very or some other intensifying word. It surprised even herself (D.g. The construction The door opened does not allow the introduction of an agent. e.. (W. the reflexive pronouns himself and herself function as auxiliary elements. In sentences of the type: He found himself in Upper Street..H. Galsworthy).P. Deeping). Semantically. they cannot form analytical forms with the verbs love and knew.Tfie c hamber maid' s c urio sity wa s r ou sed at once (J. The subject of the reflexive voice. In the passive construction The door was opened. .. the reflexive pronouns himself and herself function as notional elements.: People passed him and were passed by him (W. the verb is evidently in the active voice.: Andrew washed and dressed and ten minutes later was running down the road towards the shop (Ch. On the other hand. Reflexive pronouns are not an exception either.L. Abrahams). too: in the passive construction. To recognize the existence of the reflexive voice.g.: He seated himself on the grass. the agent of the action can be introduced: The door was opened by a girl (J. Priestley). there are no grounds for singling out the reciprocal voice as a specific grammatical form.B. When Participle II makes part of a compound nominal predicate with the verb in the active voice. As L. Culshaw). in the active voice. e. We love each other (J. (D. Lawrence). the subject here indicates the thing inside which the action is going on. e. e.. When there is another verb in the sentence. Priestley). Ivanova and L..

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9. Semantically. perhaps. E. they share the properties of verbs and names (nouns. In contrast to finite verbs. and mood. Morphologically. Nowadays. The infinitive also has the grammatical category of aspect. perform the functions typical of adjectives and adverbs (attributes and adverbials). Their verbal nature manifests itself mainly in their combinability: they may take any kind of object or adverbial that a finite verb might take. all verbals have the grammatical categories of phase and voice. and regard the indication of a thing inside which this or that action is going on as a variety of the meaning of the active voice. Nikitevich. L. etc.S. Participle I (taking). verbals lack the grammatical categories of person.B.M.E. However. while the verb in sentences of the type The door opened can combine only with an adverbial. the majority of linguists [e.. perhaps. verbals do not differ from finite verbs. but we still qualify them as passive. 124 125 . The door opened is active.G. Voice does not characterize the verb as a part of speech. Khlebnikova. we shall be bound to acknowledge that there is no middle voice in English. both simple and compound. But the active voice constitutes the non-marked member of the voice opposition. Shubnaya does not take into consideration that the mention of the agent in the passive. verbals share the characteristics of finite verbs and names. Morphologically. In view of this. Hardy). In the active sentence The woman opened the door. tradition refers the infinitive (to take). though optional. All English verbals were originally names. and morphologically different from passive constructions. Since cases of the type The door opened are semantically.g.g. those verbals that do the work of verbs and adjectives/adverbs. Their nominal nature reveals itself in their syntactic functions. Barkhudarov is right when he says that the indication of a thing inside which an action is going on constitutes a variety of the meaning of the active voice.G. first and foremost. is theoretically and practically possible. The non-marked member of an opposition has a very general meaning. —> *The door opened by a girl. Voice meanings come to be realized only on the syntactic level of the sentence.: The woman opened the door. But in the course of time they have been acquiring more and more verbal force. Lexically. Mukhin] question the validity of a purely morphological approach to the category of voice. adjectives. Those verbals that do the work of verbs and nouns perform the functions typical of nouns (subjects. they have some features that differentiate them from finite verbs and some features that unite them with finite verbs. Shubnaya does not find this argument convincing. they are not identical either. the subject the door indicates the thing inside which the action is going on. I. Syntactically. She says that over 70% of passive constructions contain no mention of the agent either. and adverbs).. (Th. Syntactically. number.: The door opened in wards (Longman Dicti onary o f Contemporary English)..). As opposed to finite verbs. in the sentence The door opened. we do not find it possible to follow E. Deeping). Shubnaya in qualifying them as functional synonyms of passive voice forms. opened in the sentence The door opened is different from the active voice. But just like finite verbs. syntactically. tense.g. The verb in active sentences is generally followed by a direct object.M. and Participle II (taken). V. be referred to as active? Voice is a morphological category. while in sentences of the type The door opened it generates an ungrammatical construction: The door opened (W. objects. e. verbals can never form a predicate by themselves. However. The next question is: do they constitute a specific type of construction with the so-called middle voice. predicatives. or can they. NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB General Characteristics To non-finite forms of the verb (or verbals). although they can form part of a predicate. If we look upon voice as a morphological category. e. the gerund (taking). A. first and foremost.G. the subject the woman is the agent of the action.

The Infinitive In Old English, the infinitive was a fully inflected verbal substantive, ft had two forms. 1.The uninflected infinitive representing the nominative and the accusative of a verbal noun, e.g.: wntan. 2.The inflected infinitive used mostly after the preposition to. This form had the suffix -ne and represented the dative case of a verbal noun, e.g.: to writanne. The inflected infinitive with the preposition to expressed direction or purpose. When in the Middle English period -ne, the inflection of the dative case, was lost, the two forms of the infinitive merged into one. The preposition to gradually lost its lexical meaning and turned into a formal sign of the infinitive. Nowadays, it is often called a particle. B.S. Khaimovich and B.L Rogovskaya prove quite convincingly that the infinitival marker to is not a particle. 1. Particles as a part of speech are characterized by the lexico-grammatical meaning of 'emphatic specification'. The infinitival to does not emphasize or specify anything. 2.All particles have distinct lexical meaning. The infinitival to has no lexical meaning whatsoever. 3.Particles form combinations with words of almost any part of speech. To is connected only with the infinitive. The to-infinitive, according to M.Y. Blokh, constitutes an analytical form. He puts forward the following arguments to prove his point of view. 1. As is the case with other analytical markers, the infinitival marker to can be used to represent the whole infinitival construction, e.g.: Perhaps tomorrow you might be able to come to the hospital -with me... -No, I don't want to (S. Hill). 2. Like other analytical markers, it can also be separated from its notional element by a word or phrase, usually of adverbial nature, forming the so-called split infinitive, e.g.: He prepared to silently accompany her (O. Jespersen). The split infinitive is quite common in English, especially in conversation, although a lot of people consider it 'bad style'. 126

On the one hand, the arguments of M.Y. Blokh sound convincing. But if the infinitival marker to were an auxiliary part of an analytical word, it would be impossible to omit it. In the vast majority of cases, the infinitive is used with the marker to. But there also exists in English the so-called bare infinitive, i.e. infinitive without the marker to. The bare infinitive is used in the following cases. 1. After the auxiliary verbs do, does, did, and will, e.g.: Don't move (T. Chevalier). She does not speak Italian (V. Evans). He didn't watch television yesterday (R. Murphy). He'tt be here any minute (J. Galsworthy). 2. After modal verbs, except the verb ought, e.g.: Soldiers must obey orders (A.S. Hornby, A.P. Cowie, A. C. Gimson). You should call him (H. Fielding). At first I could not meet his eyes (T. Chevalier). She ought to understand (M Swan). 3. After the modal expressions had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot (choose) but, might as well, etc. Cf.: You had better mind your own business (A.S. Hornby, A.P. Cowie, A.C. Gimson). I'd rather play tennis than swim (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). I'd sooner die than marry you (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). I cannot but think so (A. Trollope). We might as well walk (R. A. Close). 4. After the combinations do nothing save/but, nothing to do but, e.g.: The boy had nothing to do but watch the sheep and think (G. Bates). There was nothing left to do but wait (M. Wilson). 5. When the infinitive makes part of a complex object: a) after verbs of sense perception, e.g.: / haven't heard anyone call me (O. Wilde), I saw Brown enter the room (J. Braine), I_watched her cross the street (A.S. Hornby, A.P. Cowie, A.C. Gimson),

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/ felt the blood rush into my cheeks, and then leave them again (W. Collins), Did you notice anyone leave the house1? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English); b) after the verbs make, let, have and very often after the verb help. Cf,: What made you get up so early? (R. Kipling). I Jet my mother answer (T. Cheval ier), / won't have you say this sort of thing (J. Galsworthy), Help me get him to bed (M. Swan). 6. In sentences beginning with Why? and Why not?, which have a weakened seme of interrogation, Cf.: Why worry! (R.A. Close). Why not relax? (R.A. Close). In both cases, the speaker does not ask for information, but gives the interlocutor a piece of advice. 7. In sentences, comprising two infinitives linked by the conjunctions and, or, and but, the second infinitive is usually used without the marker to. Cf.: I'd like to lie down and go to steep (M. Swan). Do you want to have lunch now or wait till later? (M. Swan). /'// do anything but work on a farm (M. Swan). As has already been mentioned, the infinitive combines verbal features with those of the noun. Verbal Features of the Infinitive The verbal features of the infinitive are of two kinds: morphological and syntactic. Morphologically, the verbal nature of the infinitive manifests itself in the grammatical categories of aspect, phase, and voice. The category of aspect finds its expression in the opposition of noncontinuous and continuous forms. The non-continuous infinitive stresses the fact of the action, the continuous infinitive -the progress of the action. Cf.: / expect him to fail the exam (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). // 's nice to be sitting here with you (M. Swan).

The continuous infinitive is very seldom used, almost exclusively in the active voice. The category of phase finds its expression in the opposition of non-perfect and perfect forms. Being the marked member of the phase opposition, the perfect infinitive usually denotes an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb, e.g.: She said she was sorry to have missed you (M. Swan). After such verbs as mean, expect, intend, and hope, used in the past indefinite, the perfect infinitive shows that the hope (or intention) was not realized, e.g.: I meant to have telephoned, but I for got (M. Swan). Being the non-marked member of the phase opposition, the non-perfect infinitive has a wider range of meanings than the perfect infinitive. The typical meaning of the non-perfect infinitive is that of succession. The non-perfect infinitive expresses succession in the following cases. 1. When it is an adverbial of purpose, e.g.: The traveller stopped to rest (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). 2. When it is part of a compound verbal predicate. Cf: You must stay in bed (V. Evans) - compound verbal modal predicate. I hope to see you this evening (R.A. Close) - compound verbal modal predicate. .ft began to rain (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) — compound verbal aspective predicate. 3. When it is an object of a verb of inducement, e.g.: Father advised him to buy the bonds (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). When the non-perfect infinitive is associated with a verb denoting an emotional state (e.g. astonish, exasperate, relieve, shock, surprise, wonder, like, etc.), it expresses an action preceding the action rendered by the finite verb, e.g.: We were surprised to hear the news (A.S. Hornby, A.P. Cowie, A.C. Gimson). And, finally, the non-perfect infinitive can express an action simultaneous with the action of the finite verb, e.g.: We watched them go (E. Walker, St. Elsworth).

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The voice opposition in the infinitive is similar to that in finite verbs. Cf.: There is no time to lose (Th. Dreiser) - active infinitive. There is no time to be lost (G. Eliot) - passive infinitive. After the verb be the active infinitive often renders the grammatical meaning common to the passive infinitive, e.g.: This house is to let (R.A. Close). <= Someone wishes to let the house> You are not to blame for what happened (R.A. Close). <= No one should blame you for what happened.> Syntactically, the verbal nature of the infinitive manifests itself in the following characteristics. 1. Its right-hand combinability with objects, adverbials, and predicatives when the infinitive happens to be a copula. Cf.: Arlene -wanted to buy a fur coat (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) - object. The train was to leave at midnight (E. Hemingway) -adverbial. I'm likely to be very busy tomorrow (M. Swan) - predicative. 2. Its left-hand combinability with a subjectival member denoting the doer of the action expressed by the infinitive, e.g.: We -want them to build a house (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). 3. The function of realizing the verbal component of primary predication when the infinitive makes part of a simple or compound predicate. Cf.: I'll fall off(S. Hill) - part of a simple predicate, / didn 't touch anything (S. Hill) - part of a simple predicate. His ambition was to write (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) - part of a compound nominal predicate. Ann can type fast (V. Evans) - part of a compound verbal modal predicate. He began to cry again.., (S. Hill) - part of a compound verbal aspective predicate. 4. The function of realizing the verbal component of secondary predication when the infinitive makes part of a complex member of the sentence or forms a parenthesis. Cf: She could see him smite (E. Hemingway) - complex object.

To cut a long story short, we finally reached London at four in the morning (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) -parenthesis. Nominal Features of the Infinitive The nominal features of the infinitive are only syntactic. The infinitive performs almost all syntactic functions characteristic of the noun: subject (often after the introductory it), predicative, object, attribute, and adverbial. Cf: To err is human, to forgive, divine (J. O'Hara) - subject. It's easy to make mistakes (M. Swan) - subject. My intention is to get into Parliament (A. Trollope) -predicative. / have never learnt to read or write (W. Collins) - object. They will make another attempt to cross the river tonight (R.A. Close) - attribute. / merely came back to water the roses (O. Wilde) - adverbial of purpose. In all syntactic functions, the infinitive can be used: 1)alone, i.e. without any words depending on it, e.g.: Leila had learnt to dance at boarding school (K. Mansfield); 2)as headword of an infinitival phrase, e.g.: Some speakers hesitate to choose the right word (R.A. Close); 3) as part of an infinitival predicative construction. There are three predicative infinitival constructions in Modern English: 1)the objective-with-the-infirutive construction, 2)theybr-to-infmitive construction, 3)the subjective infinitive construction. In the objective-with-the-infinitive construction, the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case. The objective-with-the-infinitive construction performs the function of a complex object in the sentence, e.g.: We do not allow people to smoke in the lecture halls (M. Swan).

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After verbs of sense perception and causative verbs, the infinitive in the objective-with-the-infinitive construction is used without the marker to. Cf.: I felt him move (E. Walker, St. Elsworth). He made me do it (E. Walker, St. Elsworth). The only exception is the causative verb cause, after which the infinitive is used with the marker to: What caused the plants to die? (A.S. Hornby, A.P. Cowie, A.C. Gimson). In the /or-to-infinitive construction, the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition for. The/or-to-infmitive construction performs the functions of the following parts of the sentence: 1) complex subject, usually after the introductory it, e.g.: ... it is a shame for people to spend so much money this way (Th. Dreiser); 2) complex predicative, e.g.: That was for him to find out (G. Eliot); 3) complex object, e.g.: We are waiting for the rain to stop (A.S. Hornby, A.P. Cowie, A.C. Gimson); 4) complex attribute, e.g.: There is nobody here for him to play with (E. Hemingway); 5) complex adverbial, e.g.: He stepped aside for me to pass (D. du Maurier). In the subjective infinitive construction, the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the nominative case. The subjective infinitive construction occurs in sentences with the finite verb in the passive voice. The infinitive in the subjective infinitive construction is always introduced by the marker to. The subjective infinitive construction performs the function of a complex subject in the sentence, e.g.: Mr. Bob Sawyer was heard to laugh heartily (Ch. Dickens). Due to the presence of a passive verb in the sentence, the subjective infinitive construction is more characteristic of literary than colloquial English.

The Gerund The gerund is a peculiarity of the English language. It is not to be found in other Germanic languages. The gerund goes back to the Old English verbal noun in -ung. In the course of time, it has acquired a number of verbal characteristics so that now the gerund shares the properties of nouns and verbs. Nominal Features of the Gerund The nominal nature of the gerund reveals itself at the syntactic level, namely in its combinability and functions. Like the noun, the gerund can be preceded by: 1) a preposition, e.g.: I'm tired of watching television (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English); 2) a noun in the genitive case or a possessive determiner. Cf.: I remember Tom's complaining about the poor service in this hotel (V. Evans). / remember his complaining about the poor service in this hotel (V. Evans). Like the noun, the gerund can perform the functions of the following parts of the sentence. 1. Subject, e.g.: Swimming is my favourite sport (R.A. Close). // is awfully hard work doing nothing (O. Wilde). There was no mistaking the expression on her face (W. Collins). 2. Object, e.g.: I like swimming (R.A. Close). I'm fond of swimming (R.A. Close). 3. Predicative, e.g.: My favourite sport is swimming (R.A. Close). 4. Attribute, both prepositional and non-prepositional. Cf: He was born with the gift of winning hearts (E. Gaskell). ... do you like these running shoes'? (J.C. Richards, J. Hall, S. Proctor). 5. Adverbial, e.g.: ... one side of the gallery was used for dancing (G. Eliot).

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upon.: He was ashamed of having shown even the slightest irritation (A. Sweet] because it can be introduced by a preposition and modified by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive determiner. A. The function of realizing the verbal component of secondary predication when the gerund forms part of a complex member of the sentence. e. e.Verbal Features of the Gerund The verbal nature of the gerund reveals itself at the morphological and syntactic levels..: Sweeping the floor was one of Jack's duties (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). the active gerund can also render the meaning common to the passive gerund. it can denote an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb.P. Maugham). Cowie. Braine).: / don *t remember hearing the legend before (Th. 1.g.g. The category of phase finds its expression in the opposition of non-perfect and perfect forms. Cf. Gimson). e.: Hike walking in the rain (M. Sitting on a park bench was his favourite pastime (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). This job wants doing at once (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).: My coat needs mending (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). In the third place. e. After walking about ten yards. without. we cancelled the trip (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). after.: He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to (W. forgive. .. Swan). deserve and the adjective worth the active gerund renders passive meaning. 2) after the prepositions on. etc. Syntactically. forget. The perfect gerund always denotes an action prior to the action rendered by the finite verb.complex object. Nevertheless. e. Thus. the verbal nature of the gerund manifests itself in the grammatical categories of phase and voice. In the second place. In the first place. Thanks for coming (M. Swan). The book is well worth reading (A. the verbal nature of the gerund manifests itself in the following characteristics. excuse.: We are thinking of going to France for our holidays (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). The function of realizing the verbal component of primary predication when the gerund makes part of a compound nominal or compound verbal predicate. the gerund and the infinitive are not identical. want.g. etc.: Upon receiving the telegram. there is no chance of their getting married for years (J. Hornby.C.. non-perfect gerund can express an action prior to the action indicated by the finite verb if it is used: 1) after the verbs remember. The category of voice is represented by the opposition of active and passive forms. e. Galsworthy) . Its right-hand combinability with objects and adverbials. The Gerund and the Infinitive The gerund and the infinitive have much in common since both have some nominal and some verbal features.S. the non-perfect gerund is more flexible in meaning.g. after the verbs need. Hardy).g. e. he found the hat among the leaves (Th. e. Cf.: The only remedy for such a headache as mine is going to bed (W. Collins).g.complex attribute. Being the non-marked member of the voice opposition.S. Hardy) . 2. Hardy).g. Bennett). A. The gerund is more of a noun than the infinitive [H. Morphologically. require. .g. before. I kept glancing at her through the rest of the play (J.. 3.: Forgive my speaking plainly (Th. the non-perfect gerund can render an action following the action denoted by the finite verb. Being the non-marked member of the phase opposition. thank.

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Cf. Cf. Kobrina et al. Swan). The gerund refers to things that happened earlier. Be afraid of+ gerund = be afraid that what is referred to by the gerund may happen. / regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment (M. and intend. attempt. 5. e. It is perhaps more common to use a gerund when we are talking about the beginning of a long or habitual activity.. / heard you talking and I didn 't like to disturb you. Evans).g. The gerund is always used when we are speaking about things that happen to us unexpectedly. so I went away (M. or what has happened. Cf. Swan). the infinitive . 3. Cf. Cf.: I really must stop smoking (M. The gerund is not used: a) when the verbs begin and start are in the continuous aspect.: / was beginning to get angry (M.: I'm afraid of'crashing (M. but the infinitive is more common after the verbs propose. Stop + gerund = stop what one is doing. Swan). won '/vow? (M. not a living being.g.: Hike walking in the rain (M.. Swan).: I can't bear getting/to get my hands dirty (M.a specific single action. Go on + infinitive = change. He welcomed the new students and went on to explain the college regulations (M. regret + gerund = be sorry for what has happened. b) when the verbs begin and start are followed by the verbs understand and realize. forget and regret. She's always forgetting to give me my letters (M. e.: 137 . Cf. the gerund expresses a more general or a habitual action. 8. Swan). and the infinitive refers to what has happened. Swan). can't bear and be accustomed to.Some verbs are followed either by a gerund or an infinitive with little difference of meaning. even if it upset her (M. without our wanting or choosing them.g. Cf.: I'm afraid to drive over the old bridge (V. the difference in the use of gerund and infinitive is connected with time.g.: She started looking around at all the animals (V. Swan). the gerund is less common than the infinitive. the gerund refers to what will or may happen. Evans).: How old were you when you first started playing the piano? (M. Remember to go to the post office. With the verbs remember.: / shall always remember meeting you for the first time (M. move on to something new. After propose. Go on + gerund = continue what one has been doing.: She began to understand what he really wanted (M.g. or does.). Swan).: The clock began to strike (N. With the verbs like. regret + infinitive = be sorry for what one is going to say. Swan). Evans). hate and prefer. With interested. After the verb begin. records'? (M. She started to look around at all the animals (V. The verbs begin and start can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive usually with no real difference of meaning. Swan). Swan). She is afraid of breaking her leg if she jumps over the wall (V. Swan). the infinitive refers to things that will happen after the remembering/forgetting/regretting: remember/forget + gerund = remember/forget what one has done.with considerable difference of meaning. Every half hour I stop to smoke a cigarette (M. e. c) when the subject denotes a thing. Swan). both gerund and infinitive are possible with little difference of meaning. Swan). 2. continue. / don't regret telling her what I thought. Evans).A. remember/forget + infinitive = remember/forget what one has to do. He intends to double the advertising budget (M. 136 4. I shall never forget seeing the Queen (M. Cf. Be afraid + infinitive = be too frightened to do something. e. before the remembering/forgetting/regretting took place. attempt.: How long do you intend to go on playing those . Swan). Swan). 7. e. Swan). 6. 1. others . Stop + infinitive — make a break or pause in order to do something. Swan). intend.

C. from which the gerund has developed. Evans). 13. 11. Cowie. Cf. Participle I came to be formed by the suffix -ing under the influence of the verbal noun in -ung (-ing). The verbs allow. they are followed by an infinitive. Swan). Evans). advise. forbid. A. Sorry is used with an infinitive when we apologize for something that we are doing or about to do. the verbal noun has no verbal features at all It lacks the grammatical categories of phase and voice. Participle I In Old English. Swan). A. I'm sorry that I woke you up yesterday (M. .by prepositional word combinations. Bronte). Cowie. Try + infinitive = attempt to do something difficult. Swan). 9. Would prefer + infinitive (implies specific preference). it can be used in the plural. Cf. postpositive . Fourth. A. or a /fort-clause.that might make it taste a bit better (M. adjectival. Participle I is a non-finite form of the verb that has a triple nature: verbal. Participle I had the suffix -ende. Evans). Cf. e. or for + gerund.: Sorry to disturb you . Prepositive attributes are usually expressed by adjectives. Cf: / want to find a better job (V. Nowadays. we use a perfect infinitive. We don't allow people to smoke in here (M. Try + gerund . we don 7 allow smoking in the lecture room (M. Gimson). Jespersen does not differentiate them. Swan). it can be used in the genitive case. Swan). Hornby. Swan).: A good beginning is half the battle (Proverb). / was interested to read in the paper that scientists have found out how the universe began (M.could I speak to you for a momentl (M. Swan).I'm interested in -working in Switzerland (M. Cf. I'm sorry for waking/having woken you up yesterday (M.C. Second. Hornby. But they should be distinguished because they are different.: Try putting in some more vinegar . Cf.g. Swan). and it never combines with an object or an adverbial. Did democracy have its beginnings in Athens'? (A. the verbal noun can be modified by attributes.make an experiment. 10. When we apologize for something that we have done. Third. chiefly before the noun sake. Cf. Evans). Mean + gerund = involve doing something. e. both prepositive and postpositive. The gerund has nominal and verbal features. Swan).intend to do something. Evans).P. O. / can't quite grasp the meaning of these figures (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Towards the end of the Middle English period.S. Want + gerund (implies that something needs to be done). A. Gimson).S. The Gerund and the Verbal Noun The verbal noun.: I'm not talking just for talking's sake (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).P. the two forms co-exist. and permit are followed by a gerund when there is no personal object. But the verbal noun has more nominal features than the gerund. Want + infinitive = wish to do something. has not dropped out of use.g. it's important to make a good beginning (A. Cf: Sorry to have woken you up yesterday (M. 14. Prefer + gerund (implies general preference). First. do something to see what will happen.: Our likings are regulated by our circumstances (Ch.g.: I'd prefer to have an early night tonight (V. 12. and adverbial. it can combine with both articles and other noun determiners. When there is a personal object. Please try to understand (M. e.: When learning a foreign language.: He means to move to Newcastle (V. Evans). Swan). Mean + infinitive . Working harder means getting more money (V.: Sorry. Your dress wants cleaning (V. I prefer reading a book to watching TV(V.

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: Having completed the job. arrive.: Hearing a footstep below he rose and went to the top of the stairs (Th. Morphologically. come.: Can you see the girl dancing with your brother*? (M. It generally suggests that the action denoted by Participle I is simultaneous with that of the finite verb. Syntactically. such as see. has a more flexible meaning.g.Verbal Features of Participle I The verbal nature of Participle I reveals itself both at the morphological and syntactic levels. Swan).object. Sara waited for her friends (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). Coming close to the rock. 4. hurting his knee (N.).: John fell. Participle I and the Gerund Participle I and the gerund are homonymous in form: 'the stem of a verb + the suffix -ing'. and predicatives when the participle happens to be a copula. look.g. the verbal nature of Participle I manifests itself in the following features. sir. Cf. The category of voice in Participle I finds its expression in the active and passive forms. It is very distressing to me. being the non-marked member of the phase opposition.: 140 Having finished the dress. The function of realizing the verbal component of secondary predication when Participle I makes part of a complex member of the sentence or forms a parenthesis. Dickens). non-perfect Participle I is used to express priority. Kobrina et al.by a participial phrase. then they left. seize. etc. 2.g. They are also identical in their verbal 141 . Mary packed it carefully in a box (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) . Being left alone. Its right-hand combinability with objects. I walked over to the window and looked out (M. The prepositive attribute is usually expressed by a single participle.. All being well.g. Cf. Cf. the verbal nature of Participle I manifests itself in the grammatical categories of phase and voice. e. Perfect Participle I indicates that the action denoted by Participle I is prior to that denoted by the finite verb. <First. Cf: Trembling with excitement.predicative. adverbials. men can run faster than women (M. Adjectival and Adverbial Features of Participle I The adjectival and adverbial features of Participle I manifest themselves at the syntactic level. we should arrive by tomorrow (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) . Having recovered completely. du Maurier). 1.A. Non-perfect Participle I can denote an action following the action of the finite verb.g. Hike the girl sitting on the right (M. e. The function of realizing the verbal component of primary predication when Participle I makes part of a simple verbal or compound nominal predicate. Hardy). we saw a strange sight (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). With some verbs of sense perception and motion. Galsworthy). the men left early (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). the postpositive attribute and the adverbial .: We saw an old man lying on the road (The New Webster's Grammar Guide).: He looked at the carpet -while waiting for her answer (J. e. e. Bronte). Swan). hear.: / think it is only a passing shower (D. Swan).adverbial.: She is reading a newspaper (V. Ted left the hospital (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) . Generally speaking. Cf.> Non-perfect Participle I. Evans). namely in the iunctions of attributes (both prepositive and postpositive) and adverbials. The category of phase in Participle I finds its expression in the opposition of non-perfect and perfect forms. 3. the men completed the job. turn. Swan). Pauline and I kept silence for some time (Ch. to give this information (Ch. Its left-hand combinability with a subjectival member indicating the doer of the action denoted by Participle I. e. Putting down my newspaper.

when the gerund is used as attribute or adverbial. As predicative. Swan). Being more of a noun.e. "sports 'shoes. the common case of a noun is preferred to the genitive case in the following cases. But one should bear in mind one important point of difference. In the gerundial predicative construction. Sweet). Cf: a 'running "stream.g. Cf: "running 'shoes.C. but 'shoes used or intended for running1.g.g.g. the gerund can function as subject and object. H. 2. Bennett). The nuclear stress is on the noun stream as in all adjective-noun word combinations. while in predicative constructions with Participle I it is generally expressed by nouns in the common case or by personal pronouns in the objective case. Krylova regard them as one form. 143 . e. / saw a small girl standing in the goldfish pond (M. 3. both morphological (the categories of phase and voice) and syntactic (the combinability with objects. Barkhudarov. When used as attribute or adverbial. e. 1.g. True. Cf: I'm annoyed at John's forgetting to pay (M. Sweet). and therefore looks more like a noun. like an adjective or an adverb. Swan). However. H. Gordon and I. When the noun has the plural suffix -s.. adverbials. For instance. However. I do not like him coming here so often (H. Since Participle I and the gerund are identical in their form and verbal characteristics. it rather identifies the subject by revealing its meaning.W. The gerund expresses an action in its most general sense. Hornby.g. there is a rising tendency nowadays to use the common case of nouns and the objective case of personal pronouns as subjectival member of a gerundial construction. e.: Who told you of your wife being there! (H.: Upon my application for her being refused. Sweet).: One of my bad habits is biting my nails (M. Participle I gives a qualitative characteristic to the subject. This is most evident when they function as predicatives or attributes. Fowler-a 'fused participle'. e. On the other hand. actually naming it. / cannot accept the notion of school-life affecting the poet to this extent (H. A. Participle I and the gerund differ in meaning.characteristics. The gerund does not qualify the subject. Please excuse my coming late (A. e. a running stream (i.S. Sweet calls the ing-form in such cases a 'half-gerund'. is never preceded by a preposition. the subjectival member in predicative constructions with the gerund is usually expressed by nouns in the genitive case or by possessive determiners. Bronte). Participle I denotes an action that the person or thing performs or experiences. Kruisinga. E. When the noun denotes an inanimate object or thing. Cowie. The latter is debatable. When some other pans of the sentence depend on the noun. The difference in meaning brings about a difference in syntactic functions. a stream which is running).S. The attributive gerund running here is a label for a subclass of shoe and could be replaced by a noun.g. a 'deep "stream. The typical syntactic Sanctions of Participle I are those of attribute and adverbial. running shoes does not mean 'shoes that are running'. e. Gimson).P. predicatives. the gerund can also function as attribute and adverbial. e. and subjectival members). True. which they call the ing-form. The nuclear stress is on the ing-form as in all noun-noun word combinations. Participle I expresses 142 an action as characterizing a person or thing (like an adjective) or as modifying another action (like an adverb). Participle I cannot be used as subject or object.: When she finished speaking. which never denotes the performer of the action.P. First of all. As attribute. Swan). The gerund usually reveals the meaning of the modified noun.g.: The rule against visitors entering this bureau is strict (A. L. I saw him leaving the house (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). sports shoes.M. Participle I. e. there are cases that admit of two interpretations. the applause was deafening (Longman Language Activator). which blurs the distinction between the gerund and Participle I. a hunting dog may be 'a dog for hunting' and 'a dog that hunts'. E. I had resigned my own post (Ch.g. A. e.

G. 144 .P. be fond of. approve of. A. A. Gimson). are 1) the possibility of substituting the personal pronoun in the objective case by a possessive determiner in predicative constructions and 2) the nature of the introductory verb. enjoy.P. Potcheptsov] are of opinion that the ing-form can be qualified as an adjective if it is not derived from a verb.. object to. He enjoys travelling by train (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). etc. Cowie.eatable. etc.it is preceded by a preposition as nouns usually are in these functions. Dickens). Evans). Biber et al.: loving. Participle I and the Adjective Some linguists [e. He insists on speaking to you personally (Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English). act — active. R. Gimson). Their main differential features. look forward to.: avoid. and rather often. look like. V. think of. Ivanova.C. A. Would you mind opening the window! (A. Gimson). A.V. etc. Ivanova and L. / don't feel like dancing now (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). A.A.C. We were surprised at finding the house empty (A. Some verbs. Hornby.C. Korneyeva. be guilty of. E. surprising.A. I'm very fond of being looked at (0. e. Hornby.A.g. combine only with gerunds. // looks like being a fine day (A.V. it seems better to differentiate Participle I and the gerund.: They burst out laughing (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Who can prevent us from getting married? (A. Potcheptsov would have sounded convincing if adjectives had never been formed from verbs.g. e.S. insist on. be pleased at. accuse of. be worth (while). phrasal verb equivalents.: We saw an interesting film about African wildlife (Longman Language Activator). So.P. e. / look forward to receiving your reply as soon as possible (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).I.Cowie.P. I. Ossovskaya and K. It's worth while seeing that film (V.S.S. depend on.P. prevent from. A. Gimson). rely on. put off. Gimson). A. Cf..S. A. She had finished dressing when the telephone rang (Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English). lofik. Guzeyeva. forgive. He's quite capable of neglecting his duty (A.G. give up. Ivanova. mind. A. IP.C. suspect of. insist on.).g. Evans). A.P. burst out. according to V. e. as is well known. . the process of Participle 1 adjectivization is a hard fact. it should be referred to Participle I. Cowie. finish. not to like the idea of to miss an/the opportunity of.P.g. Close] think that when the ing-form indicates a characteristic feature of the person or thing referred to by the noun. A. but I've changed my mind (A. Hornby. V. and predicative word groups.N. According to N. Burlakova and G. feel like.g. Cowie. Gimson). A. thank for. Politicians of all parties are guilty of ignoring this serious problem (D. Other linguists [e.S. excuse. she .L. / did think of visiting him.C. Hornby. Hornby.: heartbreaking (there is no verb heartbreak}. / don't mind helping you with the dishes (V. differ ~ different. The argument put forward by I. The old lady thanked me for helping her across the road (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Burlakova and G. Hornby.P. Wilde).A. be surprised at.C. Cowie. Cowie. They suspected him of giving false evidence (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). But they are. Kobrina. deny.. M. is proud of being so pretty (C\\. Cf: eat . / don't approve of smoking in bed (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).g.S.. be capable of. give up the idea of. be proud of. Zhigadlo. I strongly object to being treated like a child (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). it turns into an adjective. succeed in. If the ing-form is derived from a verb.

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e. e. They can combine with adjectives proper. Kaushanskaya and her co-authors. B.: written. Participle II of transitive verbs is passive in meaning. Adjectivized participles behave like adjectives.g. we are not justified in referring Participle II to adjectives because.g. I.). Participle II performs the syntactic functions of attribute and predicative that are typical of adjectives.: finished— unfinished.: The Vice Chairman has a very charming wife and four children (Longman Language Activator).g. just like adjectives. In Old English. In the sixth place..g.: excited . Fourth.I. In the fourth place. e. Mrs. V. Rogovskaya. than of a verb. In the seventh place.L. e. lofik. L. V. Participle II of strong verbs ended in -en (some irregular verbs still retain this suffix. Participle n lacks the verbal categories of phase and voice. e. Khaimovich.]. 146 In the second place. it does not mean that it has no voice meanings whatsoever. e. e. 3. can be modified by adverbs of degree. its main meaning is that of state resulting from a certain action.: The most interesting thing about dinosaurs is the fact that they all died out so suddenly (Longman Language Activator).: a -well-known writer.N.: loving ~ lovingly: They looked at each other lovingly (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Participle II can combine with objects.: 147 . it denotes a completed action.g.P. surprised by the attack. In the first place. etc. They can be modified by adverbs of degree. just like other verbals.g. When it is formed from a terminative verb or a verb of double nature. Third. The beach was deserted and unsafe for bathing according to the guidebook (Longman Language Activator)..g.: We passed through several deserted villages whose inhabitants had fled (Longman Language Activator). Dahl). e.: The army. Participle II is the only participle because they unite Participle I and the gerund in one ing-form.: an escaped prisoner.g. a grown-up daughter (M.g.: What a charming young man\ (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).S. Many Russian linguists regard Participle I and Participle II as one non-finite form of the verb [e. Participle II can be modified by an adverbial. good-looking and in his early forties (Longman Language Activator). e. e. Cf. In the fifth place. Participle II of weak verbs ended in -d or -t. Zhigadlo.: I'm very pleased you've decided to come (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). In the third place.: . 2. Cf. e. Participle II Participle 11 is the oldest non-finite form of the verb.g. But Participle II stands apart not only from Participle I but also from all the other verbals. adverbs can be formed from Participle II with the help of the suffix -fy. 4. Second. Participle II. although Participle 11 lacks the voice opposition. Swan). unhurried — unhurriedly.: state-owned. B.: a murdered man. just like adjectives.g. e.The adjectival properties of Participle I come to the fore in the functions of prepositive attributes and predicatives. It seems to be more of an adjective. Cf. fled into the woods (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). For English grammarians. forgiven. Participle II is often made negative by the prefix un~. Adverbs can be formed from them by the suffix -/>'. 1. Participle II may form part of compound adjectives. etc.g. Foster was and had always been a good and loving wife (R. e. Participle II of intransitive verbs is active in meaning. it does denote state.g.g. And the meaning of state is more common to adjectives than to verbs. He was charming. Sometimes they form degrees of comparison. it has certain verbal characteristics. First. Nevertheless. e. When Participle II is formed from a non-terminative verb. Participle II does not always have the meaning of state. Ivanova.: The house was furnished by an interior designer (The New Webster's Grammar Guide).excitedly.g.L. too.

3)the nominative absolute participial construction. In the subjective participial construction.: / heard someone laughing (A.g. Pronouns. there is a specific non-finite form of the verb in Russian . Hill). The construction is usually introduced into the sentence by the preposition with and in most cases performs the function of an adverbial of attendant circumstances. remodelled recently. In the objective participial construction. Fifth. Predicative Constructions with Participles In the prepositional absolute participial construction. Galsworthy).g. Val was impressed (3. The daughter sat quite silent and still. Hardy). English verbals can have a subjectival member of their own. Hooper has gone to London (S. 2)the subjective participial construction.: They were walking on again. Cf: // being now pretty late. the Participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a persona! pronoun in the objective case. 10. we took our candles and went upstairs (Ch. Dickens). Bennett). is very attractive (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). it can take part in realizing secondary predication in predicative constructions. The nominative absolute participial construction expresses various adverbial relations. to a personal pronoun in the objective case. in Russian there is no gerund.S. THE PRONOUN Semantic Characteristics The meaning of the pronoun as a separate part of speech is difficult to define. In fact. The governor wants it done quickly (A. In spite of himself. different from the subject of the sentence.: her. The objective participial construction performs the function of a complex object in the sentence.: They were heard talking together (W.g. Sixth. Like nouns and adjectives. A. it can take part in realizing primary predication as part of a simple verbal or compound nominal predicate.g. the noun or pronoun is not the subject of the sentence. Third. Cf. In Russian it is only the infinitive that can have a subjectival member of its own.: The sun having set. First. e. English and Russian Non-Finite Forms of the Verb Compared The English participle forms four predicative constructions: 1)the objective participial construction. The pronoun is a part of speech which points to things and properties without naming them. Cf. Hornby. with Hugh calmly drawing at his pipe (J.: she. very rarely. e.: Mr.g. The subjective participial construction performs the function of a complex subject in the sentence.the so-called deenpwacmue. the participle (mostly Participle I) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the nominative case which is the subject of the sentence. e. 149 .Lindsay). but they do not name them as nouns and adjectives do. Cowie.: Ona eenejia etuy ebiMbimb Maiuuny. he had three months' leave (Th. Russian participles can be declined. the Participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the nominative case. In the nominative absolute participial construction. with her eyes fixed on the ground (Ch. As opposed to Russian non-finite forms of the verb. e. different from the subject of the sentence. Collins). Cf.: / really must have my watch repaired (M. 148 The system of Russian non-finite forms of the verb is different from the system of English verbals.The house. Second. Dickens).C. A. we decided to return home (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). while others have much in common with adjectives. This duty completed.P. the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or. Swan).g. e. 4)the prepositional absolute participial construction. pronouns denote things and properties of things. e. some pronouns share essential semantic peculiarities of nouns. Gimson).

according to V. Thus. They look upon we as the suppletive plural of / and they as the suppletive plural of he. today. Maugham). e. Since it is only' words that are classified into parts of speech and the so-called phrasal pronouns represent combinations of words. or / 4 they. or she + she. They does not always mean he + he. We.S. the pronoun / may indicate a woman.I. I should like to try on these dresses (Lingaphone English Course). according to A. right.herself. Hull. because they also change their meaning in accordance with the situation. Some linguists think that personal pronouns have the grammatical category of number. that . certainly. using the word yesterday.those. Voynich).: each other. J. it is better to call them not pronouns.S. The grammatical category of number is found in the demonstrative pronouns this. Richards. tomorrow. for they indicate time in the way substantives do. or it.. tomorrow. Jespersen thinks that if we took the relative character of meaning as a basis for singling out pronouns into a separate part of speech. a week.I. or / + she. Smirnitsky. Suppletive forms must be lexically identical.. or it + it. today. or / + he. Fowler). It may as well mean he + she. When she came back she was herself again (Th. She did not move her hand (W. Taken in isolation.V. You are not fair to the others (L. Such generalization is to be found only in pronouns proper. the pronoun is practically devoid of any meaning whatsoever. Waterhouse). possessive.she. S. too. however. his . and the like into the class of pronouns. Personal. Sheldon). but still nobody will call a square table round or an ugly man .handsome. Maugham).g. one another. The Category of Gender Pronouns lack the grammatical category of gender. e. .. She felt sorry for the poor woman behind the door (S. for example. but rather / + you. (W. Nevertheless. There is a grain of truth in it since. Proctor). He put out his hand to take hers.: he -.C. Wilmer threw himself on his knees by the chair. O. Husbands and wives never listen when they talk to each other. . Many linguists recognize the existence of phrasal pronouns.O. I loved that movie (J. only when the other is talking to somebody else (E. other . For instance. himself.. Vinogradov and A.: we and compound. Nouns and adjectives are quite different in this respect. left.g.The same is true of them.others. Thus. John. That's why personal pronouns are generally said to stand outside the Structure Pronouns fall under simple. an hour. Morphological Characteristics It is impossible to speak of a pronominal system of inflections because pronouns constitute a heterogeneous group.. the indication of an object by means of the noun table does not depend on the speaker or situation. we would have to refer such words as yesterday..: He told me all about it (P.S. Derivative pronouns do not occur in the English language.these.: . too. e. Cf.. or a year.g. to pronouns. The estimation of properties is. no concrete day exists which is always called yesterday. Smirnitsky. those nights were long (W.. have a very general relative meaning that varies in accordance with the changing situation. Maugham). does not mean / + /. that and the indefinite pronoun other: this .her (hers). she. etc. a man. a child. father. / look awful in this blue dress (English Course). but pronoun equivalents. cto. e. and even an animal or a thing in fairy tales. we mean a definite period of time. Cf. we are not justified in including the words yesterday. (W. Deeping). Hardy). not a second. mother.: ourselves. namely a day.g. more subjective. and reflexive pronouns express sex distinctions lexically.

150 151 .

especially if the question ends with a preposition. Eliza. does not mean himself+ himself or herself + herself.S. (C. etc. .C. especially in conversational English.: Whom did they arrest! (M. too. It may mean himself'+ herself. The objective case is used everywhere else. But if we go deeper into it. Well. You are as conventional as them all (A. Hardy).Not them (M. you knew almost everybody (K. Many linguists think that reflexive pronouns have the grammatical category of number. you'll both enjoy yourselves (J. etc.E.g. everyone. Whom can be used in a more formal style.L Cronin). the objective case form whom tends to be replaced by the nominative case form who.: And then I dressed myself and came away to find you (Th. Cf. Who can he take after"? (R. Obviously no one can do it but him (A. . Cf. just as in the case with personal pronouns. London). They blamed themselves for the unlucky marriage (Th. they cannot be regarded as constituting the grammatical category of number.grammatical category of number [B. We can speak of grammatical plural only in regard to persons or things which. we shall see that the reflexive pronouns ending in -selves can hardly be looked upon as grammatical plural forms from the corresponding reflexive pronouns ending in -self for.Me? (A. as well as the interrogative and relative who. Eckersley).: You don *t understand (P. Sheridan). boy(A. The personal pronouns it and you have the same form for both cases: i"r . tn identifying relative clauses. as Martin did(L London). Lindop). they either stand outside the grammatical category of case or have homonymous case forms. It is generally either left out or replaced by who or that.. Khaimovich. Duffy).. Gates). he -him.: Have you given him the book? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). R. I hope. B. What would he do with himself! (D. 152 / know exactly what it feels like to be held down on one's back (J.: . Jespersen). whom is unusual.: Who could she trustf (A. (B. Laski). she — her. Jack was three or four years older than me (W. Cooper). Everybody's business is nobody's business (O. draw a distinction between the nominative and the objective cases. This is where we wash ourselves. So.us. Swan). they really do.it. Cf. With whom are you going? (M.. Ilyish].. When she washed herself.: /.G. someone. Personal pronouns. At first sight.H.H. Lawrence). nobody.whom. Lawrence). They 'd tell me themselves. Only one with a constitution of iron could have held himself down. belong to the same kind. who . Rogovskaya.them.A. There is a tendency in Modem English to use the nominative case of personal pronouns only in the function of the subject that is followed immediately by the predicate-verb. they . Cf. Hardy).I.. you -you. McCall).. and it is necessary after a preposition. anybody. B.me. Anybody can see it (J. Mansfield). themselves. Galsworthy). for example. anyone. Galsworthy). (B.. Cf: 153 . the cat washed itself. It wasn 't me (J. somebody. It is almost impossible in clauses that end with a preposition. Since the so-called singular and plural reflexive pronouns have different referents. we . It's anybody's right (J. Shaw). Swan).. We 're mad. Forbes). Quirk and his co-authors call the nominative case the subjective case because pronouns used in the nominative case perform the function of the subject in the sentence. It's yourself. You are the only person who has ever seen Ram.g. e. Cf. Nobody was spending any money (D. e. and one have the common and the genitive case just like nouns. Galsworthy). you and me. without being identical. Wodehouse).E. Powell). The Category of Case The indefinite pronouns everybody. In the interrogative pronoun who.

B.g. is no excuse for uniting pronouns with nouns and adjectives. Personal pronouns. Gates) . Saroyan). Proctor). The best possible substitute is The snow (snows). Opdycke. his. hers. (W. which becomes evident if we analyze their combinability. without a noun. For instance. you will find none that will quite do. . pronouns substitute not only nouns but also adjectives. Sweet denies the existence of pronouns as a separate part of speech. But non-identifying relative clauses are common to written.. Sheldon) . but also syntactically. Noun-pronouns. When employed as auxiliary elements. e./ think you should stay faithful to the person you are married to (M. What is more important. he distinguishes noun-pronouns and adjective-pronouns. Richards. That's why pronouns are used very frequently and form a considerable part of any text. not naming words. Swan). Zaffran. your.g. Swan). Did it ever cross yours! (S. which are separated from their noun-heads by commas. combine with postpositive and prepositive verbs. his. e. not to conversational English.: Oh. If you try to substitute a noun for //. When used as notional words. Cf. Cf. Taking into consideration that the syntactic functions of pronouns are similar to those of nouns and adjectives. its. This meaning reflects to some extent. the pronoun it in the sentence It snows stands independent of all noun reference or relationship. Adjective-pronouns. whom has to be used as an object.g. theirs) are always used as noun-pronouns.object. B.H. The majority of pronouns have both noun and adjective functions. in the sentence It snows (B. noun-pronouns generally do not combine with articles and are not modified by prepositive 155 . D. turned out to be Olivia's first husband (M.Here the pronoun this is a noun-pronoun used absolutely.. Cf.: Your husband has come (D. for instance. possessive pronouns in the absolute form (mine. is a ridiculous repetition. in his opinion.C. They differ not only semantically and to some extent morphologically. though as a class of words they are not numerous. Hull. Sheldon). its. S. Dahl). Krulik). preceding a finite verb. Richards. the word pronoun means 'a word used instead of a noun'. J. In non-identifying relative clauses. her. S. ours. however. He saw me the next night.A. the pronoun it does not take the place of any noun. our. but as determiners that specify the reference of nouns.Here the pronoun this is an adjective-pronoun modifying the noun bracelet. e.: Did it ever cross your mind that I might have married Anna because I fell in love with her? . Etymologically. So. . render the grammatical meanings of person and number. Accordingly. whom nobody recognized. Lawrence). Hull. the role of pronouns in the language. 154 H. Proctor).: The small man in the raincoat. But this definition is not suitable to all pronouns. Noun-pronouns perform the functions of subject and object typical of nouns. Personal pronouns are always used as noun-pronouns. How much is this*? (J. are well advanced on the way towards becoming a kind of verbal prefix of person and number. being pointing. look at this bracelet. Possessive pronouns in the conjoint form (my. yours. Possessive pronouns are functionally heterogeneous. their) are always used as adjective-pronouns.C. they help express various grammatical meanings. but this. in the opinion of J. / think you should stay faithful to the person who/that you are married to (M. Syntactic Characteristics Pronouns can be used both as notional and as auxiliary elements. function not as attributes.No. as is evident from the above given material. just like nouns. Pronouns. Swan). Carlos (J. The similarity of functions. J. But as opposed to nouns. Ilyish thinks that unstressed personal pronouns. The children will hear you (S.: She laughed (J.subject. Pronouns can replace hundreds of nouns.C. form a special subclass of nouns and adjectives.: Claud produced a pocket-knife (R. they perform the function of this or that part of the sentence.

Compare the regular occurrence of combinations of the type Poor child] (D. text structures. adjective-pronouns cannot form combinations with preceding adverbs. New Approach to Pronouns According to N. The lexico-grammatical number indicates definite plurality. Her face lit up suddenly (W. All the notional categories draw a distinction between three degrees of definiteness: definiteness. Cf.g. we can say that there is no uniformity of morphological and syntactic characteristics in the groups of pronouns.who.adjectives. and phraseology take part in the formation of the notional categories.g. Dahl). 1. Adjective pronouns. for in all other parts of speech formal characteristics are of paramount importance because they are systemic. 3)possession . Indefmiteness . Whose -possession Definiteness . 6)choice — which.: Who . Belousova.: The tall youth beside him was his son Bert (R. direction .: That was three years ago (J. we distinguish cardinal and ordinal numerals. 156 157 .somebody's. Lexicon. Shvedova and A.nobody's. etc. The lexicogrammatical meaning of number should not be confused with the grammatical meaning of number. his. Sheldon). The lexico-grammatical meaning of number is the generalization of the lexical meanings of individual numerals :five. In other words. morphology.my. Cf. combine with nouns in postposition. Robins). you. Pronouns form a class chiefly on the basis of their semantic peculiarities. e. In this respect. 2. someone *s.somebody. Indefmiteness .animate being Definiteness . 2)property . and the rare use of combinations of the type Silfy me (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). ten.whose. Summing it all up.what kind. Numerals indicate either a definite number or the position in a series. Accordingly. Anna became pregnant (S. her./. Non-existence . someone. where from. 7)time — when. and nonexistence. pronouns form a basis for the main notional categories in the language. THE NUMERAL Semantic Characteristics The numeral. just like adjectives. he. she. on the other.: boys. 5)place — where. But as opposed to adjectives. The authors describe in detail seven notional categories: 1)animate being . But each notional category has a pronoun as headword. syntax. indefmiteness. Cf. The grammatical meaning of number is the generalization of only two grammatical meanings: singular and plural. pronouns constitute a specific part of speech. In the third year of their marriage.where to. Cheever).: twenty. like the pronoun. Non-existence — nobody. is a part of speech that is singled out on the basis of its specific meaning. etc.how many. your. pronouns are indispensable in building up the notional categories of all languages. 4)number . 11. Deeping). The grammatical plural number shows indefinite plurality. e. Numerals possess a generalized lexico-grammatical meaning of number. fifty-seven. forty. on the one hand.

are compound. etc. Mind the difference in the spelling of the stem in three . etc. Mind the difference in the spelling of the stem in two -twenty. it is better to call them not numerals.: 265 — two hundred and sixty-five. Ordinal numerals. are formed by adding the suffix -th to the corresponding simple cardinal numerals. with the exception of first.: seventeen. from thirtyone to thirty-nine. although it goes back to the numeral ten.g.g.one and a half kilometres (one kilometre and a half). the numerals denoting fractions are joined to the numerals denoting whole numbers by means of the conjunction and. The cardinal numerals eleven. In Old English. each of which can stand alone as a separate word. Numerals over 100 are usually regarded as phrasal numerals. e.: six . it is the second component that takes the suffix -th: twenty-four -twenty-fourth.g. by the suffix -teen. e. The word teen in Modern English does not exist. His conception does not stand criticism. derived. the secondary stress is on the stem. Cf. are introduced by the conjunction and.g. The combination is spoken in the following way: l*/2 kilometres . The numerals from twenty-one to twenty-nine. three — thirty. and five -fifty. the suffix -teen loses its stress.half a mile. four. When ordinal numerals are formed from cardinal numerals indicating tens.three quarters of an hour. The cardinal numerals up to ten and the ordinal numerals first and second are simple. Numerals denoting fractions should be regarded as numeral equivalents. In numerical combinations including hundreds and thousands. e.: two hundred and fifty-six. 2 /3 ton — two thirds of a ton. five. the final -y is changed into -ie before the suffix -th.: sixteen pencils.: twenty — twentieth.eighth. If a re^tt-numeral is followed by a noun with a stress on the first syllable. twelve and the ordinal numeral third are historically derived. e. hi vulgar fractions. and compound. 104 — one hundred and four. Somewhat apart stand the vulgar fractions of the kind: */2 —one/a half. Cardinal numerals with the suffix -ty have one stress on the stem. Mind the difference in the spelling of the stem in five -fifth. The tiling is that English compound words always consist of a combination of words. the words denoting tens or units. second.sixteen. Cardinal numerals with the suffix -teen have two stresses: the main stress is on the suffix. eight . they represented free word combinations. nineteen. e. The noun following a mixed number is used in the plural. because they never consist of one word.g. the numerator is expressed by a cardinal numeral. their etymology is forgotten and they are looked upon as simple words.g. Jespersen refers teen-numerals to compound words. In mixed numbers. 2 /3 — two thirds.: seven -seventy.g. The noun following a vulgar fraction is used in the singular. but numeral equivalents. four -forty.ninth. the denominator — by a substantivized ordinal numeral. Cardinal numerals indicating tens are formed from the corresponding simple numerals by the suffix -ty. e. % hour . O. etc. 3050 — three thousand and fifty. 159 .g. 158 When ordinal numerals are formed from compound numerals. 9671 — nine thousand six hundred and seventy-one. and third. e. Compound numerals are hyphenated.thirteen and five -fifteen. e. too. Nowadays.: four-fourth. etc.: '/s — one/a third. e. % — one/a quarter. % — three quarters. Since it is only words that are classified into parts of speech and the so-called phrasal numerals represent combinations of words. The numerals from 13 to 19 are derived numerals.: 3!/s — three and one eighth. if there are no tens.g. They are formed from the corresponding simple numerals three. nine . The combination is spoken in the following way: % mile . The numerator and the denominator may be joined by a hyphen. Teen in Modem English is certainly a suffix.Morphological Characteristics Structure Numerals can be simple.

Hill).g. Morphological Categories In Old English. every number is denoted by a cardinal numeral. Nowadays.: 0. Hornby. But when the situation or the context makes them definite.: the last two weeks. e. e. oh) point one two five. Postposition of numerals is less common. it is often not spoken.one and a third pounds (one pound and a third). lessons in textbooks. Aldridge).25 ton — (zero. 12.: one of them. chapters. (L. or oh (the least technical) for the number 0. parts of books. 2Vs tons ~ two and a third tons (two tons and a third). e. nought (British). numerals had the grammatical category of case. e. . and grammatical terms. (L. e.g. Nouns modified by cardinal numerals in postposition are always used without any article.g. If the whole number is zero.: every three days. McCullers). A. If the whole number is not zero.H. Barber).g. e. 3)particles in preposition.125 — (zero.A.: Mr.A.g. Flight BA 726 from Amsterdam has now arrived (BBC London Course). oh) point two five of a ton.: King Edward IY (the fourth) (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Hamlet kills the King in Act 5 (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).r/3 pounds . English numerals are invariable. Brown had two daughters and two sons. acts and scenes of plays. Numerals usually precede the nouns they modify. e. Hill). Cf.: This subject is dealt with in Chapter 5 (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). 160 After a time he was aware that he had been seen by one of the three men he had been watching (C. apartments and rooms.. The combinability of numerals with other parts of speech is rare. Postmodifying ordinal numerals are always used with the definite article.: He was looking at the five boats coming in (J.: In other words I think I'd like a second opinion (A. We can use zero (American).g. The noun modified by a prepositive ordinal numeral combines with the indefinite article if the ordinal numeral acquires the meaning 'another' or 'one more'.g.P. 4) prepositional combinations in postposition. mostly those denoting the members of wellknown dynasties. Nouns modified by cardinal numerals in preposition are generally used without any article. As a rule. Gimson).g.S.. nought. e. Numerals sometimes combine with: 1)pronouns in preposition. Cardinal numerals occur in postposition with some nouns denoting pages. they are used with the definite article.. 2)adjectives in preposition.in the second half of the match he nearly scored another goal. Cf. the noun following a decimal fraction is used in the plural. they form combinations with nouns. In decimal fractions.25 tons — one point two five tons.: only three books.: 0. The noun following a decimal fraction is used in the singular if the whole number is zero.g. e. Turn to page 44 (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). nought. means of transport. Syntactic Characteristics Combinabilitv The combinability of numerals is rather limited. paragraphs. e.: / could see six men with six dogs (D.: February is the second month of the year (A.. Postmodifying ordinal numerals occur in combination with certain proper nouns. 161 . Nouns modified by ordinal numerals in preposition are in most cases preceded by the definite article. Cowie.g. Berkeley).305 — one two (twelve) point three nought five. A.: 1.g. e. and Mrs. Cf. the numerals denoting fractions are joined to those denoting whole numbers by means of the word 'point' (mowa). In decimal fractions.C.

According to the Bible.C. Substantivization of Numerals Like adjectives. But many adjectives have no degrees of comparison either. 2.the inflection -th. Cowie. they think that ordinal numerals stand closer to cardinal numerals than to adjectives. Both cardinal and ordinal numerals give a quantitative characteristic as distinct from adjectives whose qualification 162 is qualitative. Cf. Comparing the combinations five books and new books. Admony.P.S. but two boys.5) the copular verb be. of the modifying word. Hornby. he does not give it a name.I. Syntactic Functions The most typical syntactic function of cardinal numerals is said to be that of an attribute.: She's forty-six (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). I. some nouns turn into numerals.Ability to be used in the plural. Cf.g. With cardinal numerals. Walshe). Formfours\ (E. A. Wilson). e. The lexical meaning of the two words is the same. usually in preposition. Following V. score. A. On the other hand. Cardinal numerals constitute the centre of the field. Gimson). 3. Gimson) . A. A. Ordinal numerals form the periphery of the field because they share the features of two classes: those of numerals and adjectives. They put forward the following arguments. i.M. Galsworthy). Wilson). the second . Ordinal numerals he refers to adjectives because they share the grammatical characteristics of adjectives. Smirnitsky suggests that they should be qualified not as attributes.I.A. the component five cannot be looked upon as an attribute.: one boy. 4.: You haven't had a single five this term. cardinal numerals indicate the exact number of persons or things. they lose the grammatical category of number and the head noun is usually introduced without the preposition of. pair. e. many linguists represent the class of numerals as a linguistic field.C. they admit of no number distinctions and have no case forms.M.g.A generalized grammatical meaning of 'thingness'. Each cardinal numeral has a corresponding ordinal numeral. A. 4. Cf.S. Cowie. in contrast to attributive adjectives. 3.: xopomax nosoda. Combinability with articles and prepositions. Povey.G. we can expect to live for three score years and ten (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Hornby.The words ten . The only thing that differentiates them from adjectives is that they have no degrees of comparison. it is quite different.S. As to B.A. Cowie.: There are hundreds among the members of this club (J. numerals can be substantivized. Khaimovich and B. Wilson) . e. Second. Cardinal numerals are more often substantivized than ordinal numerals. where the head noun no^o^a makes the preceding attributive adjective take the form of the nominative case.A. Hornby. It's after four (E. but as a specific part of the sentence. Smirnitsky comes to the conclusion that in spite of the seeming identity in function. A. attributive words (especially in inflected languages) agree as far as possible with the word they modify. A. singular number. etc. Taking into consideration the specific role played by cardinal numerals in the sentence. 1.: Two can play (at) this game (A. Substantivized numerals acquire the following characteristics of nouns.M. A. which reveal this or that property of the headword. He got a first in Modern Languages (A. and feminine gender. Like adjectives. When they become numerals.e. e.: 24 is two dozen (A. Rogovskaya.g.P.S.tenth are opposed only grammatically. You'd better work a bit harder next term (J.subject. dozen. Here it is the meaning of the numeral. First. 163 .Only numerals have the suffix -th. The first component ten has a zero inflection. The syntactic functions of subject and object.tenth .object. We arrive on the first (E.g. However. 1.g. that predetermines the form of the head noun.I.C. e.P. 2. Gimson).

: 01. Sometimes more than one determiner occurs in the same noun phrase.g. If the two digits of a pair are the same. An exception is the GB emergency call 999. FUNCTION WORDS Function words. If we take into consideration the criteria used by English grammarians for differentiating notional (or lexical) and structural (or function) words (see the lecture on Parts of Speech). which is always nine nine nine. whdeterminers. They include into them all subclasses of pronouns and numerals that are used with a noun head.: 7325 . last.g. Postdeterminers fall into two subgroups: a) ordinal numerals and the semi-determiners same.May fourth. Function words are heterogeneous.the third of January nineteen eighty-five. nineteen eighty-five.seven three two five.: 264454 . USA: May 4. Biber and his co-authors distinguish the following classes of function words: 1)determiners. latter. 10)the infinitive marker to. both. hi such cases. 3)auxiliaries (primary and modal).e. . The figures are usually grouped rhythmically in pairs (pairing from the right). especially for six-figure units. or indicating the way in which a lexical word or larger unit is to be interpreted. we shall see that they stand much closer to function words. 11)numerals (cardinals and ordinals). e. 4)prepositions. 12.g. the code is to be separated by a pause.g. 9)the negator not.: 510364 -five one oh (zero) three six four. i. as opposed to lexical words. and next.g. 7)wA-words. former.: all the books. render grammatical meaning. 6)conjunctions (coordinators and subordinators). 1985 . countable plural nouns. English grammarians give a wide definition of determiners. other. Numerals in Telephone Numbers Each digit is spoken separately. 2)predeterminers (which precede central determiners when both occur): all. They serve two major roles: indicating relationships between lexical words or larger units. e. and uncountable nouns. Determiners Determiners are function words used to specify the kind of reference a noun has. The notional status of pronouns and numerals is debatable. D. 8)existential there. 5)adverbial particles. and twice. e. In numbers which include a code number. In US usage. But there is a tendency to use rhythmic triplets. possessive determiners. e.629 8495 .oh one six two nine eight four nine five. the determiners occur in a fixed order. the word double is usually used. Determiners vary in the kind of noun head they occur with.two six double four five four. demonstrative determiners. English grammarians draw a distinction between three groups of determiners: 1)central determiners (the most common type): articles. b) cardinal numerals and quantifying determiners. once. half and multipliers like double. no figure above nine is used. 2)pronouns. The three classes in question are countable singular nouns. 0 is pronounced oh in Great Britain. e. 3) postdeterminers (which follow central determiners).Numerals in Dates Great Britain: 3(rd) January 1985 . zero may replace oh. and specifying genitives.

164 165 .

that . The (kings she said were not funny.. The occurrence of the articles varies depending upon the type of noun. Innes).g. Possessive determiners correspond to personal pronouns (my . these.he. Shall we adopt these methods or those! (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). The definite article combines with both countable and uncountable nouns.preceding (anaphoric reference) or following (cataphoric reference). the indefinite article. her . our).it.you. Murphy). the demonstrative determiners can make the reference clear either by pointing to the situation. It specifies that the referent of the noun phrase is assumed to be known to the speaker and the addressee.: This is Peter's umbrella (V. It narrows down the reference of the head noun to one indefinite member of the class. the demonstrative determiners are stressed. these) or distant in relation to the speaker (that. his . The so-called zero article signals indefmiteness with uncountable and plural countable nouns. Possessive determiners make noun phrases definite. The indefinite and definite articles are generally used with singular countable nouns. their ~ they). your .. e. whereas the definite article is almost always unstressed. 166 167 . those). filling the room with cold air (T. The devil is not so black as he is painted (Proverb). e. Demonstrative. Cf: / saw Mrs. and the so-called zero article can be used for generic reference. Cf: My words at least had their effect (T.R. in addition to marking an entity as known. their). // was a little bird And the bird was whistling overhead (D.she. its . the socalled zero article . However.g. the definite article.: He opened the middle window./. Cf: A friend in need is a friend indeed (Proverb). or by referring to the preceding or following text.anaphoric reference.singular. In addition. Chevalier). those -plural) and whether the referent is near (this. Lawrence) .with plural and uncountable nouns.situational reference. Cf.we. the addressee (your) or other entities mentioned in the text or given in the speech situation (his. Like the definite article. Chevalier) .: / bought a newspaper (R.Articles Articles are the most common and most basic of the determiners. Cf. In English. Jones this morning (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). her. Robins) -cataphoric reference. our . Possessive Determiners Possessive determiners specify a noun phrase by relating it to the speaker/writer (my. Who -was that man J saw you talking to? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Reference is generic when a noun phrase refers to the whole class rather than to an individual person or thing. Money talks (Proverb).Jjetej^miriers The demonstrative determiners this/these and that/those are similar to the definite article in conveying definite meaning. Those sweets you gave me -were very nice (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).H. Evans). (D.: He wants power (H. Braithwaite). Actions speak louder than words (Proverb). Closely related to possessive determiners are specifying genitives consisting of a noun phrase and a genitive suffix. The indefinite article is used with singular countable nouns. They need teachers badly (E. they specify the number of the referent (this. The definite article makes the reference clear either by pointing to the situation (situational reference) or by referring to the neighbouring text . its.

Cf. Both is used with reference to two entities with plural countable nouns. or an arbitrary amount of a mass. they are generally followed by the preposition of. Gimson). Gimson).S. A. 3. Many and much specify a large quantity: many . Cowie. and every. Quantifiers can be broadly divided into four groups. Both any and either are typically used in negative and interrogative contexts. We received a good many offers of support (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Swan).S. A. All refers to the whole of a group or a mass. Each child will find his own personal road to success (M.P. Arbitrary/negative member or amount. They are typically used in interrogative and negative contexts.C. and several with plural countable nouns. Swan). Murphy).: Do you know many people! (R. Some usually specifies a moderate quantity and is used with both uncountable and plural countable nouns. Cf: Last night I wrote a few letters (R. Each and every refer to the individual members of a group and combine only with singular countable nouns. A great deal of money has been spent on the new hospital (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Murphy). Murphy). Each stresses the separate individual. She didn't eat anything. Determiners specifying a small quantity are a few. a lot of. Large quantity. but she drank a little water (R. Do you drink much coffee1? (R. A. Murphy). Cf: 168 There are a great many reasons why you shouldn 't do it (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). / haven't got any money (R. both. But most of the day was spent upstairs (C. few and little suggest that the quantity is less than expected. Biber et al. They didn 't ask me many questions (R.with uncountable nouns. Murphy). Murphy). Few people have heard of him (R. Inclusive: all. 1.S. Don't go to that awful man and spend all that money (D. Murphy).: All children hate exams (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). He has had to spend a good deal of money on medicines (A. Both her parents are doctors (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). much . It combines with both countable and uncountable nouns. We 've played lots of matches this season (M. They combine with both indefinite and definite noun phrases.: Most people take their holidays in the summer (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). 169 . In the latter case.C. Moderate or small quantity. He is not well known. Murphy).: I've just made some coffee (R. Hornby. Either has a similar meaning. 4. Any denotes an arbitrary member of a group. each. In summer the weather is very dry. Swan).P. Hornby. Cf. Cf. McCullers). There is little rain (R.Quantifiers Some determiners specify nouns in terms of quantity and are therefore called quantifiers. Cf: We want every child to succeed (M. Murphy). A. and lots of. Cowie. Murphy). There are some beautiful flowers in the garden (R. few. Hornby. A few and a little are close in meaning to some. plenty of. but it is used with groups of two and combines only with singular countable nouns. Are there any letters for me this morning*? (R.with plural countable nouns.: They didn 'I make any mistakes (R. Murphy). Cf. Murphy).C. A. There isn 't much milk in the fridge (R. A lot of people speak English (R. I've read it several times (A. Other determiners specifying a large quantity are a great/good many (with plural countable nouns). a great/good deal (with uncountable nouns).). Murphy). it combines with both countable and uncountable nouns. every ~ the individual as a member of the group. Gimson). There are plenty of eggs in the house (A. A. Cowie. Cf. Murphy). 2. and a little and little with uncountable nouns.P.

the former country has the larger population (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). (L.P. Neither road is very good (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). No and neither have negative reference. Cf. or it may occur as the only determiner in indefinite noun phrases.. the latter .with reference to two entities. e. e. They regularly combine with the definite article or some other definite determiner.: Brazil beat France by two goals to one (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). They are similar to the so-called semi-determiners. last and next. Gimson). Ordinal numerals specify nouns in terms of order. 2.g. next Thursday. but differ from them in providing a numerical rather than a more general specification. they are characterized by special co-occurrence patterns with other determiners. they differ from adjectives in that they have no descriptive meaning and primarily serve to specify the reference of the noun. Swan). Will you have another cup of tea? (A.g. Other is the opposite of same and specifies that the reference is to something or somebody different from the person or thing mentioned previously. but doesn 't like either city very much (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). and possessive determiners.That's the same man that asked me for money yesterday (M. Numerals Cardinal numerals are related to quantifiers. 1.A.: She is cleverer than the other girls in her class (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).. Last and next. Moreover.: George was the last person to arrive (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). etc. A. Semi-determ iners In addition to determiners proper. Last and next are like ordinal numerals in specifying items in terms of order. It may be added after the definite article. If offered red or white. Cowie. e. Cf. ordinal numerals normally precede cardinal numerals. Hill).: / have no socks (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).C. Cf. We went there last Sunday and we're again going next Sunday (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). She's lived in London and Manchester. I'd choose the latter wine (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). 170 171 . Most semi-determiners co-occur only with the definite article. Same and other. Same may be added after the definite article to emphasize that the reference is exactly to the person or thing mentioned before. the Garden School boys came very close to the City School's goal. However. When you 've finished this chapter go on to the next one (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). the former -generally. former and latter. the indefinite article (taking the form another).: In the first two minutes of the match.g. Hornby. There are four major pairings of semideterminers: same and other. When the two types of numerals occur together in one noun phrase. with present time as the situational point of reference (such as last week. there are some determiner-like words which are often described as adjectives.: Of Nigeria and Ghana. Former and latter can also be used with reference to time. Former and latter may be added after the definite article to discriminate between the first and the second of two things or people already mentioned. Former and latter. certain and such. Cf.S. 3. except when used in deictic time expressions. A.).Have you got any money'? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). That's the second time you've asked me that (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).

A.reciprocal pronoun equivalent. Biber and his co-authors draw a distinction between auxiliaries proper (or primary auxiliaries) and modal auxiliaries. Certain singles out a specific person/thing or some specific people/things. e. Biber and his co-authors refer to function words those pronouns that are used absolutely.modal auxiliary. Cf.g. A. Certain and such differ from the other semi-determiners in being used only in indefinite noun phrases. Which is your car? (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) -interrogative pronoun.4. / told him to go to a doctor. etc. such concepts as ability. Which shoes shall I wear. Hornby. Pronouns D. please. Swan). with the effect of reducing grammatical complexity. Cf. Gimson). This is the dog which was lost (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) . In addition to pronouns. 2. Who told you this? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) .reflexive pronoun. necessity.indefinite pronoun. Cf.relative pronoun. That's the man whose house was burned down (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Cowie. Somebody took my coat (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) .e. obligation.e. You must follow (he school rules (V. Evans) . The primary auxiliaries specify the morphological categories of the lexical verb. i. But this dog isn't mine! It's his (V. A.C. The modal auxiliaries are largely concerned with expressing 'modality'. obligation.: / saw the accident (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) -personal pronoun. e. and I do as well (M. 173 .S. Jane saw me at the game (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) . perfect phase. Cowie. Swan). the red ones or the brown ones? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).C. . The pro-form so. Such refers to a person/thing or people/things of a particular kind. without a head noun. which aavice he took (A.: He has just painted the room (V. 172 They told each other about their families (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) . Put the car away.personal pronoun. permission.possessive pronouns. which replaces clauses or verb complements.P. A. Evans) . Hornby.Yes. They regard them as function words because they do not give a detailed specification. there are some other function words which recapitulate a neighbouring expression.P. The pro-predicates do and do so.demonstrative pronoun. 1. Such people as him shouldn't be allowed here (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).: Do you think it will rain? .S. Cf: Whose house is this? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). I think so (A.primary auxiliary. Evans) . Wh-determiners ^-determiners are used as interrogative clause markers and relativizers (i. She hurt herself (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) .g. The following are the most important.: There are certain reasons why this information cannot be made public (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Certain and such. Gimson). words that introduce relative clauses).: She likes jazz. Auxiliaries D. but serve as pointers requiring the listener or reader to find the exact meaning in the surrounding text or in the speech situation.I've already done so (M.

g. etc. Hornby. but as opposed to the lexical meaning of nouns.Prepositions Tradition says that prepositions are function words that indicate relations between nouns or noun equivalents and some other words in the sentence. many prepositions are always. free: above. They have no grammatical categories.free preposition.g.: inside.: The accident occurred under the bridge (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). Prepositions are invariable. outside. At present. Just like prepositions proper. prepositions have no lexical meaning. Chevalier).Vasilevskaya. outside. the choice of a free preposition is not dependent upon any specific words in the context.: There is a picture on the wall (V. the preposition in indicates relations in space between two things: the ball and the box. and some others. e. D. Cf. in the sentence The ball is in the box (V. until. According to B. Agnes was sitting on the bench in front of our house (T.: 1) to think of somebody (the preposition of indicates the relations between the pronoun somebody and the verb to think). between. In addition. The accident occurred above the bridge (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). because of. origin. Here belong the groups out of. Cf.S. Cowie. On the other hand. etc.: A woman is getting out of her car (V. e. phrasal prepositions are normally free. 2)derivative. past. According to M. below. liyish. and the choice of a preposition depends upon some other word (often the preceding verb). Evans) . during. behind. Being a linguistic notion. the lexical meaning of prepositions is extremely general and weak because prepositions lack the naming function. although they mention also such meanings rendered by prepositions as cause. e. the preposition cannot serve the purpose of expressing relations between objects of extra linguistic reality. Some linguists speak of the so-called phrasal prepositions. are introduced into speech ready-made. across. prepositions do have lexical meaning. under. against. with. etc. A. among(st). The same prepositional form can function as a free or a bound preposition. exercise and getting enough sleep (A.: behind. bound prepositions often have little independent meaning.C. till. adjectives and other notional (or lexical words). Morosova. properties. The accident occurred behind the bridge (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). As far as their makeup is concerned. etc.L. across..Ganshina and N. Biber and his co-authors draw a distinction between free and bound prepositions. The accident occurred beneath the bridge (The New Webster's Grammar Guide).. and have the same meaning of showing relations between a noun or a noun equivalent and some other word. toward(s). inside. before. In contrast. on.: in. R. Good health depends upon/on good food. according to G.S Khaimovich and B. In the opinion of B. 3)compound. within. e. opposite. prepositions fall into the following groups: 1)simple. 175 174 . prepositions express relations between objects of extra linguistic reality. A. Quirk and his co-authors think the meanings of space and time to be most typical of prepositions. they should be looked upon as preposition equivalents. Rogovskaya. Evans). The accident occurred near the bridge (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). Gimson) . The latter seems highly debatable. in front of. They consist of two or more words which are spelt separately. etc. Many prepositions in English correspond to case inflections in other languages. near. along. goal. For instance. beyond. Evans).I. which always name things.. phrasal prepositions are different from prepositions proper. beside. they always stand before the word they govern.g. for. at.bound preposition.A. Free prepositions have an independent meaning.g. Such groups are on the way to becoming full prepositions and in grammars of the future may be classified as such. or almost always. 2) free from danger (the preposition from shows the relations between the noun danger and the adjective free). Although some prepositions can be both free and bound. etc. since. Cf.P.

under. With interrogative and relative noun phrases as prepositional complement. through. Being runction words. forth. prepositions should be put before the nouns or noun equivalents they introduce. That's why it will perhaps be right to say that the right-hand connection of prepositions is always explicit. while the left-hand connection may be implicit.) . 17? . in the title the preposition implies that the author is going to speak of human bondage.with the preposition deferred to final position.g. sentences.: We came here because it was cheap (J. Quirk et at).).informal.: He's impossible to work with (R. In informal style. down. It was a nice little place and Mr. There are cases in the English language. e. Adverbial particles are used in two main ways: 1) to build phrasal verbs. back.formal. in. e. Conjunctions A conjunction is a function word which joins syntactic units: words.g. Quirk et al. clauses. the other informal . Traditionally. The most important are: about. around. Cf. e. e.g.: Has the room been paid for! (R.g. Subordinating conjunctions (or subordinators) serve to introduce a dependent clause. Chevalier). by.Syntactically. adverbial particles generally follow verbs. and Mrs. Of Human Bondage (W. it is the most common and short prepositions which can be deferred.: Under the Tree (Th. Biber etal. Quirk et al. 176 The old house about which I was telling you is empty (R. Cf: At which house did you leave the car? (R Quirk et al. away.). Courtney). In the title Of Human Bondage. The deferment of a preposition is obligatory in the following cases.) . In general. etc. parts of clauses. In passive clauses. e.: My aunt brought up four children (R. While prepositions have a special relationship to nouns. We were going back to the hotel when it happened (D.) -formal. the preposition of is used as it is used in the phrase speak of something. conjunctions are subdivided into coordinating and subordinating.S. Hardy). across. in particular spatial prepositions. 2. however. Witle were rather proud of it (Th. off. Cf. Adverbial Particles Adverbial particles are a small group of short invariable forms with a core meaning of motion and result. out. round. aside. Maugham's novel Of Human Bondage with a possible variant Human Bondage. The old house which I was telling you about is empty (R. When I turned around Agnes had gone (T. As opposed to prepositions that usually precede nouns.: I fell and broke my arm (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). etc. when the left-hand connection is lost As characteristic examples we can quote the titles of some novels. Since the word preposition comes from two Latin words which mean placed before. In clauses with gerundial phrases or gerundial predicative constructions. prepositions lack accentuation and syntactic independence in the sentence. Updike).S. over. Coordinating conjunctions (or coordinators) link elements of equal rank. The meaning and function of the preposition become clear if we compare the actual title of W. Quirk et al.) -informal. etc. So. however. Which house did you leave the car afl (R.). Quirk et a!.: He's worth listening to (R. without a preposition. adverbial particles are closely linked to verbs. 1. the preposition is often placed at the end of the clause. Maugham). In clauses with infinitival phrases or infinitival predicative constructions. past. there are often alternative positions available: one formal .with the preposition in the normal place before the complement. Quirk et al. prepositions are characterized by bilateral combinability with a right-hand noun or noun equivalent and a left-hand word belonging to almost any part of speech. 2) to build extended prepositional phrases. 3.g. along. Dreiser).

Gimson). e.. than. as. nevertheless. and. As far as their makeup is concerned.: We visited both New York and London (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Their meaning is abstract and vague. As regards their form.uniform right-hand distribution (generally a noun). Correlative conjunctions usually consist of two parts which always go together. have much in common with conjunctions. e. and disjunctive (or). etc. in order that. though.g. many prepositions are homonymous with conjunctions. even 178 Coordinators are usually classified into additive (and).g. Second. or..: both . neither .. e. The preposition differs from the conjunction in having a more . on condition that. (See the above given examples). so.: as soon as.. Cf.: after. since.g.g.Three subordinators introduce degree clauses: as. and that. 2. He drove as fast as he could (M. as . but.g. (al)though. Cowie. Cf. etc.g.The great majority of subordinators introduce adverbial clauses: after.: however.. etc. Swan). A. as.. nor.S. in case.: / with my friend and my friend and I. 4)correlative. Three subordinators introduce complement clauses: if..g. Care must be taken to make each member of the correlative conjunction stand as closely as possible to the words or other elements that they connect. 3. because..: Pro/its are higher than they were last year (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).C. either . e. while. etc. Bryant. Either the dog or the cat has eaten it (A. Subordinators fall into three major subclasses. that. both are invariable. First. etc.. as though. Hornby. 3)phrasal. Prepositions. A. conjunctions fall into the following groups: 1) simple.P. as if. sometimes prepositions and conjunctions indicate similar relations. adversative (but). 2) compound. notwithstanding.. and whether e.. However. since. in the opinion of M.: It was uncertain whether she would recover (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).: and. e. 1. e.

moved to Canada (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). perhaps.: There is a blackboard in the classroom (V.). Miller. heading a clause.g.: What will happen to her nowl (H.: I did not make up an answer fast enough (T. it is. e. Evans). e.: There is much in what you say (J.: Four of the yen traders have pleaded guilty (D. Cf.: not all. Mr. Chevalier). etc. Since prepositions and conjunctions are close semantically. possible to unite them into one group of connectives. The Infinitive Marker 'To' I was glad to leave (T. e. Wh-words pfTi-words are used in two ways: as interrogative clause markers and as relativizers.g. Fielding). Biber et al.g.g. prepositions now often occur at the head of a clause. Opdycke). e. Biber and his co-authors refer those cardinal and ordinal numerals to function words that occur as heads of noun phrases. Apart from negating whole clauses. Cf. Just like conjunctions. No other word behaves in the same way. Numerals D. Existential 'there' It is often described as an anticipator)' subject. 179 .functionally prepositions are acquiring more and more features in common with conjunctions. Chevalier). not has various other negative uses. The Negator 'Not' The main use of not is to make a whole clause negative. morphologically and even syntactically. not many.B. expressing existence. who lived next door.

The article in English is not a grammatical morpheme. just like the morpheme. the woman next door's husband (M. e. Vendryes and M. Fridman's treatment of articles as grammatical morphemes does not stand criticism. Sergeyeva. But the same is true of prepositions. M. Traditionally. The definite article originated from the demonstrative pronoun se.It is not only words but also grammatical morphemes that can move about in the sentence. is autonomous: 1)it never makes one word with the noun. the use of articles is qualified as a grammatical phenomenon. Sergeyeva does not stand criticism. M. On the face of it. but function words that have no lexical meaning.: He is a clever workman (A.V. verbs. not numerals.N. Gimson). 2. The conception of T. for it is said to be dependent on the semantic character and the syntactic function of the following noun. and pronouns and numerals are not lexical. A fourth will be charged with having information likely to be of use to terrorists (D. If we accept it. M. syntactic independence. according to V. and adverbs (see the lectures on The Pronoun and The Numeral).D. where the grammatical morpheme .from the numeral an.D. In Bulgarian. Romanian and some other languages the suffix form of the article also testifies to its morphemic nature. but a separate word. the indefinite article .g. Fridman. the use of the indefinite article is really limited to countable nouns in the singular. Hornby. Swan).V. A. But the number of cases in which a grammatical morpheme is separated from the element it modifies is very small. Smirnitsky. 2)it can be separated from the noun by an adjective. Since the article is the most frequently used function word. Fridman raises the following arguments against this point of view. Really. e. etc. they are substantivized and can be regarded as nouns. Cowie. the article.D. Fridman is right: articles are practically never used independently. we shall dwell on it at greater length. On closer inspection. This conception is shared by the majority of Russian and foreign linguists.'5.N. When cardinal and ordinal numerals are used as heads of noun phrases. The second argument of M. According to T. 1. the article is a grammatical morpheme of the noun. practically it is limited to the genitive case inflection . Thus.P.The criterion of solid or hyphenated spelling is not a reliable one because it allows of various fluctuations. Is the Article a Lexical or a Function Word? Articles have all the characteristic features of function words: they lack the naming function. Sokolova and other linguists think that the English article is not a grammatical morpheme.I. the article. Since the article lacks this ability. conjunctions.). T. That's why A. Biber et al. unlike the morpheme.S. Fridman sounds rather convincing. the English article has only lexical meaning. however. THE ARTICLE Is the Article a Word or a Morpheme? According to J. Fridman thinks that the only objective criterion of an element being a word and not a morpheme is its ability to function in an absolute position.C.D. 13. This syntactic 'defectiveness'. Meaning of Articles The meaning of articles is very difficult to define.D. In English. 181 . The conception of function words suggested by English grammarians seems extremely convincing. morphological variability. but a word. it should be qualified as a morpheme. we shall avoid most of the difficulties that linguists face in trying to describe pronouns and numerals by analogy with nouns.Three men will appear before Belfast magistrates today on charges of intimidation.D. adjectives. functions as an exponent of grammatical meaning. Vinogradov. M. and phonetic accentuation. A.g.'s standing 180 in logical connection with the noun woman is attached to the noun door. is one of the main points of difference between the so-called notional (or lexical) and structural (or function) words.

Kruisinga. that articles belong to empty words as j.I. was criticized. not under-manager any longer (J.S. Thus. Z. which can be occupied by one person at a time. Sometimes the whole situation is sufficient to show what is meant. on the one hand. Christophersen understands 'familiarity unfamiliarity' of the object which is spoken about. appoint. For instance. trying not to wake the baby (Longman Language Activator). it occurs with the definite article. while the so-called uncountable nouns are often registered with the indefinite article. The second is looked upon either as grammatically wrong or as having quite another meaning. Cf. four theories have been put forth.G. Incledon). 2. though there may be several sons and daughters in the family.G.S. e. Propp]. However. The person or thing becomes definite when spoken about for the second time. Khaimovich. Grimm.V. B.K.: Ken Livingstone was elected mayor of London in May 2000 (Longman Language Activator). articles are not lexical. 1. If a predicative noun denotes a post.. namely that some person. Jespersen. Cf: Man is mortal (A.g. 4. there would be no difference between The book was criticized.: She looked up at the sky (E.O. Mamonova think? M. The cat is sleeping (V.: It's a bad habit (L Updike). Sokolova]. Curme. Henderson is manager. are used exclusively in accordance with their respective lexical meanings. you do it. Rogovskaya].: Mr. Sergeyeva to the conclusion that it is neither the semantic character of the noun nor its syntactic function that predetermines the appearance of this or that article.The article is a means of expressing the meanings of 'definiteness . Cowie. e. If he tells you to do something. The difference of articles is based on the numerical principle [V. Vasilevskaya. N.L SteblinKamensky answers the question in the negative. Although articles lack the naming function. Gardiner and S. Hornby. but function words. Articles. Nick followed the woman up the flight of stairs (E.: There is a cat on the sofa. If articles were empty words.g. Wodehouse). P. if the countable noun in the singular used predicatively is modified by a limiting attribute. Wodehoase). E. Gimson). Ganshina.indefiniteness' [O.N.g. No article is used with singular predicative nouns after the verbs turn. e. e. A. Thus. The article is a means of distinguishing between the general and the particular [A. Krushelnitskaya]. Book by name.P.g.I. T. e. they are not devoid of meaning. 183 . commence. All this leads T. Articles serve the purpose of rendering grammatical meaning.C. then. 182 Does it mean. Dolgopolova. The predicative nouns son and daughter take the definite article when modified by an o/-phrase. e. Brace). predicatively countable nouns in the singular usually occur with the indefinite article. Lindsay).: The car -was going badly (D.The article is a means of realizing the meanings of given and new information [O. G. there are numerous exceptions from the rule. A woman came to the door. it becomes evident that there is no direct correspondence between the use of articles and the semantic nature of the noun. Moskalskaya. Hemingway). A cold fear had come upon her (P. countable nouns in the singular are sometimes used without any article. Nikitin. on the other. K.J.: He is the son of Father's best friend (P. Nevertheless. M. my engagement ring (Ph. in her opinion. because he's the boss (Longman Language Activator). and Book was criticized.I. Robins). elect. Evans).g. etc. The generally accepted is the theory of 'definiteness -indefiniteness'. ffe tiptoed out of the room.V. The first is qualified as a normal English sentence. The syntactic function of the noun does influence the choice of an article. As far as the grammatical meaning of articles is concerned.g.however. Smiraitsky. B. M.: This is the ring the Doctor gave me. The unique character of a person or thing also makes it definite. Cf. A. Under the terms 'definiteness indefiniteness'. either no article or the definite article is used. 3. A. But the two constructions are clearly not identical.

Cowie. Gimson). the numerical principle is easily applied only to countable nouns in the singular. the most convincing interpretation is put forth by A.P. Rodionov draws the conclusion that the grammatical meanings of classification and mdividualization are not the only meanings of English articles. The definite article serves to single out an object or several objects from all the other objects of the same class.by the indefinite article. the thematic noun phrase clean hand comprises the indefinite article. we do not use any article. the presence or absence of the incorporating class cannot be regarded as a differential feature of the indefinite and definite articles since it is present in both. Proceeding from the theory of 'defmiteness . but in the case of the indefinite article we have the incorporating class in view (eduHcmeenHocnib »a <pone OKpysicaioutezo e?. M. English articles.C. Hornby. in the sentenced clean hand wants no washing (Proverb). S. Propp. possess certain semantic 185 . denote 'oneness'. A. Sokolova. it is not so.J. He thinks that the difference between the articles is based on the numerical principle. Thus.g.rheme and the grammatical category of 'definiteness . The theme is usually marked off by the definite article. McCullers). Salinger). Rodionov is of opinion that the English article has both grammatical and semantic meanings. N. presupposes the presence of the incorporating class. the rheme . Krushelnitskaya. Ganshina. The indefinite article is used to refer a thing to a certain class and is therefore a classifying article.D. But if articles rendered only these grammatical meanings. That's why A. e. The numerical principle of V. Moskalskaya and K. or a mass noun. the communicative principle can be regarded only as a minor factor in the use of articles. A number of linguists. Both the definite and indefinite articles.J. Smirnitsky.S.indefmiteness'. Vasilevskaya and some other linguists who hold that the article is a means of distinguishing between the general (the indefinite article) and the particular (the definite article). When the numerical principle cannot be applied. Thus.The moon shone brightly (A.: An old woman is coming into the living room (V. Mamonova draws the attention of linguists to sentences of the type He has a mother. 'The definite article can be used before a count noun singular. Compare the following two definitions of the indefinite and definite articles given by English grammarians. Close]. Dolgopolova. we shall also fail to explain the use of the indefinite article with abstract nouns because the notion of indefmiteness is incompatible with their semantics. Z.A. According to T.indefmiteness'.I. As a result. However. Nikitin.P.indefmiteness' fail to account for all the cases.g.F.K. in their opinion. a count noun plural. However. Nouns often occur without any article. The classifying meaning of me indefinite article and the individualizing meaning of the definite article are also regarded by him as grammatical meanings.I. of a class of thing' [R. or to particular examples. point out quite rightly that the meanings of 'defmiteness .G.: He had a deep fear of death (C. The indefinite article singles out one member of a class of referents named by the noun5 [A Practical English Grammar]. however.F. Batanin who writes that there is no direct correspondence between the communicative division of the sentence into theme .V. every noun would have to be used with one of the two articles because all nouns either name or single something out. Paris is the capital of France (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). One of its chief functions is to indicate that the speaker is referring to a particular example. e. just like the indefinite article. But they do occur with the indefinite article. we side with V. according to him. The article. for the definite article. in his opinion. There was a short silence (J. A. where the indefinite article cannot have the meaning of indefiniteness. Evans). That's why the definite article is an individualizing article. the case of the definite article in the incorporating class is wholly disregarded (eduHcmeennocmb 6e3 184 eeo Mnowtecmea). M. serves the purpose of differentiating between the two main parts of the sentence: the theme that contains known or given information and the rheme that renders new information. Propp does not help us differentiate articles in Modern English. The founder of the third theory is V. A. So. What is more.o MHOOtcecmea).V. An original approach to the problem is suggested by O.

We shall look upon the English article as such a function word that possesses the grammatical meanings of classification and individualization and a semantic meaning connected with a more or less definite character of boundaries in the underlying notion. 1. both the definite and the indefinite articles have one grammatical meaning: the definite article . The question. Of course. but the whole species. the use of an article is usually a sign of the underlying object having quite definite boundaries (or form). etc. The indefinite article is assumed to have the following meanings. too. The dog has come home. e. is whether the article itself (definite or indefinite) has two distinct meanings.A. e.A. we see that the predicates in the two sentences belong to different types. on the other hand.A. i.: The rose is my favourite flower (R. An individualizing meaning.: She is a doctor (R. 'Do not state differences if this is not strictly necessary'. 1. The verb in the present perfect is most likely to express a concrete action. A generic meaning. the invariant. e. Ilyish. look for that element of its meaning which is always there and does not depend on any context. is guided by the principle. These grammatical points are supplemented by some lexical points. Ilyish). AH the registered modifications are predetermined by the context. or whether the meaning of the article is the same in the analyzed pairs of sentences. The next disputable problem is whether the grammatical meanings of classification and individualization are the only grammatical meanings of the indefinite and definite articles.g. The absence of an article.: The light in my study is poor (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). e. 186 187 . The majority of linguists think that both the definite and indefinite articles have several meanings. The definite article is assumed to have the following meanings.F. e.that of classification. The dog is a domestic animal (B.g. while the group 'copula in the present indefinite + predicative' is most likely to express some general characteristic. honesty. Rodionov seems rather convincing. testifies to a diffuse character of the boundaries or to the absence of any boundaries in the notion to be realized in the language. etc. horses. Ilyish). Ilyish compares the following sentences.A.A. 2. the principle amounts to this: whenever a word or a word form appears to have different meanings in different contexts.: This was the Major who so far had not spoken (J. Murphy). hi the first sentence. According to B. while in the second sentence the predicative a domestic animal denotes a zoological idea and thus proves that by the dog we mean not an individual dog.that of individualization. and the difference in meaning between them depends on some other factors. tigers.characteristics. The same can be said about the noun phrase a hill in the second pair of sentences. e. The first sentence. A hill is the opposite of a valley (B. The dog has come home (B.A. however.g. it is at once obvious that the dog in the sentence The dog has come home names an individual dog. Ilyish). Aldridge). There is a hill behind our house (B. the verb come and the adverb home denote a concrete physical action and the place to which it is directed. Robins).A generic meaning.g. the indefinite article .> B. the girl. As for the difference in meaning between the sentences The dog has come home and The dog is a domestic animal. has a compound nominal predicate with the copula be in the present indefinite. then.g. it proceeds from other sources. B.g.A. 3.: A blind man -would be glad to see (Proverb).: a table. A demonstrative meaning. First of all. <= Any blind man would be glad to see. Thus. So.e. In short. has a simple verbal predicate with the verb come in the present perfect. Ilyish. the grammatical meanings of classification and individualization seem to be the only grammatical meanings of the indefinite and definite articles. The conception of A. 2.: milk.g. Ilyish). Murphy). A numerical meaning. The dog is a domestic animal. whereas in the sentence The dog is a domestic animal it represents a class of dogs as distinct from a class of cats.: For a moment she did not know what to say (D. e. etc.g.A classifying meaning. e. the second sentence. 3.

A. Barkhudarov. Poutsma and O. to be more exact. Biber and his co-authors]. T. Shtelingj. They are characterized by a simple structure. the English article is monofunctional: it specifies the noun. However. Poutsma. Reiman. Quirk and his co-authors. 1. Number of Articles Three theories exist concerning the number of articles in Modern English. .There are two articles in English: definite and indefinite [H.N. Sergeyeva.There are four articles in English: definite. indefinite. a third variant is possible: There are ways of communication without language (Longman Language Activator). and zero [A. Obviously. Jespersen mention the following functions of the English article: classifying.F. Naturally.S. zero. which is obviously inadequate since there is not the slightest reason to believe that the article in such cases was ever omitted. Litvin. Sweet. According to E. O. Irtenyeva. in the opinion of E. indefinite. there are two material articles: the definite article the and the indefinite article a/an. L. etc. D. individualizing. R. N. Akhmanova. Reiman. H. Thus. Smirnitsky. the distinction is between a language and the language. Thus. Syntactic Characteristics Foreign linguists think that the English article is polyfunctional. and partitive [E.A. shades of their two main grammatical meanings of classification and individualization. F.A.S.A. The older grammatical tradition described it as 'omission of article'. H.There are three articles in English: definite. where the same noun language occurs without any article. constitute their respective meanings or.I. generic. Zvereva]. the question arises how this third variant is to be treated. 2. The concrete ways in which articles specify nouns.188 Morphological Characteristics English articles are invariable. 3. D.N.

A.: A thousand regrets but week-end off 'phoning you later. The. Sillitoe).: Lan takes letter from pocket and she almost snatches it (M. e. e. Following A. We got talking. 4) in telegrams. e. 2)in signs. Sergeyeva.That's why many linguists look upon the absence of article as a special kind of article. Robins).g. however.g. Key to the Door (A. Litvin] under the term 'zero article' understand any absence of article. The next question is what meaning the so-called zero article has. the zero article has a generalizing force devoid of any classification or individualization. Woman and I. Some grammarians [e. (D. on the one hand.g. articles are omitted in the following cases: 1) in newspaper headlines and book titles. Thus. and omission of article.: I met a Woman as I went walking. 6) in dictionaries. We got talking.g. Brand). e. T.: Judge refuses to drop charges against princess —* The judge refuses to drop the charges against the princess. F. 3)in stage remarks. Smirnitsky. Cf. 189 . Milne).: Post Office. According to T. I met a Puppy as I went walking.g.: Judge refuses to drop charges against princess (Reuters). the omission of an article is a question of conciseness of style. e. on the other. A. In all these cases.N.I. and the definite or indefinite article can easily be inserted without affecting the meaning.g. R. namely a zero article. majority of linguists. etc. are of opinion that we should differentiate between the zero article. We speak about the so-called omission of article when the article is not used where we naturally expect to find it in accordance with the rules. Puppy and I (A. Sergeyeva excludes all cases of stylistically preconditioned omission of articles from the notion of the zero article and qualifies the latter exclusively as 'meaningful absence of article'.N. 5) in poems for the sake of rhyme.

But we side with B.K. Please give me some milk (A. It is only declarative sentences that make direct statements. according to A.: Tell me the bad news first (S. Thus. 6) pragmatic syntax. Rodionov. 190 S Y N T A X Syntax is often regarded as the heart of grammar because the main function of language .K.g. 191 .syntax goes back to Antiquity.g. she comes to the conclusion that there are absolutely no grounds for saying that the material noun -water with the zero article expresses a more general meaning than the material noun liquid with the indefinite article. The only difference lies in the fact that the indefinite article usually combines with nouns realizing notions with clear-cut boundaries. So. E. Curme].C. Syntactic and logical categories are indeed closely interwoven. namely those quantifiers that specify a moderate quantity. A. First. the grammatical subject and predicate do not always correspond to the logical subject and predicate. .P. and the absence of a word cannot be regarded as a zero word. Zvereva singles out a fourth article in Modern English: the partitive article some. Syntax is a many-sided phenomenon. Grammatical classifications cannot be based only on semantic criteria.g. Both the indefinite and the zero articles commonly express non-specific reference [D. the idea of the zero article would be sound if the article were a morpheme.. some proposition or assertion.S. (Some logicians single out a third element in the structure of the proposition: a copula. In her opinion. Consequently. we are hardly justified in singling out a third.].: / need some money (R. the copula is included into the predicate. However. Dolgopolova is right: the so-cailed zero article is nothing but a grammatical variant of the indefinite article. where the grammatical subjects 7 and Charles realize the logical predicates.the communicative function . the so-called zero article does not have any specific grammatical meaning as opposed to the indefinite article. 2) psychological syntax. The indefinite article has two forms: positive and zero. the proposition is traditionally defined as a type of thought that comprises assertion or negation. Cowie. e. while the so-called zero article specifies nouns the underlying notions of which lack any definite form. A. 3) formal syntax. we never speak of zero prepositions. Biber et al. Really. The predicate is that which is said of the subject' [G. The following facts prove it unequivocally.: / know that and Charles knows that (E.). articles are not lexical. but function words. We side with English grammarians who exclude the partitive some from articles and refer it to a specific subgroup of determiners called quantifiers. all propositions have a binary structure: subject + predicate <cy&-beKm + npeduxam>.. The Stoics were the first to use the term 'syntax'. Ilyish who writes that even the notion of a zero function word seems very doubtful.Z. Second. can be represented as zeros. they can be not only two-member but also one-member. too.F. Sheldon). Z. it seems better to deny the existence of the zero article in English. Dolgopolova does not share this point of view. But. there can be no identity between them because they represent categories of two different branches of science. The logical school did not differentiate syntactic and logical categories. True. according to A. Gimson).' 'The subject is that which is spoken about. for example. 5) communicative syntax. . The following aspects of syntax can be singled out: 1) logical syntax.is a collection of words placed to communicate .N. 4) semantic syntax. But the English article is a word. is purely semantic. Besides. there are two articles in English: definite and indefinite. as a rule. Logical. Hort. 'A sentence.L Smirnitsky.J. while the grammatical predicates know and knows realize the logical subjects. Having analyzed sentences of the type Water is a liquid (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Hornby. As for sentences. e. This difference. Function words. Compare the following definitions of the sentence and its parts given by English grammarians. e. O'Connor).writes W. the question arises if we are justified in referring interrogative and imperative constructions to the class of sentences.A.is realized at the syntactic level. Logical syntax dominated in linguistics till the middle of the 19th century. Hence. Murphy). zero article. And finally. Little variation in the grammatical structure of English words is another reason why syntax forms the dominant element in a modern English grammar.

g. 'Open' coordination allows the occurrence of conjunctions before any component of the syntactic unit.: my husband. The relations between the components of syntactic units find their expression in different types of syntactic connection. in laughed and shouted and sang (W. Beloshapkova. Lewis). and the children. as a reaction against these shortcomings of logical syntax. 192 193 . In other words. e. That's why types of syntactic connection and language means of their expression constitute one of the problems that formal syntax tries to solve. 'Open' coordination unites any number of components and we can always add at least one more. e. Traditional syntax is formal because it focuses on a study of the structure of syntactic units. my home (R. Field). we are hardly justified in opposing them because. As we have already shown. and 3) interdependence (or correspondence). The term 'syntax' comes from Latin 'syntaxis' and earlier from Greek 'syn + tassein' which means 'together + arrange'. e. They declared that the sentence expresses not a logical.g. e.: It's too bad. 'Open' coordination can be both syndetic and asyndetic. 1. Cf: presidents and kings and movie stars (W. Paul.: and the women. coordination can be 'open' and 'closed'. there are three components. my family. TYPES OF SYNTACTIC CONNECTION Traditional grammar singles out 3 types of syntactic connection: 1) coordination. Maugham). there emerged psjcjtio logical syntax whose adherents denied any connection between syntax and logic. Gordon).In the second half of the 19th century.g.S. On the other hand. The psychological proposition is defined by them as a combination of a psychological subject and a psychological predicate connected into a unity by a wilful act of the speaker. in spite of being different.g. According to H. Maugham). syntactic and logical phenomena are cognate. MacDonald). The main contribution of the psychological school to linguistics consists in the fact that its representatives noticed an important detail: the absence of direct correspondence between sentence parts and the components of the psychological proposition. Maugham). the sentence and the proposition. and the animals (G.g. 2) subordination.S. Linguists in English-speaking countries did not develop the ideas of psychological syntax.: soft and low (H. Enumerative intonation plays an important role in joining the components of asyndetic syntactic units. e. 'Closed' coordination is always syndetic. The typical morphological way of expressing coordination is the conjunction 'and'. Saroyan).A.S.: nothing but a memory (W. for instance. According to V. The components of syntactic units stand in certain relations to one another.g. e. S. but a psychological proposition. moon or no moon (W. 'Open' coordination makes use of copulative and disjunctive conjunctions. 'Closed' coordination prefers adversative conjunctions. most syntactic units consist of several components. there are no grounds for identifying syntactic and logical phenomena. Coordination Coordination is such a device that links up elements of the same rank. m 'closed' coordination the conjunction always introduces the second component. but I can't do anything about it now (R. any sentence part can function as psychological subject and psychological predicate. but we can add a fourth: laughed and shouted and sang and danced 'Closed' coordination always unites two components.

the table near the door (if it is near the door).. neither in English nor in Russian can we use the verb 'be' (naxodumbcx) without this or that locative. we can draw a distinction between non-prepositional and 195 .: a long silence (H. Taken in isolation. and case with the following nouns. it is by no means predetermined. In free subordination. to be on the beach . Optional subordination is characterized by a much less rigid connection between the head and the adjunct. subordination falls under predetermined and free. however. Morphologically. but this combinability is optional.Subordination Subordination links up elements of different ranks which are called 'head' and 'adjunct'. Braithwaite). Thus. We find agreement in those cases where the head makes the adjunct take a similar morphological form. free subordination is often optional.those houses (R. ^epHbiuieBCKaa). where the adjective xopouiuu agrees in gender. the verb 'be' (naxodumbCfi) is structurally and semantically incomplete. number. using only the head noun bicycle. Cf. not obligatory. singular number. or: Harry. subordination is generally subdivided into agreement. the combinability of nouns with adjectives). For instance. Second. and long is an adjunct. Innes). Agreement refers to predetermined but optional subordination. caused an almost complete disappearance of agreement. so that now only the demonstrative pronouns this and that agree in number with their headwords. (L. On the one hand. Government falls under several types: prepositional and nonprepositional. gender). e.HaxoOTTbcs BO .: this house .R. that house . It is obligatory in the sense that without an adjunct the infinitival head loses its structural and semantic completeness. number and case with the following nouns.: Teach me (I.M. and adjoinment. xopotuee nnambe. Harry. to be in the yard. subordination can be predetermined but optional (for example. we can say: Wait. e.HaxOAHTtcs Ha niisBKe. Taking into consideration the way in which the components are joined together. Your father and I are going to buy you a nice bicycle soon (L. e. Murphy).g. your father and I 194 ore going to give you a bicycle next month .g. number.: xopoiuan no^o^a. etc. subordination can be obligatory and optional. to be on the beach.g. where the adjective mmocmnuu is in the prepositional case. verbal and nominal. The loss of inflections. to be in the yard . the head regularly combines with a certain adjunct. government. e. the table in the corner (if it is in the corner). However..: B mf&ocmnoM MO. Hill). In Old English.: to be in Moscow — HaxoaHTbca B MOCKBC. using an adjectivenoun word combination nice bicycle. There are several kinds of subordination. Thus. the noun head also predetermines the morphological categories of the modifying adjective (case. nevertheless. In inflected Russian. the head predetermines the form of the adjunct. Murphy).g. etc.wanuu (H. subordination can be obligatory but free (for example. strong and weak. Cf. is predetermined by the head.these houses (R.A. e. the noun head only fixes the place of the modifying adjective. Single word adjectives usually occur in preposition to the noun they modify. to be in Moscow). e. Cf. and neuter gender because the same categories are to be found in the head noun MoJivanue.: a long way (E. In analytical English. the adjunct does not reproduce the morphological categories of the head. the form of the adjunct is predetermined not by the head but by the semantics of the adjunct. Hill). For instance. nouns can combine with adjectives.: to be in Moscow. First. On the other hand. where silence is the head. In government.. Predetermined subordination is often obligatory.g. xopoiuuu nenoeeK. the two pairs of notions sometimes diverge.: the table at the window (if it is at the window). In the case of obligatory subordination. etc. Thus. Shaw). but its form. the English notional verb demands the use of the following personal pronoun in the objective case.asope. Tn predetermined subordination. adjectives also agreed in gender.g.A. However. Agreement is typical of Russian and other inflected languages. by the meaning of 'thingness' the noun is predisposed to combine with an adjective.

A. Wilhelm). e. Cf.verbal government. Their dependence finds its expression in meaning.: a strong woman (I. when an element is inserted between the other components of a syntactic unit.: an old man . K. However.: longpractice (J. Murphy).: I'm looking for Ann (R.: / asked her whom Mark had married (P. the form of its realization should not be disregarded either. Peshkovsky.: Whom did she go out to meet? . You know who I mean.). Innes). HepHbimeBCKaa). Weak government is structurally free and optional.verb transitive.R. L. Shaw). Braine). I don't like people who lose their tempers easily (M.S. e. Subordination realizes the following syntactic relations: 1) attributive (e. Christie). Gainham).M.g. It is widely spread in Russian.J. McCall). e. some linguists single out enclosure.g. Since the so-called weak government is structurally free and optional.verb intransitive). however.: Tell me (Miss Read).V. The majority of linguists.g. Thomas.prepositional government. don 'tyou? (Ch. who follows L.g.V. Thomas. e. the dependent component is joined to the head by means of a preposition. In addition to agreement. Braine). Adjoinment is such a device in which the components of syntactic units are joined without any change in the morphological forms. With regard to the structural and semantic necessity of the adjunct. 3) the use of the objective case of the relative pronoun who in the function of object or attribute. (The 196 distinction goes back to A. Greene). 3) adverbial (e. English makes a wide use of prepositional government.g. The use of the objective case of the interrogative and relative pronoun who should be qualified as variable government because of the rising tendency to use in the functions of object and attribute the nominative case form who instead of the objective case form whom. and function. Mukhin and a number of other linguists exclude it from the sphere of government. V.P. Non-prepositional government is achieved directly. The great whom he adored laughed at him (W. the sphere of non-prepositional government has narrowed to three cases: 1) the use of the objective case of personal pronouns after notional verbs in the function of object. e.: // suits them (S. regard enclosure as a subclass of adjoinment.M. government. Hobhouse). The morphological nature of the head gives us an opportunity to single out nominal and verbal government. 197 .: a man of the eighteenth century (St. adjoinment constitutes the most usual type of linking syntactic components. Wilhelm) .: left his table ~~ Th.g. Murphy). by which he understands strong government. ate them (Th. e. Cf: Who could she trust? (A. Swan). but communicatively very important. Vinogradov. The most widely known case of enclosure in English is the putting of a word between an article and the noun to which the article belongs. vi .M.g. Maugham). government is classified into strong and weak. Semantics does play an important role in government (no wonder mat government is reflected in dictionaries: vt .g.g. In analytical Modern English. without any prepositions. government and adjoinment.g. belongs to the lexical. Mukhin. K.You think she -went to meet someone? -Ido (A. Strong government is predetermined and obligatory. Scerba. Ellin).g. I belong to another world (O. word order. where the adjective strong is enclosed between the indefinite article and the noun woman.: Please listen carefully . in the opinion of A. Sillitoe) — nominal government. e. 2) objective (e. Since English is very poor in inflections. L. Henry). trembled slightly (H.g.: Key to the Door (A.g. and was often resorted to in Old English. e.: juo6uji demeu (H. e. 2) the use of the objective case of the interrogative pronoun who in the function of object in formal English. Non-prepositional government is characteristic of inflected languages. Read). In prepositional government. e.: She followed me upstairs (Gr. Adjoinment generally refers to free optional subordination.. Since prepositions constitute a characteristic feature of analytical languages. By the way.M. not the morphological or the syntactic level of the language.

g. e. Predication can be primary and secondary. a neighbor and a friend (J. Correspondence realizes predication. However. Absolute secondary predication is more independent: it modifies the primary predication as a whole.complex subject.Apposition Tradition says that subordination also realizes appositive syntactic relations.g. everything was closed (R. Maltz).g.complex nonprepositional object. Lewis). and situational modifiers do introduce an element of additional predication into the basic syntactic unit.g.: Charlie -watched her.S. Secondary predication is heterogeneous.K. Vorontsova singles out a third type of secondary predication . She heard him open the door (St. in our opinion.accumulation. London) -complex attribute. Isolation Correspondence (the term of L. Correspondence They were heard talking together (W. Cf. e. appositives. the predicate . third). Mansfield) . The boy stood aside for me to go by (J.: Last night. e. Loose attributes. non-real) and tense (present. Edward (K. There was need for him to be economical (J. Accumulation The representatives of the St. She waited for him to reply (Longman Essential Activator) -complex prepositional object.: / saw it in London (J. It is a fine summer morning . 3) loose situational modifiers. Primary predication forms a sentence because its components (the subject and the predicate) comprise explicit markers of the predicative categories of modality. Galsworthy) -complex adverbial. This view does not stand criticism for subordination presupposes dependence of one element on another and the components of apposition are logically equal because they have the same referent.: 198 G.: It was Margot. clearly distinct from subordination.sunny. One can differentiate between two types at least: bound secondary predication and absolute secondary predication.g. 2) loose appositives.complex predicative. e. Collins) .S. Heym) . Uncle Andrew Referent Apposition. we can hardly refer it to interdependence (or correspondence). To free secondary predication G. In predication. forms a specific type of syntactic connection. Petersburg linguistic school single out a fourth type of syntactic connection .: Uncle Andrew was very tall and very thin (C..the predicative categories of real modality and past tense.free secondary predication. This type of syntactic 'connection' should rather be called isolation (o6oco6jieHue}. the predicate saw . the verbal component says something of the nominal component. as the so-called free secondary predication lacks a nominal component of its own. Lardner). e. soft and stttl (J. Irving). future).N. e.g.the predicative categories of modality (real. The only thing to do is for you to whip him. It is usually called a complex part of the sentence. Vorontsova refers: 1) loose attributes. second.N. 199 . Barkhudarov) links up interdependent elements. Braine). Bound secondary predication forms a unit inside primary predication. Jerome). past. tense and person: the subject in Modern English usually renders the predicative category of person (first. where the subject / renders the predicative category of the first person. his face dark with hatred(A.

e. Parenthesis Somewhat apart from the above-mentioned types of syntactic connection stands parenthesis. reveals the amorphous nature of this type of syntactic connection.g. Nevertheless. insertions are not differentiated from parenthetic elements.: (to write) his friend a letter —> (to write) a letter to his friend. e. there seems to be no connection between the components in the combination 'his friend a letter'. at eight-thirty is a situational modifier of time. The prosodic criterion in speech and the punctuation criterion in writing. help us differentiate insertions and parenthetic elements. Cato) .: / leave home at eight-thirty (J. In speech. The traditional conception seems open to criticism.g. 1.The structural-semantic criterion: a considerable diversity of insertions versus the stereotyped nature of parenthetic elements. 3. But as parenthetic elements function only inside sentences. Ilyish]. 3) in combinations of objects and situational modifiers. A.Accumulation links up elements whose connection becomes evident only when we take into consideration a third element that does not make part of the group. and in the second place. accumulation can be found in the following cases: 1) in chains of prepositive attributes expressed by different parts of speech. medial. A distinction between these two types of parentheses is drawn in Russian linguistics. Perhaps. insertions are marked off by longer pauses than parenthetic elements. The term 'accumulation'. they cannot be said to have no connection at all with them [B. Cheever) . If we change their order. 3) insertions (ecmaeKu) giving additional information related to. Parenthetic elements are traditionally described as having no syntactic connection with the basic structure 200 of the sentence. Mukhin regards parenthesis as a specific type of syntactic connection that he calls 'introductory syntactic connection'. But the preceding verb 'to write' shows that they are syntactically connected: (to write) his friend a letter. according to Russian scholars.g. It is not subordination either as the components cannot be analyzed in terms of 'head' and 'adjunct'. e.her is a determiner. and final. lean't afford to (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). they are marked off by . Petersburg linguistic school. The type of syntactic connection with the basic syntactic unit of insertions still presents a debatable problem. 2) in combinations of semantically heterogeneous objects. e.. but not part of the main message comprised in the basic syntactic unit. On the sentence level. Gutcheon) . e. these nouns are syntactically connected because their position is fixed. 2) connective elements showing the connection of thoughts. it is interdependence? The answer is 'no'. e. The parenthetic nature of modal and connective elements is universally recognized.: In the first place.g.M.home is an object.: .g. In writing. Cf. a present is a non-personal object.: This is perhaps his finest novel yet (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).A. suggested by the St. we must change the form of one of them.). What type of syntactic connection is it? It is clearly not coordination because the components are not equal in rank and cannot be joined by means of the conjunction and. For instance. Parenthetic elements are really never integrated into sentences in the sense that they could be omitted without affecting the structure of the sentences or their meaning. In Western European and American linguistics.him is a personal object. while parenthetic elements can occur in any of the following positions: initial.. The following criteria.: One of the first to make it in modern times (some Greeks had known it long before) was Leonardi da Vinci (Biber et al. Parenthesis introduces the following elements into the structure of the basic syntactic unit: 1) modal elements showing the speaker's attitude to the thought expressed in the basic syntactic unit.The criterion of position: insertions cannot be used at the beginning of the basic syntactic unit. to write a letter. 2. for each noun can function without the other.g.: / brought him a present (B. Cf: to write his friend. and then to her own surprise she burst into tears (N. I don't want to go. own is an adjective.

201 .

. Christie). such as Russian.: now. But there is nothing magical in the number 'seven'. are introduced into the sentence by means of parenthesis. 203 . word forms (cnoeoi^opMU\ word combinations. devote special sections to a study of the syntax of word forms.Thank you.g.M. E. Those phatic elements that do not form a separate sense-group and are pronounced in the same way as the unstressed syllables of the preceding sense-group.: Let us know if there's anything we can do.: We'll see if Mary Drawer (that's the niece) can give us any help (A. 5)accumulation.: Cream and sugar? — Cream. Novoseletskaya draws a distinction between three kinds of insertions: informative. WORD AND WORD FORM The word is essentially a lexical unit. Viney). 1) the source of the given information. in our opinion. 202 Parenthetic phatic elements usually occur in the middle or final position. All these arguments sound rather convincing. etc. . 4. our experienced officer was now of opinion that the thief (he was wise enough not to name poor Penelope whatever he might privately think of her!) had been acting in concert with the Indians . and 3) nonverbal components of the text: graphs.g.. for example. Collins). keep up and terminate the verbal act of communication.: .g. To sum up. Church. Seven types of syntactic connection can be singled out: 1)coordination. Informative insertions create a secondary information plane in regard to the main information comprised in the basic syntactic unit. -> Thank you. 2)subordination. auxiliary. clauses. Phatic elements serving to establish. A. interjections. it is a variety of parenthesis because just like parenthetic elements. The word form is essentially a morphological unit. Grammars of inflected languages. but they provide no answer to the question: What type of syntactic connection are insertions introduced into the basic syntactic unit by? In our view. The communicative function of language is realized on the syntactic level. 2) the part of the paper where the information is given. The syntactic aspect of words and word forms manifests itself in their ability to combine with other words and word forms.g. Modal insertions express the speaker's attitude to the information comprised in the basic syntactic unit. It is a word in this or that grammatical form. e. 4)interdependence (or correspondence). (W. Those phatic elements that form a separate sense-group and possess an independent intonation pattern are introduced into the sentence by means of accumulation and can be used in an absolute position.g. I'll do that (N. e. and 'communicatives' 2. e.. That's why syntax studies language units that are used in the process of communication and their constituent parts. Auxiliary insertions are typical of scientific texts. they contain reference to. tables.punctuation marks of strong separation: parentheses and dashes while parenthetic elements are marked off by punctuation marks of less strong separation — commas. e. I'll do that. e. and modal. HODKOM. 3)apposition. 7)parenthesis. Since Modern English is very poor in word forms. that illustrate the given information. 6)isolation. while parenthetic elements are never rhematic. As a rule. and formulas of etiquette are heterogeneous. Linguists are free to make any modifications in the suggested classification that they think necessary. They are words. insertions are never integrated into the structure of the basic syntactic unit.g. The communicative criterion: insertions can function as the rheme or part of the rheme in the basic syntactic unit.1) (J. please (P. e. direct address. Irvine). Moss).: The relative stability is even more pronounced in the heavy nuclei (see Table 2.. diagrams.

e. which is not equivalent either to Catherine or to blushed. the tone of grammatical discussion became more scholarly. while the words cold and terribly are subordinate to it. Jespersen's junction corresponds to subordination. In a nexus.: Catherine blushed (E. Endocentric combinations include subordinate and coordinate groups of words. True. He won't take you with him (St. forms only part of a sentence. At the beginning of the 20th century. something new is added to the conception contained in the primary. and the word cold is defined by the word terribly.: The warmest season .g. *He won't take you with. —*• He listened to the six o 'clock news.: I hear the dog bark (O. we have three ranks: the word weather is primary. Jespersen).: He a nd hi s wi fe li st e n e d t o th e s ix o ' cl o c k n e ws (A.g.g.. Although O. Cf: Poor Maggie sat down again. L. O. In other words. In endocentric word combinations.summer (O. A dependent nexus. according to L. In a junction. The word weather is defined by the word cold. WORD COMBINATION Word Combination in Russian and Foreign Linguistics The theory of word combination in Russian linguistics has a long tradition. The word weather is grammatically most important. i. Eliot). No corresponding theory is distinguished in Western European or American linguistics. Jespersen discusses only word groups formed by combinations of primaries with secondaries.. Lowth. e. O. Bloomfield's definition cannot be considered a happy one.English grammarians do not regard a word form as a specific syntactic unit. exocentric combinations include predicative and prepositional groups of words. going back to the 18 century. However. where the component Maggie can stand for the whole word combination poor Maggie. His wife listened to the six o 'clock news. where both components he and his wife can stand for the whole group he and his wife. for defining a word combination as a free form which consists of two or more free forms..g. Or: he and his wife. According to O. As you see. 3. both endocentric and exocentric combinations comprise heterogeneous phenomena. in his opinion. e. Jespersen). The dog barks (O. he lumps together predicative and non-predicative combinations of words. Thus.. the joining of the two elements is so close that it is often substituted by a separate word. Analyzing the example terribly cold weather.junction and nexus. (G. In traditional grammar. the term 'phrase' goes as far back as the 18* century when it was used by R. Bloomfield. Hemingway). Jespersen draws a distinction between different levels of subordination and clearly opposes subordination and predication. However. O. Hornby). Jespersen). and the word terribly is tertiary. Here we have: 1) predicative combinations. O. Cf. This drawback is overcome by L. Bloomfield. Exocentric word combinations unite such components neither of which can stand for the whole word combination.g. the attention of early English grammarians was chiefly focused upon the description of the grammatical devices of joining words. when it gives a complete bit of information. He distinguishes two main types of combinations in which a secondary is joined to a primary .e.g. He considers a nexus to be independent when it forms a whole sentence.: poor Maggie. nexus designates predicative relations. Jespersen. e. Jespersen introduced the theory of three ranks that concerns the mutual relations of words in word combinations. 2) prepositional combinations. nexus falls into two subtypes: independent and dependent. at least one of the components (or both) has a function coinciding with the function of the word combination as a whole.. as is evident from his classification of word combinations into endocentric and exocentric. e. —» Maggie sat down again. We cannot say: *He won't take you him. Jespersen states that the words are not on the same footing.S. 205 204 . he fails to define the word combination. where we cannot omit either the preposition with or the pronoun him. the word cold is secondary. e. Minot).

Y. I .L. Sirotinina. according to A. However. on the contrary. Hornby). the existence of one-word sentences is not the most important argument against restricting the sphere of syntax to word combinations.e. analytical in particular. Words That Form Word Combinations Another debatable problem is what language units can build up a word combination. Peshkovsky. coordination. 2)the word combination is the only unit of syntax. V a s i l e v s k a ya . A.M. we think that the term 'word combination' can be applied only to such groups of words that contain at least two notional words forming a semantic and a grammatical whole. Fortunatov and A. Nowadays.M. a predicative group of words. Peshkovsky looks upon them as a specific kind of word combination. And they must be distinguished because they are different: the word combination represents a naming unit of language [V. Kaushanskaya and her co-authors are of opinion that syntax deals with sentences only. N. e. L. Following the majority of Russian linguists. and subordination. Blokh]. and a word combination. Vinogradov. We regard the word combination as one of syntactic units.F.Y. syntax studies nothing but sentences. Crystal writes.P. i. Ivanova. The exclusion of word combinations from the sphere of syntax. Combinations with prepositions do play an important role in all languages. accumulation. F. The main drawback of the conception lies in the fact that it does not differentiate between the word combination and the sentence. etc. 'A phrase is a syntactic construction which typically contains more than one word. V. apposition. 3)the word combination is one of syntactic units. M.N. Crystal]. Skrebnev]. I. and predication consists in saying something about . Hence. which is theoretically wrong.N. B us l a e v. A sentence is based on predication. including the group 'preposition + noun* [S. If the word combination were the only syntactic unit. F. the sentence is a means of communication [O. Vorontsova]. Smirnitsky. The question arises if all these syntactic relations build up word combinations. But the essence of the word combination consists in the adjunct narrowing the notion rendered by the head. Jespersen. causes a disregard of the rules of joining words that exist irrespective of the fact whether a word combination makes part of a sentence or not. M .' Most Russian linguists postulate a separate existence of 'sentence' and 'word combination' because they serve different purposes. O. Western linguists of the past made no distinction between a sentence.Linguistic Status of Word Combination It is not settled yet whether the word combination is a specific unit of syntax. Shvedova.L. Y. lofik. things have changed. syntactically. G a n s h i n a a n d N . Zhigadlo. and phonetically weak. books English books Prepositions as function words cannot narrow the notion comprised in the following noun or noun equivalent because they are semantically. they should be excluded from the sphere of word combination [V.V. alongside of words. G. D. Greenbaum. Three interpretations have been put forth: 1) the word combination is not a specific unit of syntax.S. Gardiner. sentences. D.I. but which lacks the subject-predicate structure usually found in a clause. it would not be clear how to treat one-word sentences.B. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. A.M. Syntactic Relations That Build Up Word Combinations Two or more notional words can be joined by means of predication.g. Most foreign linguists think that a word combination is a unity of any words. are of opinion that the word combination is the only syntactic unit.: English books (A.

206 207 .

O. Tvanova and L.g... Qualifying apposition as a kind of attribute [H. Beloshapkova].g. Peshkovsky has drawn the attention of linguists to numerous difficulties in finding the apposition and the element to which it is apposed. It is the name of a situation. Kruisinga.g. each component of a coordinate group of words renders a new. I.: Uncle Jack (O. we can say: The boy was lying in bed. V..S. The problem of coordinate groups of words is controversial.N. e. for the sentence is also a kind of name.. M. Vinogradov. Neither do we recognize the existence of appositive word combinations. Saprykina is right: the differentiation of the head and adjunct in appositive groups of words is impossible because both components are logically equal: they give different names to one and the same person or thing. instead of saying: The little boy was tying in bed (K. However.. It is employed for naming things qualities. in words and word combinations). V. *The little was lying in bed. Wilde).A. saying that even if such groups as men and women could be referred to word combinations.. [See on this point: V. syntactic tradition proceeds from the assumption that it is always easy to draw a line of demarcation between the head and the adjunct.L.L..S.. Gak. accumulation unites independent notions that are heterogeneous.G. Just like coordination. some linguists [V. Vasilevskaya think that the apposition is constituted by the proper noun. True.N.Y. Sweet. I.P. T. Zhigadio.: English books (A. but serves the purpose of narrowing the notion of the following head boy. does not form a word combination either. There is no denying the fact that every level of language structure contributes to the creation of naming units. Barkhudarov. but homogeneous notion. V. Filitcheva]. actions. L.g.N. into the bargain.. Cf.. Only groups of words based on subordination can be regarded as word combinations because only subordination unites notional words into a semantic and grammatical whole. I.: Uncle Jack (O. Really. as opposed to word combinations proper..V. with the head boy representing the subordinate word combination little boy. Ganshina and N. Tulina] say that the naming function does not differentiate the word combination and the sentence. Already A. N. linguists single out coordinate groups of words into a special type of word combinations [H. L.A.P. The semantic integrity leads to the grammatical consolidation of the components of a subordinate word combination as a result of which it is only the head that can substitute the whole word combination.M. e. The second variant. lofik. Yartseva leaves the question open. too. Sweet. etc. with the adjunct little standing for the subordinate word combination little boy is out of the question because it fails to render any independent notion.B. A word combination has no such aim...something so that its purpose is communicative. one should bear in mind their specific nature. Thus. and the adjunct narrows it. Hornby). in our opinion..by the common noun. Zhigadio... Accumulation. And even nowadays linguists are still at variance as to the right answer to this question. it is rather rare the case. But in some language units the naming function is primary (e. lofik . in sentences). V. Sirotinina]. That's why we exclude coordinate groups of words from word combinations. E. Mansfield).. The semantic integrity of a subordinate word combination manifests itself in the fact that its components render one notion: the head names it.G. Ivanova. books English books 1 But: books and notebooks --and. in others — it is secondary (e. Traditionally. 209 208 . For instance..Wilde).

Cf.g. Monsarrat). Here one distinguishes attributive word combinations.: (Toby) shook his head (S.g. the components retain their original lexical meaning. In phraseologically bound word combinations. too. e.g.g. (It's got) a sort of greenish blue roof(D. Reeve).g. verb-noun word combinations.: something nice (BBC London Course). Gilbert).: sold cats (L-E. and word combinations with qualitative adverbials. Barkhudarov.: ran swiftly (W. The first morphological classification was suggested by B. e. Blyton). Nowadays. 2)verb word combinations.: saw him (E. In the third place. e. Wilde). e.g. Semantically. 5)pronoun word combinations.: (There was) a long pause (S. Sheldon). a square meal ~ a meal which offers enough good food to satisfy one. etc.g. Sheldon).g. one or both components weaken or lose their original lexical meaning. According to L. Hare). distinguishes: 1)noun word combinations. e.: nice apples (BBC London Course). Sheldon). e.. e. e. Morphologically.: a private cigarette case (O.: terribly cold weather (O. word combinations are classified into free and phraseologically bound.: wanted money (M. where the adjunct cold is expanded by means of terribly. The term 'valency' was originally used in chemistry for the combinatory potential of atoms. He singled out noun and verb word combinations.g.. one speaks of noun-adjective word combinations. (but I'm) capable of making my own decisions (S. But in speech triple.g. e. Jonson's morphological classification is being elaborated nowadays.g. Phraseologically bound word combinations cannot be freely made up in speech.Valency The valency of the head determines the occurrence of this or that adjunct. Faulkner). quadruple and more complex patterns of word combinations are sometimes found. word combinations are classified according to the syntactic relations between the head and the adjunct. e.: an old man (C. only verbs possess valency characteristics. Although the head in a word combination can be expressed practically by any notional part of speech. Wilde). word combinations are classified according to the number of their components into simple and complex. Adjectives and nouns possess valency characteristics. In the fourth place. Classifications of Word Combinations Word combinations are classified according to different criteria. In free word combinations. D. They are reproduced in speech as ready-made units which are semantically and functionally closer to words than to word combinations. too. The French linguist L. Davy).g. a rainy day -~ a time of financial hardship.: told me (A. Jonson in the 17 century. The part-of-speech nature of the adjunct should be taken into consideration. it is only noun and verb word combinations that are characterized by a high frequency of occurrence. Free word combinations are made up in speech for each given occasion. e.: . Tesniere introduced it into linguistics. e. Simple word combinations always comprise two components: the head and an adjunct. linguists have come to the conclusion that valency is not restricted to verbs. L.S. for instance.: perfectly well (O. Ayckbourn). e. 210 B. The binary pattern constitutes the language model of word combination.g.: a lame duck ~ a person or enterprise that is not a success and has to be helped. Jespersen). Sometimes the word combination as a whole is expanded. Wilde). In this case. word combinations are classified in accordance with the part-of-speech nature of the head. Crystal. e.g.g. objective word combinations. e. which is generally the result of the head or adjunct expansion in the sentence. 3)adjective word combinations.: rich people (N.g. 4)adverb word combinations. e. Temporal and causal syntactic 211 . Tesniere.: perfectly delightful (O.

Jespersen). word form.past tense. the place of an adjunct in word combinations with adjoinment is more free. In the sixth place.: / want to talk to you (M. e.: on account of her pride <= because she was proud> (O. The indicative mood renders the meaning of real modality. 212 .A.g. e. tense (in the case of real modality). Leacock). Irving). In the fifth place. there are two types of objective modality: real and non-real. To render the predicative categories of modality. Predication is realized in the grammatical categories of objective modality. The predicative category of person (first. There's not a soul in sight (W. A clause is a potentially predicative syntactic unit. Word combinations based on agreement and strong government are generally predetermined.g.g. The imperative mood and the conjunctive mood realize the meaning of non-real modality. Zolotova. word combinations based on agreement and adjoinment are mostly optional. tense. Word combinations based on strong government are usually obligatory.present tense. Jespersen rightly points out. common to the class of things [E. Jespersen). Krivchenko]. I'm waiting. According to G. Word Order in Word Combinations Each type of word combination is characterized by a specific word order. 7 saw the King's arrival (O. and person [V. Gutcheon) . Jespersen). Preposition of the adjunct is typical of word combinations with agreement and the adjoinment of attributes. although. it serves as a lexical exponent of the predicative category of person. and word combination are potentially non-predicative syntactic units. word combinations are classified according to the predetermined or free nature of the adjunct. Mrs. VinogradovJ. Cronin). third) finds its expression either in the inflection of the verbal component (e. most English clauses contain a subject and a predicate.future tense. The violation of the word order in word combinations takes place only in sentences for the sake of increasing or decreasing the communicative value of one of its components. He lit the gas and sat down (Th. ESSENCE OF PREDICATION The essence of predication consists in establishing the relationship between the content of the clause and reality. In the case of real modality.g. they serve as onomaseological exponents of the third person.: He paused a moment (St. postposition of the adjunct is found in word combinations with government. Since the predicative category of person in analytical English generally finds its expression not in the verbal. I'll call you tomorrow (B.: Shut the door! (J. 4.I. The predicative categories of objective modality and tense find their expression in the verbal component of predication. too[A. and (sometimes) person. When the nominal component is expressed by a noun or a pronoun that does not distinguish persons. Smirnitsky]. Dreiser) . the predicate must always contain a finite form 213 The word. the inflection -s signals the third person singular in the present indefinite) or in the nominal component. / would have seen him. for they do not build up an integral whole with the head and should be regarded as parts of sentences rather than of word combinations. as O. word combinations based on weak government and adjoinment are generally free. e. tense characteristics are relevant. Page (A. Cf. word combinations are classified according to the obligatory or optional occurrence of the adjunct. nouns in themselves sometimes contain elements of predication. Brand) . Faulkner). but in the nominal component.V. When the nominal component is expressed by a personal pronoun.relations are not characteristic of the word combination. Objective modality is expressed by means of the category of mood. The dog's barking was heard all over the place (O. second.

g. C.: Did you see those two women who just went into the hotel? (A. The complementizer that is characterized by a higher frequency of occurrence than the complementizer who. Morphological Classification The authors of the morphological classification identify finite dependent clauses with parts of speech. object.A. Christie) . e. performs the functions of subject.). e. Syntactic Classification The authors of the syntactic classification are guided by the syntactic function that finite dependent clauses perform in the matrix clause. and object typical of nouns. 5) structural-semantic. The dummy subject it is usually used in the ordinary subject position. He had known that she would refuse (A. 5.subject predicative clause. Cf: What is done by night appears by day (Proverb) . The traditional term for a matrix clause is a main clause.object clause. attribute.g.g. subject predicative. A finite dependent clause is a clause that is embedded in a larger structure as a clause element or as part of a clause element. speaks of noun clauses. That's why English grammarians call subject-predicate clauses finite clauses. subject predicative. Subject.: When I woke I looked around (E. However. Lewis) . The syntactic principle was first suggested by F. Finite dependent clauses possess predication. Sheldon) .after the copular verb in the matrix clause. (A matrix clause is a clause that a dependent clause is inserted into. I don't know what came over me (S. performs the function of an adverbial typical of adverbs. An adverb clause does the work of an adverb.e.: 215 . it is widely used. does the work of a noun. 4) functional. There are two major structural types of finite complement clauses: thai-clauses and w/io-clauses. In traditional grammar. i. Cf. too.subject predicative clause. S. Finite dependent clauses function in the matrix clause as subject. Christie). subject predicative clauses . The great thing is that we are enjoying ourselves (A. Different classifications of finite dependent clauses have been put forth: 1) morphological. finite dependent clauses are called subordinate clauses. and adverb clauses. i.subject clause. This classification has been current for over a hundred years all over the world. FINITE DEPENDENT CLAUSES Finite clauses can be dependent and independent. Hemingway). cannot be regarded as sufficient grounds for classifying finite dependent clauses according to parts of speech. Buslaev. i.E. The position of complement clauses in analytical English is predetermined grammatically: subject complement clauses . 2) syntactic.e.I. subject predicative. Eckersley. An adjective clause does the work of an adjective. in actual use subject complement clauses rarely occur in the pre-predicate position.e. object complement clauses .subject clause. e.of the verb. for instance. and adverbial.before the predicate-verb.object clause. But this kind of similarity.: What I gave you now will bring joy (C. Nowadays. and the subject complement clause is moved outside its normal position. either lexical or copular.S. A noun finite dependent clause. One can never understand the essence of a predicative construction through a non-predicative phenomenon. adjective clauses. 3) formal. in the opinion of B. As for parts of speech. Chopin) . Finite dependent clauses and parts of speech resemble each other functionally. and object clauses are often called eompjement clauses because they are used to complete the meaning relationship of a verb. they 214 are non-predicative units. Greenbaum calls it a host clause. Ilyish. performs the function of an attribute typical of adjectives. The effect is said to be one of extraposition. Cronin) . This is what I call living (K.after the predicateverb. in his opinion.

Maugham). e. the in combination with adjectives in the comparative degree.. e. until. Comparison Clauses. He seems to make friends wherever he goes (Longman Language Activator).What you say doesn't matter (D.g. Purpose Clauses. e. The most common temporal subordinators are after.: Do as I say (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Close). and when. 4dye?'feial. Normally.g. Manner Clauses. e. They refer to the manner of the action expressed by the verb. 217 . Swan). 8.: Johnny Brooklyn was my friend because we had been brought up together (W.: The harder he worked. 10. Jones). e. The most common result subordinators are 50 and so that (the second is more formal). They show whether the situation in the matrix clause occurred before that of the temporal clause. An object complement clause can also occur in extraposition after the dummy object it. and since. The most common reason subordinators are because. or at a later time.: She's studying English at night school so that she can go to university (Longman Language Activator).: He is not as old as me (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Concessive Clauses. Greene). The most common concessive subordinators are though and although. They state the condition that is necessary for the realization of the action expressed in the matrix clause. Saroyan).c!ause. 3. / think it important that we should keep calm (M. Temporal Clauses. 4. 9. He sold it in order that he might live more comfortably (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). as. Crystal). so (that) the garden soon looked beautiful (R. The most common conditional subordinators are //(positive condition) and unless (negative condition: 'if not').: We planted many shrubs. 6.The subject clause is in its common initial position. The most common place subordinators are where and wherever. 5. Adverbial clauses are regularly marked by a subordinator indicating their semantic relationship to the matrix clause. They express such notions as reason (reason is something which explains or excuses an action) and cause (cause is something which produces a result) for what is conveyed in the matrix clause. They cannot normally be left out without injuring the structure of the matrix clause.: George made it clear that he disagreed (M. e. it still runs very well (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). before. . They also involve comparison. They involve a comparison with what is conveyed in the matrix clause. The most common manner subordinator is as. .: 216 Although my car is very old. e.g.g. Their freedom of movement is limited (apart from extraposition).: He looked up when I came (G. the happier he felt (R.g.: If you -wait a minute I will light a match (W. Swan). Result Clauses. They state the purpose of the action expressed in the matrix clause. They refer to a situation that is or was the result of the situation described in the matrix clause. They indicate that the situation in the matrix clause is unexpected in view of what is said in the concessive clause. Quirk et al).g. Greene).A. The following semantic types of adverbial clauses are generally singled out.The subject clause is in extraposition. 1. The most common comparison subordinators are as and than.S.: You may park your car where there is a parking sign (R. at the same time. They refer to position or direction. The most common purpose subordinators are so that and in order that (the second is more formal). The most common proportion subordinators are as and the fronted correlative the . Complement clauses are closely integrated with the matrix clause in which they are embedded.g. Crystal). You 're younger than Iam(G. Reason Clauses. 2.g. e. this only happens when there is an adjective connected with the dummy object it. are mostly optional and have some freedom of positioning: both initial and final placement are common. 7. Place Clauses. e. since. e.). e. You won't get back unless you start now (G. Quirk et al.g. Conditional Clauses.g.s. It doesn 't matter what you say (D.. Proportion Clauses.g.

The relativizer whom is necessary only after a preposition. it is much more common to put prepositions at the end and to leave out the relativizer. it was not the photo that was upsetting. SmithPerkins).g. which takes only two hours to get there. the relative clause just refers to this noun.. Perkins. who is a lawyer (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). and relative adverbs - where. e.: It wasn't the Charlie he had known . e. that. since they are identified uniquely. which takes three (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).g.: The people with whom he worked regarded him as eccentric (M. A distinction is drawn between nominal and sentential relative clauses. Antecedents expressed by common nouns can take both restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses. which upset me (M. Restrictive relative clauses may also be introduced by who and •which. In non-restrictive clauses. In the first case. e. whom. For instance. especially in a conversational style. the relativizer whom is used in a formal style.: / discussed if with my brother. At the second stage. and the relative clause who wants to buy your car just gives additional information about her. At the first stage. In such cases. why). fffc-relative pronouns. but the fact that somebody tore it up. is quicker than the bus.g. are the most often used relativizers with non-restrictive clauses. Swan). however.g. The classification of relative clauses goes through two stages. Cf. e. Restrictive and non-restrictive clauses differ in a number of respects: the type of antecedent.g.: This is Mr. Who usually occurs with animate head nouns. (C.: I've lost the bananas I bought this morning (M.g. Wood). e. The relativizer may be omitted from restrictive clauses if it is not the subject of the clause.: The people he worked with thought that he was a bit strange (M. In conversational English. Smith-Perkins. Swan). English scholars usually call them relative clauses. relative clauses are classified into restrictive (defining) and non-restrictive (non-defining) in accordance with the meaning intended by the speaker or writer. e. The whole matrix clause He tore up my photo is the antecedent of the relative clause which upset me.: There's the man (that) we met in the pub last night (M. 219 . the relative clause who wants to buy your car tells us which woman is meant A non-restrictive relative clause does not identify the antecedent but gives additional information about it. For instance. The reiativizer whom in restrictive clauses is unusual: we either leave it out or use that instead. Clauses. who wants to buy your car (M.: He showed me a photo that upset me (M Swan). The antecedent of a nominal relative clause is a noun or noun phrase in the preceding matrix clause. when. He tore up my photo. intonation and punctuation characteristics. in I've just met that Mrs. Cf. whose. The antecedent of a sentential relative clause is the whole preceding matrix clause. Did you see the letter which came today? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Swan). Swan) the identity of the woman is already known (Mrs. it was the photo that was upsetting. Swan).g. who. Swan). Swan). it is usual to speak of an potential relativizer.g. etc. e. They combine with restrictive relative clauses only when some kind of specification is needed. restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses make use of different relativizers.: A postman is a man who delivers letters (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). e. In the second case. whom you met at the sales conference (M. But they are often substituted by that. In the second place.. A restrictive relative clause identifies the antecedent.Attributive. Swan). Proper nouns are generally not modified restrictively. (Relativizers are relative pronouns — which. which . relative clauses are classified according to the nature of their antecedent. such as which and who. Swan).with inanimate head nouns. the choice of relativizers. in Is that the woman who wants to buy your car? (M. The train.: I've lost the bananas that I bought this morning (M.

Cf.M. Swan) -non-restrictive clause.g. Thus.. finite dependent clauses possess predication. they are often separated from the matrix clause by pauses or intonation changes in speech and by commas in writing. This is Felicity. Relative clauses with the head noun time are often used with a potential relativizer. non-restrictive relative.asyndetic. As for non-restrictive clauses. asyndetic finite dependent clauses are introduced by potential subordinators. The relativizer where is generally used after place head nouns. restrictive and non-restrictive clauses possess different phonetic and punctuation characteristics. Object clauses and restrictive relative clauses whose subordinator is not the subject of tiie clause can be both syndetic and asyndetic. it does bring about a certain change in its meaning: it becomes less informative. As opposed to parts of simple independent clauses. Formal Classification The authors of the formal classification take into consideration the way in which finite dependent clauses are joined to matrix clauses. The relativizers where. e. Swan). whose depth has never been measured (M. subject predicative. sentential relative clauses are always non-restrictive. Cf. and adverbial. in writing. head nouns.after time head nouns. e. In a formal style. The fourth point of difference concerns the nature of their structural integration with the matrix clause. sometimes abstract. in conversational English . Nominal relative clauses can be restrictive and nonrestrictive. when. Although the omission of non-restrictive clauses leaves the matrix clause structurally complete. That's why they express our thoughts in a more complete. Non-restrictive clauses are not structurally integrated with the matrix clause and can easily be left out. restrictive relative when the subordinator performs the function of the subject in the clause. its quality. they are not identical with them. Syndetic finite dependent clauses are introduced by explicit subordinates. but they usually occur at the head of restrictive clauses. the relativizer when . 220 Restrictive clauses are not usually separated from the matrix clause in any way. the relativizer why. a more detailed manner. A member of a simple independent clause is like a picture. there is no pause.: That's the man whose house was burned down (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) .restrictive clause. That summer marked the time when their carefree childhood really ended (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). It was a meeting whose importance I did not realize at the time (M. It's time they paid the money back (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). 221 . You say that every time you come in this door (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).In speech. The relativizer whose introduces both restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses. You are the reason why I left school (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). The following finite dependent clauses are usually syndetic: subject.The relativizer whose is typically used to mark a possessive relationship between a human head noun and some other noun phrase.: When I looked through the window I saw a girl whose beauty took my breath away (M. But sometimes the relativizer whose can be used to mark other genitive relationships with completely inanimate. A.: In Wasdale there is a mysterious dark lake. Swan). Cf: By the_tirrie you receive the letter 1 will be on my way home (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). A finite dependent clause is like a drama or process. It presents everything in its development. whose sister you met last week (M. In the third place.: This is the buildins where I work (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). commas are not • used. Peshkovsky draws a distinction between syndetic and asyndetic finite dependent clauses.g. Restrictive clauses are closely integrated with the matrix clause in which they are embedded and cannot be left out. Although finite dependent clauses are functionally similar to parts of simple independent clauses. or action. they are usually syndetic. Swan). and -why can also introduce both restrictive and non-restrictive clauses. it merely names this or that phenomenon.after the head noun reason.

g.: He did not finish what he was going to say (W. Svartvik and many others].S. non-finite dependent clauses can be constructed without a nominal component. As a result. e. etc. if.S. when it is expressed by a personal 223 . to declarative R. dependent clauses can be not only finite but also non-finite [R. but structural because it is based on the structural peculiarities of the clauses under examination.: I wish I could get a word with him alone (C. are built on the same model as declarative clauses but are introduced by one of the wfc-words that are used to form questions.Functional Classification R. Vorontsova. The Gerund. The man who answered the door was not sure whether Miss Verinder was at home or not (W. Once she arrives. E. it can have a dependent form. Lewis). comparative clauses. -whether. He was as old as I am (H. / don't know iff can help you (M. or gerund.: What was he going to say?> The thing that raises doubts here is that R. unless. The connection of optional dependent clauses with the matrix clause is rather loose. <Cf. finite dependent clauses can be classified according to the degree of their semantic and structural integration into the matrix clause. This criterion allows to draw a distinction between two types of clauses: obligatory and optional. like Participle I. G. Close. J. I kept smiling (M. Long includes into this group also clauses with though.A. As a matter of fact. In contrast.: Even though 1 didn't understand a -word. we call the nominal component in non-finite clauses not a subject. the verb is non-finite: an infinitive. As for the nominal component in non-finite clauses. the classification is not functional. S. Obligatory clauses include complement clauses. Thus. and adverbial clauses mat contain the second part of a correlative subordinator (for example. it is formally different from it. participle. Kruisinga suggested that they should be called ing-forms. Maugham). Quirk. Infinitive clauses are sometimes subdivided into infinitive clauses with the marker to and infinitive clauses without the marker to. Long refers finite dependent clauses that are built on the model: 'subject + predicate verb + object + adverbial'. we can start (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). restrictive relative clauses. In a nonfinite clause. 6. The verb in a finite dependent clause. Swan).. but a subjectival member because although it is functionally similar to the nominal component in finite clauses. Christie). e. The nominal component in finite clauses (or the subject). Structural-Semantic Classification Finally. and -while at the head. A finite dependent clause always has a subject. is formally independent: nouns in the function of the subject are used in the common case. the theatre will have to close (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Collins).N.g. is a finite verb. as.g. although some of them (e. cannot be left out.g.in the nominative case. Obligatory finite 222 dependent clauses form a semantic and structural whole with the matrix clause and. many English grammarians classify non-finite dependent clauses into infinitive clauses. Following G. Unless the government agrees to give extra money. Adverbial clauses introduced by non-correlative subordinates and non-restrictive relative clauses make up the class of optional clauses. personal pronouns . Nowadays. Bates). is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb. consequently. if} can introduce indirect questions. Two participles are generally distinguished: Participle I with the suffix -ing and Participle II with the suffix -ed. NON-FINITE DEPENDENT CLAUSES According to English grammarians. as we have seen. ing-clauses. whether. e. Leech.E. with the possible introduction of that at the head. and usually are. I saw at once that he was dead (A. proportion clauses. For instance. Greenbaum. once.). Since there is no external difference between Participle I and Gerund. they can easily be left out. in his opinion. R. Swan). Interrogative finite dependent clauses. in spite of the fact that they never form direct questions. Long has worked out a functional classification of finite dependent clauses into declarative and interrogative. and ed-clauses.

E. we cannot speak about the subject. I declared my passionate love for Celia (R. Greenbaum). 7.due to isolation. Ing-Clauses: without a subjectival member: Leaving the room. At the first stage. But it is secondary.). Bates). subject and predicate are correlative notions: when there is no predicate. are predicatively heterogeneous. you generally hear nothing (W. If the police lose. Quirk et al. 224 Non-finite and verbless dependent clauses are never marked for modality and tense. Quirk et al. it is always used in the oblique objective case. e. Dickens). he went to his counting house.). the verbless clause in the second example has a subjectival member: breakfast. not primary predication. Independent finite clauses correspond to what is generally defined as sentences. The latter ar referred to as 'communicatives' 225 . on the one hand. A simple independent clause represents a single clause. A compound independent clause is a combination of two or more coordinated independent clauses.g. there is no predicate as only finite verbs can form predicates. he went to his counting house (Ch. with a subjectival member: / won't let you talk like that (S. Quirk et al. Collins). and compound sentences are the only communication rendering syntactic units. with a subjectival member: The daughter sat quite silent and still. Infinitive and ing-clauses are characterized by a higher frequency of occurrence and a wider range of syntactic roles than ed-clauses. —» Breakfast being over. we draw a distinction between predicative and non-predicative syntactic units. They do comprise an element of predication: non-finite clauses . Sheldon). Among dependent clauses. And in non-finite clauses. The authors of the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English mention three major types of independent clauses: simple. In our opinion. Infinitive Clauses with 'to': without a subjectival member: The best thing would be to tell everybody (R. and compound. The question arises if simple. The verbless clause in the first example lacks a subjectival member. i.: When ripe. A complex independent clause is a combination of a matrix clause with one or more dependent clauses. and are marked for person only when there is a subjectival member. he tripped over the mat (R. non-finite clauses and verbless clauses. we see no grounds for calling them by the same term 'clause'. Breakfast over. Infinitive Clauses without 'to': without a subjectival member: / think it helps support our style of policing structure (S.). in a number of cases it can be introduced by a preposition. They are never embedded in a larger structure as a clause element or as part of a clause element. Ed-Clauses: without a subjectival member: Covered with confusion. We quality as dependent only finite clauses. with a subjectival member: Her aunt having left the room. Quirk et al. you generally hear all about it. Cf. Quirk et al. complex. and she had returned to the house early (S. with her eyes fixed on the ground (Ch. on the other. complex. they will be delicious. I left the room (R. e. They are used to perform speech-act functions. they are not. with a subjectival member: The best thing -would be for you to tell everybody (R. Sheldon).). Besides. But they may contain embedded clauses or be coordinated with clauses on the same level.g. What is more. Quirk et al. INDEPENDENT CLAUSES Independent clauses can be both finite and verbless.due to the presence of a non-finite form of the verb. these apples will be delicious (R. e.). We suggest a multistage classification of communication rendering syntactic units based on their inherent predication. verbless clauses . Since finite clauses.: If the police win.g.pronoun (which is rather often the case). clauses one of whose elements is a finite verb.e.: 7? had begun to rain.: I'll ring her up tonight! (H.)•"* When these apples are ripe. Verbless clauses are treated as reductions of finite or non-finite clauses with the verb be. Bronte). English grammarians also include verbless clauses.

g. and the word combination. Sentences possess independent explicit predication. communicative. Formal characteristics are of great importance because there are no formless meanings. and syntactic indivisibility. Thus.e. and I do other work as well (I. It might therefore be thought that sentences are easy things to identify and define.in the impossibility to differentiate between the theme (the starting point of the utterance) and the rheme (the part of the utterance communicating information about the theme). 9. Other linguists think that punctuation helps us draw a distinction between a sentence and its parts. the communicative unity . The traditional definition of the sentence states that the sentence expresses a complete thought. They really can.in the inapplicability of the model of parts of the sentence ('communicatives' cannot be analyzed in terms of parts of the sentence). Cf. the word.H. / work in an office. So. But the question arises how to define whether the form under examination is independent or whether it is included in some larger structure. not included by virtue of any grammatical construction in any larger linguistic form. and still a form is felt to make part of another. Predicative syntactic units are heterogeneous. nobody has given a satisfactory answer to this question. Viney). The trouble with this definition is that it requires us to know what a complete thought is. Fries. they view the sentence as a unit of communication. conjunctions can be regarded as signs of inclusion.: I know he will never return (J. Sentences The sentence is probably the most familiar of all grammatical terms. L. There are two major types of predicative syntactic units: sentences and sentence-ids. 'A sentence is an independent linguistic form. Structural linguists try to define the sentence formally. but it is applicable only to written texts. However. Bloomfield writes. formal criteria are the least vulnerable. Skrebnev are of opinion that the only relevant feature of the sentence is its ability to serve the purpose of communication. e. 227 .: I do it because I like it (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). e. Trying to give a formal definition of the sentence. of course. TYPES OF PREDICATIVE SYNTACTIC UNITS At the second stage. Their semantic integrity manifests itself in the lack of motivation (the meaning of 'communicatives' cannot be deduced from the meanings of their components). the word form.' 226 In general. I have to sleep (T. The opposite turns out to be the case. / work. We are introduced to it in our early school years.g. Capote). varying from speaker to speaker. The criterion of punctuation is quite lucid.: Have you seen him since that night? . for it is also common to units larger than the sentence and to language as a whole.8. A. Phonetic devices play an important role in identifying sentences. NON-PREDICATIVE SYNTACTIC UNITS 'Commuicatives' are characterized by semantic. Explicit predication presupposes the presence of morphological exponents of the predicative categories of modality and tense and morphological. The communicative function does differentiate the sentence from the phoneme. Gardiner and Y. and even there they are rather subjective. We think it necessary to elucidate the communicative definition of the sentence by reference to such a structural characteristic as predication. Shaw). their syntactic indiscreteness . Fowles). i. they are found only in oral speech (punctuation gives a poor representation of phonetic devices). the morpheme. if not before. Murdoch).No (I. traditional grammar tries to define one unknown notion in terms of another unknown notion. Marckwardt turns to such phonetic characteristics as pitch and pause. Up to now. -Great (P.M. But sometimes there are no conjunctions. But the communicative function cannot be regarded as a distinguishing feature of the sentence either. But fortunately the -weather forecast is OK for this week. A. In the opinion of Ch. we identity predicative syntactic units.

R. just like sentences.L.Why should you disappoint me? . and 'sentence fragments' emphasize their structural deficiency. In all these examples. 1. Sentencoids having implicit predication that becomes clear from the context or situation (we might use the abbreviation 'consituation'). and the first person. Consistent with this factor of syntactic non-elaboration. though. The terms 'incomplete sentences'. The sentencoid Because I'm not twenty-five is marked for real modality.lexical. the predicative category of the third person is explicit. on the one hand. e. The implicit predicative categories of modality and tense in sentencoids can be represented by two kinds of syncretic zero exponents: paradigmatic and syntagmatic.g. Since 'fragmentary' syntactic units are structurally different from sentences.g. Kittredge. 'elliptical sentences'.L. A nice moon. By usage. The sentencoid Boarding school is not explicitly marked for any predicative category. e. By using it. What's got into you? . Joyce). Crystal]. By sentencoids we mean syntactic units that lack the structure of an independent finite clause. they should not be called sentences. Because it relies on situation and context for meaning.'elliptical sentences' [G. but we can infer from the consituation that the sentencoid refers to real modality. but it does not tell 228 us what they are. they are usually called 'incomplete sentences' (nenojinue npedjioofcenux\ in English and American linguistics .Nothing (A.O. In Russian traditional grammar.Boarding school (S. or 'sentence fragments' [J. W.: What school do you go to? .. Conversation is typically carried out in face-to-face interaction with others.Because Pm not twenty-five (J. they belong to communication rendering syntactic units. M. V. that (Th. the term is not a happy one because it only tells us that 'fragmentary' syntactic units are not sentences. conversation has a very high frequency of 'fragmentary' syntactic units that are as informative in conversation as independent finite clauses (or sentences).A. or onomaseological exponents of the predicative category of person. that they are similar to them (the suffix -oid means 'similar to'). The term 'minor sentences' might lead one to the conclusion that they are of secondary importance to conventional (or major) sentences. Herman. W.R. . At the same time. 2.L.O. we stress that. minor sentences in written English constitute only 1 per cent. J.' The absence of independent explicit predication does not mean that sentencoids are non-predicative syntactic units. But in everyday conversation the socalled minor sentences are as important as major sentences. Collins). They are different from sentences in the sense that they lack independent explicit predication. SteeL I. They are used mainly in conversation.: Twilight (J. Gunter]. Birk writes apropos of this. they are not sentences. Sentencoids with 229 .D. Farley. So.. Hill). its predication is explicit. Reynolds. Ch. Sentencoids that are characterized by a fusion of explicit and implicit predication. 'minor sentences' [L. Speakers usually share a lot of background knowledge. Bryant suggested that they should be called 'non-sentences'. sentencoids are different from sentences. According to D. present tense. Hockett. e. R. D. 'By actual structure. There are three major predicative types of sentencoids. Morgan. The sign of dependence is the subordinator because. and first person. F. Birk. it is really so. present tense. Explicit predication is considered to be independent when it has no introductory subordinates Sentencoids 'Sentencoid' is a comparatively new term in linguistics. conversation can do without the syntactic elaboration that is found in written language.: I have no desire to disappoint you. Bloomfield. they are similar to sentences because...E. But does it testify to their structural deficiency? We think not. of course. McClelland. on the other hand. and the predicative categories of real modality and present tense are consituationally bound (or implicit). J. In written language. Conlin and G. Dreiser). Short 'fragmentary' units really do not have the structure of independent finite clauses. they are sentences.g. 3. Guilloryj. In our opinion. Ayckbourn). We think the term 'sentencoids' is better. Sentencoids that have dependent explicit predication. Aiken and M.

That's why its grammatical phenomena should be studied in themselves. Cf. Wesker). 231 We speak here of relative communicarive independence of sentences and senieacoids with paradigmatic zeros. But if we do restore it.: I married him.: You must have loved him a lot. Leech].Not at this moment (A. Sheldon). What a strange place! (I.I neve r di d i n my lif e (T. In sentences and 'sentence representatives'. Their true communicative independence they gain only in the consituation. — How long for? . Hill). Conversational English has a grammar of its own. 'Sentence Representatives' Somewhat apart stand the so-called 'sentence representatives' (penpesenmanmu npednocHcenuu) that are used to avoid the repetition of the notional (or lexical) verb and the words that follow it.paradigmatic zeros. Accordingly. didnV1? . 2 Extended 'sentence representatives' can include an attribute if the nominal component of predication is expressed by a noun and an adverbial. you did (J. but also the naming function because they usually consist of a personal pronoun or some other deictic element and an auxiliary. Ayckbourn). Sentencoids with syntagmatic zeros outside the consituation realize only the naming functions of their constituents. You sure about that? (J.They didn 't . Conrad. Cf. . Williams). we take into consideration the way in which predication is realized in them.Yes.g./ did (S. there are 'clause representatives' (penpesenmanmbi KJiays) in English that have independent or (less often) dependent explicit predication and always make part of larger syntactic units. Gordon). Wesker) —»/ can *t help you. STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATIONS PREDICATIVE SYNTACTIC UNITS OF At the third stage. Collins). Silence in the court! (G. Gordon). sir (M. realize their communicative potential even when taken in isolation . sentences and 'sentence representatives' are classified into two-member and one-member. Two-member and One-member Syntactic Units First. Shaw). They have some features in common with sentences and sentencoids and some features that mark them off as a specific syntactic unit.: The afternoon of a winter''s day (G.g. -1 can't (A.say (H. we describe the structural properties of predicative syntactic units. predication finds its expression either in two members or in one member. we get a syntactic unit typical of written speech. Why can't they see behind them? ~ Because they can't that's why (A. S. they lack not only the communicative function. Cf. Osborne). 230 . 10.You are (Lingaphone English Course). English grammarians usually regard 'sentence representatives* as elliptical sentences [D. e. Outside the consituation. Biber. e. G. Like sentencoids with syntagmatic zeros and sentencoids that have dependent explicit predication. Pinter). Who is the teacher. Out with you (B. Murdoch). Tomato juice. Christie). 'Clause Representatives' In addition to 'sentence representatives'. Poirot? . They want to stay. But extended 'sentence representatives' are characterized by a low frequency of occurrence.: You wa nt to s ave mo ne y? . Cf. just like sentences. e.Oh. .: Why don 'tyou run away then? -1 did (S.: Help me. In analytical English. or copular verb. Like sentences. for the omitted part can easily be restored from the context.g. Hemingway). you or I? .: Is it any use asking you anything. Just a minute (E. -1 can't (A. modal. yes. There is a grain of truth in their conception. they become communicative units only within a certain consituation. they have independent explicit predication. like the above-mentioned sentencoids. Help me. Brand).

we refer them not to sentences. If we started on the assumption that a one-member sentence is a syntactic unit whose predication finds explicit expression in one member. like any linguistic notion. They are speech modifications. Nominal sentences are said to realize real modality. One-member sentences are characterized by a low frequency of occurrence in English. In analytical languages. English people think that one-member imperative sentences are not polite enough even in combination 233 . and to be impersonal. Faulkner). Y ou r e al l y do w an t t hi s . Wilde). Vasilevskaya identify the principal part of a one-member sentence either with the subject or with the predicate.V. is a matter of definition. There are two types of declarative sentences that lack the nominal component of predication just like imperative sentences. Parker). d on' t y o u .g. Dreiser). however. -Do (H. e-g. Vinogradov has rightly pointed out. The fixed nature of person characteristic makes the use of a special exponent of person redundant. e. opinions differ. Benchley). the notion of a one-member sentence. M.: Dusk .1 d o (P. and the abovementioned declarative sentences represent speech modifications of two-member sentences.Woolf). A. to refer to the present tense. Since infinitives and nouns always lack explicit modality and tense characteristics. although sometimes it does appear in the form of the personal pronoun you. One-member sentences are typical of inflected languages. Tradition qualifies as one-member also infinitive and nominal sentences. By means of the imperative mood of the verb and a specific intonation contour. La r r y ? . As to the essence of one-member sentences and 'sentence representatives'. The thing is that imperative sentences and imperative 'sentence representatives' generally address the command or request to the second person. then the above-mentioned declarative sentences could be regarded as onemember sentences.: Lefjgo(V.A.: To think of the Weldons separating! (D. The absence of the person paradigm does not mean that imperative sentences and imperative 'sentence representatives' are not marked for the predicative category of person. are of opinion that one-member sentences constitute a language phenomenon. one-member sentences are few. we think they could also be regarded as one-member sentences.: Doesn't sound like a problem (B. but they are conventional speech modifications and as such are worth studying in themselves. imperative sentences and imperative 'sentence representatives' realize non-real modality. When inducement is addressed both to the addressee (the second person) and to the speaker (the first person).: Wait a moment (A. Ganshina and N. Gutcheon). Since their verbal component is marked for all the predicative categories. Parsons). however. Burrage). e. imperative sentences become two-member. Pinter). and to actualize the meaning of the third person. Cf. Infinitive sentences are said to realize non-real modality.g. it finds its 232 expression in a specific morpheme. are correlative notions. hi these cases. In the sphere of non-real modality. imperative sentences and imperative 'sentence representatives' are surely one-member. but to sentencoids.: / returned to my room (M. as V. to refer to the future tense.M. Shan't stay in this house any longer (O.g. e. tense characteristics are irrelevant. In English. You let me run this! (W. Let us catch them (L. sometimes .of a summer night (Th. think that a one-member sentence is a sentence having only one member. Shakhmatov.in the personal pronoun us. Faulkner).where the verbal component of predication usually lacks person distinctions. -'s. Spark). which is neither the subject nor the predicate because the notions of subject and predicate.g. the common type of sentence and 'sentence representative' is two-member that has a subject and predicate. Becke). Most grammarians. Please don't say anything else (J. e. What is more. The majority of linguists. They are declarative sentences referring to the third person singular present indicative and declarative sentences referring to the first person singular and plural future indicative. I just want to leave this in here. Cf: You try to eat something (W.

Galsworthy). and sentencoids. and exclamative was only conceived as functional. Cf. It would be well and good if it were always 234 the case. It's an order (H. This classification has already been discussed.H.I will (J. we take into consideration the volume characteristics of the predication in sentences. Swan). tines). The sphere of declarative sentences. Traditional grammar calls it a functional classification. In declarative 'sentence representatives'. Declarative sentences. imperative. Sweet. Joyce). Larina.: Spare the rod and spoil the child (Proverb). referring to the first person singular and plural future indicative. Trevor). Fowles). What eyes he's got! (A.g. In future you'll keep away from my wife. Potcheptsov].: My mother died soon after (D.Interrogative . M. Declarative sentences are said to make statements. please!> Now.D o e s n ' t m a t t e r (W. which are not many.. Cf. In practice. Biber et al. Cf: I never did love him! (R. etc. You're killing me! (W. and excJamative. I s c a r c e l y k no w hi m. e. e. In declarative sentences.. Sternin. exclamative sentences are said to express strong feelings. How melancholy it was! (J. Robins). it is not so. <It implies He is a terrible fellow!> The so-called imperative sentences not only make requests and give orders but also make statements and express strong feelings. 'sentence representatives'. Monopredicative . The primary sphere of use of the bare imperative is the army. Wilde).: Will you ask them to call a carriage. Mathews). <It expresses annoyance> Exclamative sentences comprising an emphatic do. give orders.> Will you come in? (J.. <It implies If you spare the rod... 'sentences representatives'. > Don't be so stupid! (M.: Who'll run the business while I'm away? . Unfortunately. interrogative. you will spoil the child. and express strong feelings.: The new room is better? . please? (O. interrogative. Collins). e. 235 . 3) sentencoids that are characterized by a fusion of explicit and implicit predication. Will/Would you. English people prefer milder forms of inducement. Burrage).: How can I climb that? (P. Sentencoids are classified according to the type of the inherent predication into three types: 1) sentencoids that have dependent explicit predication. are usually formed on the basis of the so-called impersonal verbs. referring to the third person singular present indicative. D. The so-called interrogative sentences not only ask questions but also make statements and requests and express strong feelings.Imperative — Exclamative Monopredicative Syntactic Units Monopredicative sentences (and 'sentence representatives') are further classified into declarative.. namely the order of subject and predicate in relation to each other [H.Yes. <It implies / can Y climb it. is limited due to the present-day tendency to use will with all persons. such as Can/Could you. [I. Cf. e.g.Potypredicative Syntactic Units Second. In everyday communication. Declarative . polypredicative syntactic units include more than one primary predication.M. imperative sentences are said to make requests and give orders. did or opening with what and how seem to be monofunctional. isn't he a terrible fellow! (J. Williams).with the word please. <It implies Come in. does. Stemina].C. The classification of monopredicative two-member sentences into declarative. Joyce).g. T.g. interrogative sentences are said to ask questions. Lardner). .. the subject precedes the predicate. and sentencoids. A distinction is drawn between monopredicative and polypredicative sentences. sir (J. Monopredicative syntactic units comprise one primary predication. imperative. The so-called declarative sentences not only make statements but also ask questions. G. 2) sentencoids that have implicit predication. the subject comes before the operator standing for the predicate.G. it was carried out on a structural basis.: H on e s t l y .

denies the proposition as a whole and has constant grammatical means of its expression. — Why can't we? (S. the propositions as a whole are positive. it constitutes a structural characteristic of monopredicative syntactic units. We could get a double room.The college paper (J. Second.Don't (J. followed by the word the speaker wants to emphasize. Go to sleep (J. Irving). the auxiliary verb do has to be inserted as dummy operator. Oh. O'Hara) . Burke). Osborne).: / haven't made up my mind yet (I. and continue with the 'subject-predicate' pattern. Galsworthy) .g. I've decided to write a little statement for the Echo.S. And now she had nobody to protect her (J. and sentencoids with clausal 237 . and exclamative is purely functional.Nobody ever does (O. The scope of local negation is usually restricted to a single word that is not a verb. the auxiliary part of the predicate precedes the subject. the scope of clausal negation in them is restricted to sentencoids with dependent explicit predication. e. London) .g. Cf. 'Sentence representatives' have no specific exclamative structure.: Do you have a car? (S. . Gardner). ~* I don't know (H. the notional part of the predicate is never used.: What a pleasant surprise it would have been! (P. So. not grammatical. Since sentencoids usually lack the predicate-verb.—•* I didn't promise (J. Swan). In 'sentence representatives'. Such speeches! Such songs! And so many swords upraised! (U. They never talk (J. there is usually no subject.H. Evans). Collins). First. Wilde).S. clausal negation is grammatical. if it has constant grammatical means of its expression. Thurber). Carey).Because he wasn't asked (D. Sheldon).Nothing (J. Exclamative sentences begin with what or how.interrogative sentencoid.It isn't (O. Lawrence). If there is no auxiliary verb and the main verb is not the copula be. e. anyway. Where did she get my address? (J. positive and negative sentences. interrogative. Mansfield). (K. English grammarians draw a distinction between two kinds of negation: local negation and clausal negation. Last night at that banquet I thought France was saved.D. —» Don't go to sleep (K.: Wh ere a re you g oing to sta y? . local negation cannot be regarded as a structural characteristic of a monopredicative syntactic unit. The question arises if negation can be regarded as a structural characteristic of predicative syntactic units. What happened? . Sinclair) — exclamative sentencoids. Cf: I know (W. that is nonsense. Cf.. . Cf. their classification into declarative. Abrahams). Golding). We can't be in the forest. In other words. Clausal negation has constant grammatical means of its expression: the negator not or its contracted form n 't is added after the operator. With clausal negation. Positive ~ Negative Syntactic Units All the monopredicative syntactic units can be positive and negative. which is attracted to the predicate-verb. yeah. You never talk anything but nonsense. e.With my people (J. As clausal negation.Oh. Home! Go home\ (J.. Wilde). We think it 236 can.The college paper? . but on two conditions. You promised me. Joyce). Perhaps I should fry again?. imperative. Ann isn't a doctor (V.Could we? . In contrast to local negation that is lexical. Maugham). . Salinger). Shaw).In interrogative sentences and 'sentence representatives'.E.declarative sentencoid.: Give me the dictionary (E. The notional part of the predicate in interrogative sentences follows the subject. Hill). 'sentence representatives'. How beautifully you sing! (M. In all these cases. Since most sentencoids lack the 'subject-predicate' pattern. .imperative sentencoid.: Why hasn't he come to-night? . the whole proposition is denied. Bates). It is lexical.g. In imperative sentences and 'sentence representatives'. Cf: No one answered him (W. if it denies or rejects the proposition as a whole.

can be included in one class with the word fire because they can occur in the same environment. etc. e. attribute. descriptive linguistics developed from the necessity of studying half-known and unknown languages of the Indian tribes. The traditional model of parts of the sentence distinguishes between principal parts of the sentence (subject. Bloomfiled's Introduction to the Study of Language. HuKmo HUKOzda nunezo ne paccK03bieaem. e. it is very difficult to differentiate secondaryparts of the sentence on the basis of the traditional model of parts of the sentence. etc. English monopredicative syntactic units can comprise only one negation: either clausal or local. The distribution is defined by means of substitution. I never heard of it (S. In Russian monopredicative syntactic units. They had no writing. The generally accepted method of linguistic description became that of distribution. Bloomfield and his adherents set out to describe language as it exists. In doing so. lies in the fact that. then it is not clear why they refer it to principal. linguists generally study them irrespective of the sentence.: She didn't reply (J. The distribution of an element is the sum total of all environments in which it occurs. etc. Bond) . predicate) and secondary parts of the sentence (object. table.g. they directed their attention to the formal features of language. whereas structural linguistics has given 238 239 . She was sitting close to the window.one local negation. clausal negation can go hand in hand with several local negations. Thus. Cf. according to G. But traditional grammar was guided by this method only in practice. linguists began to look for new models. the study of parts of the sentence is displaced into the sphere of word combination. which put on a firm basis the inductive rather than the deductive approach to language analysis. bed. The distributional method is not a new idea in the history of English grammar. She was sitting close to the bed. SENTENCE MODELS Drawbacks of the Model of Pans of the Sentence Monopredicative two-member sentences are analyzed in terms of subject. although the so-called parts of the sentence are singled out on the basis of the sentence. Zand Fare included in the same element/* if the distribution of X is in some sense the same as the distribution of Y. window. In other words. adverbial. the languages of the Indian tribes have little in common with the Indo-European languages. Cf. Sheldon) . However. object. predicate.: She was sitting close to the fire (W. She was sitting close to the door. But the main drawback of the traditional model of parts of the sentence. not to secondary parts of the sentence. they are languages devoid of morphological forms of separate words. with the publication of L.negation can be regarded as two different structural types of monopredicative syntactic units. Faulkner). Potcheptsov. attribute.one clausal negation. without being concerned with questions of correct and incorrect usage. In the first place. the words door. adverbial. She was sitting close to the table. That's why descriptive linguists could not analyze sentences in traditional terms. Secondary parts of the sentence are said to depend on principal parts.: Nobody ever tells me anything (M. 11. In the second place. Distributional Model Since the model of parts of the sentence has a number of weak points. and therefore the first step of work was to be keen observation and rigid registration of linguistic forms. many linguists are of opinion that the predicate also depends on the subject.g. It would be well and good if the notion of dependence figured only in the opposition of principal and secondary parts. The shift of American linguists' attention from meaning to form at the beginning of the 20 century was quite natural. L. In 1914.). One clausal Mne and three local negations. Collins) . What is more.G.one local negation. there appeared a new theory of descriptive grammar. taking into consideration only the mutual relations of these or those parts. If the predicate does depend on the subject.

As opposed to the traditional model of parts of the sentence. The boundary between mem goes between the word of Class 1 (N) . but as a hierarchy of two-part constructions on a series of levels. Fries is purely formal. The verb phrase excited the little girl also comprises two immediate constituents: the word of Class 2 excited and the noun phrase the little girl. Since the main structural characteristic of a sentence is the presence of predication.to those signals that show grammatical function. in turn. However. The noun phrase the warm sun has two immediate constituents: the determiner the and the noun phrase warm sun. negative. the English sentence Then he spoke to me (A. la 2-d A 1D F A 3 I1 A According to Ch. The noun phrase warm sun consists of the word of Class 1 sun and the word of Class 3 warm. structural sentence analysis should deal with defining the role of sentence components in realizing predication. Lexical meanings in grammar. Fries cannot explain the difference between such sentences as: The police shot the man in the red cap. The largest immediate constituents of the simple sentence The warm sun excited the little girl (J. One of the representatives of structural linguistics is Ch.but rather a structural pattern made up of classes and groups of words which are properly identified by formal markers and by their position in the pattern. a group of lexical units .excited the little girl.the warm sun and the verb phrase (VP) .a preposition).an adverb). 'structural meaning' . Each part. Even this it sometimes cannot do properly as it does not indicate the groupings inside the sentence and the syntactic relations between them. is subject to further analysis. are redundant.nouns). structural meanings are fundamental and necessary. the distributional model of Ch. even at first sight it is evident that the sentences are not identical: the first means that the police shot a man who had a red cap on. Fries. The linear model can generate only the simplest sentence structures. Fries draws a distinction between two kinds of meaning: lexical and structural. Ch. The police shot the man in the right arm. Fries does nothing of the kind. And it must be taken into consideration because the sentence is a communicative syntactic unit.a verb) in a past tense form. la and lb are words of Class 1 (traditionally . The noun phrase the little girl is analyzed into the determiner the and the noun phrase little girl. in his opinion.sun and the word of Class 2 (V) -excited. No wonder that the distributional model of Ch. He challenges the conventional logical approach to the grammatical analysis of a sentence. For instance. in the noun phrase little girl the word of Class 1 girl is separated from the word of Class 3 little.e. So. where 4 is a word of Class 4 (traditionally . In the case of more complex sentence structures. the linear distributional model turns out ineffective. the linear distributional model wholly disregards the functional nature of the singled out sentence components. Thus. Finally. declaring that in the study of sentence structure the use of meaning is unscientific. these sentences are built on the same model (A T 2-d A lb F A 3 lc).recognition to the distributional method within the theory of grammar. if one goes deeper into it. Ch. the second . one might be led to believe that it meets the requirements of structural sentence analysis. he will see that things are not as easy as that. 2-d is a word of Class 2 (traditionally .i. True. The term 'lexical meaning' is assigned to the dictionary definitions of words. is not a group of words as such . having different referents. However. F is a word of Group F (traditionally . it fails to generate passive constructions. 4 la 2-d F lb. An English sentence. he writes. What is more. and polypredicative sentences.that the police injured the man's right arm. Model of Immediate Constituents The model of immediate constituents (ICM) represents the sentence not as a linear sequence of words. Maltz) has the following distributional model (DM): Then he spoke to me. Cheever) are the noun phrase (NP) . He regards the sentence as a linear sequence of words with no reference to their participation in the realization of predication. 240 241 . interrogative. Fries.

The generation of a sentence can be represented in the form of a 'derivation tree'.S. to say nothing of differentiating the expansion according to its modifying the predication as a whole or part of it. 2. The nature of polypredicative sentences and the interrelations between active -passive. The immediate constituents model helps not only analyze but also generate sentences. declarative . and affirmative . but go on till we reach the level of morphemes. the largest immediate constituents of a sentence . It has certain advantages both in analyzing and generating sentences because it indicates the groupings of the immediate constituents and the order in which the generation of a sentence must proceed.So. The model of immediate constituents has a limited sphere of application: it deals only with isolated simple sentences. we would be bound to say that the sentence The warm sun excited the little girl has five layers because the word of Class 2 (V) . and bound morphemes lack syntactic independence. the generation of a sentence first involves classes and groups of words. for in addition to the nominal and verbal components proper they comprise various modifiers. At first sight. the immediate constituents model does not draw a distinction between the predicative basis of a sentence and its expansion. At the same time. the two forking branches correspond to the immediate constituents of the phrase. The derivation tree is drawn as two branches forking out from the sign S (sentence). it becomes evident that the notions of 'noun phrase' and 'verb phrase' are much wider. In other words. The generation of a sentence always proceeds with the change of one element at the application of each rule.negative constructions remain obscure. as R.excited is derivative and can be broken up into the root excit. If we accepted this conception. The diagram below is a derivation tree for generating simple sentences with a transitive verb: . In other words. However. The immediate constituents model is more powerful than the distributional model. the immediate constituents of such a syntactic unit as a sentence should be independent of each other in their distribution.represent the nominal and the verbal components of predication respectively.and the suffix -ed. Concrete lexical elements are chosen on the lowest level. On closer inspection.interrogative. Just like the distributional model. Each node corresponds to a phrase. N sun V excited the little girl T the he little girl little girl The ultimate constituents (UCs) of a sentence are words. Wells rightly points out. Some linguists suggest that the analysis into immediate constituents should not stop on the level of words. the immediate constituents model fails to elucidate the role of ultimate constituents in realizing predication.the noun phrase and the verb phrase . the above-mentioned sentence will look like this in the immediate constituents model: The Layer 4 Layer 3 Laver 1 warm sun excited the little girl ANP warm sun excited Adj warm Fig. it is not devoid of drawbacks either. Each branch has nodes in it from which smaller branches fork out.

it 243 .But even the analysis of isolated simple sentences in the immediate constituents model leaves 242 much to be desired. First.

G. Others are of opinion that homogeneous parts should be further subdivided. Hayes.: . In the second sentence. The derivation tree does not draw a distinction between governors and dependents. Some linguists look upon them as constituting one immediate constituent. but the recipient of the action: it is easy for people to please John. these sentences are identical. 4. He showed the white feather (A.does not answer the question how to treat homogeneous parts. John is not the agent. In the first sentence. etc. but the dependency tree (DT) is constructed on a different principle from the derivation tree in immediate constituents grammar. studying isolated sentences and underestimating the criterion of semantics.B. According to the model of immediate constituents. In the dependency tree. feather Fig. Cf. e.F. Irtenyeva) type: John is eagerJea§y) to please is eaggr (easy) eager (easy) to to please is He showed the" showed the white feather the white feather white feather white Fig. Dependency Tree Dependency grammar (DG) also presents the generation of a sentence in the form of a sentence tree. Second. KVHHH) both as a phraseological unit and as a free word combination has the same tree: He showed the white feather 2) structurally identical but semantically different units of the John is eager to please John is easy to please (N. John is the agent: he is eager to please somebody. by which words are meant. it fails to solve the problem of function words (prepositions. 3. is that of direct dependency. others treat them together with this or that notional word. according to D. 'John is easy to please'.g. 'John is eager to please'.). the relation between every pair of minimal syntactic units. the immediate constituents model appears ineffective in bringing to the fore the points of difference between: 1) free and phraseological units. But they are different. Some single them out into a separate immediate constituent. And last but not least. conjunctions.

244 245 .

g.R. e. a considerable contribution of dependency grammar to the theory of linguistics.: Put the thing on the table (J. no doubt. Reeve) large glasses (L. e.E.E. The thing that raises doubts here is the validity of regarding the verb as the only root of all dependency trees. Trevor) I _______ -----------. 7.: Jack spoke loudly (W. Gol din g) spo ke Jo Fig. Reeve) to The establishment of certain hierarchies inside the sentence is. One-member imperative sentences have one root. Baker) put Jack loudly •^ thing 1 the .talked large glasses (L.ICG DG / talked to Jo (W.g.

It would not be an exaggeration to say that the English verb lacks person characteristics (the only exception in the domain of regular verbs is the inflection -s of the third person singular in the sphere of the present tense).: 246 t h e Fig. there arises the problem of the nature of the verbal root. e. e. 8. predication comprises person characteristics.g. In inflected languages. person characteristics generally find their expression in the nominal component of predication. things are different.g. So. In analytical languages.e. the verb admits of person distinctions. But in addition to modality and tense. because the predicative meanings of modality and tense find their expression in the verb. in inflected languages the verb can be looked upon as syntactically central unit. and dependency trees in them should have two roots: nominal and verbal.: 247 . the main structural characteristic of the sentence. In analytical English. Then. in analytical languages there are usually two syntactically central units. The representatives of dependency grammar think that the verbal root is constituted by the notional verb. i.The verb does play an important role in realizing predication.

8). 11. 9.S. seems more convincing. we are hardly justified in restricting the verbal root of the dependency tree to the notional verb. Don't be cross with your sweetheart (F. Tesniere.One morning a new man -was sitting at this table (J. 10.7. . all the predicative categories (modality. It really is. In this case. tense. Fitzgerald) don't be cross with 1 sweetheart ^r your Fig. who widens the notion of the verbal root by including into it the predicate-verb as a whole. But when the predicate-verb is in an analytical form. and sometimes person) are rendered by the auxiliary verb. The conception of the French scholar L. Cf: Fig. Collier) sitting One morning a new man was sitting at this table (J. when we deal with a synthetic form of the verb (see Fig. 6. Collier) wasjiitting new man- morning one new a mornin one table table man- I this this Fig.

248 249 .

Gaeng). etc. However. Kernels are few in number. Christie). Joyce). which deal with isolated sentences. The native speaker of a language has a set of rules in his mind. e. Chomsky discloses the existing relations between various sentence types (e. NV: He paused (J. Transformed sentences are naturally more rare. NVN: She left the room (A. means not only that a kernel consists of a NP and a VP. so to speak. declarative . Transformational analysis begins with the assumption that certain sentences are basic or kernel and other sentences are derived from them by means of transformational rules.: Fry don 't stickle never Harold seeming (P. in other words. 6. cannot be identified with 'meaningful' because a grammatical sentence can be meaningless. writes P. Evans). So. which modifies the verbal component of predication spoke. N is N: Tony is a student (V. or modal auxiliary.). structuralists rely on their own intuition as speakers of English in distinguishing between grammatical and ungrammatical constructions. First. Kernel sentences. the transformational model (TM) of Z. Harris mentions 7 types of kernel sentences in the English language. but the levels are formal and hence -functionally heterogeneous. The generation of negative sentences. the second level includes such heterogeneous units as the nominal component of predication Jack and the adverbial loudly. Evans). for instance. Gaeng).g. N is PN: She is from London (V. 'Grammatical'. since a grammatical sentence can be a lie.: My grandfather was President of the United States. all kernel sentences are declarative. NVPN: Barbara looked at Peter (E. Gaeng. an internal grammar.: Oysters living on the moon don't whistle (P. Thus. But what are the criteria for determining what is grammatical and what is not? The notion 'grammatical'.S. R. sentences of the language can be generated. in Fig. the immediate constituents model. All the other sentences of the language are obtained by applying one or more transformations to kernel sentences. The singled out minimal syntactic units do build up a hierarchy of several levels. 'Grammatical' means simply 'corresponding to the grammar'. but that the NP comes first and the VP second. The fundamental aim in the linguistic analysis of a language is to find a set of transformational rules (that make up the grammar of the language) by which all the grammatical. proper. is not a synonym of'authentic'. It is this intuitive knowledge of the language as a system that enables the native speaker to produce and understand sentences which he may have never said or heard before. positive . as basic structures. All kernel sentences contain two main parts: a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP): S -> NP -r VP. N is D: Their secret is out (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). according to P. Blyton). Lees thinks that the basic structures may be reduced to two: NV and N is N/A. This formula. Harris and N. e.interrogative.negative.S. 'Grammatical' does not mean 'capable of being said' as anything is capable of being said. e. Transformational Model As opposed to the distributional model. it fails to elucidate the role of other sentence components in realizing predication because it wholly disregards the functional criterion indispensable for the analysis of such a communicative phenomenon as the sentence. which enables him to judge whether a given sentence is grammatical or not.g. and only grammatical. goes through two stages.The merit of the dependency tree lies in the fact that it defines the most important sentence element. are characterized by a high frequency of occurrence. surely. Roberts.A. Transformations should be performed in accordance with certain rules. Evans). and the dependency tree.B. the kernel declarative sentence is made emphatic either by introducing the accented function word do before the verb if it is in the present or past indefinite or by stressing the copular verb be.A.g. N is A: Susan is American (V. Cf: 251 250 . Z.A.g.

Then the emphatic sentence is transformed into negative by inserting the negation not (or its contracted variant n't} after the stressed do.S.g. Irving). Aldridge). His fingers were trembling (M Quin). The generation of general questions also goes through two stages. —»• What boy thought for a moment? The intonation contour of the transformed special question is the same as that of the kernel declarative sentence. —»• He never touches wine (D. He is afraid of his sister. —» We must not (mustn 't) see them. —> No one can leave (E.F. However. 2.: The door did open. the resulting structure comes to be pronounced with a rising tone.: Does he like cucumbers? —». modal. Hemingway). Cf. although it is not devoid of weak points either. —» Some beautiful roses were sent (by me). Negative sentences are formed directly from kernel declarative sentences: 1) with the help of negative substitutes.: He likes cucumbers (D. be. where John is the recipient of the action.What does he like! Special questions to the subject and its attribute are derived directly from kernel declarative sentences by substituting the subject or its attribute for an interrogative word. -~*• He did not come because he •was ill (N. sentences of the kind / am prettier than her (M. 2)the verb is expanded according to the formula of the passive voice be + -en. 3)the first noun phrase with the preposition by at the head is put after the verb (the third step is optional). Parker). 1. e.: 252 The people said nothing (J. a general question comes into existence: He does like cucumbers. e. and John is easy to please. —> It easily pleases John. it does not help analyze impersonal sentences. sentences with homogeneous parts. or proper auxiliary. —» John eagerly pleases everybody. The function word does changes positions with the noun phrase. Golding). —» Who said nothing1? The fat boy thought for a moment (W. The kernel declarative sentence is changed into emphatic. For instance.: He touches wine (D. We must see them. Cf. He's afraid of his sister (J. -^ He is afraid of his sister. e.: This is the place. His fingers were trembling. e.. The transformational model is also effective in producing complex sentences. the transformational model is the most powerful among those discussed above. He did not come. too. —* We must see them. e. —» This is the place where they last met (N. Thus.: / sent some beautiful roses (R. such as never. The so-called kernel sentences do remind one of the predicative basis of a sentence. —* Does he like cucumbers'? Special questions generally make a third stage necessary when some component of a general question is substituted by an interrogative word. Cf. The procedure of the passive transformation is as follows: 1)the second noun phrase is placed before the verb.)So.: John is eager to please. e. He was ill. it is only the transformational model that helps explain the difference between John is eager to please. Blyton). —> His fingers were trembling. —» The door did open. Parker). On closer inspection.g. nowhere. —> His fingers were not (weren't) trembling. John is easy to please. being primarily formal. however. Thus. Irtenyeva et al. —> He is not (isn't) afraid of his sister. etc.: Every one can leave.g.F. it becomes evident that the two notions are by no means identical because Z.g. Parker).The door opened (E. We must see them (L Collier). They met last in this place. -* He does like cucumbers. Irtenyeva et ah). Harris's list of kernel sentences 253 . where John is the agent of the action. and sentences with non-finite forms of the verb. —> The door did not (didn 't) open. Lardner). Swan). 2) by introducing negative words.g. two sentences can be joined into a complex sentence by w/2-relativizers or subordinates. as an inter-sentence model. As an intra-sentence model.g. the transformational model cannot be consistent in classifying sentence components according to their role in realizing predication. it has certain advantages.

j. e.F. e. Irtenyeva et al.: He manages the bank the manager of the bank —* (N. Irtenyeva et al. The slightest degree of nominalization. Cf. singled out by N. V . The transformation of nominal izati on is mostly applied to kernel sentences. The second reason for using N-transforms is that they make English sentences more compact as compared with complex sentences.g. The low degree of nominalization.g.Ni -™ Bpam . consist. etc.g. for the the bird to sing<is natural> (N. lie. Gimson).). Cowie. — Pe6enoK yMHw. 2) embedding of Participle II between the determiner and the noun. is a non-finite form of the verb.Y. The highest degree of nominalization. the preposition of} between the two noun phrases. Cf: The seagull shrieked —» the shriekfing) of the seagull (N. The bird sings —* bird's singing. How you manage on your income is a puzzle to me (The New Webster's Grammar Guide).it (PyccKaa rpaMMaiHKa)3. finite or non-finite.). comprise only the predicative minimum of a sentence. 3)permutation of the noun phrases.: N! .: The bear was killed —* the killed bear (N. i. e. The study of nominalized kernel sentences has shown that the main procedures applied at the syntactic level are the following: 1)deletion of be.S. A. There is a very ramified (with many branches) set of nominalizing transformations in English.) — possession. 255 . 2.F. Irtenyeva et al.) . 2)the introduction of prepositions (mostly. 3) th e tra n sfo rm a tio n o f a fin ite ve rb i nto a n in fin itiv e preceded by 'for + noun' as subject.: The girl is pretty —*• the pretty girl (N. it is treated indiscriminately in the transformational model. Shvedova in the sixties of the 20th century.: NVN. stretch. 1. the following procedures are used: N stands for a noun. when the nominal structure has no verb.. change it to a form that can appear in one of the NP (noun phrase) positions of another sentence and keep the same relations between their form classes that characterize the sentences from which they are derived.C. Hornby.g.g.for an adjective.F. 3 At the morphemic level.F. when the N-transform. The first reason is that no lexicon can be large enough to contain names for all the things about which at some time or other we shall speak and for which we must have distinct names.Adj! n(WH_ . such as contain. although it does present a rather heterogeneous phenomenon. Irtenyeva etal).F.yvumeJib (PyccKaa rpaMMaTHKa). the icdex.F. The table has three legs —> the legs of the table (N. have and of the verbs of the same groups. Irtenyeva et al.). e. The operations applied are: 1) deletion of be. Adj . Irtenyeva et al. 1) the derivation of a noun from the verb or adjective. The question arises why native speakers of English frequently use N-transforms. Nominalizing transformations nominalize a sentence. stands for the nominative case f (the first case in the case paradigm).: / suggested going home (A.). Cf. capable of standing in the NP position. As for the expansion of the predicative basis. A.e. NVPN). Three degrees of nominalizatiort can be distinguished.). Irtenyeva et al. Passive transforms can be also nominalized.P.comprises not only the predicative basis proper but also its expansion (e. Irtenyeva et al. The room has three windows —+ the room with three windows (N.F. the singing bird. Cf.: The information is of some value —> the information of some value (N. NI .F.for a finite verb. 254 2) the transformation of a finite verb into an mg-form with a possessive subject or embedding it between the determiner and the noun.actor — action.Vf — Jlec uiyMum (PyccKas rpaMMarHKa). Irtenyeva et al.F. 3. The man has a son —* the man's son (N. N! .). when the only trait of nominalization is the capability of a finite clause to stand in the NP position. Structural Sentence Patterns The structural sentence patterns.

257 . come in the initial position (before the subject). However. Three groups of parts of the sentence can be singled out: 1) parts of the sentence realizing predication. a considerable step forward in sentence analysis. due to the absence of explicit predication.: I'm so glad (M.g. since every practical grammar devotes special sections to the ways of expressing parts of the sentence. Heplayedvery badly (W.Starting on the assumption that the sentence is a unit of communication. Of great importance are also the syntactic (word order) and morphological characteristics of all the sentence components. When the predicative expansion modifies only part of the predication. first and foremost. representing. Toby telephoned the director at home (S.S.qualitative adverbial. g.principal part of a onemember sentence. the two interpretations of structural sentence patterns supplement each other. Sheldon). Secondary parts of the sentence include objects. Robins). and are often set off by a comma. In the distance. which usually place the predication in time or space. Christie).: Why did you give it to Audrey? .object.: That evening. Sheldon) . T.subject. 'Sentence representatives' consist of a subject and an operator standing for the predicate. He's on his way from the airport (S. forming a word combination with it. we suggest that pans of the sentence should be singled out and studied with respect to their role in realizing predication. predicate. she suggests that a distinction should be drawn between minimal and expanded structural sentence patterns. Predicative expansion is of two kinds. The only exception is constituted by sentencoids with dependent explicit predication. McCullers) . qualitative adverbials.N.predicate. we shall perform sentence analysis in the traditional terms of parts of the sentence.P. Cf. 2) parts of the sentence modifying the predication as a whole.S. qualitative adverbials. two different levels of abstraction: a higher level of abstraction in the case of orientation on the predicative minimum and a lower level of abstraction in the case of orientation on the communicative minimum. e. Spark) . They say that a structural sentence pattern must be not only formally but also communicatively sufficient to realize a certain situation. he could see the tall chimneys of the factory (Longman Essential Activator).Because she wanted it (A. Sheldon). and attributes. In the opinion of V. Groups of Pans of the Sentence Having defined the sentence as a syntactic unit possessing independent explicit predication. where the sentencoid Because she wanted it consists of the subject she. D. with the sole difference that it does this in words. Cf. and the principal part of a one-member sentence.: The lovely music began (D. and circumstantial adverbials modify the verbal component of predication. the predicate wanted. She plunged into the warm water (S. Beloshapkova. Shmelev and many others question the validity of a purely formal approach to the definition of a structural sentence pattern. The differentiation of the predicative basis of a sentence and its expansion is. Barstow) . as it were. and the objectit.circumstantial adverbial.A. e. Cf. Predication finds its expression in the principal parts of the sentence: subject. Lomtev. we deal with situational modifiers (cumyawnbi). I see a child (S. Objects. not in symbols. The majority of sentencoids. hi case it modifies the predication as a whole. its components build up secondary parts of the sentence. obligatory circumstantial adverbials. Attributes modiiy either the nominal component of predication or a nominal element in the verbal component of predication. Maugham) .: She could not see his face (W. Accordingly. no doubt. 256 Look very carefully (C. Maugham) . defy the structural analysis into parts of the sentence. 3) parts of the sentence modifying either the verbal or the nominal component of predication.

e. (The personal pronouns you and it have the same form for the nominative and the objective cases.g. With transitive action verbs. Evans).: The white hat is Mother !s (V. the subject had the form of the nominative case. and they that have a distinct form for the nominative case.12.adverbial. the subject normally precedes the predicate.g. The subject may also express the inanimate external causer of an event. The existing common and genitive cases can both be used in the function of the subject Cf. It would not be an exaggeration to say that it can perform all the syntactic functions in the sentence. 258 Even Pieter the father was there. the subject is a unit of structural sentence analysis. Swan). However. Viewed from this angle. — When does he get up? The only exception is constituted by questions to the subject and its attribute. the wilful initiator of the action. the subject generally occurs inside the predicate.subjective predicative. Evans) . e. i. Chevalier) -appositive. then. THE SUBJECT Definition of the Subject The traditional definition of the subject is logical. Are they dancing! (V. It usually refers to information that is regarded by the speaker as given. e. the common case is polyfunctional. Cf.E. Hence. In declarative sentences. 'The subject is that which is spoken of. Curme writes. and they1? Certainly not.. (T. as in declarative sentences. that the subject in Modern English is formally marked only when it is expressed by the personal pronouns 1.: He closed the door. G.: 259 . he. she. True. in analytical English. The subject performs a number of semantic roles in the sentence. in interrogative sentences.: Who left the door open? (M. Does it mean. The guests began to arrive around noon on the feast day (T. Cf: She is a doctor (V. the subject should be defined with respect to its role in realizing predication.) When the subject is expressed by a noun. it is practically the only indication of person. (H.' However. it generally combines with the definite article. it is only the personal pronouns /.. and if this or that form falls into disuse.: They are dancing (V. we. Formal Features of the Subject In inflected Old English. Chevalier) -situational modifier. the subject represents the nominal component of predication. Wodehouse). St. Fielding). Have you done all your homework! (Longman Essential Activator) . Chevalier) . word order has come to play an important role in singling out the subject.. Cf. Evans). the morphological criterion fails because nowadays English nouns lack the nominative case.object. precedes the predicate. Thus. Evans). Khlebnikova is perfectly right in stressing that those categories the expression of which is made necessary by the needs of communication do not disappear from a language. Swan). Which costs more? (M. Jespersen).g. the subject often denotes an agent. Semantic Properties of the Subject The subject is typically the theme (or topic) of the sentence. With the disappearance of the nominative case in the system of the noun.attribute. In Modem English. He gets up at 5 o'clock in the morning (V. Paul's is one of the principal sights of London (O. Evans). he. when it is expressed by a common noun.. Since the main structural characteristic of the sentence is predication. another takes its place. we. in which the subject.e. I. On those Sundays I felt very confused (T.: TIte traveller made no reply (P. she.G. the common case is characterized by a much higher frequency of occurrence in the function of the subject than the genitive case. The same happened to the subject in English. She was all alone in a strange city (Longman Essential Activator) .

and emotion). less common semantic roles of the subject. 260 The pronoun it is often used as a semantically empty subject.e. in which the existence of something is asserted or denied. Quirk et al. Sentences with clefting often begin with the dummy subject it. e. such as carry.g. Quirk et al. Quirk et ah). Cf: The match is tomorrow (R. it may express a number of non-agentive roles. the subject identifies the instrument or means used by an agent to perform an action.: There's a wasp in your hair (P. Quirk et al. complex. The Norman invasion took place in 1066 (R. Special types of dummy subjects are found in existential sentences. cognition. i.: It is clear that it will not be simple (D. in which the information is broken into two clauses. Quirk et ah). Cf: The police are close to solving the mystery of the missing murder weapon (Oxford Collocations Dictionary). keep. e. They are staying at a motel (R.: They were seen taking the train to 261 . atmospheric conditions. My friend is sitting in a chair near the door (R.). Leech). and the subject clause is placed after the predicate. Yesterday was sunny (R. The explosion caused many casualties (R. live. Cf.). Biber. etc.). and distance. The predicates here do not suggest any participant involved semantically. to provide extra focus to one piece of information. G. sentences with extraposition.). we find a recipient subject. It's bitterly cold outside (Oxford Collocations Dictionary). Quirk et al. Cf: The hijacker was holding a revolver (R. A simple subject is expressed by a single notional word or a non-clausal combination of words. Local and temporal roles are generally expressed by adverbials and situational modifiers rather than the subject. With very many stative verbs (denoting relationship and mental states of perception. Cf: / have lived in London most of my life (R. hold. e.: TV was invented by Baird (V. Cf: It is too windy in Chicago (R. S. but it is obligatorily inserted simply to complete the structure of the sentence grammatically. Existential sentences are sentences. particularly in speaking about time. Quirk et ah). A sentence with clefting is a sentence. and sentences with clefting. Structural Types of Subjects Structurally. Verbs denoting position in space combine with a positioner subject. Biber. Conrad. S.: // was his voice that held me (D.A sudden gust of wind blew the door shut (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Many English intransitive verbs combine with an affected subject. can also combine with a positioner subject. etc. e. Quirk et ah).: She drowned in the river (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).g. a role typically found with direct objects.g. they usually begin with the dummy subject there. Affected subjects are normal in passive constructions.). Quirk et ah).g. e.g. // was sunny yesterday (R. Transitive verbs related to stance verbs. Cf: Chicago is too windy (R. Quirk et al. A sentence with extraposition is a sentence where dummy // fills the subject slot. Quirk et al. such as sit.: / could just hear the music in the distance (Oxford Collocations Dictionary). Quirk et ah). Air travel has lost much of its mystery (Oxford Collocations Dictionary). e.g. e. The positioner role is particularly common with intransitive stance verbs. A complex subject consists of two components linked by secondary predication. wear.: It's 9 o'clock (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Evans). In English. Matthews). Conrad. remain. There are no children in this house (M. lie. Although the subject is often associated with agency. discrete.: The key opened the door (ChJ. He kept himself upright (R. G. An important role of the subject is eventive. Swan). Leech). stand. In other cases. stay. It is not far to York (R.g. Other. Filtmore). are local and temporal. subjects fall into four types: simple. Quirk et ah).). and clausal.H. Cf.

in the passive construction it corresponds to the complex subject they . Boundaries of the Predicate As opposed to the subject. A complex member of the sentence consists of two parts linked by means of secondary predication.A. 'The predicate is that which is said of the subject. 'anticipatory subjects' [P.I. but by no means complex. there) points to it. there. Quirk et al.. children) names it. in which the combination them taking the train is undoubtedly a complex object. the predicate renders all the predicative categories: modality. Their subjects are discrete.. Rogovskaya question the validity of such an approach on transformational grounds... and person.. 263 .]. both elements indicate one and the same phenomenon: the first (if. The passive construction They were seen taking the train to Paris is generated from the active construction People saw them taking the train to Paris. Sentences beginning with it and there present a debatable problem.. The second element here does not characterize the first. is a unit of structural sentence analysis. 'dummy subjects' [D.' However.. There were only two children in front of him now (F. Of course. Wilde). etc.. just like the subject. Cf. Thus. the predication building power of the predicate is more restricted: here it generally serves as an indication of modality and tense.: It's delightful to watch them (O. THE PREDICATE Definition of the Predicate The traditional definition of the predicate is logical.. As a matter of fact. children) and removing it closer to the rhematic final position.. person characteristics being comprised in the nominal component of predication.. And the object of an active construction corresponds to the subject of a parallel passive construction. Curme writes. Even a cursory glance at the two examples will suffice to convince anybody that secondary predication is alien to them in spite of the fact that their subjects also comprise two components.Paris (S. Biber et al. e.S.. Discrete subjects 262 are generally resorted to for the sake of emphasizing the subject in analytical languages where the place of the subject is grammatically fixed in the thematic initial position. the predicate represents the verbal component of predication. Matthews]. some linguists [for instance. The use of a discrete subject allows one to kill two birds with one stone. Sheldon). the predicate follows the subject. the second (to watch. V. Khaimovich and B. the auxiliary part of the predicate precedes the subject.. Swan]. G.g. In declarative sentences... that has definite morphological and syntactic means of expression and hence causes almost no difficulties in the process of singling it out. the notional part of the predicate comes after it.. one generates a grammatical sentence. one gets an opportunity to increase the communicative value of the subject without violating grammar rules. Some linguists think that we deal with complex subjects here: it.: How the disease started is one of medicine's greatest mysteries (Oxford Collocations Dictionary). Viewed from this angle. B.. tense. Ilyish] regard the participle taking as part of a compound predicate.]. in interrogative sentences. Since them taking the train is a complex object in the active construction. English grammarians call the initial it and there in the above given sentences 'introductory subjects' [M. the predicate presents one with a lot of controversial points.L. by introducing a notional subject (to watch. 13.H. so to speak: by putting the dummy subject (it or there) before the predicate. were seen taking the train. word order in analytical languages is of great help. B.(only two) children. the predicate. where the components they and taking are linked by secondary predication.. That's why we exclude sentences beginning with it and there from constructions with complex subjects. In inflected languages. In analytical languages.to watch (them).. A clausal subject is a finite clause possessing primary predication. because the relations between these components have nothing to do with the relations between the subject and the predicate.. O'Connor). Kaushanskaya and her co-authors. taking the train. True. 'grammatical subjects' [R.

Cf. Barstow). Barkhudarov.: He took the box from his pocket (St Benet). B. in our view. realize the predicative categories of modality and tense.e. not simple predicates. occasionally . A. J. in her opinion. The latter. No wonder that one and the same sentence admits of different interpretations as far as the predicate is concerned. communicates something. Bates). Scheurweghs. and communicatively sufficient for the characterization of the nominal component of predication. The authors of practical grammars [V. expressed by a finite verb in a synthetic or analytical form. in a number of cases. namely the predicate. can as well be conveyed by a single verb. There is no gainsaying the fact that the verb plays an important role in realizing predication because it possesses morphological mood and tense forms indispensable for expressing predication. Hill. becomes meaningful only within the phraseological unit. Leacock).L. When one component meets these requirements. For the English language. Kaushanskaya et al. G. by itself. the predicate can be tentatively defined as the verbal component of predication realizing the grammatical categories of modality. D. and person. On the syntagmatic axis. Cf.person. As a result. Their way of reasoning is clear enough: the components of a phraseological predicate form an indivisible unit expressing one idea. i.person.C.B. can hardly be regarded as sufficient grounds for referring phraseological units to simple verbal predicates.N. but not a sufficient property of the predicate as a means of realizing the verbal component of predication. Others [the vast majority] are of opinion that the presence of the verb constitutes a necessary. an isolated verb often displays communicative deficiency.E. the predicate is considered to be simple: when two or more components are necessary. what kind of predicate do phraseological units constitute? The semantic equivalence to the verb. tense. constitutes the socalled speech predicate. Sledd. A. It goes without saying that the components of a phraseological unit comprising a verb should be regarded as one member of the sentence. Zandvoort] gives the widest possible definition of the predicate. Potebnya. Fernald] identify the predicate with the verb. for the essence of predication is not restricted to the set of the verbal categories of modality. Ilyish thinks that the simple predicate can be also nominal. Predication always actualizes a certain situation. -> They dined (W. L. Three approaches stand out especially clearly. As a matter of fact. tense. Cf. 265 264 . The notion of the language predicate. the syntactic criterion of word order fails to define the boundaries of the predicate. is much narrower. from the point of view of the grammatical categories of modality. according to O. the boundaries of the predicate are widened to embrace also those elements that impart communicative independence to a structurally autonomous unit. we deal with two components: the first characterizes the nominal component of predication structurally.A. He loved his books and took great care of them (Oxford Collocations Dictionary).. making part of a phraseological unit. sometimes . Roberts. We do not share this conception on the ground that the nominal component cannot. Shteling and some others] refer to the simple verbal predicate phraseological units of the type: They had dinner (St. R. The third group of linguists [W. Such discreteness is typical of compound. You haven'/ told me your name (H.A. In the case of a phraseological unit. which. Leacock). including into it all the verbal complements and modifiers. That's why we side with those who regard the so-called phraseological predicate as a subtype of the compound predicate.However. we speak of compound predicates. Deeping). Classification of Simple and Compound Predicates The majority of linguists think that the simple predicate can be only verbal. Some linguists [for example. undergoes a considerable change of meaning in the phraseological unit. tense.A. as a rule.: They had dinner (St. the second helps actualize the situation.S. the verb. However. Francis. Simple predicates make use of one component that turns out structurally and communicatively sufficient for the characterization of the nominal component of predication. J. for the verb.W. Sirotinina. P.A.: But he never found him (S.

Golding). The predicative is the semantic centre of the compound nominal predicate: it either characterizes the referent of the subject or identifies the subject referent. The compound nominal predicate is also heterogeneous. He seemed puzzled (E. Wells). Galsworthy). expressing the reality or nonreality of the action. Jespersen's point of view does not stand criticism because modal verbs and their equivalents. Really. du Maurier). Potcheptsov singles out: a) compound verbal predicates. taste.: He began to laugh (D. She kept walking about the kitchen (J.. The predicative can be expressed by a noun. Swan). The term 'copular verb' is not a happy one because the true function of a copular verb is not a connecting one. The compound nominal predicate proper comprises a copular verb devoid of lexical meaning (in English there is only one empty copular verb . Spark). Who's that? .g. .A.A. Ilyish) are identical in function: both can be qualified as objects to the verb began. The compound verbal modal predicate. B. Piggy went on speaking (W. Queen). infinitives and gerunds after aspective verbs are regarded by us as parts of compound verbal aspective predicates. end. a participle. look. aspective verbs generally require a complement. namely an object. 2.G. seem. in our opinion.person. e. Swan). sometimes . Cf: / was angry at the delay (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). etc. etc.It's John (M. It consists of a finite verb indicating the beginning.g. are naturally more closely connected with the finite verb than nouns. Cf. Who's that? ~ It's me (M. In the second type of compound nominal predicates.as objects. Maugham). can characterize the nominal component of predication only structurally. an adverb. expressing the attitude of the b) compound verbal predicates. etc. They consider that his work in the sentence He began his work (B. 1. smell. Ilyish and L. Hemingway). comprise a modal shade of meaning and can be included as a subclass into the group of compound verbal modal predicates. as non-finite forms of the verb. e.the verb be) and a predicative. nouns .g. e. Hanley). e. In the opinion of O. 2) copular verbs of becoming: become. substantival or verbal. Nobody was able to answer this question (M. Infinitives and gerunds.g. Kitty was silent (W. In view of this. being semanticafly deficient. The compound verbal aspective predicate. a word combination. His heart stopped beating (J. clearly distinct from the predicate. mood.: I feigned to read (H. turn.S. Jespersen. It comprises a modal verb or its equivalent and an infinitive. grow. Cf.: The sound of footsteps grew louder (Longman Language Activator). It expresses the predicative categories of tense. a pronoun. 267 subject to the action. But in spite of the seeming identity of substantival and verbal complements. the grammatical centre of the predicate possesses a certain lexical meaning so that one can draw a distinction between: 1) copular verbs of being: feel. or repetition of an action followed by an infinitive or gerund.: / want to write (E. O. Irving).S. duration.: He is a waiter (V. there is a certain point of difference between the two. Cusack). Their secret is out (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Ilyish) and to work in the sentence He began to work (B. In addition to the compound verbal modal predicate and the compound verbal aspective predicate. Evans).: A moment may ruin a life (D.The compound predicate falls under verbal and nominal.: You look happy (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). All these predicates. e-g. the infinitive after modal verbs and their equivalents should be regarded as a specific member of the sentence. G.A.. Barkhudarov deny the existence of the compound verbal aspective predicate. It's a wonderful story (J.G. an adjective. get. The compound verbal predicate is further subdivided into several types.

But the predicate is an independent member of the sentence. Shakhmatov suggests that it should be called a second predicate.. Christie). A predicative always presupposes the presence of a copular verb. It only states that the third component is not a predicative. ill makes part of predication.. semi-notional copular verbs are communicatively and. consequently. In view of this. The term is not a happy one either since predicative and attributive relations are not identical notions.. just like the empty copular verb be. continue.: 268 Her little boy is lying ill.ill) whose syntactic nature admits of several interpretations. a simple verbal predicate (in our case . For a moment he remained silent (A. G. an adjective. In analytical English. just like a predicative proper in sentences with compound nominal predicates. A. The second type of compound nominal predicates.her little boy). —»• * The sound of footsteps grew.. Cf. O.: For a moment he remained silent (A.. e. consequently. Galinskaya think that we cannot call it a predicative. where agreement has almost completely disappeared. L. Wilde).A. the predicate characterizes only the nominal component of predication. On the one hand. Shakhmatov was the first to draw the attention of linguists to a specific character of their structure. The element ill in the sentence Her little boy is lying ill fulfils two functions. it introduces an adverbial characteristic of the action. forming a simple verbal predicate.3) copular verbs of remaining: remain. Curme calls the third component a predicative appositive. or an adjectivized participle. it is not a predicate proper. syntactically deficient in the sense that they cannot form the predicate in the absence of a predicative. Jespersen calls it a quasi predicative.N. Tchesnokova calls the element ill in the sentence 'Her little boy is lying ill' dynneKcue. 4 Her little boy is ill. we shall regard it as a predicative. and phraseologically bound compound nominal predicates in which the meaning of the predicate is not directly deduced from the meanings of its components (for detailed treatment see the problem of the phraseological predicate). there is no copular verb. —» *You look. exists in two varieties: free compound nominal predicates in which the meaning of the predicate is the sum total of the meanings of its components (see the above given examples). it fails to form a grammatical sentence with the subject boy in the absence of the verbal component is lying. hi such cases as Her little boy is lying ill. dyweKcue agrees with the nominal component of predication and is governed by the verbal component of predication. On the other hand. and a third member (in our case . Then there exist sentences of the type: In a bed in the corner of the room her little boy is lying ill (O. In inflected languages. dyruteKCue does not formally agree with the nominal component of predication. The word ill in the sentence Her little boy is lying ill refers to the subject boy. Hence. Since the component /// in the sentence Her little boy is lying ill not only characterizes the subject boy predicatively but also has a form typical of a predicative. The sound of footsteps grew louder (Longman Language Activator). which again leads to the confusion of two basically different syntactic relations: apposition and predication. The relationship between dynjiexcue and the verbal component of predication in English is similar to that in inflected languages. A. But this is a purely negative characteristic. JfynneKCue is governed by the verbal component: its form is strictly predetermined: a noun. it describes the state of the nominal component when it undergoes the action in question. not attributively. It is obvious that the word ill in the sentence Her little boy is lying ill characterizes the subject predicatively. Christie). 269 . for the element lie fully preserves its lexical meaning and is communicatively and. Paul. stay.A. —> *For a moment he remained.. At the same time. etc. dynneKcue in English is connected with the nominal component of predication only through semantic correlation.. Shakhmatov and M. keep.A. As for the element ill.D. They consist of a subject (in our case .is lying). Queen). the third component should be called a predicative attribute. Besides. However. Nevertheless. in our opinion.g. That's why A. Cf: You look happy (E. syntactically independent. But what is it? According to H.

In other words. there is no inconsistency in this.. Cf. the essence of agreement lies in subordination. Jespersen). Porter). where the predicate is plural.gThe family live in Denver (Th.The compound modal nominal predicate. M. when the subject is in the singular. If the predicate does agree with the subject. and in this respect the grammatical predicate is just as independent as the grammatical subject.I. the predicate is bound to be in the plural as well. implies that the speaker is not thinking of the individuals. e. the predicate is bound to be in the singular.g. Birds sing (O.: / began to feel hungry (D.The compound aspective nominal predicate. 1. du Maurier). Peshkovsky was the first to pay attention to this divergence between formal agreement and agreement in meaning.S. Mixed types of predicates are rather many.e. V. we make use of a predicate-verb in the plural. although the subject is singular..L.g. Dreiser). e. Schematically.The compound modal aspective predicate. Smirnitsky. however. 2. Whenever the statement is meant to apply to the separate individuals. we have a fusion of two predicates here: simple verbal and compound nominal. The connection between the predicate and the subject. Hornby).g.g. Most authors of practical grammars [e. Even in such cases as The boys are getting up (A. symbolizes real connection.M. Ganshina. With the exception of the verb be. In the first place. Dreiser). then it is not clear why we qualify it as a principal and not as a secondary pan of the sentence. Dreiser). e. etc. and the combination of subject and predicate forms a unit of a higher level . e.g. but because the underlying logical notion presupposes plurality. 270 From a logical point of view. Both the grammatical subject and the grammatical predicate render the meaning of number. is open to criticism. *• It follows from the scheme. according to H. the subjectpredicate agreement is limited to the present tense. Murphy). it can be represented like this: Grammatical Subject AGrammatical Predicate Predicate of Thought Note: symbolizes seeming connection. e. 271 . the predicate does not always follow the subject in the category of number.: A bird sings (O. And last but not least. is indirect: it is predetermined by their mutual orientation on the subject of thought.At the same time. (R.g. e. N.I.] think that the English predicate agrees in number with the subject. In the opinion of A. Type of Syntactic Connection of the Predicate with the Subject The next problem that arises in connection with the predicate is the type of its syntactic connection with the subject. Lindsay). but rather of the whole collective body. Sweet. on my Father's side (Th.: He ought to be here now (K. on the other hand. for the now family combines the idea of a single body of people with that of the separate individuals of which it is composed. / was tired last night (R. agreement is a syntactic device of building up word combinations.: The family live in Denver (Th. Jespersen). 3. i.: He ought to stop doing nothing and criticizing everybody (J. Kaushanskaya and her co-authors. there is no gainsaying the fact that the verb lie is both semanticaily and communicatively independent and forms a simple verbal predicate.: Our family was French. In the second place. Vasilevskaya. We were tired after the journey.a sentence. and when the subject is in the plural. Murphy). This conception. Smirnitsky. that the category of number in the predicate-verb (a) is independent of the same category in the grammatical subject (A). the predicate-verb is in the plural not because the grammatical subject boys is in the plural. there is no formal agreement whatsoever. A singular predicate-verb. A.A. according to A.

g.: Ha TlytUKUHCKOU nnou^aou npodaeanu iteemu (JI. Objective and adverbial determiners modify the predication as a whole and are structurally optional. Murphy). and when we are confronted with the problem of choosing the right form for the predicate-verb. Evans). Somewhere below. in the dark stand of trees. Murphy). But as opposed to the predicate of two-member sentences.g. Jespersen defines both the subject and the object as primary words connected with the verb of the sentence.e. English grammarians mention the ability of some adverbs and prepositional phrases to modify the sentence as a whole.S. Cf. Perhaps. To determiners she refers independent sentence modifiers. Nobody ever heard of them again. They didn't offer Ann the job (R.The only difference. —> They were never heard of again (W. fljut podumejieu mbi onxmb MOJiwuwKa (H. for the object depends on the predicate-verb not only semantically but also formally. Neither do Russian linguists studying the English language. The signs of formal dependence are as follows: 1) the use of personal pronouns in the oblique objective case. Deeping). e. Murphy). Leech. L. i. Shvedova was the first to single out the determiner (demepMUHanm) in Russian. CHMOHOB).M. Objective determiners do exist in English. Barkhudarov calls such type of syntactic connection correspondence. Shaw). —» The telephone was invented by Bell (V.g.e. Perhaps. the object is expressed by a noun or a noun equivalent. through the meaning of a certain word or word combination. Adverbial determiners (or situational modifiers) <cianyawnu> are common both in Russian and in English. the object usually becomes the subject of a passive construction. that is the reason why O. THE DETERMINER N. Subjective determiners can hardly be called independent sentence modifiers as they usually realize the nominal component of predication and are consequently structurally obligatory. but they do not single them out into a specific part of the sentence. 2)semantically. e.: CtiHUpey noeesjio (K.S.: family. A primary word is not subordinated to any other word. but they are characterized by a lower frequency of occurrence than in Russian. we are always guided by the semantics of the grammatical subject.: Bell invented the telephone (V.: 272 . the principal part of one-member sentences generally comprises person characteristics and lacks correspondence with the nominal component of predication. The object does not. Svartvik). 15. Barkhudarov. -* Ann wasn't offered the job (R. In the process of the passive transformation. Nelson). his behaviour -was astonishing (G.g. in sentencoids of the type Away with you (B. Cf. i. THE OBJECT Definition of the Object One of the differential features of the object is its correlation with the subject. The subject meets this requirement.g. 14. To his parents. the component with you can be regarded as a subjective determiner. lies in the fact that the meaning of number in the grammatical subject can be realized in two ways: 1)morphologically. e. Christie). in the opinion of L. with the help of this or that inflection. e. j. JleoHOB).: You surprise me (A. In the predicate-verb.Y. The principal part of one-member sentences has much in common with the predicate of two-member sentences. 273 Subjective determiners are not typical of the analytical English language. Rail was sitting (R. Just like the subject. e. which give a subjective-objective or adverbial characteristic of the predication as a whole and generally occur in the initial position. The job wasn't offered to Ann (R. Evans).: boys. the meaning of number is always realized morphologically.K).

some require two objects. while the combination to my friend in the sentence / wrote a letter to my friend here (A. 4)prepositional objects. O. The formal syntactic criterion. prepositional objects are singled out by him on the basis of a syntactic criterion. But the verbal component of predication is not restricted to the verb. G.g. in the sentence This house is full of painful recollections (A.P. G. Wilson). Burlakova and G. Curme takes form as a starting point. The predominant use of a morphological criterion in classifying such syntactic phenomena as objects is hardly justified. Sh. Poutsma's classification of objects is more consistent in this respect. e. Christie) is a prepositional object. does not work either.S. e. can be prepositional and non-prepositional. In the first place. 2)indirect objects. H. G. In the second place. Maugham). take into account the number of objects necessary for making the verbal component of predication communicatively and syntactically independent.G. He distinguishes: 1)direct objects. The main drawback of H. Hardy). They draw a distinction between 5 semantic types of objects. 3)prepositional objects. book is a direct object. there exist no meaningless forms. Give it to the doctor (S. however. one should. Sweet's classification lies in the fact that the criteria of meaning and form in it do not interpenetrate. V. dividing all objects into two classes: 1)prepositional objects. Robins). Thus. semantics comes in. We adopt the semantic classification of objects suggested by I. In a number of cases. prepositional objects are singled out on a purely formal principle.g. me is an indirect object.: She smiled at me (D. Some verbal components of predication require one object.g. dative. Cf.: He insisted on speaking to her (W. but the verbal component of predication. That's why we define the object as a secondary part of the sentence that modifies not the verb. 2)non-prepositional objects. Sweet takes into consideration both meaning and form. Curme's classification is based on different principles. 274 275 . What is more. Having defined the object as a secondary part of the sentence that modifies the verbal component of predication. He mentions four types of objects: 1)accusative objects. He makes use of a syntactic criterion only.V. Ivanova. the prepositional object of painful recollections expands the whole verbal component of predication is full that consists of the copular verb is and the adjective/«//.2) the bound nature of some prepositions in prepositional objects. in the sentence He showed me his book (R. not only objects. Lardner). While drawing a distinction between the first three types of objects (accusative. denoting the person or thing to which the action of the verb passes on. At the second stage of analysis. Potcheptsov. all secondary parts of the sentence. 2)dative objects. first of all. H.¥mo?). each of which has a number of formal characteristics. Thus. 3)genitive objects. Curme applies a morphological criterion. Classifications of Objects The problem of classifying objects is even more debatable. he points out that it stands in close relation to the verb. Jespersen can be reproached with terminological inaccuracy. e. especially if we take into consideration that in Modern English neither nouns nor pronouns have special forms for the accusative and dative cases. Ellin). The authors of the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English speak of monotransitive and ditransitive patterns respectively. Direct and indirect objects are distinguished primarily on a semantic principle (KoMy? .: / didn 't say a word (M. it also comprises a substantival element. Christie). Defining the object.: Poirot returned the letter (A. and genitive). While classifying objects.

When the agent is unknown. <= Somebody used a heavy stone to kill him. The manager offered a job to David (V.g.: This house was built by my grandfather (R. e. Two affected objects occur after the following verbs: ask. Cf: The manager offered David a job (V. e. Robins). which carries the main new information. Swan). . Collins). Vasilevskaya). on the other hand. The application of transformational procedure.g. A cat may look at a king (L. somewhat like an adverbial. Swan). Chafe). The components died and a dreadful death.: TV was invented by Baird (V. <= A heavy stone fell and killed him.J. Adverbials of manner primarily make use of formations in -ly. it was red. The combination of a noun with an adjective in a dependent position is more typical of a predicative and an object.. .: He was arrested (V. 4. hear. Affected object (dononnenue oS^SKma) denoting a person or thing affected by an action or directly involved in an action. In view of the fact that the intransitive verb died does not require an objective complement. a prepositional recipient object comes after an affected object. envy. The noun in a cognate object generally has some sort of modification. Recipient object (donojinenue adpecama) denoting a person for whose benefit an action is performed or towards whom it is directed. A cognate object is either of the same root as the predicate-verb or is similar to it in meaning. e.: But she died a dreadful death. poor soul. forgive. Cf: Give me the tickets (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).> The occurrence of an agent object in passive sentences is optional. the agent object is omitted. We question the validity of such interpretation on two grounds: formal and semantic.: / answered frankly (D. > 5. other kinds of objects cannot be used in it. Tom ran a race (W. He was killed with a heavy stone (M. Evans). e. one might be tempted to refer combinations of the type a dreadful death to adverbials of manner. Carroll). Cognate objects are used after intransitive verbs. Cf: / looked but could see nothing (M. 3. Give the tickets to me (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Evans). The instrumental object is used both in active and passive sentences. There can be two affected objects in a sentence. It is always introduced by the preposition by. Evans). shows that both parts of a mixed verbal-nominal predicate characterize one and the same subject. It is always introduced by the preposition with. it is logical to suppose that the substantival combination a dreadful death forms with the verb a mixed verbalnominal predicate. Agent object (dononnenue dexmejix) denoting the doer of an action expressed by a verb in the passive voice.: The moon rose m/(M. Affected objects can be non-prepositional and prepositional. Cognate object (podcmeennoe donojinenue} repeating the meaning of the predicate-verb. Evans). Instrumental object {donojinenue uucmpyMenma} denoting a tool using which the agent performed a certain action. Cf: I dreamed a strange dream (Ch.1. So.: Ask him his name (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Swan). If there is a cognate object in the sentence. —» When the moon rose. Murphy). e. e. Such predicates do exist. A recipient object cannot be used without an affected object.g. He was murdered (V. A non-prepositional recipient object comes before an affected object. Ganshina. —* But she died dreadfully.g. etc. take. Cf: I killed the spider with a newspaper (M. unimportant or obvious. e.The agent is obvious: it is the police.g. poor soul.: The moon rose red. Swan). answer.L.. N. 2. (W. It is used only if it adds information.g. refer to different subjects. Fillmore). Recipient objects can also be bom non-prepositional and prepositional.. Evans). however.g.The agent is unknown. Cf.: 276 277 . Cf.. He was killed by a heavy stone (M.

Swan] or an anticipatory object [D. The term 'adverbial' is not a happy one. Ilyish finds it possible to keep the term since it is firmly established in linguistics. A complex object consists of two components linked by secondary predication. the adverbial sometimes does modify it. Although adverbials are generally grammatically optional. the adverbial usually modifies the verbal component of predication as a whole. A discrete object also consists of two components. Parsons).e. Cf. In the first place. Some verbs take an adverbial in order to complete their meaning. it is an object. —> She died. Most adverbials are optional in the sentence structure. THE ADVERBIAL Role of Adverbials in the Sentence Ididn 'tsee her go (H. an infinitival phrase or a complement clause. Obligatory adverbials can occur with two patterns: 'intransitive verb + adverbial' and 'transitive verb + object + adverbial'. both of them wrong.time and manner. i. e. e. Another secondary part of the sentence is an adverbial.: His wife killed hint (J. the information contained in them is in many cases crucial for fully understanding the proposition in a sentence. the term 'adverbial' may lead one to the conclusion that an adverbial always modifies the verb of a sentence. and clausal. complex. If the verb is intransitive. Consequently. sometimes . It gives rise to two notions. B. an infinitive. / think it important that we should keep calm (M. Swan). The adverbial modifies the verbal component of predication in different aspects but the one elucidated by the object.]. 1openedthe front door (D. Hill). Sheldon). and they cannot be omitted without making a difference to meaning. The dummy object it is always followed by an evaluative adjective. -* She stared at him. they can be left out without making the sentence structure ungrammatical.: / thought you were thirsty (S. It is only simple and discrete objects that can be regarded as secondary parts of non-complicated monopredicative syntactic units. Robins). objects fall into four types: simple. but they are not linked by secondary predication. points to it.: 279 278 . the verb in combination with its object. Constructions with the so-called cognate objects are more emphatic than those with adverbials of manner. Cf. one may suppose that an adverbial is always expressed by an adverb. Both components indicate one and the same phenomenon: the first. —> A car willpickyou up.g. poor soul.g. Sheldon). A clausal object is a finite clause possessing primary predication.E. names it.: A car will pick you up in the morning (S. Structurally. but by no means the only one. Although the term 'adverbial' is rather misleading.A. e. But she speaks Enslish perfectly (English Course). Cf. This is known as an obligatory adverbial. i.: 16. In the second place. A simple object is expressed by a single notional word or a non-clausal combination of words. Swan). if the verb is transitive.: She stared at him in disbelief (S. the substantival word combination a dreadful death cannot be regarded as part of a mixed verbal-nominal predicate. e.g.g. the second. Obligatory adverbials usually express place or direction. it is closer to adverbials of manner. English grammarians call the dummy object it a preparatory object [M. Biber et al. discrete. semantically. Her death was dreadful. Jones). The adverb is the most usual way of expressing an adverbial. Bates). Formally (morphologically and positionally). a seraantically empty (or dummy) object it. Cf: / find it difficult to talk to you about anything serious (M.: He went to the airport information desk (L.e.But she died a dreadful death.

But the stove stood in the someplace (R. Wright) - place, He moved towards her (J. Parsons) - direction. The pleasant summer lasted well into March (D. Biber et al.) - time. She treats us like children (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) - manner. In these sentence patterns, the adverbial has to be present in order to complete the structure and meaning of the verb. This may be tested by removing the adverbial resulting in an ungrammatical construction. Cf.: But the stove stood in the same place. —> *But the stove stood lasted well into He moved towards her. The •* *He moved... March. pleasant summer pleasant summer lasted... She treats us like children. *She treats us... Different Classifications ofAdverbials While describing adverbials, linguists usually focus their attention on three aspects: the ways of expression, meaning (or function), and position in the sentence. Morphological Classification English resorts to the following language means to express an adverbial. 1. Single adverbs and adverb phrases, e.g.: She 'II never get over it (D. Robins). She played her part very well (A. Christie). 2. Single nouns and noun phrases, e.g.: He is travelling north (S. Sheldon). He drives to work every day (V. Evans). 3. Prepositional phrases, e.g.: She listened in silence (J. Parsons). 4. Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, infinitives, participles, or prepositional phrases with a subordinator at the head, e.g.: Jean runs faster than John (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). 280 "Th

I'm not as clever as her (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). The discussion can, if necessary, be continued tomorrow (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). She nervously moved her hand towards his lips as if to stop him (Ch. Dickens). While waiting for the water to boil, he held his face over the stove (J. London). Somehow he, when with her, noted an unusual brightness in her eyes (J. London), 5. Finite clauses, e.g.: 1 came to you because you're her closest friend (R. MacDonald). 6. Infinitives, infinitival phrases, and infinitival predicative constructions, e.g.: He stopped for a minute to rest (M Swan). He went to buy some bread (V. Evans). He stepped aside for me to pass (D. du Maurier). 7. Participial phrases, e.g.: Feeling rather tired, I telephoned and said f couldn 't come (M. Swan). 8. Non-prepositional and prepositional absolute participial constructions, e.g.: She sat down, her breath coming painfully (A. Christie). The daughter sat quite silent and still, with her eyes fixed on the ground (Ch. Dickens). 9. Non-prepositional and prepositional absolute constructions without a participle, e.g.: She stared at him, a look of puzzlement on her face (J. Parsons). I found him ready, and waiting for me, with his stick in his hand (W. Collins). 10. Gerundial phrases, e.g.: After leaving her umbrella in the hall, she entered the living room (A. Cronin).

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Functional Classification The criterion of Sanction allows English grammarians to divide adverbials into three classes: circumstance adverbials, stance adverbials, and linking adverbials. Circumstance adverbials add information about the action or state described in the sentence, answering questions, such as: How? Whenl Where*? How much? To what extent? Why? They include both obligatory and optional adverbials, e.g.: You live in South London (L. and J. Soars) - obligatory. Wait a minute (L. Jones) - optional. Stance adverbials convey speakers' comments on what they are saying or how they are saying it. Stance adverbials fall into three categories: epistemic, attitude, and style adverbials. Epistemic stance adverbials focus on the question how true is the information in the sentence. They comment on factors, such as certainty, viewpoint, and limitations of truth-value. Cf.: She is definitely coming (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). That really was wonder/id! (D. Robins). Apparently they 're intending to put up the price of electricity (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Attitude stance adverbials express speakers' evaluations and attitudes towards the content of a sentence, e.g.: Unfortunately, they were out when we called (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Style stance adverbials convey a speaker's comment on the style or form of the communication. Often style stance adverbials clarify the speaker's manner of speaking or how the utterance should be understood, e.g.: He's up to his eyes in paperwork - figuratively speaking, of course*. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Linking adverbials serve a connecting function. They make explicit the relationship between two units of discourse, e.g.: The company's profits have fallen slightly. However, this is not a serious problem (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). It seems to us that stance and linking adverbials should be regarded not as secondary parts of the sentence, but as parenthetic 282

elements (modal and cohesive respectively) because they are not integrated into the structure of the sentence. The linguistic status of circumstance adverbials as secondary parts of the sentence is also debatable. The thing is that English grammarians include into this class not only circumstance adverbials proper but also qualitative adverbials. According to A.I. Smirnitsky, they are syntactically heterogeneous. Qualitative adverbials always modify the verbal component of predication. Circumstance adverbials modify the verbal component of predication when they are obligatory- When circumstance adverbials are optional, they generally modify the predication as a whole. In other words, qualitative adverbials and obligatory circumstance adverbials can be regarded as secondary pans of the sentence. Optional circumstance adverbials, in our opinion, should be looked upon as situational modifiers. I shall not dwell on the semantic categories of circumstance adverbials, such as time, place, reason, concession, etc., because we discussed it in detail while speaking about adverbial clauses. Syntactic Classification An important characteristic of adverbials is that they can occur in a variety of positions in a sentence. A. Western distinguishes five major positions. 1. Front-order, i.e. position at the very beginning of a sentence before both the subject and the predicate-verb, e.g.: To-night I go to Egypt (O. Wilde). 2. Pre-order, i.e. position before the synthetic form of the predicate-verb, e.g.: I never lived in Germany (J. Irving). 3. Mid-order, i.e. position after the first auxiliary verb when the predicate-verb has an analytical form, e.g.: I shall never forget the day (D. Robins). 4. Post-order, i.e. position between the predicate-verb and the rest of the sentence, e.g.: I walked angrily out of the room (M. Swan). 5. End-order, i.e. position at the end of a sentence, e.g.: /'// call you Monday (S. Sheldon).
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The position of an adverbial is of paramount importance because it gives the analyst an opportunity to draw a distinction between adverbials (modifying the verbal component of predication) and situational modifiers (modifying the predication as a whole). There is a rising tendency nowadays to place situational modifiers, especially those telling us when an event took place, in the initial position and set them off with a comma, e.g.: The following morning, the Great Man himself telephoned her (S. Sheldon). Structural Classification Structurally, adverbials fall into three types: simple, complex, and clausal. A simple adverbial is expressed by a single word or a non-clausal combination of words. Cf.: I never believed him (J. Parsons). They talked until three o 'clock in the morning (S, Sheldon). A complex adverbial consists of two components linked by secondary predication, e.g.: He left the man with his mouth open... (A, Christie). A clausal adverbial is a finite clause possessing primary predication, e.g.: If he died, she would die with him (S. Sheldon). It is only simple adverbials that can be regarded as secondary parts of non-complicated monopredicative syntactic units. 17. THE ATTRIBUTE Definition of the Attribute The attribute is a secondary part of the sentence modifying the nominal component of predication or some substantival element in the verbal component of predication. Cf.: The front-door bell rang ... (D. Robins). She bought her new clothes (J. Parsons). So, it is rather the part of speech nature of the word that makes its attributive modification possible [A.I. Smirnitsky]. No wonder that English grammarians study attributive expansion at the word 284

combination level, not on the sentence level. Having defined secondary parts as those sentence elements that modify part of the predication forming a word combination with it. we think it possible to study attributes at the sentence level, too. Prepositive Attributes Attributes occur either in preposition or in postposition to the substantival component they modify. According to Ch. Fries and A.I. Smirnitsky, prepositive attributes in Modern English are used more often than postpositive attributes. A close study of four registers has led the authors of the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English to the conclusion that prepositive and postpositive attributes are about equally common in Modern English. English resorts to the following language means to express a prepositive attribute. 1. Adjectives, e.g.: / visited his delightful cottage (R. Quirk et al.). 2. Participles, e.g.: Ellen Scott looked at the burning plane (S. Sheldon). I visited his completed cottage (R. Quirk et al.). 3. Gerunds, e.g.: Hey, Sally, how do you like these running shoes? (J. Richards et al.). 4. Nouns in the genitive case, e.g.: I visited his fisherman's cottage (R. Quirk et al.). 5. Nouns in the common case, e.g.: I visited his country cottage (R, Quirk et al.). This is a peculiarity of the English language alien to Russian. 6. Adverbs, e.g.: I visited his far-away cottage (R. Quirk et al.). 7. Sentences, e.g.: / visited his pop-down-for-the-weekend cottage (R. Quirk et al.). Adjectives are by far the most common type of prepositive attributes in all registers. This undoubtedly relates to the fact that they come from many different semantic classes, including colour, size, extent, time, age, frequency, and affective evaluation.
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Apparently. In writing. 1. Although prepositive noun-attributes are generally used in the singular. and sports. Prepositive attributes are used to modify the meaning of the following substantival component. Christmas cake/card/day/decorations/list/presents/tree. 5. by a mere placing of words alongside of each other. D. Biber and his co-authors think that orthography helps us draw a distinction between noun compounds and 'noun + noun sequences': compounds are written as one word (e.g. Miller].g. packing dense informational content into as few words as possible. since news writers usually use noun-attributes from those semantic domains that are associated with current events. 'noun + noun sequences' are used to express a bewildering array of logical relations.: arms race. readers seldom find it difficult to decode 'noun + noun relationships'. silk necktie). The use of multiple prepositive attributes is certainly very efficient.Identity: men workers —* workers who are men. savings account.Nouns are the second most common type of prepositive attributes in all registers. attributes are usually linked to the following substantival component by adjoinment. and the media. etc. in colloquial speech . business. etc.g. elucidating the logical relations among constituents. Biber and his co-authors mention 15 types of logical relations between the modifying noun and head noun. with no function words to show the logical relations between the two parts. In fact. D.from 3 to 7 unidimensional elements [O. News has by far the greatest number of prepositive nounattributes that are productive in combining with many head nouns. obscures the meaning of combinations 1 . The logical laws of developing thought. steam-hammer. B. such as government. e. School book/children/clothes/fees/holidays/trips. They are: car.Content: algebra text —* a text about algebra. Conversation represents the opposite extreme to news.Composition: glass windows --*• windows made from glass. Typical combinations with these nouns reflect the everyday topics of conversation. business.g. Business administration/cards/community/dealings/empire. The limited span of immediate memory. 3. There can be several prepositive attributes. i. In it only four prepositive noun-attributes are relatively productive. plural nouns can also occur as prepositive attributes. Water balloon/bottle/fight/leak/line/pressure/pump/rates. school. As a result. even at the cost of less explicitness. education. TV adds/cameras/channel/crew/documentary/licence. In our opinion. Cf. 2. But one cannot heap up attributes emphasizing various qualitative characteristics of a notion that has not been named yet. 3.Purpose: pencil case —> case used for pencils. occurring with particularly high frequencies in newspaper language. adding that there are numerous 'noun + noun sequences' that do not fit neatly with any of the 15 major categories. However. the media. orthography is a weak indicator as it is highly subjective and varies from author to author. seaweed). On the other hand. while 'noun + noun sequences' are written either as hyphenated words or as separate words (e.e. 1. 4. It hinders the listener's/reader's perception. perceive. This pattern is much more common in British English than in American English. A. sales taxes. The other types of prepositive attributes are relatively uncommon in comparison with adjectives and nouns. Christmas. law report) are more appropriately treated as noun compounds. The absence of grammatical forms. 'Noun + noun sequences' contain only content words. the use of multiple prepositive attributes is rare for the following reasons. they require addressees to infer the intended logical relationship between the modifying noun and head noun. The type of syntactic connection between the prepositive attribute and the substantival component. By the way. 2. Sirotinina]. Many of the most productive prepositive noun-attributes identify major institutions. women drivers. and water. It is arguable that certain 'noun + noun sequences' (e. they bring about an extremely dense packaging of referential information. we are able to receive. especially government. the great need for brevity in news favours this kind of attribute.: Car accident/door/insurance/keys/park/seat/wash. and remember from 5 to 9 unidimensional elements [G. Here are a few examples. Cf. In analytical English.: Government action/approval/control/decision. etc. Source: irrigation water —» water that comes from irrigation.

286 287 .

infinitival phrases. Overall. e.: He looked into her mailbox. .g. . the particular mailbox is identified by the possessive determiner her. No wonder that most authors avoid using them in generating both spoken and written texts. newspaper language. in conversation.The subject girl has no attribute. Cf. e.non-restrictive participial postpositive attribute.g-: Richard hit the ball on the car that was going past (D.g. The substantival components in the functions of predicatives. In these cases. and academic prose there prevail substantival components with one prepositive attribute. 1. According to the authors of the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. English resorts to the following language means to express a postpositive attribute.g. Postpositive Attributes Postpositive attributes are used with one of two main functions — restrictive or non-restrictive modification.g. . I received long happy letters from Nairobi. objects. When the subject renders new information. . Biber et al. 3. 2.The predicative day has two prepositive attributes: beautiful and sunny. In contrast. regularly (D. Biber et al.: A brown felt hat sat on the back of my head (D. and attributes serve the purpose of intensifying this or that idea.). which she never locked (D. involving the coordination of sensory and cognitive processes (D. Restrictive postpositive 288 attributes serve to identify the intended reference of the head-noun. Parsons). . the postpositive attribute adds descriptive information. It pinpoints the particular car being referred to. The substantival component in the function of the subject takes either no prepositive attribute or one because the subject generally renders known information. The little girl did not reply (J. for these syntactic functions are communicatively much more important. Sheldon). Robins). substantival components with two prepositive attributes constitute 20%. e. Robins). The number of prepositive attributes is highly sensitive to the syntactic function of the expanded substantival component. e.: // was a beautiful sunny day (J. Sheldon). Both writing and reading are enormously complex skills. it can have several prepositive attributes. Relative finite clauses.with multiple prepositive attributes. and infinitival predicative constructions.The adverbial to a place has one prepositive attribute better. which is not required to identify the head. and adverbials are more regularly modified by prepositive attributes. Prepositional phrases.G. Cf: A military jeep travelling down Beach Road at high speed struck a youth crossing the road (D. Cf.: The man <** my side suddenly turned to me (D.The object letters has two prepositive attributes: long and happy.g. The relative clause that was going past has a restrictive function. with three or four prepositive attributes -only 2%. It is due to the fact that they add information of particular interest to the reader.restrictive participial postpositive attributes.: / have no place to go (S. So. We 're going to a better place (S. Wodehouse). -The rhematic subject hat is modified by two prepositive attributes: brown and felt.) . e. Gary).). Biber et al. and the non-restrictive relative clause which she never locked is used to provide additional descriptive information.: He was playing a tune that Rachel recognized (J. restrictive postpositive attributive modification prevails over non-restrictive modification.: The girl looked down (P. Most other types of postpositive attributes are restrictive but can occasionally be non-restrictive.The subject girl is modified by one prepositive attribute little. Robins). Biber et al. . It is only in newspaper language that non-restrictive postpositive relative clauses make up about 30% of all relative clauses. Infinitives. the reference of head-nouns with non-restrictive postpositive attributes has either been previously identified or is assumed to be already known.) . e. In this example. fiction. Parsons).

289 .

: Most countries have a written document known as *the constitution' which lays down the main rules (D. Gerundial phrases and gerundial predicative constructions. 6.: I have no intention of arguing (S. Leave a message for him to call me. Relative clauses in Position 2 co-occur with all structural types in Position 1 because the relativizer provides an overt surface marker of their attributive status even when they are distant from the noun head.g.). Sometimes a substantival component has both prepositive and postpositive attributes.g. Galsworthy).) -participial phrase + relative clause. Sheldon). Postpositive attributive complexes are moderately common in news and fiction. Adverbs. He is the only person reliable. when they have the prefix a-. The attribute in Position 2. of the verb 'have' is 'they have' (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). e. Swan). A divine thing. Sheldon). please (S. Attributive modification (both prepositive and postpositive) is relatively rare in conversation. up 5.The substantival component sensation has one prepositive attribute curious and one postpositive attribute of terror. prepositional phrases are actually much more common because they are more compact than relative clauses. as a rule.: A curious sensation of terror came over me (O. e. Ellin). Parsons).: Hike the girl sitting on the right (M. Cf. Two factors favour the choice of a relative clause over a prepositional phrase: the need to convey non-restrictive meaning and the need to convey past tense meaning. Single attributive adjectives are always placed in postposition in combinations of French or Latin origin.They have orders to shoot me (S. The majority of attributive prepositional phrases begin with the prepositions of and in. Conversation is characterized by a relatively high proportion of infinitival postpositive attributes. Biber et al. to. Although relative clauses often receive the most attention in discussions of postpositive attributes. speakers typically use substantival components with no modification.g. Wilde).g. Nouns are often used to refer to a new referent that is 291 . present tense. The most common type of postpositive attributive complex is composed of two prepositional phrases. . The third person plural. Adjectives.g. Consistent with this shared knowledge. e. and they often share personal knowledge about each other as well. 7. Speakers in a conversation share the same physical situation.: The light outside faded (J.: From time immemorial (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). e. Prepositional phrases beginning with the prepositions for. conversation has a very high frequency of personal pronouns and a very low frequency of nouns. and with are less 290 common. and when the substantival head is expressed by a pronoun. Other types of postpositive attributes are not numerous. is of the same structural type as the attribute in Position 1.g. The postposition of an attributive adjective gives the construction increased emphasis. I'll cook you something nice and then you can go to sleep (BBC London Course). knowing that the listener will have no trouble identifying the intended referent. The same is true of adjectives modifying the noun thing. e. There can be several postpositive attributes. Verbal adjectives with the suffixes -able and -ible can be used both as postpositive and as prepositive attributes. As a result. He's the only man alive who could do it (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). A thing divine. Biber et al. on. but rare in conversation. 4.: These figures serve to underline the increasing orientation of western society to information and information processing activities (D. Writers usually employ relatively simple postpositive complexes with two attributes. Participial phrases. Swan). Participial postpositive attributes are most common in academic prose. especially in academic prose. Cf. e. Most of the people invited to the party didn't turn (M. They tell me there's no chance of their getting married for years (J.: He is the only reliable person.

The attribute admits of the first five transformations. Parsons). Thus. Wilde). 5. e. 1. In contrast^ personal pronouns are used to refer to a specific entity.: In his room he called the clinic on the Zugersee (F. prepositive and postpositive attributes are used to help identify the reference of the noun and provide descriptive details. 293 Structurally. It is only simple attributes that can be regarded as secondary parts of non-complicated monopredicative syntactic units. The old couple on the top floor is away for the summer (J. —* The expression of his lined face was kindly. e. complex. Cf. there exist transitional cases. —* The old couple from the top floor is away for the summer. Maugham). we must not exclude the possibility of a woman being concerned (A.g. sweet and wild. and does not admit of transformation six. which is typical of situational modifiers: Perhaps in the other field the grass is better. Maugham).: He glanced at the clock on the mantelpiece. it is often difficult to distinguish it from a situational modifier. Structural Classification of Attributes The expression on his lined face was kindly. Of course. The use of the noun with the following prepositional combination in some other position in the sentence. The situational modifier. The use of the prepositional combination at the beginning of the sentence. in the sentence Perhaps the grass in the other field is better (H. Christie). --> Tne man who was sitting beside him laughed. —» He glanced at the mantelpiece clock. Christie).g. The use of the nominal component of the prepositional combination in the function of a prepositive attribute to the preceding noun. 4. Fitzgerald). admits only of transformation six and is insusceptible to the first five. on the other hand.. before the subject and the predicate.: It was a lovely house (J. and clausal.: The man beside him laughed (A.: Kathleen described the scene that followed (D. A complex attribute consists of two components linked by secondary predication. 3.g.g. Hailey. Munro) the prepositional combination in the other field admits not only of attributive transformations but can be also placed before the subject and the predicate. A simple attribute is expressed by a single word or a non-clausal combination of words. What is your address in the country*? (O. The substitution of the preposition in the construction under examination by the preposition o/or some other preposition typical of attributive relations.. known to the listener/reader either from the previous text or from the wider situational context. for example. DIFFERENTIATION OF SITUATIONAL MODIFIERS AND SECONDARY PARTS OF THE SENTENCE The Difference between Situational Modifiers and Attributes When the attribute is expressed by a prepositional combination. Craig).g. or at least some of them. e.S. —» He looked at the woman sitting on the sofa. Robins).previously unknown to the listener/reader. e. Thus. O.. sweet and wild (W. Cf. e. The transformation of the prepositional combination into an attributive dependent clause.g. often a person. Deeping). G. The transformation of the prepositional combination into an attributive participial phrase..I. —*• In her presence Kitty felt like a schoolgirl.g. A clausal attribute is a finite clause possessing primary predication. (W. e. attributes fall into three types: simple.: 292 . there is usually no need for attributive modification to anchor the reference or provide elaborating details.: He looked at the woman on the sofa (A. e. Consequently. 2. 6.: . the preposition from.S. Castle). —* It is the clinic on the Zugersee that he called in his room. Fleshier gives six transformations which help us define whether we deal with a situational modifier or an attribute.S.: Kitty felt like a schoolgirl in her presence (W. 18.

it is an optional member of the sentence. it cannot be made the subject of a passive construction: / waited an hour (St.: The committee has appointed a day in July for our case to be heard (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). On the other hand. The following transformations help us single out the object. but their existence is a hard fact. In the second place. Chevalier). Leacock).. 1. according to O. The combinability of objects is limited.g. —* What has the committee appointed*? 4. —* *An hour was waited by me. Yurchenko has convincingly proved that it is not only objects but also adverbials that can be characterized by obligatory combinability. (P. e. —> *The committee has appointed. K. e. besides objects.(P..E. Neutralization.I. Andreeva makes a list of transformations typical of objects and adverbials. In other words. As opposed to the object. it is not every object that can be made the subject of a passive construction.e.One cannot put questions of the pronominal character to it: I waited an hour (St.: / stepped to the window (T. the transformation of reduction: 294 1 waited an hour (St. 1. Sometimes it can be linked by means of coordination with another adverbial expressed by an adverb proper. The adverbial is quite different.g. Cf..g. 3. They are not many. since to one and the same part of the sentence one can often put both a pronominal and an adverbial question. As a rule. In the third place. However. Abrahams). —> I waited. Abrahams). Leacock). 2. He stretched out on the divan. and the process of communication goes on uninterrupted without their differentiation. —» / waited long. The object of an active construction becomes the subject of a passive construction. Leacock). there exist indiscriminate parts of the sentence. even the use of all these criteria leaves a great number of boundary cases. although the passive transformation *Five children were had by them is out of the question. The component five children is traditionally regarded as an object. the opposition between adverbials and objects can be also neutralized. G. -+ */ stepped.A. Thus.objective) sometimes come very close together. The object is an obligatory part of the sentence.The Difference between Adverbials and Objects The problem of differentiating adverbials from objects is also debatable.: They had Jive children (J.attributive... takes place because the above-mentioned syntactic relations (situational .Its combinability is practically unlimited. 3. In the first place. Leacock). One can put question of the adverbial character to it: / waited an hour (St. adverbial . 2.g. Hence. It can be substituted by an adverb proper: / waited an hour (St.: / stepped to the window (T. . Leacock). Cf. it cannot be omitted without destroying the structural and semantic completeness of the sentence. Leacock). 295 . adverbials and attributes.g. verbs that are followed by some kind of object. Joyce). 1. To the object one can put questions of the pronominal character. where the omission of the adverbial to the window generates an ungrammatical construction..: Tlie committee has appointed a day in July for our case to be heard (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). —*• How long did I waif? 2. e. I wafted an hour (St.: The committee has appointed a day in July for our case to be heard (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). e. Fleshier. 3.: He stretched out on the divan. —» * What did J wait? 4. Chevalier). i. e. the adverbial has certain peculiarities of its own.: The committee has appointed a day in July for our case to be heard (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). they can combine only with objective verbs. the criterion of questions is not binding either. Cf. —> Where did he stretch oufl What did he stretch out onl So.. —> A day in July has been appointed for our case to be heard. That's why the transformation of reduction is out of the question. both objects and adverbials can be expressed by nouns and prepositional combinations.

They have a discrete subject: the grammatical subject there (R. In reported and indirect questions.. The basic word order of English is subject-predicateobject-adverbial. Parsons). 297 .) precedes the existential predicate is. the notional subject a sofa follows it. If the matrix clause has partial inversion. Reported questions are introduced with the verb ask and end with a full stop. Evans). the subject is preceded only by the operator. WORD ORDER Kinds of Inversion in English The term 'word order' is used to refer to the order of elements in a sentence. and a long subject that introduces new information.? Do you know.reported _yes/«oquestion. Cf.. If the matrix clause is built on the subject-predicate principle. e. Evans) .g. I doubt. etc.: There is a sofa in the living room (V.: Inside was a large brown envelope and a piece of lined paper (J. whereas we use indirect questions when we ask for information.: Does she tike London*? (D. The notional (or lexical) verb goes after the subject. If we accepted the hypothesis. has two primary forms: subject-predicate inversion and subject-operator inversion. I would speak to her (V. Evans). he would have told us (V. He asked if I had enjoyed the party (V..S. Do you know where he can put if? (V. In subject-operator (or partial) inversion. We use reported questions to report someone else's questions.: Richard laid his hat and gloves on the table (D. However.reported w/iquestion. Only questions to the subject and its attribute are built on the subject-predicate principle. The word order in interrogative 'sentence representatives' P. Cronin).. Inversion. / want to know if we are going out tonight (V. These constructions express the notion of existence.. the subject a!so precedes the predicate. they have partial inversion. Cf. Evans) . . Burke). e. Subject-predicate inversion is most often found with an initial place or time adverbial. in contrast to partially inverted interrogative sentences. Quirk et al.. Were I you.. -Do you? (K. What has kept you! (A. Partial inversion is typical of interrogative sentences. In other words. Parsons). Evans) . How did you find me! (J. which are characteristic of conversational English. the indirect question ends with a full stop. Partial inversion is also found in conditional syntactic units when the conjunction if is omitted.Neither have I (K. / haven't danced with anyone in years. Cf: Should he turn up. In subject-predicate (or full) inversion.full inversion. Indirect questions are introduced with Could you tell me . the indirect question ends with a question mark. Robins). Burke). the subject is preceded by the entire predicate. e.S.: 296 He asked me where he could put it (V... we would be bound to admit that constructions with existential there stand somewhat apart from other two-member sentences.19. P. Which rooms are on the second floor! (Lingaphone English Course). Cf: I hate this man. Zhuikova has put forward a hypothesis that there is a third type of inversion: when the predicate is framed by the subject. Evans).: Who is coming to teal (O. a short intransitive or copular verb. Wilde).g. Had he known. Cf.indirect w/iquestion. I want to know. Robins). but there is no notional part of the predicate. . In the declarative form. Evans). We find it in constructions beginning with existential there..: Are there any children in the park? (V.J. according to English grammarians. in the interrogative form . Evans).? I wonder.The entire existential predicate are precedes the discrete subject there .. Zhuikova qualifies as 'clipped' inversion because the subject precedes the operator..g. e. the subject in partial inversion is framed by the predicate.. partially inverted asyndetic conditional syntactic units are more typical of literary English. any children. tell him to wait for me (V.g. Evans) -indirect yes/no-question.

where the relations between words are expressed by grammatical morphemes. Which switch operates this machine? (R. the component the bear is regarded as the subject because it precedes the predicate struck [O.: 299 298 . However.: Dog chases postman.Functions of Word Order Word order fulfils various functions. Mathesius]. such as English. It is common practice to arrange sentence elements in theme-rheme sequence. Crystal). 3. Ernest! (O. Crystal]. They are outside. D. Cf. In inflected languages. Crystal). How did it happen? (S.: What wonderful weather we're having (R. Cf. Sheldon). the component the bear is qualified as an object because it follows the predicate struck. to start with given information and move on to new information in accordance with the logical laws of developing thought.e. sometimes it is necessary to intensify this or that part of the sentence. Wilde).: She turned to Tom (R. Murphy). Crystal). the object often occurs in the initial position. But in contrast to the w/?-mterrogative element. Wright).J. If there are two objects in the sentence. Cf. Crystal).: Did you see it happen? (S. Cf. In analytical languages. There are two emphatic positions in the sentence: final and initial [O. Fries]. D. Fries). As opposed to the subject. In other interrogative sentences the subject is framed by the predicate. in the sentence The bear struck the man. Fries). Mathesius]. But in the sentence The man struck the bear. and most of English grammar is taken up with the rules governing the order in which sentence elements can appear. The importance of this domain can be seen from the following set of examples. the object in declarative sentences is placed after the predicate. such as Russian. Jespersen. 1. The two main functions of word order are grammatical and communicative. The bear struck the man (Ch. The man with a dog saw me. How slowly he walksl (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). The Role of the Grammatical Word Order Principle in English The sentence position of the following parts is grammatically fixed in English. Jespersen. Ch. The communicative principle manifests itself in that the sentence position of an element varies depending on its communicative value. Biber and his co-authors call it the information-flow principle. Biber et al. / The man saw me with a dog (D. the wfc-exclamative element does not cause partial inversion.g. 2. There is no formal difference between the bear in the first and second sentences: both are characterized by a zero exponent of the common case. So speakers/writers in inflected languages place communicatively the most prominent part either in the final or in the initial position. In exclamative sentences. Word order is at the heart of English syntax [D.: The man struck the bear (Ch. /I saw only Mary (D. The essence of the grammatical principle lies in the fact that the sentence position of an element is determined by its syntactic function. Only I saw Mary. Sheldon). The subject in declarative sentences and in subjectquestions is placed in the sentence initial position. e. i. before the predicate. a non-prepositional recipient object goes before an affected object. /Are they outsidel (D. Close). Murphy).: What wonderfully blue eyes you have. it is the communicative principle that plays a leading role in determining the order of words [V. the grammatical principle comes to the fore [V. where the meaning of the sentence alters fundamentally once the order varies. Exclamative sentences begin with what or how followed by the word the speaker/writer wants to emphasize. /Postman chases dog (D. The subject in exclamative sentences precedes the predicate just as it does in declarative sentences and in subject-questions. Who broke the window? (R. Cf. Cf. a prepositional recipient object goes after an affected object.

they go in the following order: manner . tend to occur at the beginning of the sentence. A degree adverbial expressed by the adverb too precedes the adjective it modifies. Parsons). The final position of situational modifiers in English is also fairly frequent. The position of adverbials depends on the semantic category they belong to. Untermeyer). If there are several prepositive attributes. Hard). e. Swan). (I. Murdoch).g.: He was murdered. Cf. Hornby). e. A degree adverbial expressed by the adverb enough usually goes after the adjective. The position of single word attributes is grammatically fixed with respect to the substantival component they modify.: The red shoes are too expensive (V. he saw a big dog on the sidewalk (L.: I never believed him (J.g. Evans). Single word attributes generally occur in preposition to the substantival component they modify. years ago (J. Hornby). Swan).g.time.g.g.g. When there is a verb of movement. W. He often swims in the lake . These ladies were deferentially received by Miss Temple (Ch. manner adverbials are often placed in the initial position.: He spoke well at the meeting yesterday (V. Christie). e.: She goes to work on foot every day (V.g. e.: If only there were money enough for us to travel there\ (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). I quite agree -with you (R. e. 5. a manner adverbial usually goes after the object. Enough can be used after the noun it modifies. If there is a prepositional object in a sentence. Situational modifiers (temporal and locative).: He lives in a small village in Kent (A. manner adverbials are placed before the notional verb of the predicate.W. then the order is: place -manner-time.g.: The Californian slowly opened his eyes (T. e. the place adverbial generally precedes the time adverbial.: a large conference hall (M. Evans). their sequence is predetermined by their part-of-speech nature. Parsons). The Hawaiian looked at him strangely (T. before both the subject and the predicate. Jones). Hard).place . Parsons). Cf. though it is also found after the prepositional object.. Murphy). They haven't quite finished their dinner yet (R. e. g. e. frequency.: He searched clumsily for his watch (T. 6. Robins). Hard). e. If there is a non-prepositional object in a sentence.g. first of all. e.S. Noun attributes go immediately before the substantival component they modify. Very often.g. 300 Do you often go to the theatre*? (Intermediate English Course). Parsons).W./'// send you the cheque this evening (A. 301 . and degree is before the synthetic form of the predicate-verb and after the first auxiliary verb when the predicate-verb has an analytical form. Hard). before both the subject and The predicate. Manner adverbials are generally placed after the predicate-verb if there is no object in the sentence. Cf.S.W.W. Cf. We owe everything to him (L. Parsons). Have you got enough money to lend me five pounds? (M. Evans). Hornby). In exclamative sentences..: After fifteen minutes. Evans). a manner adverbial generally stands between the predicate-verb and the prepositional object. but this is rather formal or literary. Rachel heard the announcement on the nine o'clock news that night (J. he could wait no longer (T. which modify the predication as a whole.: Time passed slowly (J. e. e.g. 4. The most frequent position of single word adverbials of indefinite time.S. Murphy). How well she plays tennisl (A. I had never loved anybody like this before (D.: The green shoes are not cheap enough (V. Bronte). If there are two place or time adverbials in a sentence. When there is a place adverbial and an adverbial of definite time in a sentence. When there are more than two adverbials in a sentence. He moved slowly toward it (T. the more specific adverbial usually goes before the more general adverbial.: They went to the cinema on Saturday evening (A.: I got this job very quickly (J. Outside the house. but before the noun it modifies. Hard).

: a beautiful red dress (V. For instance. etc.. Although fronting is relatively rare. Evans). e. Bronte").g.: Hard work it was (A. When there is no affected object in the sentence.partial inversion. Fronting (especially of adverbials) is often accompanied by inversion. on a tall column. Cf. Evans). it does allow of certain fluctuations in accordance with the changing communicative task.full inversion. that there are exceptions from most of the rules. The Role of the Communicative Word Order Principle in English Since word order in an English sentence is grammatically fixed. Evans). The non-prepositional affected object can be separated from the predicate by a prepositional recipient object or an adverbial when it is longer than the prepositional recipient object or adverbial (the so-called rhythmic function of word order). Wilde). Besides. However. Connell) .g.: 1 had at heart a strange and anxious thought (Ch.). the subject can be placed after the predicate. stood the statue of the Happy Prince (O. which aids cohesion by linking sentences. Cf. William the Conqueror built the Tower of London. there exist in English special constructions that bring particular elements of the sentence into additional focus. Fronting is relatively rare in all registers. round.Adjective attributes are heterogeneous.colour — origin — material.S. it is an important option for focus and cohesion. fronting occurs more frequently than in conversation. exceptions only prove the rules.g. the more general adjective goes before the more specific one. It goes without saying. Christie).: In came the conductor . etc. Linguists draw a distinction between 'opinion' and 'fact' adjectives. (E.) always go before 'fact' adjectives that provide us with objective information about something (red.age . by moving them closer either to the emphatic final or the emphatic initial position. it is much less susceptible to communicative needs. Nevertheless. bad. For the safety of England and Edward they fell (G. Thus.. where varied sentence structure and stylistic effect are especially valued. its rarity makes these effects even more conspicuous when they do occur.: a nice friendly dog (V. The subject is brought into focus by being placed 303 302 . the most common form is predicative fronting. When there are two or more adjectives of the same category. Dickens) . although this device is used more in fiction and academic prose than conversation or news.). Evans). the place of the subject in regard to the predicate in declarative sentences is rigidly fixed only when there is an affected object in the sentence. Cf: A cat is under the bed. Byron). objects. e. e. and adverbials by placing them in the emphatic initial position.: High above the city. A fine view you have here (A. In academic prose. — There is a cat under the bed (V. Evans). Tact' adjectives go in the following order: size .(Focus is an element or part of a sentence given prominence by intonational or other means. 'Opinion' adjectives that tell us what one thinks about something (beautiful. — The Tower of London was built by William the Conqueror (V. e.: a large old rectangular brown French wooden bed (V. Christie).partial inversion. Only in Paris can you buy shoes like that (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) . These elements are fronted for focus rather than for cohesion. In fiction. native speakers of English sometimes emphasize the communicative prominence of predicatives. The construction with the introductory it is used to emphasize the communicative value of all sentence parts.g. Cf. Evans). The construction with the introductory there and the passive construction with an agent object serve to increase the communicative value of the subject by moving it closer to the emphatic final position. Different types of fronting are preferred in each register. except the predicate. Conversation and fiction more commonly use fronting of objects. a lovely big flat (V. Silently and patiently did the doctor bear all this (Ch.shape .

Evans). He writes. Lehman. You know it's the right thing to do. M. Crystal is right: the sentence What I say is what I think is not 305 .g. But you helped her. and the animals on which many people depend died long ago (L. W. 20. e.I just want to know the facts (Longman Essential Activator). In the first place.E. The main function of word order is predetermined by the nature of the language. —» Poirot was waiting on the doorstep. In a great number of cases. I'm not a sailor (P. V. Each coordinate clause can stand as a sentence on its own. Taking into consideration the nature of the clause relationships. Christie). Hard). MacKenzie. just like "That is that'".: What I say is what I think (D. A complex sentence is a sentence consisting of an independent (or main) clause and one or more dependent (or subordinate) clauses introduced by means of subordination. but in fact it has a simple three-part structure. Cf. Dependent clauses cannot stand as sentences on their own. Roberts. Jones). e. not only coordination can link independent clauses. then we would be bound to admit that D. predicative units. comprise non-predicative 'communicatives' and which consist only of non-predicative 'communicatives'. Could you give me the code for France? .No. Did you meet him here7 — Was it here that you met him? (V. 3) compound-complex sentences [W. P. the components of composite sentences are always finite clauses. W.O. English grammarians classify composite sentences into three types: I) compound sentences.g. 'The sentence "What I say is what I think" may seem complex at first sight. Soars). B. Word order in all languages performs a number of functions. R. A compound sentence is a sentence consisting of two or more independent clauses linked by coordination. Hooper. on which many people depend. the main clause and the subordinate clause are interdependent and neither can stand as a sentence on its own. That's what you think (R. the object and the adverbial -by being placed closer to the emphatic initial position.: Poirot was waiting on the doorstep when I returned with the taxi (A. The traditional classification of composite sentences has a number of weak points. didn 'tyou? (J. Clark.: The TV ~woke me up. . — // was the TV that woke me up (V. Accumulation serves the same purpose. huh? .: What's done can't be undone (A.closer to the emphatic final position.e. C.g. I know (L. word order is often regulated by considerations of metre. Evans). of course. Clough.O. —* The water was a deep blue. an d t h e st y wa s cl e a r (T. To sum up. If we started on the assumption that a complex sentence is a sentence that consists of one main clause and at least one subordinate clause and if we regarded the main clause as an independent clause.D.L.: I'm not interested in your opinions . the so-called main clause in complex sentences is not always independent. In the second place. Composite sentences are said to consist of two or more clauses.B. Cf. A compound-complex sentence is a sentence consisting of two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. 304 e. D. Sometimes the main clause is nothing but a copular verb. R. POLYCOMPONENT SYNTACTIC UNITS Weak Points of the Traditional Conception In traditional grammar. Viney). D.M. Crystal refers such sentences to simple. e. i. Polypredicative syntactic units make up the bulk of polycomponent syntactic units. In poetry.F. Comfort). And the sky was clear.W. But in speech there exist syntactic units which. Cf: So you 're a sailor. Crystal). D. Coppard). Ch. Birk. where the second coordinate clause contains a relative subordinate clause. but you need to dial 00 first (J. Albaugh.: There have been no crops. In the third place. alongside of predicative units.: The wat er was a de e p bl ue. Parsons). polypredicative syntactic units are called composite sentences. It's 33.Yes. Gale. 2) complex sentences. Allen. MacDonald). Crystal].I know. *When 1 returned with the taxi. Liles.g. and J. Cf.

of course (J.: When you get off the bus.: Do you have a visa for the United States? — Yes. Cf. In the sixth place. Crystal).bi).: Could you ask her to get back to me? . A similar meaning can be conveyed through coordination with and: Monsieur Savlon came back to clear the table and he asked me in perfectly good English. if you please.complex 'sentence representative'.Yes. but this morning. Crystal). Adams) -compound sentencoid. I like him. "You do not like snails?" (S. The result was what I wanted (D. / said that it was time (D. She doesn 't but I do (A.g. the assumption is that the two events (his return to the table and his question) are in chronological order. The subordinator when makes the time relation explicit. I said that it was time. Comfort).—* I said something. I do 306 307 .Yes.. As 'communicatives' in polycomponent syntactic units we qualify those non-predicative syntactic units that form a separate sense-group. I'm afraid (I. Accordingly. 3) communicative-predicative syntactic units {KOMMynuKamueno-npeduKamueHbie cunmaKcunecKue edunuifbi). subordination. Greenbaum). we draw a distinction between three types of polycomponent syntactic units: 1) polypredicative syntactic units (nojiunpeduKamuenue cunmaKcmecKue edunuu.g. you'll see a grocery store on the opposite side of the street (Longman Essential Activator). why D.: The news has spread fast. e. In the fifth place. we suggest that composite sentences should be called polycomponent syntactic units. Christie). she sent for her box (A.: Lovely country and interesting people (H.He didn't when we first met (J. Comfort).: Could I have your name? . Certainly I've had experience. it is not only sentences that can be compound and complex but also sentencoids and 'sentence representatives'. nonpredicative ' communicatives'.. . it's Oldman (J. Shaw). and can be used in an absolute position. Polycomponent syntactic units.The experience you're talking about (J. the subordinate w/zen-clause in the following example is temporal in meaning: When Monsieur Savlon came back to clear the table he asked me in perfectly good English. the domain of mixed polypredicative syntactic units is not restricted to compound-complex sentences. If the clauses are coordinated by and. Greenbaum). / don't care. For instance. "You do not like snails?" (S. As he himself shows in his book. the traditional classification of composite sentences disregards polypredicative syntactic units with parenthetic clauses. The result was what I wanted. can consist of predicative clauses. 2) polycommunicative syntactic units (noJiuKOMMynuKamueHbie cunmaKcuvecKue edunuifbi) > e. The question arises. and a combination of non-predicative 'communicatives' and predicative clauses. it is not always easy to draw a distinction between complex and compound sentences as similar meaning relationships are sometimes expressed through subordination and coordination. Braine) . Ayckbourn) -compound 'sentence representative'. In the fourth place. e. O'Hara) .complex.g. Cf.complex sentencoid. Thus. e. . —»• // was a shame. Crystal refers to complex sentences constructions of the type: That he argued was a shame (D. in our opinion. In the seventh place. the following polypredicative syntactic unit is characterized by interplay of coordination.What experience? . however. —> The result was good. they also have a simple three-part structure: That he argued was a shame. possess an independent intonation contour. and parenthesis: That's exactly what I thought yesterday. Types of Poly component Syntactic Units In view of the above-mentioned drawbacks of the term 'composite sentences'.g. He doesn'? know I'm alive. Crystal).

such as pronouns.). I not only shared a cabin with him and ate three meals a day at the same table.: / could lead you to the shop where I bought it (D. —> No.g. supposing (that). According to L. e.. articles. Not at all. bearing in mind what has been said about their predication. —* Sorry.g. It could happen more quickly than anyone expects (D. L. but I could not walk round the deck without his joining me (W. etc.g. Classification of Polypredicative Syntactic Units Polypredicative syntactic units can be further classified according to the type of dependency relations between the constituent clauses.: / doubt if I can afford it (English Course). To polypredicative syntactic units built on subordination we refer only syntactic constructions with clauses that do not make part of the valency patterns of the verbal or nominal component of the 309 . polypredicative syntactic units with determination are built on the basis of subordination.Sony.Hill). However. Hjelmslev singles out three types of dependency relations: interdependence. as soon as. the more they talk (Proverb). Subordinators (i.g. Tesniere. Polvpredicative Syntactic Units Built on Interdependence. and vice versa. performed by N. S. As the call. 1.e. Adjectives and adverbs in the comparative degree. This is what frightens me (J. Andreeva regards them as 'communicatives'). They can consist both of one and several words. Biber et al. except (that). Proskurina. they could be referred to 'communicatives' (for instance.)5. That's why we exclude them from 'communicatives' and provisionally refer them to parenthetic predicative clauses. Maugham). and constellation. so (that). e. 3. so the echo (Proverb). To polypredicative syntactic units with interdependence (or polypredicative syntactic complexes) we refer clauses whose occurrence is predetermined by the valency potential of this or that component in the preceding or (less often) in the following clause. In other words. they cannot function on their own. . e. now (that). you see have only formal predication.: I'm very fond of you. They're coming to visit us this year. Polvpredicative Syntactic Units Built on Determination In determination.g. — No. as long as.: What is worth (Joins at all is worth doing well (Proverb). determination. on condition (that).: In five out of the seven leading industrial nations industrial output is now lower than it was a year aso (S.g. Since syntactic units of the type you know. in order that. Subordination is signalled by the actual or potential presence of non-correlative subordinates or w/j-words between the clauses. provided/providing (that).S. 4. Greenbaum). Lexical (or notional) verbs. did I step on your foot? (Longman Essential Activator).g. has shown that the following language units possess valency characteristics in polypredicative syntactic units. one unit presupposes the presence of another. Copular verbs.When? — Either this month or next month (English Course). Sheldon). e. only verbs possess valency characteristics.V. Did I step on yourfootl I hope it's not too early there. etc. Deictic words. Fowles). one unit presupposes the presence of another. Most of multi-word subordinates end in as or that (the latter is often optional).: Lara was so excited that she barely touched her food (S. but not vice versa. you know (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). e. The Tesniere valency theory is still being elaborated. Biber et al.V. The less people think. e. Comfort). 308 Why are you not with him? — Because I don't know where^he is (S. 2. subordinate conjunctions) are linking words that introduce dependent clauses. The first components of correlative links. not at all (J. A detailed analysis of polypredicative syntactic complexes. In interdependence. e.: as far as.

contrast. hi our opinion. but. The low frequency of but in academic prose may be due in part to the fact that contrast is more often expressed by other means in that register. I've thought of something. e. and J. e. we won't come to them.: The donkeys did not come back. i. Look.We have to pick off the meat. —* You can't because you 'II get lost.No fish is poisonous (S. But is more frequent in conversation than the written registers because people tend to highlight contrast and contradiction in dialogue. . although communicatively they are important.When I get back we will (S. Biber etal. you'll get lost (S. both subordinate and coordinate correlative links). And is by far the most common coordinator in all the registers. Or has a negative counterpart nor. on the other hand. as is well known. The police arrived. Hill). The clauses in syndetic coordinate polypredicative syntactic units are linked by non-correlative. and alternative respectively. . Hill). Biber et al. surprising. The number of asyndetic adverbial clauses in polypredicative syntactic units is very small. However. What about the insides? You can't eat those parts. Soars). That's why we reject the current terms and speak of polypredicative syntactic units with interdependence and determination. carried out by the authors of the Longman 311 310 . namely by such forms as although. nor did the helicopters (D. we find constellation in polypredicative syntactic units built on coordination and accumulation. Cf. the opposition discreteness/nondiscreteness is common not only to complex but also to compound sentences (there are. . Sentential relative clauses are always syndetic. fiction. Tradition regards polypredicative syntactic units both with interdependence and determination as complex sentences disregarding the different nature of the dependency relations between their clauses. Nor is far less common than all the other coordinators because negation is less frequent overall than positive forms. erosion. or they may reflect a fall and rise of global sea level (D. nor did the eleven men.).g. single-word coordinate conjunctions. adverbial clauses are usually syndetic.: They may imply the same sequence of uplift. it was about midnight (S. A study of four major registers: conversation.matrix clause. is. However. nevertheless.g. —> What do you say if we break for lunch! I thought you said we were going to have a fire and cook something.e.: / think he will have salad but he doesn't like tomatoes (D.You can't. The positive alternative coordinator or is particularly frequent in academic (scientific) prose because academic discourse invites a consideration of alternative modes of explanation. or anything. newspaper language and academic prose. It doesn't matter about the insides. nor is somewhat more common in fiction than conversation which gives preference to negation by not. What do you say we break for lunch! (L.). etc. the units are compatible. Hill).g. It is often supposed that and is especially common in conversation. for the occurrence of both is not obligatory for the structural completeness of the matrix clause. Russian linguists nowadays draw a distinction between discrete complex sentences (cJiootcHonodvuneHHbie npednootcemw pacvjieneuHOu cmpyvmypu} and non-discrete complex sentences (cjiootCHonodvuneHHbie npednoyceuuH Hepac^neneHnou cmpyKmypbi) [PyccKaa rpaMMaTHKa-80]. but none presupposes the presence of another. They are adverbial clauses and sentential relative clauses. .). But its distribution. at first sight. and or. Polypredicative Syntactic Units Built on Constellation In constellation. Biber et al. I'm going to go and find out if we're near the outside. which is used after negative clauses. however. with a core meaning of addition. e. The main simple coordinators are and. Coordinate polypredicative syntactic units can be both syndetic and asyndetic.What if it's poisonous? . and subsidence. True. Sheldon). after which the situation became calmer (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).: When he came out. Hooper.

Hill).Some do and some don't (English Lingaphone Course). or sentencoids. isn't it? (K. she laughed (English Course) . Parsons). but can readily be inserted.g. . The high degree of phrase-level coordination is responsible for the high overall frequency of and in academic prose. What did Mrs. / like Brighton. e. Maugham). The number of components in 'open' coordinate polypredicative syntactic units is not limited. Christie).: Nice getting letters. The closed accumulative structure is common to the so-called disjunctive questions. 'Closed' coordinate polypredicative syntactic units always consist of two components. The components of 'accumulative' polypredicative syntactic units can be structurally homogeneous (see the above-given examples) and structurally heterogeneous.No.Grammar of Spoken and Written English. The authors of the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English call it 'the add-on strategy'. Sheldon). Cf. . / was rather hoping you were both planning to go off for the weekend together. it was nine o'clock (E. the high frequency of occurrence of the coordinator and with its core meaning of addition. Naturally. Garner) . Only those asyndetic polypredicative syntactic units are considered to include coordinate clauses that allow the insertion of a non-correlative (i. Cf. In asyndetic coordinate polypredicative syntactic units. 'finite clause representatives'. the rain fell. the clouds gathered.: We starved before.Lovely (K. we have little chance to plan or elaborate structure as we proceed. Burke) . Hill). the cl ou ds g ath ere d. it is far more frequent in conversation than in academic prose. Cf. The second component is usually introduced by the adversative conjunction but.Nothing. -* The wind blew.: He tried to explain it to Vivien but she was not interested (S. a private joke (J. Clauses linked by accumulation are always asyndetic. that our attention is focused on now. No. Coordinate polypredicative syntactic units can be both 'open' and 'closed' [V.a one-member finite clause + a sentencoid. Burke). Not at all (A.: Arthur looked at his watch. . That's why we often 'tag on' clauses as an afterthought. has shown that and is considerably more frequent in academic prose than in conversation. namely limited planning time in conversation. Blake say? . he was (S. Accumulative polypredicative syntactic units tend to be 'closed' due to the pragmatic heterogeneity of their components and the absence of both actual and potential links signalling the meaning relationship between them. it grew cooler.g. e.: Forgive me. Ayckbourn).a sentencoid + a two-member 'clause representative'.You're not. Hence.: Get down.A. Accumulative structures comprising repetition are open because one and the same thing can be repeated any number of times.e.L.Nice.g. In conversation. The components of coordinate polypredicative syntactic units are usually structurally homogeneous: two or more finite clauses. —» We starved before and \ve can starve again. He had a lovely smile.He was. and I don't want to get married (D. which is consistent with one of the principles of online production. single-word) coordinator.: 312 Time had been good to her. Cf. —»• A disappearing domestic at one end and a cold-blooded murder at the other. Cf. A disappearing domestic at one end — a cold-blooded murder at the other (A.S. He couldn 't have been in it.So do I. we can starve again (W. e. coordinators are not present. we have to think and speak at the same time. the ra in fell (Ch. and they do not allow the insertion of either a non-correlative coordinator or subordinator.a sentencoid + a two-member finite clause. 313 . As for clause-level coordination. But they usually function as two-part polypredicative syntactic units. Genuine and kind (J. isn 't it? . .: The win d ble w. get down (S.Oh.: / don't want a "nice boy-friend". Voynich). . The thing is that they studied not only clause-level coordination. and it had stood still for him (S. and we can always add at least one more. Beloshapkova]. Robins). Do women smoke? . Sheldon). but also phrase-level coordination. Dickens). Cf. are you? .

As for the correlation of phases in the components of coordinate polypredicative syntactic units. there are no data concerning the tempo inside coordinate polypredicative syntactic units. not only simple addition. held in Japan in 1982. 3) syncretic asyndetic polypredicative syntactic units. Onions]. and constellation. First of all. Punctuation provides a substitute for intonation signals. e. Pospelov. E. e. too.: There had been rain the night before . Kruisinga. that only the last component is pronounced with a falling tone implying finality. e. But even a priori one can say that tempo characteristics are highly subjective. Galsworthy). In addition to interdependence. although sometimes it is apparent. determination.M. we regard coordinate polypredicative syntactic structures as a specific subtype of polypredicative syntactic units with constellation. e. and the earth smelt of sap and wild grasses (J. L. some English grammarians deny coordinate poly predicative syntactic units the status of a specific syntactic unit [E.: He has nothing. B. but he looks everything (O. Wilde). one is tempted to draw a conclusion that the coordinated components form an intonation whole.a spring rain. The components of syncretic polypredicative syntactic units are usually finite clauses.g. In the opinion of N. The semantic integrity of coordinated clauses manifests itself in the grammatical form. i. In the opinion of D.: The doctor came in late.e.A.T.g. e. Isho. Cf. Christie). But experiments have shown that in English non-final coordinated components are often pronounced with a terminal falling tone. the logical sequence of events will be violated. C. we may reverse the order of coordinated clauses only when the meaning of the actual or potential coordinator and is that of addition. Syncretic cases do exist. namely in a fixed position of the clauses.g. not as variants of polypredicative syntactic units with coordination or subordination because the reconstruction of the 'missing' clause link is highly subjective. asyndetic polypredicative syntactic units should be studied in themselves. According to A. coordinated clauses form a semantic whole. So. Crystal. —* As the doctor came in late.Taking into consideration that the components of coordinate polyp redicative syntactic units can stand on their own.: Nobody knows us and we know nobody (A.g. Peshkovsky. At the I3th International Congress of linguists. 4) accumulative polypredicative syntactic units. At present.: His wife suggested going and he agreed eagerly (A.: His wife suggested going and he agreed eagerly. we find it possible to classify asyndetic polypredicative syntactic units into four groups: 1) coordinate asyndetic polypredicative syntactic units. it has been stressed that it is not tone. he did not stop to read the telegram (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). while the non-final components are pronounced with a rising tone implying non-finality. they stress the punctuation integrity of coordinate po]y predicative syntactic units: although their components can stand on their own. In the second place. But as their number is rather small. they do not stand on their own. we single out two more types of dependency relations 315 . The doctor came in late and he did not stop to read the telegram. Following Russian linguists. The opposing view is held by Russian linguists. Asyndetic polypredicative syntactic units that allow the insertion of both a non-correlative subordinator and a noncorrelative coordinator are regarded as syncretic polypredicative syntactic units.g. The use of parallel constructions also testifies to the coordinated components building up a semantic and structural whole. 314 Such cases are less numerous than those when the clauses are irreversible because coordinators express a range of meanings. 2) subordinate asyndetic polypredicative syntactic units. but tempo characteristics that should be regarded as the main formal means of syntactic units organization. the position in a coordinate poiypredicative syntactic unit is of no importance as its components are interchangeable. —» We know nobody and nobody knows us. If we place the second coordinated clause in the first place. he did not stop to read the telegram. Christie). Shiryaev and some other linguists. Ilyish is quite right when he says that there is no general rule of their interdependence. —» *He agreed eagerly and his wife suggested going.

COMMUNICATIVE SYNTAX So far. Bennett). Mansfield). secondly) he's a liar.Tom if it's a boy and Natalie if it's a girl (L. Soars) . My lady had discovered that I was getting old before I had discovered it myself. Cohesive parenthetic clauses are not many.g. but I felt my eyes brim with tears (D. and 316 now this comes on the top of it all! (W.constellation (coordination) + interdependence. the small tea-tray on her knees (A. Cf: We emailed the manager yesterday. Polycomponent Syntactic Units Built on Parenthesis Parenthetic clauses are considered to be grammatically independent of the clause into which they are embedded [V. Cf. adverbial) are brought together to form grammatical sequences. predicate. determination. And I can't wait to get the baby's room ready. 22. 317 . e.-etc. Collins) . e. polypredicative syntactic units are sometimes characterized by interplay of several types of syntactic dependence. and taking my ease for the rest of my days as steward in the house (W.A one-member sentence is complicated by parenthesis and isolation. or even constellation. . Last but not least. Soars) . my practice (I own) is not comfortable (W. Kaushanskaya et al. not the absence of dependence. But you see. and thirdfty) he owes me money (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). but I don't know if-we 'II get any money back (L. since parenthetic clauses always function as part of the clause into which they are embedded. COMPLICATED SYNTACTIC UNITS Monopredicative syntactic units and sometimes the components of polypredicative syntactic units can be complicated by secondary predication. However.j. We call them mixed polypredicative syntactic units. . Ilyishj. and J. My lips remained cold and unresponsive. father (though Mr. he's been mortifying and disappointing for weeks and weeks past. . our new accountant (Longman Essential Activator). they cannot be said to have no connection at all with it [B. 21. a car stopped at the front gate (R. and we have treated the order of such units in terms of positional norms.: Firstly) he's a cheat. we have examined the construction of sentences in terms of the way in which units (such as subject. and J. .A two-member sentence is complicated by absolute secondary predication. Constance was sitting up in bed. Cf: / called to the cook (who was within hearing) to look after the poor girl (W. The low frequency of cohesive parenthetic clauses is due to the fact that their function is usually performed by parenthetic words and non-clausal combinations of words. isolation. secondly). But somehow or other. . Franklin isn 't to blame). Collins) . let me introduce Jane.A twomember sentence is complicated by bound secondary predication. Collins) -determination + zero dependence. she seemed exactly as usual (A.constellation (coordination) + determination.A.interdependence + determination + constellation (coordination) + zero dependence. such as first(ly).The second component of a coordinate polypredicative syntactic unit is complicated by bound secondary predication. when I come face to face with the women.between clauses in polypredicative syntactic units: zero dependence and mixed dependence. Lardner). -A two-member sentence is complicated by isolation. and parenthesis. We call it zero dependence. Robins). object. on the one hand.: Trade plays an important role in capitalism as we have seen (E. Of course. Finally. By zero dependence we mean the lowest degree of dependence. Among polypredicative syntactic units with zero dependence there prevail informative and modal parenthetic clauses. As far as I noticed. Collins).g. and she had come to my cottage to wheedle me (if I may use such an expression) into giving up my hard out-of-door work as bailiff. Christie).: She could feel her heart beating wildly (S. on the other hand.L. but its existence is a hard fact. Sheldon).constellation (coordination) + zero dependence. this connection is much weaker than interdependence.. At three-twenty.

: Dear me. at the same time. In fact. though they 319 . F. Mathesius.F. and the second examines this structure with regard to the actual situation. (Ch. CN Word order plays an important role in the domain of written language. occupies the initial position. any sentence member can function as psychological subject and psychological predicate.G. Its representatives noticed an important detail: the absence of direct correspondence between sentence members and the components of the psychological proposition. who has put the problem on a linguistic basis. The inverse word order 'communicative nucleus -communicative basis' is called by him subjective word order. is followed by many linguists. however. The main drawback lies in the fact that V.: The shop was very quiet (J. According to H. distinct from the so-called parts of the sentence. e. The Conception of V.g. Paul. the communicative nucleus (CN) comes after it.g. Joyce). you are smart! -lam always smartl (O. e. I. a representative of the Prague linguistic school. Historical Background The communicative analysis of a sentence goes back to the theory of young-grammarian psychologism of the German linguistics of the second half of the 19th century. Krushelnitskaya writes that there are no specific elements in the sentence. Bronte"). V. But they think that despite being essentially different. Having singled out in the communicative structure of the sentence two components: the communicative basis (that which is known or at least obvious in the given situation) and the communicative nucleus (that which conveys a new piece of information).We shall now look upon the construction of a sentence from the viewpoint of constructing a message. CB CN 318 V. 'Where it is desired to emphasize one idea above others in a sentence. dwells on such linguistic means of their expression as word order and intonation. This drawback is overcome by Russian linguists. Mathesius is not devoid of weak points either. which render its communicative task. Mathesius calls it objective word order because it fully corresponds to the norms of logical thinking: from the known to the unknown. the logical stress marks off the communicative nucleus. Fortunatov went so far in overestimating the role of the speaker's will as to state the addressee's inability to decode the speaker's intention. they drew the conclusion that the psychological division of the sentence wholly depends on the will of the speaker. Mathesius It is V. The communicative basis (CB). Spoken language avails itself of a specific means for differentiating the communicative basis and the communicative nucleus. Mathesius in distinguishing structural and communicative analyses of the sentence because the first studies the structure of the sentence. The binary principle of communicative sentence analysis. as a rule. Mathesius. As a rule. put forth by V. namely the logical stress. Proceeding from psychological grounds. K. the word expressing that idea receives an extra amount of stress'. the speaker violates the logical sequence 'communicative basis -communicative nucleus' and puts the communicative nucleus in the emphatic first place. Mathesius. If it were so. the process of communication would be impossible. Wilde). They side with V. Czech linguists nowadays do not disjoin the two structures either. Being immensely interested in the communicative nucleus of the sentence. for instance. Thus.. the communicative and the structural aspects of the sentence are interdependent. the interlocutor does understand the speaker since there are a lot of devices in the language using which the speaker makes his aim more or less clear to the addressee. But the conception of V.. e.: Happy at Moor House I was.g. Ward writes apropos of this.C. Mathesius opposes communicative and structural sentence analyses and willynilly does away with the problem of their interrelation.

the isolation of the transition in written texts is generally simply impossible. which possess a higher degree of communicative dynamism than the theme but a lower degree of communicative dynamism than the rheme. thematize.and means that which is said or told about that which was set or established before. Firbas J.: Where did you ever find that? . We find the terms 'theme -rheme'.: The air was light (Th.g. If they comprise only one component. In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit (J. as long as they convey some meaning.Because you're too young (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).g. however. Boost and widely used by Czech linguists now. the rheme proper. J. The term 'theme' comes from the Greek root the. As opposed to sentences. on the one hand. e.George (R. and the comparatively most important elements. Most sentences are communicatively two-member. Firbas. where nothing can be already familiar as nothing has preceded it. Wilde). They usually occur at the beginning of the narration. the theme proper. analyzed by J. on the other. Since the process of communication presupposes an exchange of new information. Once upon a time there was a river which was made of words (D.g. Sentencoids with dependent explicit predication are communicatively two-member.: Your brother Ernest deatf? . Firbas. 321 . to be most appropriate because they possess terminological accuracy. Murphy). there are transitional elements. i.: A mountain brook ran through a little village (F. T Tr R But even J. e. Firbas attempts to develop the concept of communicative dynamism. Those sentence elements that carry the lowest degree of communicative dynamism constitute the theme. thematic. These terms are also convenient because adjectives and verbs are easily derived from them. rhematize.: Who likes eggs? . e. 320 there is a long gamut of varying degrees of communicative dynamism which sometimes makes it extremely difficult to draw a distinction between the transition and the theme.: Why can't I go? . Sentencoids with a fusion of explicit and implicit predication can be communicatively two-member and one-member. communicatively one-member sentences are always rhematic. The Conception ofj. All linguistic elements. i.In Florence (D. we refer them to communicatively two-member sentencoids. Firbas cannot help seeing that between the comparatively least important elements.R.are still at variance as to the terms.g. so to speak. J. e. we qualify them as communicatively one-member sentencoids. carry communicative dynamism.g. to which it 'pushes' the communication forward. rhematic.e. e. By communicative dynamism he understands the extent to which the sentence element contributes to the development of the communication. hi view if this. is of opinion that the theme and the rheme are not the only components of the communicative structure of the sentence. Stockton). are communicatively onemember. The term 'rheme' is derived from the Greek root rhe. Those sentence elements that carry the highest degree of communicative dynamism constitute the rheme. Firbas rejects the binary approach to communicative sentence analysis and introduces a three-element principle 'theme (T) .transition (Tr) -rheme (R)'. e. Bisset). Tolkien). If they comprise both the nominal and the verbal components of predication. Dreiser). Steel). and transition and the rheme. Both terms are derived from Greek and are parallel to each other. Having drawn our attention to the fact that linguistic communication is not a static but a dynamic phenomenon. it seems more logical to represent the communicative structure of the sentence as a binary formation including a theme and a rheme. introduced by the German scholar K. most sentencoids. Communicatively one-member sentences are few.e.g.Quite dead (O. In addition to the theme and the rheme. Difficult in transcribed texts. namely sentencoids with implicit predication.and means that which is set or established.

strictly speaking.A.A. In the first place. is predisposed to function in the rheme.H. due to grammatically fixed word order. articles help us define the communicative value of only one part of speech . That's why N.: It was a little bird. or: No . The possibility of the transformation into an independent sentence with the appositive Christmas Day functioning as a predicative proves it quite unequivocally: Next morning was Christmas Day. (W.: It was he who brought her into trouble (J. They are typical of colloquial English. 323 . Thackeray). Cf: A Chinese girl opened the door. Steel). Dik). Thematization of the subject is. Articles.g. Evans).the men are odious. Lawrence). Christmas Day. as opposed to 'double theme' in the first case.the noun. truly.. they won't be invited (S. including the subject. it should be called 'complicated theme'. came fine and clear (A. but that do realize the communicative task. I do understand (I). e. there are languages (for example. the criterion of articles is no more universal than the criterion of word order. 1. But it occurs inside polypredicative sentences. Complicated themes constitute a characteristic feature of written English. As for the students. as has already been mentioned5 English. N. Intensifying Words The indefinite article. The introduction of an appositive in the second case does not only repeat the preceding subject but also imparts a rhematic shade of meaning. John. Cf.g. however.>M n and J. 3. one generates a grammatical sentence. we go to that school since we are seven (I. but the women — the women (W.. e.in the theme. Special Constructions To rhematize the subject grammatically fixed in the thematic initial position. one gets an opportunity to increase the communicative value of the subject without violating grammar rules. e. In the second place. Slusareva refers such sentences to constructions with a double theme. Maugham). However.S. Construction with the introductory it. An intensifying word is a sure sign of the rheme. 2. where the definite article occurs both in the theme and in the rheme.: There was a blackboard in the classroom (V. not obligatory. where the indefinite article occurs in the theme. you 're quite right (J. By introducing a notional subject 322 and removing it closer to the rhematic final position.M. is optional. Cf: A barking dog does not bite (Proverb). Murdoch). the indefinite article is not always rhematic and the definite article is not always thematic. Construction with the introductory 'there'. In the first case. has a tendency to put the subject in the thematic initial position. e. In the third place. It serves to emphasize the communicative value of most sentence members.C. By putting the formal subject there before the predicate. I.. 2. redundant in English because.g.g.: Truly. Next morning. Russian) that have no articles. But whenever special emphasis on the thematic subject is necessary.Language Means of Realizing the Communicative Task of the Sentence Word Order The problem of word order has already been discussed.: The door was opened by a Chinese girl. Slusareva suggests that. Galsworthy). English resorts to three constructions. And the bird was whistling overhead (D. The occurrence of intensifying words. one can resort to the following constructions. McKimmey). the definite . by its very semantics. Passive construction. emphasis on the subject is achieved through its repetition in the form of a pronoun. The final position of the fey-object in the passive construction is certainly more emphatic than the initial position of the subject in the active construction. Cronin).

it is really so. Leech. we prefer the term 'nuclear stress'. Factors Influencing the Communicative Value of Declarative Sentence Components There is no one-to-one correspondence between the structural and the communicative components of the sentence.e. Hemingway). it better reveals the linguistic and.Since all the above-mentioned language means of theme-rheme differentiation are optional. adverbs. In the opinion of G. not in grammar. the notion of swallow. and adjectival nouns. I went over to the side of the bed. verbs. i. and she was what Kitty's mother called a gentlewoman (W. Zolotova. Barkhudarov draws the conclusion that the theme-rheme organization of the sentence should be studied in linguistic stylistics. taller than Kitty. Maugham). L. All parts of the sentence can function both as the theme and as the rheme. e. Charlie always said that of her. Since the epithet 'logical' conjures up undesirable associations with the erroneous logical interpretation of the sentence and bearing in mind that the so-called logical stress marks off the rheme (or the communicative nucleus). Nuclear Stress. The reconstruction of the nuclear stress in written texts is achieved with the help of the context and different graphic means -commas. I followed her into the room. adjectives.: The nurse opened the door and motioned with her finger for me to come. italics.well. In this passage.A. The doctor was standing by the bed on the opposite side. no one could deny that Dorothy Townsend had a pleasant voice. Catherine looked at me and smiled. with a good deal of pale brown hair. like what she was. in the course of the narration forms a starting point for 5 utterances. Of course. because. and linguists generally deal with written texts. Catherine did not look up when I came in. Thus. only implicitly. introduced in the first sentence. for nuclear stress is to be found only in oral speech.S. the rheme is usually constituted by words possessing the generalized meaning of action. i. Context The latter is debatable. At the same time.the so-called logical stress. the communicative value of a sentence pan depends on the volume of the sentence. the context also helps determine the rheme. there is no gainsaying the fact that there exist certain correlations between communicative and syntactic functions. J. neither stout nor thin. I bent down over the bed and started to cry (E. In texts describing the actions of a person. there prevail action characteristics. there prevail qualitative characteristics. Cf. the wife of the Assistant Colonial Secretary at Hong Kong. Thus. Really. And she dressed like . however. hence. She had a skin that you would never look at twice and no colour in her cheeks. not explicitly. the communicative essence of the phenomenon under examination.: 325 .: One night there flew over the city a little Swallow. for it is proved experimentally that theme-rheme differentiation has at least one constant means of its expression . She was a wonderful mother. His friends had gone away to Egypt six weeks before but he had stayed behind.V the communicatively transitional predicate (and even the operator in 'sentence representatives') usually functions as the rheme. in texts describing a person or 324 scene.: She was a tallish woman. the repetition of a notion decreases its communicative value.g. But if one goes deeper into it. and had been so attracted by her slender waist that he had stopped to talk to her (O. in our view. One might object saying that the criterion of nuclear stress is not binding either. etc. dashes. first of all.S. for he was in love with the most beautiful Reed He had met her early in the spring as he was flying down the river after a big yellow moth. she could never have been pretty with anything but the prettiness of youth: her features were good enough without being remarkable and her blue eyes were cold. Svartvik and some other linguists. e. hence. he will see that nuclear stress is present in written texts as well.g. shifting it into the sphere of thematic elements. the rheme is usually constituted by words possessing the generalized meaning of property. In the first place. On the face of it. in the two-element structure S . Wilde).e.g. Linguists usually mention the thematizing role of the context. found in the papers of G. e.

Mary! Can't you forget? - No, dear. But I forgive (E. O'Neill). Cancel it. -1 won'/ (D. Steel). The lexical peculiarities of the predicate-verb play an important role, too. For example, verbs expressing strong feelings and emotions are apt to Sanction as the rheme, e.g.: I hate my own hometown (J. Braine). I enjoyed my soup (A. Christie). Besides, one should not disregard the part-of-speech nature of the sentence components. Verbs, adjectives and adverbs, which indicate properties, are predisposed to function as the rheme; nouns and pronouns, which either name or point to things and properties, are predisposed to function as the theme. What is more, one should bear in mind the functional peculiarities of different language varieties. In conversation, with its interest in all the circumstances under which the discussed events have taken place, it is the adverbial that constitutes the rheme in the vast majority of cases, e.g.: I'm going beautifully (E. Hemingway). I came from New York, Mama (W. Saroyan). As for academic prose and newspaper texts, aimed at reporting discoveries and news, they quite naturally show a prevalence of objects in the function of the rheme. Cf: In Chapter YI we discussed nouns and their qualifiers (J.H. Grattan). The Italian Prime minister ... appealed for unity and calm among his coalition partners after a slump of the lira on world markets (The Guardian). A relatively high proportion of rhematic adverbials in newspaper texts is easy to explain, too: the genre of news is designed not only to inform the reader of what has happened but also to place the reported event in time and place, e.g.: She had left an office party at a nightclub in Cardiff at around midnight on Friday (The Guardian).

Communicative Analysis of Imperative and Interrogative Sentences

The communicative analysis of imperative sentences, which give commands and express requests, differs from the communicative analysis of declarative sentences, which make statements, only in one respect: the predicate-verb in imperative sentences much more often functions as the rheme. Cf.: Listen*. (A. Maltz). Listen to me, Sophie (L. Hellman). You listen to this (Ch. Dickens). For God's sake, forget thepast\ (E. O'Neill), etc. But other parts of the sentence are registered in the function of the rheme, too. Cf.: Go out. Wait in the car (T. Williams) - adverbial. Tell me the truth (V. Woolf) - object. Will I call your father and Mister Jamie, or will you? - You do it (E. O'Neill) - subject. Interrogative sentences are functionally and structurally heterogeneous. The so-called general (or yes/no) questions are asked in order to find out whether the relation between the predicate and the subject is true or false, e.g.: Are you a doctor1? - Yes (J. Aldridge). Is lunch ready yefl ~ Of course not\ (Meet the Parkers). According to V. Mathesius, the rheme in ^es/Mo-questions is constituted by the initial predicate-verb. V.E. Shevyakova does not share this point of view on the ground that the initial predicate-verb m English _yes/«o-questions is semanticaliy weak and simply cannot form the rheme of the sentence. What is more, there are a lot of noninverted yeVno-questions of the type: The door was closed*? - Yes (E.S. Gardner), where nothing but the nuclear stress helps us identify the rheme. In general, the nuclear stress can fall on any part of \heyes/noquestion. Cf.: Do you smoke! -1 don't (M. Spark) - predicate. Did you get everything? - Yes (J. Cheever) - object. Where's the stuff? Did you leave it in the car! (T. Williams) -adverbial.

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327

As is evident from the obtained data, the communicative structure of yes/no-questions has much in common with the communicative structure of declarative sentences. It is hardly surprising: y&s/no-questions are statements whose authenticity is called in question by the speaker. The so-called special (or w/i-questions) are resorted to by the speaker in order to get some information from the addressee, e.g.: When did you arrive1? - Last nisht (A. Christie). Since it is w/i-elements that signal the speaker's desire for information, V. Mathesius qualifies them as rhematic. But rhematic elements always bear a nuclear stress. As for Wi-elements, they are seldom intonationally marked. Does it mean, then, that w/z-elements should be excluded from rhematic elements? Evidently not. The thing is that, as opposed to declarative sentences, which serve primarily to make statements, wA-questions perform at least two communicative functions. On the one hand, they determine the sphere of the unknown (the rheme); on the other hand, they indicate the starting point for the addressee's answer. The rheme is morphologically marked: it is a w/2-eIement. Nuclear stress would certainly impart additional emphasis to the rheme, but even without it, the addressee generally finds no difficulty in understanding what the speaker is interested in. The choice of a starting point for an answer turns out much more difficult, especially if the interrogative sentence is rather long. To help the addressee, the speaker identifies the desired starting point by giving it a nuclear stress. As a rule, it is an adverbial or an object, e.g.: Why are you having a wash now! (Meet the Parkers). How much money have Igotl (F.S. Fitzgerald).
Principles of Monopredicative Syntactic Units Organization

predicate groups sent for me, will, and is dead are the rhemes of the syntactic units given in bold italics. All the other sentencoids defy the structural analysis into subject and predicate, for the notions of subject and predicate are correlative notions. But two-component sentencoids with a fusion of explicit and implicit predication are communicatively discrete: one component says something about the second component, e.g.: All of us in lovel (I. Murdoch). Everything all right1? (D. Francis). Bands up (Ph. Incledon). The use of the theme-rheme or the rheme-theme sequence depends on the emotive charge of the utterance. Purely informative utterances and questions seeking information are generally built on the theme-rheme principle, e.g.: I will go to the States (E. Hemingway). Father gone (T. W. Robertson). Will they pay its'? (St. Minot). You ever see her before1? - No (1. Shaw). Among evaluative utterances rendering the subjective attitude of the speaker, there is naturally a high proportion of the rhemetheme sequence, e.g.: What a perfect angel you are, Cecily (O. Wilde). A gentleman, that dog (J. Galsworthy). Very dark in here these days (W. Deeping).

There are two principles of monopredicative syntactic units organization: the subject-predicate principle and the theme-rheme principle. In two-member sentences, 'sentence representatives' and sentencoids having explicit but dependent predication, the two principles go hand in hand. Cf.: Her mother sent for me (Sh. Anderson); Please ... come home. -1 will (D. Steel); Why don't I live with you1? Because mamma's dead? (F.S. Fitzgerald), where the subject groups her mother, I, and mamma are the themes and the 328

M.A.K. Halliday regards the theme-rheme integration as a universal phenomenon. The theory of communicative sentence / 'sentence representative' / sentencoid analysis is of great practical importance. It is indispensable in teaching: 1)the optimum way of developing thought, 2)elocution, 3) translation aimed at elucidating and rendering the communicative task of the original text by means of another language.

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23. SEMANTIC SYNTAX

Language is a system that mediates between the universe of meaning and the universe of sound. Language involves the following process. A configuration of concepts arises within the nervous system of a human being, who converts these concepts into sound. The sound travels to the listeners, and is normally reconverted within their nervous systems into some facsimile of the original concepts. In other words, the conversion of meanings into sounds allows human beings to transfer ideas from one to another. The smallest unit of communication is an utterance that represents speech realization of a sentence. The sentence has two structures: a conceptual structure and a surface structure. The formal components of the surface structure are accessible to observation in relatively straightforward ways and from a variety of perspectives. Concepts, on the other hand, are located deep within the human nervous system. Presumably they have some physical, electrochemical reality there. But we can make no conceptual spectrograms, X-rays, or tape recordings to peruse at our leisure. No wonder that until the 60-s of the 20 th century linguists have concentrated their attention on a study of the surface structure of the sentence, leaving semantics to a very large extent to philosophers. In consequence, we still know rather little about the nature of language, for semantic structure constitutes the crucial component of language. Without knowledge of semantic structure, we are ignorant of the processes which produce well-formed utterances, for these are the processes of semantic formation. The satisfactory observation of meanings is certainly difficult but by no means impossible. The widespread despair that has existed over conceptual data has stemmed in large part from a pervasive scepticism as to the validity of introspection as a method of scientific observation. If concepts have their locus within our minds, that is the place to look for them, but to do so was anathema in the recent past. Observations arrived at through introspection have been characterized as worthless or impossible. The implication is that each person will find something different, that the minds of different speakers do not hold significant things in common. If concepts were idiosyncratic, language would not be able to function. This is not to say that people think in identical ways. It is
330

to say that speakers of a particular language - and probably all people - hold a large store of concepts in common. The sounds that travel from the speaker do not normally engender new conceptual units in the mind of his hearer. They activate concepts already there, concepts that both the speaker and his hearer have in common. They may and often do introduce novel configurations of these familiar concepts. But it is normally only the configurations that are new, not the concepts that make them up. Thus, if I tell you My house has seventeen doors, this may be something you did not know before, but it is only the message as a whole that is new. The constituent concepts, such as are reflected in surface structure items like house, doors, and seventeen are concepts that you and I have shared for as long as we have been able to speak English. Semantics has come to the fore in the 60-s of the 20th century. The most popular is the referential conception of sentence meaning (pe^epenmHOH Kony,erfyun SHa^enufi npedno^ceuuH}. The adherents of this conception hold that the referent of the sentence is the situation. Linguists use different terms for the semantic units identifying the participants of the situation: semantic actants, arguments, roles, etc. The combination of arguments with the predicator constitutes a semantic model of the situation. In the surface structure of a sentence, arguments usually find their expression in noun phrases, predicators - in verbs.
The Conception ofW.L. Chafe

One of the founders of semantic syntax is the American linguist W. L. Chafe. The human conceptual universe, according to W. L. Chafe, can be divided into two areas: the area of the verb and the area of the noun. (By verbs and nouns he understands semantic verbs and nouns, not elements of the surface structure.). The area of the verb embraces states and events. The area of the noun embraces 'things' (both physical objects and abstractions). Of these two the verb is regarded by him to be central. First of all, in every language a verb is present semantically in all but a few marginal utterances, though it may, in some instances, be deleted before a surface structure is reached. While it is accompanied typically by one or more nouns, there exist sentences in which only a verb is present, e.g.:
331

23. SEMANTIC SYNTAX

Language is a system that mediates between the universe of meaning and the universe of sound. Language involves the following process. A configuration of concepts arises within the nervous system of a human being, who converts these concepts into sound. The sound travels to the listeners, and is normally reconverted within their nervous systems into some facsimile of the original concepts, hi other words, the conversion of meanings into sounds allows human beings to transfer ideas from one to another. The smallest unit of communication is an utterance that represents speech realization of a sentence. The sentence has two structures: a conceptual structure and a surface structure. The formal components of the surface structure are accessible to observation in relatively straightforward ways and from a variety of perspectives. Concepts, on the other hand, are located deep within the human nervous system. Presumably they have some physical, electrochemical reality there. But we can make no conceptual spectrograms, X-rays, or tape recordings to peruse at our leisure. No wonder that until the 60-s of the 20 th century linguists have concentrated their attention on a study of the surface structure of the sentence, leaving semantics to a very large extent to philosophers. In consequence, we still know rather little about the nature of language, for semantic structure constitutes the crucial component of language. Without knowledge of semantic structure, we are ignorant of the processes which produce well-formed utterances, for these are the processes of semantic formation. The satisfactory observation of meanings is certainly difficult, but by no means impossible. The widespread despair that has existed over conceptual data has stemmed in large part from a pervasive scepticism as to the validity of introspection as a method of scientific observation. If concepts have their locus within our minds, that is the place to look for them, but to do so was anathema in the recent past. Observations arrived at through introspection have been characterized as worthless or impossible. The implication is that each person will find something different, that the minds of different speakers do not hold significant things in common. If concepts were idiosyncratic, language would not be able to function. This is not to say that people think in identical ways. It is 330

to say that speakers of a particular language - and probably all people - hold a large store of concepts in common. The sounds that travel from the speaker do not normally engender new conceptual units in the mind of his hearer. They activate concepts already there, concepts that both the speaker and his hearer have in common. They may and often do introduce novel configurations of these familiar concepts. But it is normally only the configurations that are new, not the concepts that make them up. Thus, if I tell you My house has seventeen doors, this may be something you did not know before, but it is only the message as a whole that is new. The constituent concepts, such as are reflected in surface structure items like house, doors, and seventeen are concepts that you and I have shared for as long as we have been able to speak English. Semantics has come to the fore in the 60-s of the 20th century. The most popular is the referential conception of sentence meaning (pe(pepeH m H Q x K O H ifenijiiH SH O M em ifi npednoatceH usi). The adherents of this conception hold that the referent of the sentence is the situation. Linguists use different terms for the semantic units identifying the participants of the situation: semantic actants, arguments, roles, etc. The combination of arguments with the predicator constitutes a semantic model of the situation. In the surface structure of a sentence, arguments usually find their expression in noun phrases, predicators - in verbs.
The Conception ofW.L. Chafe

One of the founders of semantic syntax is the American linguist W. L. Chafe. The human conceptual universe, according to W. L. Chafe, can be divided into two areas: the area of the verb and the area of the noun. (By verbs and nouns he understands semantic verbs and nouns, not elements of the surface structure.). The area of the verb embraces states and events. The area of the noun embraces 'things' (both physical objects and abstractions). Of these two the verb is regarded by him to be central. First of all, in every language a verb is present semantically in all but a few marginal utterances, though it may, in some instances, be deleted before a surface structure is reached. While it is accompanied typically by one or more nouns, there exist sentences in which only a verb is present, e.g.: 331

Actions. not some object within it. like Oh or Ouch.: aggressive threat . Chafe draws a distinction between count (or countable) nouns and mass nouns.L.L.L. The patient specifies what it is that is in the state of being dry. Chafe). Chafe). both a process and an action. As an action. Chafe). Viney). Chafe). W. Most potent nouns are animate. writes W. For example. it involves a change in the condition of its patient (What happened to the wood? . Ambient verbs can express not only all-encompassing states but also all-encompassing actions. The meaning of sentences like these seems to involve nothing but a predication. The wood is dry (W. the noun . Animate nouns are further specified as human and non-human. Chafe). It's Tuesday (W.L. It's snowing (W.}.L.as its patient. actions.States As a process. Nouns are specified by W. an event. and action-processes. Chafe -specifies the verb in such sentences as a process. in which there is no 'thing' of which the predication is made. . process. and unique. But there are some inanimate nouns that have a force of their own. action-process. It in these sentences is a surface element only. or ambient. An action sentence answers the question What did N do? The noun in an action sentence indicates somebody who performs the action. Chafe). e. etc.g. The verb laughed expresses an action. At the outset.g.g. Ambient It '$ late (W. cannot be counted. The concept 'human'. in which the direct symbolization of unitary (edunuvutiiu) messages was the rule. The verbs in these sentences denote all-encompassing states that cover the total environment. Chafe).L. it does not reflect anything at all in the semantic structure.L. for the most part. The verb indicates a state (dry). human. e. The generation of a semantic structure. of course. The wind opened the door (W. It is accompanied by the noun wood that is its patient. Non-states fall into processes. e.L. Utterances which semantically have no verb.L. So. Chafe specifies as potent those nouns that have the power to do something. Chafe. h 's hoi (W. proceeds in the following way. ~fhe wood dried (W. where N is some noun.L. potent. W. animate. she.L. a noun that contains it may be represented in surface structure by pronouns like he. hi the second place.). Chafe).L.: It's raining (W. Actign-Prgcess. W. The presence of this semantic unit has various surface structure manifestations.L.The wood became dry. determining what the rest of the sentence will contain -not completely.es The verb in some sentences is. Chafe specifies such verbs as ambient. P r_ o c e _ s _ s _ e _ s_ 332 333 . or who while a non-human noun is represented by it or -which under the circumstances. A process sentence answers the question What happened to N?.L. WT.Come on (P. Chafe). W. although some count nouns.L. Such a noun can be said to be the agent of the verb. the verb is characterized as state. but to a significant degree.bark. Chafe). action.: Michael dried the wood (W.lip-smacking.: The heat melted the butter (W. Chafe as count. the verb is the control centre of a sentence. Non-states are distinguished from states by the fact that they answer the questions What happened? What is happening? A nonstate is a happening. it expresses what the agent did (What did Michael do? -Michael dried the wood. simultaneously.L. The men laughed (W. The noun wood has changed its state (it has become dry). the concept 'potent' is broader than the concept 'animate'. e. It is only count nouns that can be counted.g. non-aggression . namely proper names.L. has to do with human beings as opposed to other animate creatures. Chafe regards as relics of the prehuman kind of communication. Chafe).L.

he is a person who was mentally disposed in some way. processes. Beneficiary.L. non-unique. requires the accompaniment of a patient noun. it is not an agent. Chafe) .L. count. Chafe).A human noun is given gender. When an agent is present. but each of these individuals is a separate concept.g.L.L.L. Chafe). There is nothing parallel to 'benefactive' or 'experiential' that requires the verb to have an accompanying instrument. but not of dead (Mepmebiti). Cf. Chafe). they are not amenable to counting. Which position it occupies depends largely on whether or not it conveys new information in the sentence. Rather.: Tom cut the rope with a knife (W. Chafe treats it conceptually as male. and ambient within the verb determine the rest of the structure in two ways. non-human. 334 Although Tom looks as if it were an agent from the point of view of surface structure (cf. What is necessary is that the verb be specified as an action-process.: Tom cut the paper). The verbs have and own are benefactive verbs.: The explosion awakened Michael (W. Chafe) . It means that the verb. W. is again free. for example. The selectional units of state. The patient noun. Another relation that a noun may bear to a verb appears to be that of instrument. Tom is the one who benefits from having a car. because of the verbs awaken and frighten. Chafe singles out five more relations of Noun to Verb. Mary sang for Tom (W. Chafe).animate. the agent noun is constrained by the verbs awaken and frighten to be potent. Benefactive verbs can be states.L. / frightened the elephant (WL.L. although the choice of human or non-human is free. Not knowing the sex of a human noun. For example. e. action. W.L. he is the one who did something. actionprocesses. limits the choice not only of its own root but also the choice of accompanying noun roots. I frightened the elephant (W. Tom lost the tickets (W. human. there may be many individuals named Michael. In Modern English the sex is seldom specified. First.L.L. Of course. since counting depends on the existence of more than one individual in the class. action-process. potent. and actions. count.L. Chafe). Chafe) . Chafe) . a class of one member. Tom is not someone who did something. nonhuman. Thus. and actions. a beneficiary will show up either as a noun directly following the surface structure verb or as a sentence-final noun preceded by the preposition for.potent.L. In addition to agent and patient.L. must be animate and therefore both count and potent. Unique (or proper) names involve only a single individual. Experiential verbs can be states. they determine the number and relation of accompanying nouns: process. A beneficiary noun will appear in surface structure as a subject so long as no agent is present. process and action permit the choice of awaken (6ydumb. potent. Second. An 335 . Cf: Tom knew the answer (W. and unique or non-unique. Nevertheless. Tom is the real agent here. through its selectiona! units. Tom wanted a drink (W. Harry taught Tom the answer (W. and action requires the accompaniment of an agent noun. and the noun Tom is an experiencer. Selectional units within the verb also determine the selectional units within the accompanying nouns. Chafe). Chafe).: Hie explosion awakened Michael (W. Cf. The verb wanted is an experiential verb. they limit the choice of a verb root. Chafe).potent.animate. Chafe).L. although they are count nouns. that is its sex is specified. although the choice of human or non-human. process. Cf: Tom has the tickets (W. Knife is the instrument that he used in order to change the condition of the rope. Tom has/owns a convertible (W. human. The relation 'instrument' differs noticeably from the relations 'experiencer' and 'beneficiary' because it is not associated with a particular selectional unit within the verb. For that reason. Mary gave Tom the tickets (W. pasdydumb}. processes. They are accompanied by the beneficiary Tom. Tom learned the answer (W. Chafe). unique. •Instrument.L. Knife resembles an agent since it has something to do with bringing about the change of condition that the sentence conveys.

Tom threw the knife into the box (W. Chafe). such as want. a completable verb . Thus.: Tom opened the door (with a key) (W. it is optional. It is typical of cases of this sort that the verb involves an action that causes something to come into being .: Tom fell off the chair (W. Bogdanov calls the semantic model of a sentence a predicate structure (npeduKamnoe eupaotcemie). agent.g. Chafe). and location.action-process verb optionally may be accompanied by a noun that is related to it as instrument. Six of these relations . The relations of patient and agent have a fundamental character: every sentence contains a patient or agent noun.. Cf. Chafe). Singing. A completable verb either may or must be accompanied by a complement noun.L. One is to dictate the presence of a noun related to the verb in a certain way. Location: The knife is in the box (W. The other is to limit the choice of a lexical unit within the verb. We can say The book weighs a pound but not *The book-weighs. Such sentences contain state verbs that are further specified as locative. beneficiary. and so on. is quite distinct from that of patient. Chafe calls such verbs completable. if not both. unless the verb is in the ambient category. Thus. Chafe. see. — Tom fell (W. Tom crawled under the table (W. An experiential verb calls for an experiencer.g. The noun root that may occur within a particular complement noun is severely limited by the verb root. Then.that creates something. a completable verb root may dictate the presence of one and only one particular noun root in its complement . In fact. so that several different types of nouns may be attached to a verb at the same time.for a complement. For other actions. Chafe). includes one predicate sign (odun 337 336 . The most significant noun-verb relations. Only state verbs require the accompaniment of a location noun. and a locative verb — for a location. in his opinion.for a beneficiary. for example. Chafe).: The ship sank into the sea (W. To sum up. A predicate structure. The relation of complement. Brief Outline of Other Approaches to Semantic Syntax V. e. a verb that has been specified selectionally as experiential is not only accompanied by an experiencer noun but is also limited to certain verb roots.L. The cat is on the roof(W. according to W.L Chafe) The children played a game (W. The key is under the rug (W. Chafe).: The key opened the door (W. An action verb dictates an agent noun. complement. Chafe). experiencer. by its very nature. a benefactive verb .as sing dictates song and play dictates game. An instrument noun appears in surface structure as a sentence-final noun preceded by the preposition -with (see the above-given example) or as a subject. locative actions. Selectional units have two distinct functions. The noun that specifies a computable verb is termed by him 'complement'. implies a song. Chafe). They include patient.L. e.. instrument.L.L.L. He sang a song and He sang are equally possible. playing implies a game. Chafe).are determined by the presence within the verb of a certain selectional unit. A complement noun is obligatory for all completable states. In addition to locative states.L. It completes or specifies more narrowly the meaning of the verb.. These various selectional units within the verb can co-occur. Here the verb describes a certain action that. know. and locative action-processes. A locative verb is accompanied by a noun that bears to it the relation of location. although the surface representations of the two are identical in most languages.L. A complement noun does not specify something that is in a state or that changes its state.L. it appears to be obligatory for actions of the 'make' variety.~L.. A state or process verb dictates the presence of a patient noun. in his opinion.L. however. we can say He made a table but not *ffe made. W. It is the nature of the verb that determines the presence and relation of nouns. implies the co-existence of a certain nominal concept.V.all but instrument . there are locative processes. Cf. are seven in number. Non-stative verbs may also occur unaccompanied by a location noun. Chafe). Chafe).L. Complement: Mary sang a song (W.L.

intends to refer to by it.: They made me repeat the story (A.g. Cowie. V.C.g. Cowie. e. without resort to the structure of the extra linguistic situation. Aspective predicators indicate the phase of an action: its beginning.S. Gimson). The term 'pragmatics' was introduced by Ch. according to V.P.npeduKamnbiu SHOK) and a zero. Bogdanov assumes the predicator to be central in the predicate-argument structure. He continued to live with his parents after his marriage (A.g. e. Chafe. Modal predicators show the attitude of the speaker to the action. They are characteristic of inflected languages.Y. Cowie. Syntax. Just like W. studies the ways in which signs are combined. Multi-argument predicators (MnozoMecmnbie npeditKamu) express relations. PRAGMATICS Pragmatics focuses its attention on the functional side of language. They generally function as predicators (npeduKambi). Cf. Until recently. and properties. 338 Causative predicators cause something to happen. Hornby. continuation. 339 . 24.: Ceemaem (PyccKas rpaMMaTHKa). A. who uses it.V.V. Gimson). and causative predicators that take embedded predicators. Cf. Predicate signs express properties. E. The central seme of non-predicate signs is 'thingness' ('eeufHocmb'). A.L. for example. and more than one argument.: She began to read (J. Paducheva declares that the meaning of a sentence is the sum total of the meanings of its constituent lexemes. In-the--surface structure of a sentence.S. Hornby. according to R. the evolution of linguistics can be presented in the following way: from syntax through semantics to pragmatics. Hornby. e. e. modal. Evans) He is clever (V. A. A close study of semiotics has led Ch. Parsons).in the 80-s of the 20th century. semantics. uses. The designatum of an expression. Arguments. Hornby. Evans). He is happy (V. and the meaning of the syntactic construction. Gimson). Abroad. A. A.V.S. Morris to the conclusion that it admits of a tripartite division into syntactics (syntax).: They are reading (V. Shvedova studies sentence meaning exclusively on language material. and pragmatics.: / love my mother (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). The predicate sign in the function of an argument is called by him an embedded predieator (efuuovenHbiu npeduKam). the grammatical meanings of the word forms. Carnap.: You ought to have done that earlier (A. states. or relations. Semantic syntax is in the process of development.C. in his opinion. Cowie. in Russia . to an object or a property or a state of affairs. and effects of signs. We stopped talking (A. pragmatics came into the foreground in the 70-s. and gerunds. infinitives. A. Semantics concerns the relationship between signs and their designata. N. one or more non-predicate signs (it nyjib.C. odun luiu necKOJibKO uenpeduKamubix SHaxoe). Morris in the 20-s of the 20 century. One-argument predicators (odnoMecmnbie npeduKamu) express actions. one.V. Evans).P. A. can be expressed not only by non-predicate signs but also by predicate signs. or end. actions. embedded predicators find their expression in verbal and adjectival nouns. The problems of pragmatics have been treated informally by philosophers and by some linguists. Taking into consideration the number of arguments. Bogdanov.g. It is usually aspective. A.P.S. is what he. who generally ignored pragmatic problems or pushed them into semantics and syntax. Non-predicate signs function as arguments. pragmatics has been the neglected member of the traditional three-part division of the study of signs. Gimson).C. Bogdanov draws a distinction between predicate structures with a zero. Pragmatics deals with the origin. So. Zero-argument predicators (nyjibMecmnbie npeduKamu) describe the state of the atmosphere. Much of what is now referred to pragmatics was studied by the Greeks and Romans in Rhetoric.P. But I hope you have a rough idea now what it deals with. V. The brief outline I gave you of semantic syntax is by no means exhaustive. That's why it has a lot of debatable points.

The differentiation of initiating and reacting speech acts is not an easy task because most speech acts perform both functions in the process of communication. does not take into consideration the existence of verbless speech acts. the speaker accompanied the implied directive Someone's at the door by a 'bald' (or imperative) directive Answer the door. 4) speech acts of the declaration type that have specific performative formulas. The absence of one-to-one correspondence between the type of syntactic structure and the pragmatic function of the corresponding speech act exposes the vulnerability of the syntactic classification. Speech acts based on 'sentence representatives' and most sentencoids stand outside the lexical classification. an examination question is different from a question in everyday communication. The authors of the lexical classification of speech acts take as a starting point the lexical character of the verb [J. D. 'sentence representative'. The morphological classification of speech acts. M. V. or sentencoid under certain conditions. morphological.: Someone's at the door. Thus. according to their position within--speech-act patterns. e.R. confirmations or answers are typical reacting moves. to put it differently. On the other hand. However. etc. Secondary (or institutional) speech acts are specific for a certain institution.: We 're lucky. The meaning of the verb does help classify speech acts. Ballmer. but as a directive. His aim consists in testing the knowledge of the person taking the exam. Edmondson]. The authors of the morphological classification of speech acts are guided by the mood of the verb. he naturally knows the answer to the question. However. for school instruction. 2)speech acts of the directive type that have a verb in the imperative mood. a distinction is drawn between initiating and reacting speech acts [L.Is everything ready? ~ Yes. like the lexical classification. for example.g. Criteria for Speech Act Classifications There exist different criteria for speech act classification. institutions can modify primary speech acts. the giving of a verdict. Some speech acts. Thus.Because there aren 't any clouds (English Course). dear. speech acts can be classified according to their function or. everything's fine. . courtroom investigation.Linguists generally regard a speech act as a basic minimal unit of pragmatic analysis [J. the speech act was intended not as a representative. if we were guided by the syntactic criterion of 341 . namely the order of subject and predicate. In the second place. but it is an initiating speech act in regard to the following speech act Because there aren't any clouds. in particular questions or requests. Primary (or natural) speech acts are necessary for any kind of human interaction. etc. the opening of a meeting. As for the examiner. Cf. commercial advertising. political debate. Answer the_door (English Course). Here the speech act JFfty? is reacting in regard to the preceding speech act We 're lucky. the lexical criterion is applicable only to speech acts comprising a notional verb. Chakhoyan. for new information. Austin. A speech act is the production of a sentence. The latter asks for information. In the first place. Wunderlich singles out four types of speech acts: 1)speech acts of the question type that have a verb in the interrogative mood. Brennenstuhl. there is often no one-to-one correspondence between the mood of the verb used in the speech act and the intention of the speaker. 340 In the third place. The verb in the speech act Someone's at the door is in the socalled 'declarative mood'. The authors of the syntactic classification of speech acts take word order as a starting point. Institutions can bring into life new types of speech acts. Kreckel]. Th. What is more. speech acts can be classified according to their linguistic characteristics: lexical. for example.L. have a tendency to function as initiating moves. Searle].P. 3)speech acts of the representative type that have a verb in the declarative mood.K. In this case. Since the addressee failed to understand the implied directive. On the other hand. speech acts can be classified according to their origin into primary (or natural) and secondary (or institutional) speech acts. — Why? . Thus. W. and syntactic.

confirmations or answers are typical reacting moves.drawn between initiating and reacting speech acts [L. etc. In the second place.L. The authors of the lexical classification of speech acts take as a starting point the lexical character of the verb [J. political debate. courtroom investigation. the giving of a verdict. However. Th. W. Austin. the opening of a meeting. The authors of the morphological classification of speech acts are guided by the mood of the verb. M. have a tendency to function as initiating moves. The latter asks for information. if we were guided by the syntactic criterion of 341 . A speech act is the production of a sentence. commercial advertising. in particular questions or requests. — Why? . Edmondson]. Thus. The authors of the syntactic classification of speech acts take word order as a starting point. Thus.R. 4) speech acts of the declaration type that have specific performative formulas. speech acts can be classified according to their function or. the speech act was intended not as a representative.: We're lucky. In this case. However. or sentencoid under certain conditions. In the first place. a distinction is.P. The morphological classification of speech acts. Institutions can bring into life new types of speech acts. an examination question is different from a question in everyday communication. morphological. etc. 'sentence representative'. Primary (or natural) speech acts are necessary for any kind of human interaction. The verb in the speech act Someone's at the door is in the socalled 'declarative mood'. The meaning of the verb does help classify speech acts. D. On the other hand. On the other hand. to put it differently. The absence of one-to-one correspondence between the type of syntactic structure and the pragmatic function of the corresponding speech act exposes the vulnerability of the syntactic classification. 340 In the third place. . for example. the speaker accompanied the implied directive Someone's at the door by a 'bald' (or imperative) directive Answer the door. As for the examiner. everything's fine. Kreckel]. speech acts can be classified according to their linguistic characteristics: lexical. V. but it is an initiating speech act in regard to the following speech act Because there aren 't any clouds. institutions can modify primary speech acts.Is everything ready? ~ Yes. there is often no one-to-one correspondence between the mood of the verb used in the speech act and the intention of the speaker.K. namely the order of subject and predicate. and syntactic. like the lexical classification. Speech acts based on 'sentence representatives' and most sentencoids stand outside the lexical classification. for example.g.Because there aren't any clouds (English Course). Answer the door (English Course). His aim consists in testing the knowledge of the person taking the exam. Some speech acts. Wunderlich singles out four types of speech acts: 1)speech acts of the question type that have a verb in the interrogative mood. dear. e. the lexical criterion is applicable only to speech acts comprising a notional verb. speech acts can be classified according to their origin into primary (or natural) and secondary (or institutional) speech acts. for school instruction. Secondary (or institutional) speech acts are specific for a certain institution. Criteria for Speech Act Classifications There exist different criteria for speech act classification. does not take into consideration the existence of verbless speech acts. but as a directive. What is more. Here the speech act Why1? is reacting in regard to the preceding speech act We 're lucky. 2)speech acts of the directive type that have a verb in the imperative mood. 3)speech acts of the representative type that have a verb in the declarative mood. Ballmer. Searle]. Thus. Cf. Chakhoyan. The differentiation of initiating and reacting speech acts is not an easy task because most speech acts perform both functions in the process of communication. for new information. according to their position within speech -act patterns.: Someone's at the door. Since the addressee failed to understand the implied directive.Linguists generally regard a speech act as a basic minimal unit of pragmatic analysis [J. he naturally knows the answer to the question. Brennenstuhl.

however. and so on. such as asking or answering a question.e.word order. and syntactic peculiarities. for instance. Hornby) asks for information.' Speech acts are functional phenomena. Perlocutionary effects may be achieved intentionally. as.promise. 'I christen this ship the Kneydel' 342 while breaking a bottle of champagne on the stern of a vessel. A locutionary act is an act of saying something in the full sense of the word say. He distinguishes three kinds of speech acts: 1) locutionary acts.prediction. The functional heterogeneity of speech acts knows no bounds. The product of a speech act is an utterance. What is more. it would raise more than a few eyebrows to say subsequently. for example.L. Cf: You should take an aspirin (S. You may take another one (S. In issuing an utterance. A perlocutionary act is an act performed as a result of saying. Greenbaum) — permission. i. 2. the speaker is to speak seriously and literally.L. It realizes the intent of the speaker. Austin) . announcing a verdict or an intention. Austin draws a distinction between two kinds of utterances: constatives and performatives. Thus. making an appointment or an appeal or a criticism. Greenbaum) . by making a promise a speaker may reassure and create expectations in his audience. An illocutionary act is an act performed in saying something. But it was not intended as a question. 'It seems to be a wild goose chase trying to define types of illocution on purely linguistic grounds. Greenbaum) . I ' m g oi n g t o gi v e y o u a bi c y c l e f o r y o u r b i r t h d a y (S.: The earth moves round the sun (J. and does not work in the domain of sentencoids. as when one annoys one's audience without intending to do so.g. It's going to rain (S. Hence. The illocutionary force of a speech act is always interpreted as having been intended. 1. If the illocutionary force takes effect. In S. The essence of each classification. the term 'performative'.As opposed to constatives. performatives cannot be either true or false. Motsch writes apropos of this. If it doesn't. As opposed to constatives. the speaker performs the three acts simultaneously. Greenbaum) — advice. So. In a performative. W. it is said to be happy (or felicitous). For example.Performatives must satisfy the sincerity condition. 2) illocutionary acts. and 3) perlocutionary acts. Greenbaum) . semantic. we would be bound to say that the speech act Won 'tyou stay a little longer? (A. pronouncing sentence. 343 . The sun moves round the earth . or unintentionally. If one says. Greenbaum's book we find examples of various speech acts performed by declarative sentences. Constatives are primarily locutionary speech acts. It was intended as a request.false information.L. You mustn 't smoke in here (S. there are over a thousand types of speech acts. the syntactic criterion of word order is applicable only to sentences and 'sentence representatives'.S. the number of the singled out speech acts should be relatively small. 'I'm sorry. when one gets one's hearer to do something by asking him to do it. Austin. We may always deny that a particular perlocutionary act was intended by saying things like / didn 't mean to embarrass you or 7 was simply stating a fact. Austin. e. Performatives have certain pragmatic.prohibition.true information.' To claim that one was not responsible for one's own illocutionary act is to claim that one was not responsible at the time he performed it. saying / congratulate you. The founder of the speech act theory is the English logician J. consists in generalization. Here we deal with the effects of the communication on the addressee. But the main drawback of all linguistic classifications lies in the heterogeneity of the phenomenon under examination and the criterion of classification. the performative is said to be unhappy (or infelicitous). giving some information or an assurance or a warning.L. Hence. Their intent is to communicate a certain piece of true or false information. According to J. the speaker is not describing what he is doing but performing the action of congratulating. or else we would simply be creating the illusion of classification. They are differentiated only in the process of analysis. performatives are not performed in order to communicate something about this or that fact of objective reality. J. Most syntactic structures are polyfunctional. I didn't mean to christen this ship. their classification should be based on the functional criterion. the issuing of the utterance is the performing of an action.

apologize. e.behabitiy. and 5) expositives. / hereby declare her elected (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). verdictiye is to evaluate something.e is the adopting of an attitude. etc. farewell.g.. The communicative intent of the. e.Performatives are generally expressed by verbs in the first person singular present indefinite of the indicative mood.Performatives allow the introduction of the word hereby that means 'by means of this utterance'. e. etc. These verbs are to belong to contentdescriptive verbs. condolence. giggle.g. describe.: state.g. But there are exceptions.Performatives are never used in the continuous aspect.e. value. Ib. advise.g. 344 . etc.: promise. whine cannot function as performatives. shout.g.. It is forbidden to smoke here (S. recommend.: You are advised to take an aspirin (S. Sound descriptive verbs of the type gasp. J. which denote actions simultaneous with the moment of speech. The use of hereby is restricted to highly formal contexts. adopt.: order. intend. undertake. diagnose. 4) behabitives. e. 5. 2) exercitives. Performatives can be regarded as a subtype of indirect speech: they name the illocutionary act performed by the speaker himself. express an opinion or give a verdict.It is usually verbs denoting speech activity that are used as performatives. 7.: I name this ship the 'Queen Elizabeth' (J. utterances comprising performatives admit only of one interpretation as far as their illocutionary force is concerned. convict. ask. appoint. e. congratulation. The cpmmissiye is an assuming of an obligation or a declaring of an intention. 8. Greenbaum). promise. dismiss. thank. 9. etc. plan..L. consent. analyze.g.g. Behabitives comprise various formulas of social etiquette: greeting. choose. etc.L. Austin singles out five illocutionary types of performatives: 1) verdictives.: characterize.Performatives are never accompanied by modal words. 4. apology.exercitiye consists in imposing one's will on the addressee. guarantee. The illocutionary force of the. Austin).3. Greenbaum). 3) commissives. murmur.Performatives cannot be negative. 6. e. e. bet. As a result.

does not mean to really intend to do something.L. Austin.L. R. and deduce. class. First. and welcome as behabitives. the illocutionary point of promises and vows is to commit the speaker to doing something. apologize..R.: affirm. Thus. what J. ask. Illocutionary verbs constitute only one illocutionary force-indicating device. they are rather exercitives than behabitives. All of these are listed as expositives. The other illocutionary force-indicating devices are the mood of the verb. And indeed.L. state. direction of fit. and challenge have to do with the 'addressee's subsequent actions. a look at J. the propositional content of the speaker's utterance is supposed to match some independently existing state of affairs. Searle.. His paper offers no more than a preliminary dip into the problem and. answer. agree. But the verbs dare. deplore. Searle postulates 12 criteria for speech act classification. tell. word order. can be referred to illocutionary (or performative).L. Austin's classification of illocutionary speech acts is not devoid of serious drawbacks. Third. intonation contours. but they could just as easily have been listed as verdictives. But then any 'act of exposition involving the expounding of views' could also be 'the delivering of a finding'. it is easy to see why: describing can be both the delivering of a finding and an act of exposition. J. Thus. the illocutionary point of orders and commands is to try to get people to do things. So. But in the case of an order.L. mentioned by J. Second. J. deny. not all the verbs.The. report. expositive is the clarifying of reasons. etc. J. and challenge alongside the verbs thank.. to say / intend. As a result. arguments. and expositives because they are enormously numerous and important. the addressee is supposed to change his behaviour to match the propositional content . e. The illocutionary point is achieved on the prepositional content. not illocutionary speech acts.g. J.L. The classes of behabitives and expositives are those 345 that he finds most troublesome.R. describe. stress. On the other hand. and so on. in the case of a description. Behabitives are troublesome because they seem too miscellaneous. Austin lists the verb describe as both a verdictive and an expositive. and communications. the singled out classes are heterogeneous and often interpenetrate. cannot be foolproof. there is no unifying principle (or principles) underlying J. identify. Consider the verbs affirm. Austin's list of expositives is sufficient to show that most of his verbs fit his definition of verdictives. In the opinion of the American logician J. Austin disregards them completely. and the context. It should be mentioned that J. punctuation. and expressed psychological state. cannot but influence the validity of his conclusions. Searle calls the way in which a prepositional content is related to a world of utterance its direction of fit. but in practice uses only three: illocutionary point. dejy. Austin lists the verbs dare. Austin's classification of illocutionary speech acts. Each type of illocution has an illocutionary point (or purpose). of course. The prepositional content is made up of the nonillocutionary acts of reference and predication. correct.L. J. and most important of all. defy. Austin understands very well that his findings are far from conclusive. That's why nowadays linguists refer to performatives only those verbs that satisfy the sincerity condition. J. Austin deals with is illocutionary verbs. conclude. and seem both to be included in the other classes and at the same time to be unique in a way that he has not succeeded in making clear even to himself. The illocutionary point relates the prepositional content to the world of the utterance. consequently.L. The illocutionary point of statements and descriptions is to tell people how things are. which.L. deny. state. Given his definition. For example.

The double direction of fit: the world-toword direction of fit and the wordto-world direction of fit. .R. In these speech acts.of the order. J. Directives have the directive illocutionary point. but not necessarily unsuccessful. Utterances with the assertive illocutionary point have the word-toworld direction of fit. 4) declarations. Directives have the world-to-word direction of fit: the world is adapted to the uttered words. language is fitted to reality. an insincere apology is one where the speaker does not have the sorrow he expresses. In this case. Representatiye s have the assertive illocutionary point. An insincere speech act is defective. A lie. It is always possible to express a psychological state that one does not have. 4. Whenever one performs an illocutionary act with a propositional content. producing a change in the world. 3.The null (or empty) direction of fit. an insincere statement (a lie) is one where the speaker does not believe what he says. 3) commissives. Like directives.The word-toworld direction of fit. There are four directions of fit in language. reality is fitted to language. 1. The psychological state expressed in all assertive speech acts is belief. one expresses a certain psychological state. can be a successful assertion. for example. and 5) expressives. Comrnissiyes have the commissive illocutionary point.e. i. the speaker commits himself to doing things. Searle's taxonomy includes five types of speech acts: 1) representatives. etc. the speaker expresses a wish. These are speech acts by which a speaker represents a state of affairs. issues an order. An insincere speech act is one in which the speaker performs a speech act and thereby expresses a psychological state even though he does not have that state. Representatives carry the value 'true' or 'false'. 2) directives. In this case. These speech acts embody an effort on the part of the speaker to get the addressee to do something. 2.. an insincere promise is one where the speaker does not in fact intend to do the things he promises to do.The world-toword direction of fit. The psychological state expressed in all directives is want or desire. In an assertive speech act the propositional content is expressed as representing an independently existing state of affairs in the world. the utterance gives a correct description of a state of affairs in the world. In other words. Thus.

R. The illocutionary point of an expressive is to express the speaker's attitude about the state of affairs specified by the propositional content.g. Declarations have the double 3 direction of fit: world-to-word and word-to-world. The speaker brings about changes in the world through his utterances.commissives have the world-to-word direction of fit: the world is adapted to the uttered words. Expressives. Searle). Declarations have the declarative illocutionary point. Expressives have a null direction of fit.: I declare you man and wife (J. The point of an expressive is not to say that the propositional 3 . The psychological states expressed in all declarations are belief and desire. The psychological state expressed in all commissives is intention. e.

content matches the world, nor to get the world to match the prepositional content, but to express the speaker's attitude about the state of affairs represented by the propositional content. Most expressive illocutionary forces have the preparatory condition that the propositional content is true in the world of the utterance. J.R. Searle's classification of speech acts in many respects resembles J.L. Austin's classification. Thus, J.R. Searle, like J.L. Austin, distinguishes five classes of speech acts; and one of J.R. Searle's classes, the so-called 'commissives', is more or less conceptually identical with the class defined by J.L. Austin under the same name. J.R. Searle's directives correspond roughly to J.L. Austin's exercitives, expressives - to behabitives. The representatives of J.R. Searle, according to J.L. Austin, are locutionary rather than illocutionary speech acts. J.R. Searle's point of view seems more convincing because the presentation of something as a fact is also a kind of intent. Having gone outside the domain of illocutionary verbs, J.R. Searle overcame the first drawback of J.L. Austin's classification. As far as the classification criteria are concerned, J.L. Mey is quite right when he says that in J.R. Searle's papers much is made of all the different criteria that one could employ in order to establish a coherent and consistent taxonomy; but when it comes to applying the criteria, only a few of them are used, and not even these are applied exclusively all the time. In one respect, however, J.R. Searle's taxonomy is superior to J.L. Austin's: it is more oriented towards the real world. The main drawback of the speech act theory consists in the fact that it disregards the role of the addressee. A speech act, as I.P. Susov rightly points out, is not interactive, and communication presupposes interaction. The term 'communicative act' emphasizes its interactive nature. That's why we call the basic unit of speech communication !a communicative act'. Linguists usually single out three components in a communicative act: speaker, addressee, and the thing that is spoken about [B. Bailey, D.H. Morgan; M. Speier; R. Hausser]. The term 'thing' is used in the widest possible meaning. Tt embraces physical objects, abstract notions, and even whole situations. In our opinion, the tripartite structure of a communicative act disregards a most important component, namely the physical
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channel and psychological connection between the speaker and the addressee mentioned by R. Jakobson. In accordance with the four main components of a communicative act, we single out four pragmatic types of utterances: expressives, volitives, informatives, and phatives. Exgressives are focused on the speaker. They are aimed at a direct expression of the speaker's attitude toward what he is speaking about. Cf.: What a perfect angel you are, Cecily (O. Wilde). / can speak four languages. - / can *t (L. and J. Soars). What a busy day! (English Course). Volitiyes are focused on the addressee. Here we deal with questions and inducements. Cf.: Why do you hate reporters? - Because I don't like answering all these questions (V. Evans). We can't go all this way back. - Why can't we? - Because that's a stupid thing to do (S. Hill). I'm looking at the paperbacks. - Why? - Because I want a book for Jane (English Course). Shut the door there (J. Galsworthy). / must offer to bring her the next time she comes. - Don't (D. Robins). A glass of milk for him, please (English Course). Informatives are focused on the thing spoken about. Cf.: I've left you a cold supper (A. Ayckbourn). Did she tell you what the row was about? - She did (J. Parsons). Where's the telephone? - It's there. - Where? - On the table (English Course). Phatives serve to establish, maintain or terminate communication, to check whether the channel works, to attract the attention of the interlocutor or to confirm his continued attention. Cf.: Excuse me, - Yes? - Are you Miss Smith? - No, I'm sorry, I'm not Miss Smith. I'm Miss Wilson (BBC London Course). It means a lot to me. - Does it? I 'm surprised (J. Parsons). Each pragmatic type of utterance can be further classified.

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Conversational Principles The most important conversational principles are a cooperative principle and a politeness principle. The cooperative principle was formulated by H.P. Grice. The cooperative principle consists of four sub-principles (or categories): 1) the category of quantity, 2) the category of quality, 3) the category of relation, and 4) the category of manner. The. category of .quantity relates to the quantity of information to be provided. In includes two maxims: 1) make your contribution as informative as is required, 2) do not make your contribution more informative than is required. The... categoryof..quality relates to the truth-value of the information to be imparted. Under this category falls a supermaxim 'Try to make your contribution one that is true' and two more specific maxims: 1)do not say what you believe to be false, 2)do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence. Under fee. category ...ofreiatior^ H.P. Grice places a single maxim, namely 'Be relevant'. By relevance, G.N. Leech understands the relevance of an utterance to its speech situation. An utterance, in his opinion, is relevant to a speech situation if it contributes to the conversational goals of speaker or addressee. Cf: A: Where's my box of chocolates? B: If sin your room (G.N. Leech). A's goal is to find out where his box of chocolates is. B supplies the information required. So B's utterance is relevant to A's utterance. Under the .category...of...manner, H.P. Grice includes the supermaxim 'Be perspicuous', i.e.: 1)avoid obscurity of expression, 2)avoid ambiguity, 3)be brief. 4)be orderly. The category of manner appears to be the Cinderella of H.P. Grice's categories. He himself sees this maxim as in some sense less important than, for example, the category of quality, and

as differing from the others in relating not to what is said but, rather, to how what is to be said is to be said. In the opinion of G.N. Leech, H.P. Grice was right to recognize the category of manner as one of the elements of the cooperative principle because the charge 'to be clear' is placed on language users as part of the Interpersonal Rhetoric, as well as of the Textual Rhetoric. G.N. Leech draws a distinction between two kinds of clarity. One kind consists in making unambiguous use of the syntax and phonology of the language in order to construct a clear text. Another type of clarity consists in framing a clear message, i.e. a message which is perspicuous or intelligible in the sense of conveying the intended illocutionary goal to the addressee. Perspicuity in this sense is obviously hand in glove with relevance; both the category of manner and the category of relation will favour the most direct communication of one's illocutionary point. Another conversational principle is a politeness principle. Politeness concerns a relationship between two participants whom we may call self and other. In conversation, se//will normally be identified with the speaker, and other will typically be identified with the addressee. But speakers also show politeness to third parties, to people designated by third-person pronouns. According to G.N. Leech, the point of politeness, as a principle, is to minimize the expression of impolite beliefs and to maximize the expression of polite beliefs. J.L. Mey defines politeness as a strategy for cooperation with least cost and maximum benefit to all interlocutors. In other words, the politeness principle can be seen not just as another principle to be added to the cooperative principle, but as a necessary complement, which rescues the cooperative principle from serious trouble. True, there are some situations where politeness takes a back seat, so to speak. This is so, for example, when the interlocutors are engaged in a collaborative activity in which exchange of information is equally important to both of them. On the other hand, there are situations where the politeness principle overrules the cooperative principle to the extent that even the category' of quality is sacrificed. Thus, in certain circumstances, people feel justified in telling 'white lies'. For example, the speaker may feel that the only

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way of declining an invitation politely is to pretend to have an alternative engagement. G.N. Leech mentions six maxims dealing with polite behaviour: 1) tact maxim, 2) generosity maxim, 3) approbation maxim, 4) modesty maxim, 5) agreement maxim, and 6) sympathy maxim. Thetactm.axim_(m impositivesandcommissives) Minimize cost to other: Maximize benefit to other. Thus, an imperative, which does not allow the addressee to say No is a positively polite way of making an offer. Cf.: Help yourself "(G.N. Leech). Have another sandwich (G.N. Leech). The ^enerpsitj ma^m_(in impositives and commissives) Minimize benefit to self: Maximize cost to self. The offer and invitation are presumed to be polite for two reasons: firstly, because they imply benefit to the addressee; secondly, because they imply cost to the speaker. Cf.: lean lend you my car (G.N. Leech) - offer. You must come and have dinner -with us (G.N. Leech) -invitation. The.approbation maxirn_(in expressives and assertives) Minimize dispraise of other: Maximize praise of other. Since dispraise of the addressee or of a third party is impolite, various strategies of indirectness are employed in order to mitigate the effect of criticism, e.g.: A: Her performance was magnificent, wasn 't it? B: Was it? (G.N. Leech). Assuming that both A and B listened to the performance, B's reply is evasive and implicates an unfavourable opinion. The rnodesty maxim_(in expressives and assertives) Minimize praise of self: Maximize dispraise of self. It is felicitous to agree with another's commendation except when it is a commendation of oneself, e.g.: They were so kind to us. - Yes, they were, weren't they (G.N. Leech). Self-dispraise is regarded as quite benign, e.g.: How stupid of me! (G.N. Leech). The understatement of one's generosity is shown to be quite normal, e.g.:
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Please accept this small gift as a token of our esteem (G.N. Leech). In Japanese society, and more particularly among Japanese women, the modesty maxim is more powerful than it is in English-speaking societies, where it would be more polite to accept a compliment graciously (for example, by thanking the speaker for it) rather than to go on denying it. The.agreement maxim_(in assertives) Minimize disagreement between self and other: Maximize agreement between self and other. There is a tendency to exaggerate agreement with other people, and to mitigate disagreement by expressing regret, partial agreement, etc. Cf.: A referendum will satisfy everybody. — Yes, definitely (G.N. Leech) - agreement. English is a difficult language to learn. - True, but the grammar is quite easy (G.N. Leech) - partial agreement. The book is tremendously well written. - Yes, well written as a whole, but there are some rather boring patches, don't you think? (G.N. Leech) - partial agreement. As the last two examples show, partial agreement is often preferable to complete disagreement. The..sym.pathy maxim (in assertives) Minimize antipathy between self and other: Maximize sympathy between self and other. The sympathy maxim presupposes empathy, i.e. the ability of the speaker to imagine himself in the position of the addressee, and so to share and understand his feelings. The sympathy maxim explains why congratulations and condolences are considered to be courteous communicative acts. Indirect Communicative Acts J.R. Searle draws a distinction between direct and indirect communicative acts. In direct communicative acts, the speaker means exactly and literally what he says, e.g.: /'// be there. ~ How will I know you? - I'll have my three sons with me (S. Sheldon).
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In indirect communicative acts, one communicative act is performed indirectly by way of performing another, e.g.: Would you give me your work number, please? (L. and J. Soars). On the face of it, it is a question (partial inversion, interrogation mark). But it was not intended as an inquiry into the addressee's willingness to give the speaker her work phone number. The speaker simply asked the addressee to give him her work phone number, but he did it indirectly. An indirect communicative act, according to J.R. Searle, always represents a combination of two acts, a primary act (in our example, a request) and a secondary act (in our example, a question). In other words, in indirect communicative acts the speaker communicates to the addressee more than he actually says. The addressee decodes the intended meaning by relying on their mutually shared background knowledge, both linguistic and nonlinguistic, and his power of inference [V.V. Dementyevj. In our daily use of language, we often resort to indirect communicative acts. The question arises why? As a matter of fact, indirect communicative acts run counter to one of the categories of H.P. Grice's cooperative principle, namely the category of manner, which demands that the speaker should avoid ambiguity and obscurity of expression. According to J.R. Searle, the chief motivation for using indirect communicative acts is politeness, G.N. Leech holds that the politeness principle has a higher regulative role than the cooperative principle. 'Unless you are polite to your neighbour, - he writes, -the channel of communication between you will break down,..' Indirect communicative acts tend to be more polite than direct communicative acts. Thus, the question form of a request (Will you take me home?) is felt to be more tactful than the direct imperative (Take me home) because a yes/no-question about the addressee's willingness or ability to perform a certain action sounds less categorical and, consequently, gives the addressee freedom of response. He can, if he chooses, comply with or refuse the request but he can also indicate either that the request is inappropriate or that it cannot be responded to so simply. That's why interlocutors often give preference to indirect communicative acts.

It goes without saying, that the politeness potential of direct and indirect communicative acts is not absolute. It varies from one national culture to another. For example, Russian people consider direct imperative requests quite polite, even when they are not accompanied by the word nootcajiyucma. English people regard direct imperative requests, even with the word please, as not polite enough. J.M. Sadock writes apropos of this, 'There are culturalspecific rules of the use of language that tell us that it is uncivil directly to request something of a social equal or superior.' In the opinion of A. Davison, politeness is not the chief motivation for using indirect communicative acts. To prove her point, she draws the attention of linguists to the fact that in a discourse in which the participants are continuously polite, the utterances used are not all indirect communicative acts. In fact, a number of consecutive indirect communicative acts in a discourse gives an impression of excess. The latter leads A. Davison to the conclusion that it is closer to linguistic reality to view indirect communicative acts as having a signalling function of some sort rather than an expressive function. If indirect communicative acts were used as signals of the speaker's psychological state, then it would not be at all strange that they are used intermittently rather than continuously, and tend to occur in the beginning of a discourse. A. Davison gives examples of indirect communicative acts used to express anger and extreme rudeness, Cf.: / must say that I never want to come back here again (A. Davison). Can I say that this is the worst party I have ever been tol (A. Davison). What is more, politeness is not sufficient to explain why some illocutionary acts may be performed indirectly (e.g. requests) and other illocutionary acts may not (e.g. declarations). Thus, a person who is considerate and tactful (and empowered to marry people) nevertheless may not say: * Allow me to pronounce you man and wife (A. Davison). *May I pronounce you man and wife? (A. Davison). According to D. Tannen, speakers prefer indirectness for two reasons: to save face if their opinions or wants are not favourably

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one will always be regarded as a foreigner. Perhaps and No vary in accordance with the sex and the social position of the persons who use them: When a diplomat says 'yes' He means 'perhaps'. please. But it is indispensable for acquiring communicative competence. Primitive Notions of Text Without gaining communicative competence. This is the meaning the term has for the historian.. please? ~ That's eighteen pence (English Course). utterances beginning with modal verbs Will you. All kinds of reports in newspapers and magazines are texts in this sense too.received. That's why all the branches of linguistics.. we can say that pragmalinguisties is a kind of grammar of man's speech behaviour in society. a certificate.. But are they also 'text'? One is inclined to say Wo'. Thus. for them. And when he says 'no' He is no diplomat. How muck is that. medical. what were they? It seems simpler to speak of 'oral texts' in this case. . This would follow from anthropological work involving the writing down of myths or folktales of a culture that is not in the possession of a script. And when she says 'yes' She is no lady. and to achieve the sense of rapport that comes from being understood without saying what one means. Another view takes texts to be mainly literary. please. syntax including. This notion of text is. It is an extremely difficult task to master this kind of grammar. But the opposite is true. in indirect communicative acts we deal with conventions of use. For example. Thus. Thus. Beowulf existed once as an oral text being passed on from one generation to another. bus tickets and memoirs are texts in this sense. although sometimes there is a language sign testifying to the conventional nature of the indirect communicative act. The English Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics mentions the following approaches to text. Viney). Within this tradition. we are surrounded by texts of all sorts: legal.. and tales are considered as texts. So. Texts. The notion of 'witness' is central here: texts are (written) witnesses of events. it always functions as a request.There are none left (P. too: not all texts are written. must be pragmatically orientated. the equation of text with writing is misconceived. religious. However. Summing it all up. There is no reason why nonliterary constructions should not be called 'text'. if an utterance built on the mode! of a declarative sentence or on the model of a wh-interrogative sentence has the word please.. actions. But if in direct communicative acts we deal with conventions of language. stories. only poems.? Could you. a charter. Compare in this respect the following extract from Voltaire's poem in which the pragmatic functions of the utterances Yes. Yet it seems hard to define the notion of text linguistically. to say that a text is anything written. whose essence lies in sounding appropriate to every occasion. are records (or documents) to be investigated because they can reveal something about a state of affairs in reality. . And we'll have two coffees.7 Would you. economic. is highly misleading. Thus.? are more often regarded as requests than as questions. the judge. perhaps. Cf. educational. When a lady says 'no' She means 'perhaps'. When she says 'perhaps' She means 'yes'.: I'd like an aisle seat. were the fairytales written down by the brothers Grimm not texts prior to their being written down? If not. Many indirect communicative acts are on the way towards turning into conventional forms. not all written things are texts. One sense in which the word 'text' is used is that of 'record' (or 'document'). or thoughts. literary. The second notion of text is as narrow as the first. as are love letters and contracts. What about torn-up papers in a waste-paper basket? They are instances of writing. The printed manifesto of a political party. 356 357 .. etc. the most widespread. 25. and the anthropologist. please (Lingaphone English Course). When he says 'perhaps' He means 'no'.Black or -white? -White. to be sure. until at some moment in history it became a written text.. TEXT In our daily lives.

semantic. which display few. it is meanings that are 'woven' together across sentence boundaries. von Peer). would compose his text according to techniques that were felt to be persuasive.: There's the doorbell.K. and considering it as 'meaning in action'. In a text. such as 'Exit*. in the opinion of W. Although these products undoubtedly belong to what one intuitively calls 'text'. Cohesion refers to different devices for linking parts of a text. Imagine receiving a note bearing only the words: Roger's finished the thesisl (R. Hasan appear to insist that such explicit realization is necessary. if any.K. this view is mostly associated with German text theorists. -I'm in the bath (S. there is an unequivocal connection between Mary and her. They roughly correspond to efforts at understanding the concept of text in syntactic. Thus. A text. Within the political and legal institutions of Ancient Greece and Rome.A. Another problem is that texts of only one sentence do exist. von Peer. some elements are 'woven together'. This notion is a very old one. The sentences on the page will not be recognized as a text. and can be traced back to the origins of Rhetoric in the Western world. The third approach has been conceived in a pragmatic framework. The second approach concentrates on the semantic relationships between elements in a text. Scholars are still at variance as to the answer to this question. indeed. for not all sentences linked together form a text. and pragmatic terms. The opposing view is held by G. In the English-speaking world. Working within the framework of generative grammar. However. a purely semantic theory about textuality. Coherence refers to continuity of meaning that enables others to make sense of a text. This can be demonstrated quite easily: take a newspaper article and cut out the different sentences. Brown and G. not any suprasentential unit in itself constitutes a text. in the sentence Mary held on to her toy (W. Halliday has been the most 358 359 . meaning 'to weave'. three more approaches to the problem of textuality are outlined. still falls short: the criterion of cohesion is neither necessary nor sufficient in order to speak of a text. There is no explicit marking of relationships between the first and second sentences. for cohesion occurs not only in texts but also in single sentences. in this view. a normal reader will naturally assume that the two sentences constitute a text and interpret the second sentence in the light of the first. explicit markers of cohesive relations.A third definition tries to overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks by seeing texts as products made by human beings according to certain rules and principles. they might not even be understood by someone who has not seen the original text. So. before presenting a speech in public. Quirk et al. According to this view. Then type the sentences in random order and show the result to someone. taking into account the way a text functions within a specific situation. the orator. He would then memorize it and ultimately deliver his speech orally. although able to explain more than a purely syntactic theory. e. Today there are remnants of that practice in school essay writing or preparing a talk. M. Yule who think that it is easy to find texts.)Sometimes a text may be as short as a one-word notice. a text was defined as a string of sentences. one knows that such principles must exist.A.g. In a sense. is a composition. this failure of the theory of text grammar was to be expected: it does not specify any structural principles determining the linkage of sentences in the text. Halliday and R. This idea is referred to by the terms 'coherence' and 'cohesion'. the view that only such rhetorically composed utterances are texts does not stand criticism. hi Europe. Nonetheless. First. it is not necessary for a text to consist of more than one sentence. There are various problems with this view. Intuitively. For example. what kinds of linguistic elements are 'woven together' is something which is still open to debate. The term 'text' is derived from the Latin verb texere. Greenbaum). M. Theoretical Notions of Text In this section. The question arises whether semantic relations must be necessarily realized linguistically.

One of these is a clear marking of beginning and end. monological. one can refer international treaties. including nonlinguistic phenomena. According to K. assertive. They put the speaker's attitude in focus. Texts are seen as carriers of knowledge and values deemed important by a society.academic prose. First of all. passing on this information from one individual or generation to another. for example. The aim of assertive texts is to communicate to the addressee a certain amount of knowledge. textbooks. instructions. is the opposite problem. in most of these theoretical notions. Expressive texts are represented by congratulatory letters. One. epitomized in his definition: 'A text is a unit of language in use. while the speech of the characters is dialogical. texts are classified according to the type of the underlying situation. Mathematical texts are primarily argumentative texts because reasoning prevails in them. In the third place. namely that their definitions do no exclude anything at all. the term 'text' may be replaced by 'language'. in which the author's speech is monological. few efforts have been undertaken to come to terms with this problem. etc. of monological texts . texts-declarations and expressive texts. Narrative texts we find in adventure fiction. Descriptive texts are found in such branches of academic prose as biology. Some have gone so far as to declare life itself to be a text. theses. involving the same or different participants. 360 A developed theory of text types and their characteristics remains a desideratum. it is hard to tell whether a positive answer can be given. however. That's why it is impossible to classify texts according to one criterion. descriptive. is declared 'text'..' To sum up. texts develop specific forma! characteristics to allow speakers to reintroduce them in new situations. etc. knows that what comes between 'Once upon a time. Texts of legal documents belong to texts-declarations. In order to make possible their detachment from a concrete utterance situation. These formal characteristics are partly bound to different text types. Their most characteristic trait is their ability to be transmitted through time and space. Orders. That is. from fashion shows to urban planning. commissive. Texts of the assertive type are texts of academic articles and monographs. a text may be detached from its original speech situation and subsequently be used again in a different and/or later situation.prose fiction. etc. It was pointed out that the primitive notions of text are too narrow: they exclude many phenomena that could be regarded as texts. References provide another example of descriptive texts. Ehlich. and argumentative texts. The main aim of directive texts is to make the addressee fulfil a certain action. welcome texts and texts conveying condolences. linguists draw a distinction between dialogical. To texts of the commissive type. etc. Criteria of Text Classifications Texts are heterogeneous. letters of recommendation. and mixed texts. in culinary recipes. but which were nevertheless excluded. This criterion gives one an opportunity to draw a distinction between narrative. texts are linguistic constructions developed to overcome the transient nature of faceto-face communication. A typical example of dialogical texts is everyday conversation. Such widening of the notion of text is frequently encountered in so-called poststructuralist thought. When the notion of text has been blown up to such extent. Their aim consists in regulating and changing the world.' and 'They lived happily ever after' constitutes a text.. The aim of commissive texts consists in assuming certain obligations. letters of guarantee. texts can be classified according to the pragmatic criterion. culinary recipes. it seems to lose its meaning altogether. where everything. etc. Tims. 361 . But at least one interesting proposal has been made. In order to avoid giving too narrow a definition. What is witnessed in the theoretical notions of text. In linguistics. Both the primitive and theoretical notions of text are not devoid of drawbacks. these theorists seem to have fallen into the opposite extreme.outspoken advocate of this view. In the second place. The starting point for this theory is the pragmatic situation in which texts are used. Is there a way out of this dilemma of over-narrow and overwide definitions? In the present state of knowledge. Linguists single out the following types of texts: directive. though: a sonnet is not a schedule. constitute directive texts. of mixed texts . and a timetable is not a tale. chemistry.

V. and cohesion. Topical unity manifests itself in the fact that each supra-phrasal unity has its own micro-topic. The first sentence of a supra-phrasal unity. the boundaries of supra-phrasal unities remain obscure. texts can be classified according to the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the constituent signs. The supra-phrasal unity is primarily a topical unity. Sometimes the volume of the text is modelled. synopses. on the one hand. Many formatted texts include constant text components and blanks that are to be filled in by the applicant. according to L. Pospelov and L. sentencoids. The components of spoken supra-phrasal unities can be sentences. 1. Chemical and mathematical texts comprise heterogeneous signs: language signs. hi the eighth place. as a rule. thesauri. Since it is very difficult to gauge the degree of cohesion. That's why supra-phrasal unities are often excluded from the sphere of syntax [R. the last sentence .In the fourth place. Some criteria. and adapted fiction. and 'communicatives'. patents.. Pospelov called the unit in question 'a complex syntactic unit' (cjiooKHoe cunmaKcuHecKoe i$enoe\ L. coherence. reviews. Bogdanov]. Coherence refers to the continuity of meaning that enables others to make sense of the supra-phrasal unity. In the fifth place. Textual coherence finds its expression in different kinds of cohesive devices. synopses.It has very loose connection with the last sentence of the preceding supra-phrasal unity. Very often. For example. on the other. texts can be classified into original and retold. the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the constituent signs) are oriented more on the form. Bulakhovsky . predication cannot be considered their distinguishing feature. although any criterion correlates both with content and form. the first sentence of a supra-phrasal unity is marked by a rise in tone. To retold texts. Loseva. texts can be classified into formatted and non-formatted.A. Thus. The boundaries of supra-phrasal unities are signalled by a weakening of cohesion at their junction. Cohesion refers to different devices for linking the components of a supra-phrasal unity. texts can be classified into unidimensional and multi-dimensional. pragmatic) are oriented more on the content. A supra-phrasal unity has three distinguishing features: topical unity. Non-formatted texts are always created anew. In the seventh place. 362 363 . while one supra-phrasal unity can be expressed by several paragraphs. N.'a supraphrasal unity' (ceepx(ppa3oeoe eduncmeo). Kolshansky]. others (for example. a sonnet always comprises 14 lines.It generally introduces a new micro-topic. 5. Supra-phrasal Unity as a Minimal Unit of Text Analysis The minimal unit of text analysis was first singled out by the Russian linguists N. graphs and tables. is characterized by the following features. Huddleston.S. too. In the sixth place. etc.by a fall in tone and by a long pause. Bulakhovsky. Many linguists deny the existence of multidimensional texts because they defy the coherence criterion.S. (for example.It has no deictic words that have correlates in the preceding part of the supra-phrasal unity. texts can be classified into those written in t he thi r d pe r s on a nd thos e wr it t e n in t h e fi rs t p er s o n [V. formulas.M. one can refer abstracts. 'sentence representatives'. A classic example of non-formatted text is fiction. 4. Textual Cohesive Devices A text is a coherent stretch of speech of writing. 2. Although supra-phrasal unities. It is difficult to work out an exhaustive list of the criteria for text classification. The components of written supra-phrasal unities are usually sentences. No text can be totally homogeneous. Multi-dimensional texts include tables. Here belong certificates authenticated by a public notary.In oral texts. A formatted text has a standard form. consist of predicative syntactic units. etc.A. verbal texts include both language signs and punctuation signs.It is generally a complete sentence. 3. they are identified with the boundaries of paragraphs in spite of the fact that one paragraph can comprise several supra-phrasal unities. G. dictionaries.

Indeed. The communicative cohesion finds its expression in certain theme-rheme sequences.g. hell} (Independent Herald Tribune). The unusual order of the first sentence makes us expect a similar and related one to follow [S. Words of Germanic origin are usually short (often just one syllable) and tend to be informal in modern English (M. allowed players to reach their goal ~ heaven. Crystal). the following text is united by the topic The Germanic influence on Old English1: The Anglo-Saxons.: Europeans began slaughtering wolves from the moment they arrived in America. tool (R. . in the shape of ladders. And we will never forget him (L. The car looked new (D. Six children took part in the sack race.: A Mercedes was parked in the street. synonymic or modified repetition is preferred to repetition proper.: The cock is crowing. Syntactic parallelism is a variety of repetition. Greenbaum]. e. But in IBM it performs a syntactic linking function.g. Cf: M.g. lexical cohesion is supplemented by syntactic cohesion. not of lexemes.I. Lexical linkage by repetition proper is generally avoided since recurring lexical items can easily seem obtrusive. e. Then he tripped over a branch and came down with a crash (W. They spoke a Germanic language which became the basis of Old English.g. Sometimes. came from Germany. Jill was easily the fastest (D. Otkupshchipkova mentions a number of theme-rheme sequences found in texts. One rheme has several themes (R. the conjunction is certainly a morphological phenomenon. Even today. The syntactic parallelism between sentences is more transparent and. By the same evening we were in Rome (D. we refer the use of connective conjunctions4. The vices. like the killing of 364 Indians. and sentencoids with syntagmatic zeros which mostly occur in reacting moves of question-answer sequences. 2.g. As a class of words.useful but humble people. the century's most influential economist. For example.quickly. in origin. was perceived as a moral duty. etc.: We owe everything to him. in some versions. Cf.Rj .: We left Paris on Monday morning. only it is a repetition of syntactic constructions. As a rule. The use of antonyms serves the purpose of lexical cohesion. if the word order is not the normal one. The use of coordinators generally creates textual cohesion.).. Denmark and Holland. forced players backdown towards earth {or. Vaughan-Rees et al. Pfutze regards conjunctions as a morphological cohesive device. who invaded England in AD 350. Repetition proper is recurrence of the same elements). we mean topical integrity.). or Germanic.).T. e. words used in Modern English for ordinary objects are mostly AngloSaxon..Me. too: The popular family game of snakes and ladders originated as a system for the moral instruction of young people in India. One theme has a number of rhemes (T .)..: Ralph shook his head and increased his speed. the connection between the sentences is more strongly indicated. (W. hence. question-answer sequences. The stream is flowing. . To purely syntactic cohesion. 365 .R2. e..g. or nirvana . Quirk et al. the kitting of wolves. a symbol act in the subjugation of godless wilderness (The Independent Magazine). parallel constructions. e. The linking function is common to all conjunctions.T2 .By semantic cohesion. 1. the following brief news item represents a cohesive unit solely through the repetition of the word Utopia: John Maynard Keynes. Virtues. Here one can refer the use of space/time adverbials and of degrees of comparison of adjectives/adverbs. A simple example of lexical cohesion is repetition proper. represented by snakes. Golding).: This noise is giving me a headache.. Crystal). Untermeyer). Lexical cohesion is also very important. e.. Crystal). Thus. M. The rheme of the first sentence becomes the theme of the second sentence (R — T). once said that in his Utopia members of his profession would be like dentists . 3. Wordsworth). Utopia may be arriving with the administration of President-elect Bill Clinton (International Herald Tribune).

its complements and adjuncts. Swan). . the world's top-ranked tennis player and the defending champion of the U.g. 2) to follow S.' said Pete Sampras. References to what comes earlier in the text are anaphoric. Her DNA and fingerprints are all over the murder scene. For example. e. and pronominal adverbs are more often used anaphorically than cataphorically. others .: It's a question of faith. Dressier]. . "This is it.to morphological cohesive devices [M.The sheriff in Cuperinto showed me the file on her. Open (International Herald Tribune). and the like are often used as substitutes for a verb. Swan). e. So alone can be a substitute for a clause. Quirk et al.g. / haven't got time to get the tickets. e. and whenever he gets tired of watching golf. the better to get his beauty sleep. e. What does that mean? . Or. The most common referring expressions are drawn from pronouns.: Wliat's Dr. My paintings the visitors admired.What are you going to do now? — I've called Royce Salem. Two avenues of approach seem possible: 1) to refer pro-forms as a subclass of function words to the periphery of syntactic cohesive devices. Greenbaum). Pronouns. please phone me (S. Weinrich]. . Swan). Cataphoric reference usually occurs at the beginning of a narrative. Pfutze]. alternation of past and present is a regular mode of switching from the 'then' of 367 366 . Greenbaum) — anaphoric reference. There's a channel changer to fill the void in his racquet hand. H. It was a pity she had not done so earlier (M. Function words.: He's sitting on the sofa locked into a strange match with the television set as he digests his deli sandwich and daily dose ofantiinflammatories. Quirk et al. In direct speech. The negative. Textual cohesion at the morphological level finds its expression in the correlation of tenses.g. My sculptures they disliked (R. Deictic expressions typically refer to persons and objects in the situation and to temporal and locational features. e. do so. Pfutze. she's a fruitcake. and their interpretation is therefore dependent on features of that situation. is lost. this is my life.S. In Los Angeles it is hot and dry (R. If you have seen him.In medical terms. Greenbaum). a ginger male. Answers often represent sentencoids whose syntagmatic zeros turn the question-answer sequences into even more closely integrated wholes [W. the reference of the pronoun / shifts according to who is speaking. He's a psychiatrist that Jesse Quiller's office uses. Akishina] refer pro-forms to lexical cohesive devices. Greenbaum and single them out into a specific group of cohesive devices. whereas references to what conies afterwards are cataphoric.Isn 't that possible? . Eventually she divorced Stephen. Some linguists [e. in his case. The concept of deixis is sometimes extended from situational deixis (the use of expressions to point at some feature of the situation) to textual deixis (the use of expressions to point at other expressions in the text). Do. but function words. . Cf. Textual deixis contributes to cohesion because of its linkage to previous or subsequent words in the text. these substitutes contribute to cohesion.My wife never does (M. Since for their interpretation they depend on an antecedent.A.It means that she really believes she's innocent.: Does insurance cover hotels? -1 think so (S. — I'm not a doctor.Four years (S.: How long have you worked there? .). A. and pronominal adverbs [M. I'm going to have him examine Ashley and turn the report over to her father (S.g. But in text they perform a syntactic linking function.: / always eat peas with honey.g.: My cat. determiners. determiners. Patterson's daughter like? .Maybe not (S. he can retire to the four-poster bed in a room he keeps as cold as Dracula 's vault. is not.In New York it is hot and humid during the summer. as has already been pointed out. corresponding to the pro-clause so. are primarily a morphological phenomenon. Deixis involves the use of expressions to refer directly to the situation within which an utterance is taking place.g. his power sleep. In our opinion. it's like being a retired person.)Question-answer sequences are closely connected because questions are primarily used to seek information [M. Sheldon). Pfutze]. Sheldon). do it. they could hardly be regarded as lexical cohesive devices because all the pro-forms are not lexical. Who's going to do ifl (M. Cf. do the same.

They had promised their mother to bring fish for dinner. Evans). I remember being puzzled at picture books showing European children wrapped up in heavy coats and scarves. Sometimes we make a link between sentences because of our general knowledge or expectations about the way the world functions [D. and I never owned an overcoat.more than most people -health care is at the forefront of the many challenges that governments face today. they act as textual glue [A. both monological and dialogical texts are characterized by the following features: 369 . When they arrived home. and the principles we have adopted in the course of our work. Metatextual constructions stand somewhat apart from all the cohesive language devices discussed above because they do not take part in realizing the content plane of the text. It's very hot there. The vintage was expected to be superb (D. The primary form of their existence is oral form. I will try to summarize our Office's views on accountability. f lived in Singapore. Wierzbtcka.g. on the other hand. Shapovalova] e. What is more. Let us take the following pair of sentences: The summer was one of the best they had ever had. and presupposition are used in these circumstances. reported speech makes wide use of the past perfect. Dialogical texts are co-constructed by two or more people. In our report tabled in Parliament last fall. Desautels).the narrative reference to the 'now' of both the narrator and the hearer (or reader): As a child. there exist metatextual constructions. alternation of past and present follows strict rules: the use of the past in the initial sentence generally precludes the use of the present and future in the following sentences. Furthermore. they told their mother that they had caught the biggest fish they had ever seen but it had escaped (V. deduction. A great deal of what we do deals with the issues of accountability. finally. I will speak about some of the areas from which solutions may emerge: solutions to some of the significant ~ and unique challenges to accountability in the health sector (L. I will discuss how we have applied these principles in the area of health care. Second. Crystal). and disease surveillance and the control of outbreaks. And as many of you will know. they help keep up the speaker-hearer contact. On the one hand.g.R. Here there are no obvious language cohesive devices to link these sentences. in asking me to 368 speak on the 'Federal Government's Accountability to Canadians for Health Services'. According to O. they have much in common.). they took their bags and went to the river to fish. you know. you hit on two of my favorite topics! First.: / would like to begin by thanking you for inviting me to speak to you today.As you will appreciate . I believe I thought it all as exotic as children here think about spacemen's clothing.V. we are working on other audits that should be published later this year or next year. The Problem ofDialogical Texts Traditionally. you see (R. e. 'Accountability' is another major issue in much of the work of our Office. They had gone there before and had caught some big fish. they concentrate the hearer's (reader's) attention on the key points and so make it easier for him to get the message comprised in the text. we included three chapters on the federal government's implementation of programs aimed at protecting and improving the health of Canadians. Such techniques as inference. Nowadays. On the other hand. They rather organize the content plane of the text into a coherent whole and give the latter a modal colouring. they are certainly different. By 5 o 'clock they hadn 't got any fish. Galperin]. so they decided to go home. Crystal]. The primary form of their existence is written form. What is more.D. Kharlamova. O.I. how we understand the concept. the term is extended to cover dialogical texts. Finally. so they looked for a shop where they could buy some but the shops had already closed. Moskalskaya.N. and. So.: After Jim and Terry had finished their breakfast. it is a topic of great importance to my Office and me. Monological texts are produced by one person. Quirk et al. linguists apply the term 'text' to monological written texts [I. I will draw from our recent reports on federal support of health care delivery. But anyone who knows about wine can readily supply the missing link. T. They serve three purposes: on the one hand. In reported speech.

' said his mother.7 whispered his sisters. convicted by a show of paws. and he was tried. 3)moral. 3)the presence of cohesive devices. Here are a few illustrative examples. 'I am trying to use reason and intelligence. That would be the rotary spare parts? B: That's right. Strangers who had never laid eyes on the peacelike mongoose remembered that they had seen him crawling on his stomach. For example: The Peacelike Mongoose In Cobra country a mongoose was born one day who didn't want to fight cobras or anything else. Composition of Business Telephone Conversations: For example: A: John Matthews speaking.' cried the young mongoose's father. and condemned to banishment. For example. 'Reason is six-sevenths of treason. the answer . A dialogical text as a whole is often polytopical. like a cobra. In dialogical texts. the theme and the rheme are often comprised in different sentences uttered by different interlocutors. If he didn't want to fight anything else. 'He is crazy. How can I help you? B: This is Brian Summers from Reynolds here. Finally. the rumor spread that the mongoose had venom in his sting. in the process of realization each of the common features of monological and dialogical texts acquires slight nuances.1)semantic integrity. and the word went around that the strange new mongoose was not only pro-cobra and anti-mongoose but intellectually curious and against the ideals and traditions of mongoosism. the question often forms the theme. Moral: Ashes to ashes. I'm calling about the delivery of some spare parts. (thanking.the rheme. or trying on cobra hoods. 'He is a coward. 2)the characters' actions and speech. The peculiarity of cohesive devices finds its expression in a much higher frequency of occurrence of metatextual constructions in dialogicai texts. A: Right. 'He is a mongoosexual. if your enemy doesn't get you. but it was the duty of every mongoose to kill cobras or be killed by cobras. your own folk may (J. every sentence in monological texts has a theme and a rheme of its own. 2)communicative structuring (theme-rheme organization). and constitutes a new step in the development of the communicative dynamism of the text. The d discussing subject of call. farewells. 'Intelligence is what the enemy uses. Text Composition Each kind of text has its own composition. semantic integrity in both kinds of texts is common only to supra-phrasal unities. and clay to clay. They were due last Friday.' said one of his neighbors. Thurber). Thus.' said another. The Composition of Fables: 1)exposition. The word spread from mongoose to mongoose that there was a mongoose who didn't want to fight cobras. True.' said the strange new mongoose. As for communicative structuring. or plotting the violent overthrow of Mongoosia. 'Why?' asked the Peacelike mongoose. looking forward.* shouted his brothers. it was his own business. 'He is sick. 370 .

371 .

2)date. Did you receive a call to let you know there were problems with delivery? B: Yes. Jack: Fine. 8)signature. Can I help you? Jack: Yes. I look forward to your reply. Since I am a photographer with Bay State Magazine. B: Do you mind if I ask whether you're sure about this new date? A: No. A: Goodbye. 3)inner address. we'll be delivering them on Tuesday. B: Not as far as I know. New York 10010 Dear Sir or Madam: In the April 4. Will you take that? Jack: No. 1994 Public Information Department Click Camera Company 1000 Riverview Boulevard New York. I need a flight from Vancouver to Phoenix on Friday. Would you please send me information on the camera? I would like to know when the camera will be available and how much it will cost. you'll have the parts on Tuesday. of course not. 372 373 . I can promise you..A: Yes. I'm sorry. The Composition of Business Letters: 1) letterhead (name of the company. Jack: Five thirty! What's the check-in time? Agent: One hour economy. Yours faithfully. Thank you for your attention. I have one on the 5:30 flight. Oh. 1994 Boston Daily News I read about your new camera. address. Jane Wilson Photo Department Agent: All Canada Airlines. A: Just a moment.. When will the next flight leave? Agent: There won't be another direct flight on Friday. 4)salutation. Viney). the X-Lite. 5)introducing subject of letter. Goodbye. I'm very sorry about the delay. I thought we'd already informed you. Do you have any seats? Agent: Let me see. I'm pleased to hear that. Right. Comfort). Summers (J. Yes. but I would like to know the new delivery date. Massachusetts 02188 617-79805065 FAX 617-798-5556 April 5. I'll check for you. I won't get to the airport in time. Thanks very much. telephone/fax number). Mr. Thirty minutes Business Class. I'm sorry that flight's full (P. it is important that T know about new cameras. I'll take it. 6)body of letter. Agent: Just let me check. There'll be one on Saturday at the same time. B: Good. For example: BAY STATE MAGAZINE 300 Commonwealth Avenue Boston. A: Oh. 7)complementary close. I did.

There is. giving a commentary on a news-reel. 374 375 . reading a news bulletin on the radio. But a moral difficulty arises. The camera will be available this December. Massachusetts 02188 Dear Ms. 2002.r. T have enclosed a brochure on the camera. KawHHCKoS 'flcnosoe rmCbMo. Everyone makes use of this kind of English every day. It is well known that most people will behave differently if they are aware of being tape-recorded or videotaped.00). taking part in a panel discussion. thank you for your inquiry. you are practising a deception on them. If you have any questions. etc. BbiomKHHoH CapatOB.CAMERA COMPANY 1000 Riverview Boulevard New York 10010 212-588-9542 FAX 212-588-9547 April 10. The fact that the Corpora material generally consists of transcriptions means that even here. Sincerely yours. Again. Now linguists use the resources of different computer corpora of conversational English to study what is characteristic of the grammar of English conversation. The most commonly used kind of spoken language is informal conversation. giving a lecture. npHMepbi. 1993 expressing interest in Click Camera's new camera. we shall identify a range of social and situational characteristics of conversation. and the cost will be approximately three hundred and fifty dollars ($350. Helen Dodge Customer Service5 26. 'a piece of writing') reminds us that the Western grammatical tradition is founded almost exclusively on the study of written language. THE GRAMMAR OF CONVERSATION The Greek origin of the word 'grammar' (from 'gramma' . The grammatical characteristics of conversation are predetermined by a spectrum of 'external' factors. speech precedes writing. it may seem odd that so little linguistic research has been carried out into this variety of English. gossiping with friends. e. If you tape-record or videotape the conversation participants clandestinely. however. reciting poetry. In view of this. the reliance on the written form of the language cannot be escaped. cross-examining a witness. TEKCT IDICCM aaHMCTBOBae H3 noco6»a E. acting in a play. H E. ynpajKHCHHs'. So. saying a prayer. namely the procedural difficulty of obtaining reliable data to investigate.'a letter'.e.B. having an argument. between people who know each other. please do not hesitate to contact us or our local Click Camera dealer. The only safe way of obtaining genuine conversation is through the technique of surreptitious recording or videotaping. one very good reason for this lack of information. the X-Lite.g. drilling a squad of soldiers. However. i. Wilson: Thank you for your letter of April 5. 1993 Jane Wilson Bay State Magazine 300 Commonwealth Avenue Boston. and discuss their association with particular grammatical traits that are common in conversation. a bias which still exists today. OCHOBBI. conversation on informal occasions.: making a speech. Many different sorts of linguistic events come under the heading of spoken language.

Because he does just push on with these things. Sirotinina]. about twenty minutes. 376 The verbal part of conversation is very important.: And teenagers. Underwood). aren't 7? (M. where the English language is 'on its best behaviour'. twice a week. half an hour. And he was telling me that one morning he was looking through the window.B. At the morphological level. And next door there was a man who'd just bought a new car. because we have a variety of techniques for getting around it [G. e.on the rheme. Visitor: On the piano? Susan: Yes.: That's what I've heard (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). The preface concentrates the hearer's attention on the theme.preface. I ain't going to tell him (M. And she was 377 . etc. and reinforce what we say or send their own messages of doubt or even denial of the accompanying words. playful. / don't know anything about Brazilian music (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). It may be lively. Well. vigorous. and arms. Both divide the clause frame into two more easily managed chunks. Visitor: How long do you practise? Susan: About half an hour. Swan). it shows in the extensive use of verb and negative contractions and in the combination of ain 't and aren 't with the personal pronoun /. But the verbal part of conversation is always accompanied by non-verbal behaviour. Miller]. however. sneering. weak. angry. now. At the syntactic level.: The chap lived in.The Influence of Discourse Circumstances on the Grammatical Characteristics of Conversation Conversation Takes Place in the Spoken Medium Conversation takes place in speech . The two most important of them are prefacing and adjunction. I probably sounded a bit bad-tempered. Cf. Music practice. and so on either illustrate.A. Visitor: Oh. Sarah: Yes. I'm late.: Visitor: So if you don't have. Cf. conversation usually makes use of rather simple and short syntactic structures. body postures. Without taking any advice (A Corpus of English Conversation) .adjunct. it's once a week and one extra if you're going to do exams. it is little influenced by the traditions of prestige and correctness often associated with the printed word. such as the face. the adjunct . Sarah: Yes.. Kissing each other on the sidewalk (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English) .by use of an oralauditory channel. And this man allowed his wife to drive the car very unwisely. a semi-detached house. Instead. e. I see (M. arrogant. So. it is only a video recording that can give the analyst a full picture of informal conversation. supplement. erm. er. But I felt a bit badtempered. very much homework. The informal style of conversation finds its expression at various language levels. cruel. you see. ho. strong. Since the span of immediate memory in spoken language is usually somewhere in the neighbourhood of five [O. calm. Visitor: And how often do you go to music lessons? Susan: Once . what do you do when you get home from school? Sarah: Hm. Sarah: Twice a week. It is the most perfect mirror of our self and our mood.g. We are not completely at the mercy of this limited span. Another kind of non-verbal behaviour is melody (or intonation). coordinators at the beginning of an orthographic sentence are in general much more frequent than in other registers. One kind of non-verbal behaviour involves the use of parts of the body.g. Visitor: Twice a week? Susan: Yes. facial expressions. hands.. Hand movements. Swan). Informal Conversation is Typically Carried Out in Faceto-Face Interaction with People who Know One Another Intimately Hence. the style of conversation is overwhelmingly informal.

launchers provides the speakers with a planning respite. And is it noisy1? .I guess she must (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English) — 'clause representative'.'communicative'. Conversation Takes Place in Real Time Conversation is typically spontaneous. Davy]. (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). There are different kinds of dysfluency: 1)utterance launchers.: Stick a label on them if necessary.: There's all those huge machines and stuff.'sentence representative'. And he 'd closed the garage doors. do people get upsefl ..: You haven't heard nothing yet (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). 2)'sentence representatives' and "clause representatives'.They do (M. especially in the construction 'there is' with the contracted form of the verb is. Does she even have a b. e.g.] and normal dysfluency [D. Thanks or Sorry may be a follow-up to a non-verbal action. Cf. speakers are faced with the need both to plan and to execute their utterances "on the fly'. Biber et al.g. 2)silent pauses. D. conversation is characterized by two features: the 'add-on' strategy [O.: 379 . told you that story about that woman. Conversation Takes Place in Shared Context Since the interlocutors know each other.g. The use of utterance . The shared context of conversation is also associated with the use of 'sentence representatives' and 'clause representatives'. e. Cf. cultural. These 'stand-alone' words rely heavily for their interpretation on situational factors. In some conversational material we find double negation. 7)utterances left grammatically incomplete. And he backed it out of the garage. Soskin) . its participants suffer from limited planning time. Davy). D. the participants in conversation create them step-by-step in accordance with the appearing associations. Crystal. For example. but a large amount of specific social. Having no time to plan their utterances ahead. demonstrative determiners this/these. who. Crystal. that/those. as well as to a verbal one.. When you leave (A Corpus of English Conversation). Subject-verb discord between singular and plural.. e. and pronominal numerals. Cf. . right*? (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). 378 Another type of reliance on context shows in the use of sentencoids with the syntagmatic zero and 'communicatives'.: And if you change. so that it was standing on the driveway. 4)repeats. during which the rest of the utterance can be prepared for execution. . Consequently. e.. Underwood) .g. Since the conversation is built on the principle of online production.'communicative'. And she came out of the house to take this car out and go shopping for the first time (D. uh.No (M.. 'Communicatives' cannot be fitted into canonical syntactic structures. Wow! What a fantastic dress (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) .: Then how do the charges run7 . I don't know if 1 told you.having a first go in it. D.a man"? ..Twenty-five cents a half hour (W.sentencoid with a syntagmatic zero.F. 5)repair sequences. The most common deictic words are the personal pronouns / and you (because they refer directly to participants in the conversation). Consistent with the shared knowledge of the interlocutors. 3)filled pauses. 6)syntactic blends. conversation has a high frequency of occurrence of 1)deictic words. went after that guy there? I told you that story. Hence. 4)'communicatives'. and institutional knowledge. 3)sentencoids (especially with the syntagmatic zero). which may be expressed through language but also through other means.B. Sirotinina. they share not just an immediate physical context of time and space. Underwood) . is another syntactic feature which tends to attract censure in written English but is quite common in conversation.: Well.

Biber et al. Cf. — This is a Sunday (D. but by a vowel sound. adjective. ~ Yeah. at a grammar school. D.. possessive determiners. it's an enormous problem (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). or verb.g. er. Biber et al. There are four situations where the speaker starts to utter a grammatical unit and fails to finish it.g.. . Self-repair. well. er. e. and conjunctions. points where an utterance launcher (such as oh. The choice between unfilled and filled pauses is conditioned by syntactic position. verbs show an extremely weak tendency to be repeated. a filled pause is most useful at a point of grammatical incompletion.I.). e. . erm.pause: a period of silence where the speaker appears to plan what to say next.Utt^aj^s_.. in which case. especially personal pronouns in the nominative case. I never thought of it (D.: About a hundred.).. 2. The repeat of is appears to be particularly prevalent when the subject preceding is is a full noun phrase and the predicate following it is a fairly heavy constituent.blend is applied to a sentence or clause which finishes up in a way that is syntactically inconsistent with the way it began. Hence.. grow back really fast.g.: There 's a whole bunch of Saturdays. D. The most obvious form of dysfluency is a hold-up in delivery. you 're teaching. The speaker 'switches horses in mid-stream'. .They 're made of rubber.. in our opinion. two hundred years ago ninety-five per cent of people in this country were employed in farming.: Yes. e. can be regarded as a kind of filled pause.).seguerjces occur when the speaker 'erases' what has just been said. Biber et at. D. Th-that's it. A filled.: Guess kids ' bones.it's. Davy). Repeats of forms with verb contractions attached to personal pronouns are also frequent.Yes.: Now the problem is is that he couldn 't pass our level four (D. . Repeats.P. Cf: / — / was just really amazed to hear that (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English).: They always have that (flexibility . 3. One reason why they do not trigger repeats may be that subjects in conversation tend to be very simple..That's why b-.. I think they 're really soft to start with. so to speak. one word or even less than one word is repeated. this time with a different word or sequence of words. As a rule. The clauses concerned tend to be fairly long.). 1. Yes (0. They're made of rubber. little kids usually don 't break their legs anyway (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English).g. Crystal. Unfilled pauses tend to occur at major points of transition.in this country were employed in farming (D. and may therefore constitute the main planning point for the whole of the subsequent clause including the verb phrase. The strongest tendency to recur in repeats show function words.e. a hesitation. e. e. Filled pauses are devices for signalling that the speaker has not yet finished his or her turn. i.).pause is occupied not by silence. Cf: About a hundred.Th. it's so nice to know the history behind it (D. e. Prepositions form repeats much more seldom. which suggests that the speaker suffered from a kind of syntactic memory loss in the course of production. aren 't you! . Completion by the hearer.g. two hundred years ago we had ninety-five per cent of people . Apart from is. until they reach adulthood. If you just put your . Biber and his co-authors think that it is due to the fact that prepositions are often lexically predictable after a preceding noun.Oh.: That's such a neat.: We had ninety-five per cent of people in this country employed in farming. I should have lei you read the paper.g.J^__gr£mmatic^]y. . Biber and his co-authors think that such contractions are processed by the speaker as single words. with or without accompanying nasalization.. Interruption. Repair. i. Biber et al. e. . and for discouraging another speaker from taking the floor.i . e.g. just like . and starts again.. The term syntactic .They get old and cranky like the rest of us (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). 381 380 . producing a momentary 'stutter' effect. Biber et al).g.: But. or okay) is likely to occur._incsmpl[^.that's it (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English).

such as Huh? Eh? Alright? Right? Okay? Cf. Hocano 's in the Philippines. Response.e. e. . 3)signals of emotional evaluation. Wilkinson].elicitors are question tags proper and their inter]ectional equivalents.g. e. with gestures. wouldn't if! . But it is hardly good manners to begin a conversation with asking a direct question.one gets labelled a 'smooth' talker. the conversation gradually languishes [A. however. Right! .. A common way of opening a conversation is to use an attention. and that communication is still in progress.). the speaker resorts to response elicitors and expressions.g. that typically elicit a response. which is always pleasant to hear.g. To attract the addressee's attention is the first step in any conversation. Yes (A Corpus of English Conversation). a year and a half year . consequently.4. e. e. imperatives are few [D. Attention signals show to the speaker that the message is being understood and accepted.: And he's. erm. Wardhaugh]..ignals show the speaker that the addressee supports his viewpoint. you see.. Yes. and so on)..: She has some kind of a. have you got any paint rollers'? (D..signal.approbatiori. you see. 2)agreement and approbation signals.. e. The role of the addressee in keeping the conversation going is even more important. The main thing. That's why questions and imperatives. In our opinion. Biber et al.g. is to keep his attention. vocatives in the initial position also perform the function of attracting the attention of the addressee and. Considered in its own situation (i. 382 . and you understand. Conversation is Interactive It means that the interlocutors constantly take part in the 'give and take' of the online dialogue. you know.Bad's (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). Mom.g. facial expressions.: Well. As for questions. than the second year.s. and you understand are clear indicators of the speaker's desire that the listener acknowledge that he still has his or her attention. Back channels are heterogeneous. e. . which rather suggests that dysfluency phenomena are of primary significance in determining the acceptability of conversation. (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). conversation does not seem disjointed at all.: What kind of ice cream was thafl . Crystal. can be included into the class of attention signals. Davy] because English people do not think it polite to directly impose their will on the addressee [R. to my mind. should be frequent in conversation. this land of peripheral thing in Appleby that it has gone down. But they tell me the second year always go off (A Corpus of English Conversation). that would be nice to have a little jazz band next door. such as you know.years old.Or two years (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English).Right (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English).Mm. Now.: Say. If the speaker does not receive the so-called back channels from the addressee. The first year are much brighter. For this purpose. they are often used in English conversation.: What I . Perfect fluency in informal conversation tends to produce the wrong effect . back channels are important in indicating that speaker and addressee are keeping in touch with one another. Abandonment of the utterance.Okay (D.: But we \e got quite a bright lot in our first year. English linguists refer to attention signals only imperative interjections. In English conversation. Given the interactive nature of conversation.). Biberet.: Sheila! Diner's at six o 'clock (English Course).Yes. .No (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). a!. Agreement .what I think he doesn't realize is that it's very largely because he's been building.g. The most important are: 1)attention signals.and. . Phrases of the kind you know. 4)response elicitors. D. this isn 't according to grandpa now.g. e.

383 .

Will you lend me ten pounds'? . endearments are rather common in conversation. the common predicative adjectives in conversation are mostly evaluative. Cf.. Moss). Response. As for formulas of politeness. the participants in telephone conversation are not visible to each other. Similarly. such as requests.: I've got a big one (stamp . Conversation is Expressive of Politeness and Stance.ehcitprs signal lack of understanding and a wish to have the message repeated.). .Oh.Signalsjof emotional evaluation are more rare because English people are not inclined to wear their heart on their sleeve [W. . please. And he organizes the whole set-up.. A. Davy).Sorry..Yes.That fish. Cf: Have a good flight now. No coffee (BBC London Course).: Hello! Darling! Are you there? (BBC London Course). please1? . If delay is required. 385 . 384 At the more restrained end of the emotional spectrum are the interjections oh (often in combination with no). . wow and the mild expletives bloody and damn that have already turned into a kind of intensifier. D. and the polite openers in exchanges. Mr. i.Erm. Biber et al.g.J. The bathroom light in my room doesn 't work. The absence of visual contact prompts speakers to assure themselves that the other person is still on the line. Frightful. In the second place. pretty really (D. Biber et al.: Did you hear I saw Sarah's sister's baby? ~ How is it? -She's cute. . Honey. of course.g. If the addressee wants to change roles with the speaker. (P. Yes.Not bloody likely (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Let's serve this damn chilli (D. so that the first week I had everyone coming in on me. such as thanks. Enjoy your stay here. Erm. Visual feedback being absent. thank you. telephone conversation takes place in the spoken medium. but. Why did you leave? ~ Erm.I. Just like ordinary conversation. Now if you've got three different age groups.. Cf. Mainly cos I'd been there two .Goodness me\ (M.two years (A Corpus of English Conversation). e. Personal Attitudes or Feelings Informal conversation is certainly more emotional than the other registers. e.g. But in contrast to ordinary conversation. ah. A. they do occur in informal conversation.Thank you. then voiced hesitation is usually introduced to 'fill the gap'. Give me that little fish (W. Bourn (N.) which is about three inches by one inch. . Two coffees and one lemonade. different from ordinary conversation. please. on the one hand.e. which is typically carried out in face-to-face interaction with others.P. in general. Church. sorry. Crystal.g. . ~ Thanks (N. Could you have somebody come up and take a look at it. auditory cues become all-important. It's terribly difficult (D. In the third place. Telephone Conversation Telephone conversation is. I'm not sure I haven't got a plug somewhere (A Corpus of English Conversation). they are more characteristic of formal conversation. Cf. sir. Church. it is usual for addressees to signal that they are attending to what is being said and can understand it. is built on the principle of online production. e. on the other hand. Well. etc. Moss). In the first place.: Look at that dead fish. etc. various types of intensifies are added to evaluative words. offers.: I've forgotten my key. I think this is a place where I-1 can get a cheap kettle. . Anything approaching a silence on the part of one of the speakers is interpreted either as a breakdown of communication (Hello? Are you there?) or as an opportunity for interruption which may not have been desired. Soskin). Viney).: I was in fact secretary to the Registrar of the Royal College of Music. no (BBC London Course).F. and is interactive.Oh. he usually begins his utterance with a hesitator or one of the abovementioned back channels and then passes on to what he wants to say.Huh! .). I think I've got a plug. e.: It's pretty funny (Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English). similar. Underwood). Ball].

inducement. The conclusion that suggests itself is that telephone conversation and ordinary conversation are different only in degree.in exclamation marks. emphatic expressions . Still.: He comes. How nice of you to come (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) . commas. punctuation remains to some extent a matter of personal preference. and that the former can be seen as a sub-province of the more general notion. They tended to reflect a division into sense-units that were expected to correlate at their boundaries with pauses in speech. others (e. A point may end not only statements but also inducements. however. The present punctuation system for English was essentially in place during the second half of the 17th century. Quirk and his co-authors. and took great pains to check it when revising proofs. I should think (Longman Essential Activator).polite request. Ch. Statements do normally end in points. quotation marks.statement. a historical perspective is essential The modern system is the result of a process of thought over many centuries. Crystal suggests that two classes of punctuation marks should be distinguished: marks that separate constructions and marks that convey meaning. they separate one construction (or its part) from another.) . The first marks were introduced in an age of oratory. Greenbaum. D.: We do not suffer by accident (J.when the included unit is placed either in the initial or final position within some larger unit. Punctuation marks that serve the purpose of separation. McClelland et al) -emphatic expression. in the opinion of R. But the opposite is not true. PUNCTUATION To understand punctuation. To be frank. tomorrow (P. For example. George isn 't very good at the job (Longman Essential Activator). they do specify the meaning of the construction. he refers points. Several punctuation marks have a specifying function. Dickens) were very concerned about punctuation. a question. who thinks that most marks of specification have a dual function. the point (commonly called 'full stop' in British English). can be divided into two subclasses: those separating units of equal rank and those separating units of unequal rank. Punctuation marks that separate units of equal rank occur singly. Fred (V. 386 387 .: my father's car (M. he refers question marks.H. W. In accordance with the two main functions of punctuation. and hyphens. and the apostrophe. the apostrophe is most frequently used to signal the genitive case of nouns. Would you close the door as you leave. there is a strong pressure for greater explicitness. dashes. Sheldon). polite requests. Swan). Cf. square brackets.emphatic expression. and the exclamation mark not only signal the end of a monopredicative or polycomponent syntactic unit but also tell the reader what kind of syntactic unit he has just finished reading: a statement.In view of the diminished quality of the voice over the telephone. Standardization gradually emerged after the introduction of printing in the 15th century. On the other hand. She's a year or two older than you. Even today. 27. The punctuation system serves two broad purposes: separation and specification. questions .in question marks. my parents' car (M. Matthews). in the following passage the point signals the end of the first sentence and therefore separates the two sentences: The police asked me about him. Steel) . Swan). Get up (D. To the second class. and even emphatic expressions because English people are taught to use exclamation marks sparingly. / do understand what you mean (V. with no spaces between words. Some (e. Austen) . We side with S. Thus. Thus. semi-colons. Punctuation marks that set off included units (usually parenthetic) occur in pairs when the included unit is placed in the middle position and singly . parentheses (or round brackets). Wordsworth) left the task to their publishers. exclamation marks. Cf. I think. On the one hand.g. McClelland et al. I had never even heard of him (S. the question mark.g. Cf. or an emphatic expression. To the first class. the authors might punctuate the same text in very different ways. colons. Early classical texts were unpunctuated.

ellipses and hesitation points. Quirk et al. on the other hand.ellipses points. Deanna? That it's over? -1 . According to the New Webster's Grammar Guide.). green. that is. statements. e..: A new store would bring in more business...g. 388 389 . There are several good reasons. we just don't have enough capital to expand now (V.: Clare has many good points. A sequence of three points is used for omissions in quotations and for hesitation or suspense. Brown) .g. 1.. Steel) . a fourth period is commonly added (particularly in American English and for scholarly writing in British English) for the usual point. indicates a closer interdependence between the units separated than does the semi-colon. e. When two independent clauses are linked by conjunctive adverbs like however.: Billy. Why the hell should I got (E. ate his brother's candy. you must use a semi-colon before the connectives. The omission may be at the beginning. and you don't know the company (V.M.).emphatic expression. poise. Wilson) . predicted a cost of living increase for the first of the year. What exactly were you telling me. therefore. that is. in fact.g. the use of a semi-colon in this case is also possible.). Cf.: What's wrong'? (D. however. and blue (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). which spread throughout the plant.emphatic expressions.: The sales staff meets every other Tuesday. A comma is placed after these words. red. Cf.A question mark may end not only questions but also polite requests.) -the first clause has internal punctuation.. but it can separate independent coordinate clauses closely connected in meaning when no conjunction is used.both clauses have internal punctuation... Milton).g. McClelland et al. Another use of the semi-colon is to separate items in a list introduced by such words as in other words.emphatic expression. in the middle. no . oh God\ (D. for example. (D. A comma usually follows these connectives. the production staff meets only once a month (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). e. e. Steel) ~ hesitation points.g. please? (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) .. It cannot end a syntactic unit.. How pleased they were to see us\ (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) .: These special artist's pencils are available in three colors. and this caused a terrible row when Henry got home (V. but his prediction. it is better to separate them by a comma.: What a tragedy that would be\ (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) .emphatic expression. The semi-colon may also be followed by a coordinator when either one or all the constituent independent clauses have internal punctuation. and intelligence (V. Will you phone me later. Only the exclamation mark seems to be monofunctional Cf. and .: I'd be happy to show.). ambition. McClelland et al. namely. who is just three. Marks of Non-End Punctuation The Semi-Colon The semi-colon is below the point in the hierarchy. The Colon The colon. If the items in a list do not make complete clauses.A.: Fame is the spur. and namely. government policy has been firmly decided. e.occasionally . for instance. (J. Cf..H. McClelland et al.. They are termed.question. Cf. The president. talent. accordingly. If the omission comes at the end of a syntactic unit.: In one respect. for example. a rather infrequent punctuation mark. for example. Matthews) -statement. a well-known man. there will be no conscription (R. you 've never seen the city. McClelland et al.polite request How can I climb that? <= I can't climb it> (P. proved to be wrong (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) . or at the end of the syntactic unit.

In American English. Quotation Marks Direct quotations and direct speech are always enclosed in quotation marks. No strict rules can be stated when this or that punctuation mark should be used. where the direct speech consists of just one short monopredicative syntactic unit and the style is not formal. In such cases.). The dash indicates greater separation than the comma. the colon has three major functions: 1)to introduce identifications. and No. double marks are the norm and single marks are used for quotations 391 .: We invited them for one meeting . Parentheses. you may want to insert into a syntactic unit words that sharply interrupt its normal word order. 394. Quotation marks come in pairs. Greenbaum). 2)to introduce examples. 286 [No. In her review of the new film.g. McClelland et al.g. dashes. Reynolds. 390 The dash may be used to indicate a summarizing thought or an afterthought added to the end of the syntactic unit e.D. They may be single or double.at least I think so (M. e. McClelland et al. A comma would be more usual than a colon in the last example.not for the entire convention\ (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). Steel and I. McClelland et al. Atkinson said yesterday: Tm happy here. Greenbaum). 288 was out of stock/) was filled last week (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). parentheses . and coffee (V. and clauses. citron. e. Cf: Today they face a further threat to their survival: starvation (S. The authors of The New Webster's Grammar Guide advise to use dashes for visual effect.: / was certain that the manager . but less than parentheses.: Your order (including items No. * (S. The dash may be used to set off a word or word group repeated for emphasis. Commas may also be used to set off parenthetic words. 391. especially in formal style.g. commas — if the material is short.). Guillory are of opinion that parentheses and square brackets tend to give our writing a scholarly formal tone. By the end of the movie you will be thinking of the cuckoos in your own nest' (V. Square brackets have two common uses.In the opinion of S. they suggest surprise or emotion and give our writing a more casual tone. Dashes. First. editorial additions or comments: The poet [Robert Browning] did not approve of the excessive adulation during the meeting (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). In British English. and square brackets.when the material is long. they are used to enclose material added by someone other than the writer.g. No.g. The dash may mark an abrupt change of thought or structure in a syntactic unit.wanted John to receive the promotion (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). There are three special marks of punctuation you can use to set off or enclose these abrupt interruptions: parentheses (or round brackets). e. word groups. V. As for dashes. square brackets are used to set off interrupting elements that occur in material already enclosed by parenthesis.: We 'II be arriving on Monday morning . Rona Barrett says '"One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" is about mental institutions. Second. Greenbaum. for example. word group. J. MX. or clause and the rest of the syntactic unit.: Jim's wool jacket (we bought it last week) keeps him warm in sub-zero weather (V. Swan). Brackets Occasionally. The cake called for unusual ingredients: mace. 3)to introduce.indeed all of the office force .).one meeting only . in contrast. you will need stronger separators than commas. there is an increasing tendency to employ single marks as the norm and double marks for quotations within quotations. quotations or direct speech. McClelland. Parentheses indicate the greatest degree of separation between the enclosed word. e.

they are set off by commas.). rice (. bread. e. The comma before the last item is optional provided that it is preceded by the conjunction and.g. e. they are set off with commas just as one item.: Reva bought soda.g.g. the convention is to place opening quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph and closing quotation marks only at the end of the final paragraph. Cf: 393 . You may be excused from the conference this time. comprise also phatic elements that do not form a separate sense-unit and lack an independent intonation contour. e. The comma is used to separate a word (or word group) from the rest of the syntactic unit when it is inverted or out of its natural order. 3. no commas are used. They include interjections. pudding.). As for the authors of The New Webster's Grammar Guide. long quotations . e. Loose adverbials and situational modifiers can be expressed by prepositional phrases. 1. That's why they should not be separated by a comma.g. Quirk etal. and milk (V. and formulas of etiquette. Some words are customarily used in pairs: ham and eggs.: Re x wa gg ed hi s tail an d ya pp ed a nd sh oo k for jo y (V. e..: For me.: The mayor's sister is a tall. Reynolds. They separate a series of three or more words or word groups. cheese.within quotations.). If direct speech extends over more than one paragraph.)But if the items are considered separately.). McClelland et al). McClelland et al.by a colon. loose adverbials and situational modifiers occur in the initial position.g. In British English.) and coffee (R. Here the adjective dark modifies the adjective green. McClelland et al. Commas within Complicated Syntactic Units In complicated syntactic units. But look at the word dark in the sentence Ettie crocheted her mother a dark green sweater (V.: It's a cat. 392 When all the items in a series are joined by coordinators. etc. McClelland etal.: Joey served soup. e. but never again (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). frail woman (V. Commas within Monopredicative Syntactic Units Within monopredicative syntactic units. commas set off non-clausal syntactic units in the function of loose parts of the sentence and parenthetic elements. Parenthetic nonclausal units. Steet and I. 4.g. the final quotation marks always follow a point or a comma. and butter (V. The Comma Commas are by far the most frequently occurring non-end punctuation marks within monopredicative and polycompnent syntactic units. The comma is used to separate adjectives which modify the same noun and which allow the introduction of the coordinator and. The comma is used to set off words or word groups expressing contrast. it will mean extra work and less pay (The New Webster's Grammar Guide).: She bought eggs. pickles. participial phrases. bread. 2. words in direct address. V.g. Loose attributes and appositives are used after the noun they modify. Short quotations are usually introduced by a comma. McClelland. commas fulfil two functions. bread and butter. in addition to modal and connective elements. bread and butter. and participial predicative constructions. the closing punctuation mark is put outside the quotation marks.D. In American English. ML. not a dog (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). J. Guillory advise to put it in every time. they think that a comma should always be placed before the conjunction in joining the last two members of a series. e. butter. But since using a comma before the conjunction is never wrong and not using it may cause problems. When these pairs occur with other items in a series. —* The mayor's sister is a tall and frail woman. McClelland et al.

g. she walked into the bedroom without saying a word. you could argue that it's not safe (Longman Language Activator) -connective parenthetic element. 395 . nor. grotesque and barren in the cold moonlight. Viney) . and be sure to come back (The New Webster's Grammar Guide).g. and whereas). Viney). On the other hand. Alward. Matthews).: Emma's courage returned.: I play or I listen to music (I. Shaw). Tea or coffee? . J. is a teacher (B.loose situational modifier expressed by a prepositional phrase. yet. Charles caught the bus (D. undressed.: Copyboy. Fortunately. The rain having stopped. Alward) . My dear. take this folder to Alan Toms. 1. I missed my station (E. but. doyou7 (M. can't come (P. They set off non-restrictive relative clauses that never occur in the initial position. e.A.A.G.loose attribute.H. the fellow in brown over there. C. They set off dependent clauses when they precede the matrix clause. please (P. Austen).g. "They are not here' (The New Webster's Grammar Guide). A dependent clause that follows the matrix clause is usually not set off by a comma.: My father.) .g. the comma may be omitted. 394 The use of a comma without a coordinator between the independent clauses is called the comma fault. e. Nuclear power is relatively cheap. b) the words of affirmation and negation and 'sentence representatives' in short answers to ''yes/no questions': Do you know York? .The scraggly pine. turned out the light and got into bed (S. Running easily.loose situational modifier expressed by a participial phrase. e. Sheldon).) . c) the words introducing direct speech: He said. or. Aiward. leered down at the panic-stricken hikers (E. Mary returned to work (V. e. The comma is used to separate independent clauses joined by accumulation.: She got the job because she was the best candidate (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Swan). my neighbour. Instead of the comma in this case it is necessary to use the semi-colon. the fox outdistanced the dogs (V. 2. Ida (P. Crystal) .phatic parenthetic element: direct address. Sally. e. we went to lunch (The New Webster's Grammar Guide) .Coffee. for.g. Alward) .Yes. while. Having fatten asleep on the train.A. McClelland et al. When the independent clauses of a polycomponent syntactic unit based on coordination are very long or have internal punctuation.phatic parenthetic element: formula of etiquette. Oh.phatic parenthetic element: interjection. After a long illness. and she walked on (J.loose adverbial expressed by a participial phrase.C.modal parenthetic element. Austen) . McClelland et al. who is very sorry.: When she got home. Shaw) . Commas within Polyprecomponent Syntactic Units Based on Subordination Within polycomponent syntactic units based on subordination commas fulfil two functions.loose appositive. The comma is used to separate independent clauses joined by one of the coordinators (and. so. J. 2. Commas within Poly component Syntactic Units Based on Coordination and Accumulation 1. for example: a) a declarative clause and an interrogative clause in a disjunctive question: You don't like fish.g. you flatter me (J.loose situational modifier expressed by a participial predicative construction. e. Alward) . a semi-colon is generally used before the coordinator. I can't explain now (I. Alward. J. If the clauses of a polycomponent syntactic unit joined by coordination are very short and closely connected.

Greenbaum).A. 2. 2) to indicate a contraction. Some follow the general rule for the singular: Dickens 's novels (S. 397 . Greenbaum). Fielding). If the plural does not end in an s.: I'm going to the dentist's (S. J. Greenbaum). and 3) to pluralize letters. The apostrophe often takes the place of missing letters in contractions. I'm trying to check my email (H. e. and words taken out of context or referred to as words can be formed either by adding the 's or simply s. symbols. to form the genitive plural we add an apostrophe only.: her daughter's career (S. the conventions as a whole are not followed as rigorously in manuscript use. Alward.: Norman and Alice's wedding (G. Cf. Greenbaum). especially personal material. Plurals of figures. The genitive noun may be used without a following noun. and words taken out of context or referred to as words. Plural proper names follow the general rule for plurals ending in -s by taking only the apostrophe. Punctuation marks tend to be used according to fairly strict conventions.G. Alward.g. Cf. The main use of the apostrophe is to signal the genitive case of nouns. there is a great deal of flexibility in the use of the comma: in its presence or absence. Plurals of letters are usually formed by adding an apostrophe and s. Alward). (D. symbols.: the people's opinions (S. Don't be sulky now (H. 3.: Dickens' novels (S. e. The group genitive is attached at the end of a modifying o/phrase. From this use they have developed plural forms for large companies . Punctuation of Words The Apostrophe The apostrophe has three main uses: 1) to signal the genitive case of nouns. e. figures. because the two words have already two s letters: Jesus' teachings (S.: for goodness' sake (S.g.A.g.g. Hence. especially when it refers to a place. Alward). but make an exception for Moses and Jesus. Greenbaum). The comma provides considerable opportunity for personal taste and for implying fine degrees of cohesion and separation. Secondly.. Quirk and his co-authors. there is less room in punctuation than in prosody for personal decision in the use of the various devices. Greenbaum) and traditionally also for Greek names of more than one syllable that end in -5: Socrates' death (S. Alward). Greenbaum). Greenbaum). we form the genitive plural by adding an apostrophe and an A1. punctuation is governed primarily by grammatical considerations. Cf.G. e. Fielding).: the Queen of England's wealth (S. J.without the apostrophe. Greenbaum). my parents' car (S. e. Greenbaum). Brown). e. The genitive is also attached at the end of coordinate nouns that constitute a unit. or in its replacement by other marks. J. Greenbaum). Singular common nouns ending in an 5 sound that combine with the word sake take the apostrophe alone.: To have all B ** and A's on a college transcript is exceptional (E.A. signs. There are a few exceptions to the general rules. 396 There is a divided usage over singular proper nouns ending in -s.: I'll call the police*.: They 're shopping at Harrods (S. Greenbaum). e. e.g.g. Greenbaum).According to R. signs.G.g. Others use only an apostrophe in all these cases. such as private letters. the apostrophe may be omitted. Alward.g. There are two important qualifications to the foregoing generalizations. In the first place.g. The space age started in the early 1960s (E. 1.: the Thompsons' new house (S.: The space age started in the early 1960's (E. e. The general rule is that to form the genitive singular we add an apostrophe and an s. In British English.

e. Greenbaum).g. i. 7.g. The hyphen is not needed if the two words do not corne before the noun.e. e. Alward. Note the use of hyphens for attributive use. You have five ands in this sentence (E. Greenbaum).A. written as separate words (e. e. Adjective compounds built on the pattern 'adjective or noun + noun + ed suffix' are generally hyphenated if they come after a noun. Hornby et al. tax-free). Compounds in which the first element is a simple capital are hyphenated. Greenbaum). written as one word (e. He's only 24. but he behaves as if he's already middle-aged (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).g.: twenty-one (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Alward). J. Number compounds are hyphenated. breakdown (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). e. American English tends to use fewer hyphens than British English.g. e. Cf: passer-by (A. Cf: tragic-comic (S. Greenbaum). A hyphen is usual after a few prefixes. 8.g.g.You have five and's in this sentence (E.: A very well-known artist (S.g. Greenbaum). Cf: pre-1960s (S.: A first-class performance (S. summing-up (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). such as middle-aged. Hyphens The main function of the hyphen is to link words that form compound words. Greenbaum). Most adjective compounds whose second word is an -ing or -ed participle are either hyphenated or more usually (especially in American English) written solid even when they come after a noun. Greenbaum).g. Cf: break-in (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Compounds. 'hyphenated'.g. Greenbaum).e. to avoid juxtaposing the vowels. or 'solid'. If the first word is without these suffixes. the compound may be either hyphenated or not. An adverb or adjective preceding an attributive compound is not hyphenated. i. 1.G. Greenbaum). Also to be considered are hyphens that attach some prefixes to an existing word to form a new word (e. g. In compounds used attributively (i. Greenbaum). 2.). more and more writers add just s. to modify a following noun). antiEnglish (S. Nowadays. unAmerican (S. she doesn 't mind if we turn up late (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). 399 .G. linked by a hyphen (e.e.: A tastefully furnished room (S. Cf: There 'd be fewer accidents if all road-users were more safety-minded (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). J.g. but they are also sometimes written solid. 398 3. Compounds may be 'open'. deaf-mute (S. Try one of these homemade cookies (Longman Language Activator).g. e. a hyphen is inserted if it is needed to clarify which words belong together. 5. 5. Alward.: Your performance was first class (S.: my ex-wife (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).S. e. ex-husband). are not written solid. Alward). 4. But: two hundred miles (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). i.: a one-day-old baby (S. handkerchief).: washing machine). Compounds expressing an land' relation are hyphenated.e. e. Noun compounds built on the pattern 'verb with an -er or -ing suffix + adverb' are hyphenated. 20-odd years (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). Cf: Our teacher is very easy-going.A. It is also not needed if the first word is an adverb ending in -ly and can therefore be recognized as modifying the second word.: She was wearing jeans and a T-shirt (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English). A hyphen is usual if the prefix precedes a capital or a digit.

the hyphens are referred to as suspending hyphens.g.G. Alward).: He ordered five-.form again> (S. Alward. Since the final word of the compound word. Cf. and ten-penny nails (E.: co-operation. e. In British English. eight-. reform <= improve> (G.and anti-Vietnam demonstrations (S. J. Greenbaum). . but there is an increasing tendency to follow the American practice of writing such words solid. Greenbaum).A. Two or more hyphenated words may be linked. is common to two or more of the preceding parts of the series.A hyphen is required to distinguish different words. pre-eminent. Pro. Cf. in this case. a hyphen is sometimes used to prevent mispronunciation.: re-form <. 9. Greenbaum).

...................................................225 10.......................212 5.................................................The Pronoun...........Non-Finite Forms of the Verb......................................................230 11...................202 3..........................................156 12..........................Function Words..............................................................163 13.........................Grammatical Category...................78 8.......................................................................Essence of Predication..................278 17.............................................................225 9........Finite Dependent Clauses......The Adverb..................................Types of Predicative Syntactic Units........................60 7...84 9................Parts of Speech.....................................................................257 13.......................... andForm............271 15..................................................................................................................................C N E T O T N S MORPHOLOGY 1............................................................35 6..............Morphological Units.......................................148 11......................................Non-Predicative Syntactic Units........191 2.......................The Article....Introduction................................................... Meaning...........The Object............................24 5.The Numeral.............................Word and Word Form.........................124 10..272 16....... Structural Classifications of Predicative Syntactic Units......Types of Syntactic Connection...............................................262 14......................7 3..The Noun.....The Predicate...........Word Combination..10 4...................Sentence Models......................................................................................179 SYNTAX 1.The Determiner...........................................................................................................222 7....................................283 ...................203 4......................................The Adverbial.......The Adjective..........3 2...................................The Verb........The Attribute....................................................The Subject...224 8.237 12......Independent Clauses........................Non-Finite Dependent Clauses..................................213 6....

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