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Chapter 16 Anatomy of the heart

Layers of the heart Endocardium Myocardium

innermost layer

middle layer. outermost layer

1) two atria receives blood into heart (upper

Epicardium thin

The heart has four chambers :

chamber) 2) (lower chamber) two ventricles- pumps blood out of heart The right heart pumps blood to the The right

lungs where the blood is oxygenated .

heart colored blue because of un- oxygenated blood. lower most pointed end of the heart ; fifth intercostals space.
its located at the

Apex- is the level of the Base- is the

upper flat portion of the heart, the second rib.

The percordium refers to the area of the

is located at the level of

anterior chest wall overlying the

heart and great vessels.

The heart has four chambers 1) Two atria- receives blood into the heart(upper chambers) 2) Two ventricles- pumps blood out of the heart (lower chambers)

3 layers of pericardium 1) Visceral pericardium- inner layer 2) Parietal pericardium- attaches outer fibrous pericardium 3) Fibrous pericardium anchors heart to surrounding structure.
Pericardial space AKA

pericardial cavity

Right heartLeft heart

unoxygenated blood oxygenated blood bottom

Ventricle Atrium-


The heart is the size of a closed fist, Located in the thoracic cavity, within the mediastinum between the lungs, behind the sternum, in front of the vertebral column and above the diaphragm. The right heart: receives

unoxygenated blood from the superior &

inferior vena cavae.

The right heart pumps blood to the lungs where it is oxygenated. It returns to: Left heart: it is from here that blood is pumped to the organs of the body. This circulation heart to lungs and back to heart is called pulmonary circulation The circulation from left heart to the organs and back to the heart is called

systemic circulation. divides the heart into a right and left side (interatrial, intervernticular)
Septum: the thick muscular wall that Right atrium: thin walled cavity that receives the unoxygenated blood from the vena cavae. Right ventricle: receives the unoxygenated blood from the right atrium- the function is to pump the blood thru the pulmonary arteries to the lungs. Left atrium: thin walled cavity that receives the oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins. Left Ventricle: receives the oxygenated blood from the left atrium and then pumps the blood into the systemic circulation thru the aorta ( the largest artery in the body) The left ventricle is thick this is important because it takes great force to pump this blood throughout the body. The great vessels are the large blood vessels attached to the heart: Superior & inferior Vena Cavae Pulmonary Artery

Pulmonary Vein Aorta Four valves Atrioventricular ( tricuspids, bicuspid) Semilunar ( pulmonic, aortic) The valves open & close when the heart contracts- they allow the blood to flow in one direction- prevent backups The valves lie at the entrance and exit of the ventricles. Lub- dub is the closing of the heart valve. Right and left heart separated by the septa. Blood flows from a high pressure to a low pressure. Pressure is greater in the left heart. Cardiac impulse- SA node= the pacemaker of the heart. S1 lubb= the closing of the tricuspid valve and the mitral valve (loudest at apex) S2 Dupp= is the closing of the pulmonic & aortic valve (loudest at the base.) Rt to lt shunt= the client will present with cyanosis. Blood is being shunted from right heart to the left heart, left ventricle now contain unoxygenated blood. Lt to rt shunt= child would be acyantoic because L ventricle is pumping oxygenated blood into the systemic circulation. The blood supply that nourishes the myocardium comes from the coronary arteries. Two main arteries are the L and R coronary arteries.

bicuspid valve, mitral valve Right Av valve A.K.A tricuspid valve

Left Av valve A.K.A.

A leaky or incompetent, valve allows blood to leak back into the chamber from which it has just been pumped. S3 and S4=

gallop rhythm

Clot bluster AKA thrombolytes Troponin= a regulator myocardial protein The electrical signal is called the action potential or the cardiac

impulse. EKG
P wave= reflects the electrical activity associated with atrial

The QRS complex reflects he electrical activity associated with

ventricular depolarization.
The T wave reflects the electrical activity associated with ventricular

Nodal rhythm is when the AV node assume the role of pacemaker activity. Threshold potential = nerve action has a resting membrane potential of 90 mv. Spontaneous depolarization= the membrane immediately and spontaneously depolarizes to it threshold potential. The slope of the spontaneous depolarization is called the pacemaker


Blood flow through the heart Right atrium Tricuspid valve

Right ventricle Pulmonic semi lunar valve Pulmonary artery (main) Pulmonary arteries (right and left) Pulmonary capillaries (within the lungs) Four pulmonary veins Left atrium Bicuspid valve (mitral valve) Left ventricle Aortic semi lunar valve Aorta