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Jin Ik Kim1, Jang Gyu Lee1 and Chan Gook Park2

School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea (Tel : +82-2-880-7317; E-mail: {jinik05, jgl}@snu.ac.kr) 2 School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea (Tel : +81-2-880-1732; E-mail: chanpark@.snu.ac.kr) Abstract: In this paper, TDOA(Time Difference of Arrival) measurements from pilot signals of a wireless communication network is proposed to solve the navigation problem in the case that under the environments that each BS(base station) have NLOS((Non-Line-of-Sight) error. TDOA measurements are known to have poor accuracy due to technical limitations of a communication system and propagation environments. The major error source of TDOA is the NLOS. NLOS propagation error occurs when a direct LOS(Line-of-Sight) path between an MS(Mobile Station) and a BS(Base Station) is blocked by some obstacles. To mitigate the NLOS error in a cellular network, TDOA error modeling is used for each BS channel. And then, remove NLOS error from each measurement. Some simulations and real tests are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Real experiments are conducted at the city center of Seoul. A commercial GPS cellular phone and a QXDM program are used. And then, TDOA measurements are measured. Test results show that the proposed methods continuously provide subscribers a reasonably accurate location under the NLOS environments. Keywords: TDOA(Time Difference of Arrival), NLOS(Non-Line of Sight), TDOA error modeling

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1. INTRODUCTION

In this paper, we proposed the NLOS error mitigation algorithm by using the TDOA error modeling in wireless communication system. Location estimation of a mobile station (MS) in a wireless communication system has drawn much attention of the researchers in recent years. The wireless location system is the techniques that to find the users position by the radio signal. The NLOS is the biggest error source the location accuracy of the time-based location methods. Therefore, it is very important to develop the NLOS error mitigation algorithm in wireless communication system. Fig. 1 TDOA(Time Difference of Arrival) Method.

A traveling time of a radio signal between a BS(BaseStation) and an MS(Mobile Station) is the fundamental parameter from which a distance or a range between them is calculated. There are two different ways to calculate the range. The ToA(Time of Arrival) method uses the traveling time between a BS and an MS. The TDoA(Time Difference of Arrival) method uses a traveling time difference between an MS and two different BSs as depicted in Figure 1.

The NLOS(Non-Line-of-Sight) is the biggest error source the location accuracy of the time-based location methods. As see in Figure 2, NLOS propagation error happens where the direct LOS(Line-of-Sight) path between MS and BS is blocked by some obstacles (e.g. building, mountains). As a result, transmitted signal does not arrive along the shortest LOS path. With NLOS propagation, the signal arriving at the BS from the MS is reflected and diffracted and takes a path that is longer than direct path. So, the line of position computed from

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such longer estimates of distances will lie far from the true position of the MS. The typical ranging error introduced by NLOS propagation has been between 500-700 meters in the GSM system.

As seen in Figure 3, TOA measurements are consisted of bias error and rayleigh error so ErrorTDOA is defined as equation (3).

(3)

4.2 The Method of TDOA Error Estimation In this chapter, to provide the improved location accuracy, we define the TDOA error in wireless communication system and I proposed the TDOA error model to mitigate of NLOS error. 4.1 TDOA Error define The NLOS Error is larger than measurements noise and multipath propagation. Measurement TOA is expressed as equation (1).

As seen in equation (4), the standard deviation of measurement is corresponded with standard deviation of TDOA error.

(4)

= dTOA + ErrorTOA

(1)

The relation of mean of X and the standard deviation X is expressed as equation (5), so we can calculate the mean X from the relation between mean and standard deviation of X

Where TOA is the real distance between MS and BS, NLOS and m are NLOS error and the other errors such as measurements noise, multi-path propagation error respectively. As well known, TDOA is the difference of received arrival time of two signals so it can be represented by the difference of TOAs.

E[ X ] =

V[X ]

(5)

= (dTOA 2 + nlos2 ) (dTOA1 + nlos1 ) = (dTOA 2 dTOA1 ) + (nlos2 nlos1 ) = dTDOA ErrorTDOA (2)

The random variable Z is defined as the difference of random variable X and random variable Y as write equation (10). To solve the equation, substitute equation (5) to equation (6). Finally we can obtain the equation (7).

E [ Z ] = E [ X ] E [Y ] Z =X Y

(6)

V [ Z ] = V [ X ] + V [Y ]

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E [Z ] =

sbs + V [ Z ] sbs 2

(7)

point, Yellow triangle is serving BS and Red triangle are neighbor BSs.

Where sbs is the characteristic of rayleigh distribution between serving BS and MS. A random variable Z express the characteristic of TDOA error which is according to RRayleigh in equation (3), so equation (7) rewrite about the TDOA error, then we can obtain equation (8).

m=

(8)

Where, m is the mean of TDOA measurement error and sbs is the standard deviation between neighbor BSs and MS. A bias is the error term between MS and neighbour BSs. If we are determined the sbs and

bias information. We can calculate the mean of TDOA error by using equation (8).

4.2.2 Determination of and Bias

Fig. 4 Field test area. The real TDOA measurements are obtained by each test point. We can get the biask each neighbour BSs to use by equation (9). Table 1 shows the sbs and bias values for each base station. Table 1. The sbs and bias of each BSs

sbs =33.3097

PN 68 70 278 472 biask 105.65 150.76 206.90 -127.22

The equation (8) rewrite about sbs which is expressed as equation (9). sbs is common characteristic between serving BS and MS

sbs = (

1 2

(9)

From the real experiment, substitute the mean( mk ) and standard deviation of TDOA measurements ( nbs _ k ) to equation (13). We can calculate the biask neighbor BSs. each

From the result of table 1, we can estimate the TDOA error using by equation (8).

In this chapter, some simulations and real experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Real experiments are conducted at the city center of Seoul as depicted in Figure 4. A commercial GPS cellular phone and a QXDM program are used.

By using method TDOA error mitigation algorithm, we can remove the estimation of TDOA error in each measurement. Figure 5 shows this algorithm.

Figure 6 are represented the arrangement of BSs and test point which are used to decide on sbs and bias information. A real experiment carried out at the urban area (Sam Sung station). Start mark is the test

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Firstly, obtain the measurements from the each BSs. And then each measurement passes through the 1 filtering. TDOA errors are estimated by TDOA error estimation algorithm. We can make new measurements which are calculated by mean of measurement minus estimated TDOA error. The conventional least square method is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

Table. 2 The result of A area. Mean of Position Error Original Measurement New Measurement 76.67 m 52.71 m 31.24 % Standard deviation of Position Error 46.24 m 18.19 m

To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, real experiments are conducted about three areas. A area. (Same position, other time) B area. (Same environment such as A area which have same serving BS and neighbor BSs) C area. (The case of near the serving BS)

5.3.2 The B Area

Table 3 shows the result of the B area. The mean of position error is about 103 meter and the standard deviation of position error is about 6.25 meter. The mitigation of location error accuracy is about 31 percent. Table. 3 The result of B area. Mean of Position Error Original Measurement New Measurement TDOA error mitigation.

5.3.3 The C Area

Table 2 shows the result of the A area to apply the TDOA error algorithm. When the new measurements are used to location, the mean of position error is about 53 meter and the standard deviation of position error is about 18 meter. The mitigation of location error accuracy is about 31 percent.

Table 4 shows the result of the C area. The mean of position error is about 54 meter and the standard deviation of position error is about 13 meter. The mitigation of location error accuracy is about 99 percent. In that case, the original measurements are used to location of MS, the location results are diverged but we can obtain the location of MS safely by using the new measurements which are calculated by proposed algorithm. Table. 4 The result of C area. Mean of Position Error Original Measurement New Measurement TDOA error mitigation. 4.44 x 105 m 54.01 m 99.98 % Standard deviation of Position Error 8.23 x 105m 13.38 m

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6. CONCLUSTIONS

We have examined the position location system using the received pilot signal in CDMA system. From the real experiment, we have known that the NLOS error is critical in location estimate, as expected. To mitigate errors owing to NLOS error should be corrected or mitigated. In this paper, I analyze the characteristic of TDOA error through the real experiments and we define the TDOA error in wireless communication system. I proposed the TDOA error mitigation algorithm to reduce of NLOS error. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, real experiments which are conducted the urban area. Using the proposed algorithm, we can obtain the mitigation of NLOS error about 45 to 77 % and location error is about 50 to 100 meter.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work was supported by the IT R&D program of MIC/IITA. [2007-F-040-01, Development of Indoor/ Outdoor Seamless Positioning Technology]

REFERENCES

Pratap Misra and Per Enge, Global Positioning System Signals Measurements and Performance, Ganga-Jamuna Press, 2004. [2] E. D. Kaplan, Understanding GPS: Principles and Applications, Artech House Inc., 1996. [3] J. Caffery and G. Stuber, Overview of Radiolocation in CDMA Cellular Systems, IEEE Communications Magazine, pp38-45, April 1998. [4] J. Caffery Jr., Wireless Location in CDMA Cellular Radio Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000. [5] Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs): Amendment to add alternate PHY, IEEE 802.15.4a, 2007. [6] Zafer Sahinoglu, Sinan Gezici, Ranging in the IEEE 802.15.4a Standard, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, 2006. [7] John Lampe, Zbigniew Ianelli, Introduction to Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) Technology, Nanotron Technologies, 2003. [8] John Lampe, Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) PHY Presentation for 802.15.4a, Nanotron Technologies, 2005. [9] Kyung-Kuk Lee, Low-Rate Location based W-PAN Technology.ppt,, Orthotron. Co.,Ltd. [10] Rainer Hach, Kyung-Kuk Lee, Coexistence assurance information for the CSS part of 15.4a. [1]

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