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VISION INDIA IAS STUDY CIRCLE

25/24, SECOND FLOOR, OLD RAJINDER NAGAR MARKET, NEW DELHI


Ph. : 011-45615533 Mobile: 9811641574 Website www .visionindiaias.com

Public Administration Mains (Test Series) - 6


Personnel Administration and Civil Services in India Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 300
INSTRUCTIONS: The paper contains 8 questions, Q1 & Q5 are compulsory. Answer 3 more questions doing at least one from each sections.

SECTION-A Q.1. Answer any three 203 (a) The importance of Civil Service in India is best documented by the elaborate provisions mentioned in the constitution in this regard. Elucidate. (b) Theories of Retirement benefits. Short Note. (c) Importance of Probationary Period in organizations. Short Note. (d) National Training Policy. Short Note. (a) Many Managers/Administrators overlook the tremendous value of an effective orientation programme especially for new employees, and re-orientation for older employees. In this context bring out the importance of a sound system of orientation as an integral part of manpower planning in organizations. 30

M. Puri Pub Admn. Test Series

Q.2.

(b) There are numerous considerations and several steps in an effective performance appraisal. Explain. Q.3. (a)

30

It is generally held that Neutrality model has not worked in India according to its basic spirit, and that it has not and cannot meet the requirement of rapid socio-economic development and that India needs a committed bureaucracy to serve developmental needs. Do you agree? 30 (b) In the context of increasing specialization of govt. activities, functionalisation of the IAS has been suggested by several experts. Do you concur? 30 (a) Clause (1) of Article 310 lays down that every person who is a member of a defence or civil service of the union or an All India Service holds office during the pleasure of the President. Examine. 30 (b) What are the principal consideration in developing a sound remuneration system for civil servants? 30 SECTION B

Q.4.

Q.5.

Attempt all three 203 (a) Much of what a recruit learns in an organization is communicated in the fashion of Benthams Dog law. Comment. (b) New Pension Scheme. Short Note. (c) Higher Civil Service training in India is too pedagogic to be result oriented, to casual to be promotion linked and too generalistic to be professionally relevant. Elaborate. What is meant by the expression Human Resource Development. Explain its importance in the context of public services in developing countries. 60 The case in favour of the Generalists is based more on normative acceptance as opposed to empirical validation of their claim of superiority. Comment. 30 (b) Define the expression Career Planning and Advancement. Discuss the key stages of a career in higher public services, illustrating your answer with examples. 30 (a) (a) The Civil Service System in India displays features of an aristocratic personnel system. Do you agree? (b) Discuss the features and problems of the Joint Consultative Machinery (JCM) of the Central Govt. 30 30

Q.6.

Q.7.

Q.8.

VISION INDIA IAS STUDY CIRCLE


25/24, SECOND FLOOR, OLD RAJINDER NAGAR MARKET, NEW DELHI
Ph. : 011-45615533 Mobile: 9811641574 Website www .visionindiaias.com

Public Administration Mains (Test Series) - 6


Personnel Administration and Civil Services in India Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 300
INSTRUCTIONS: The paper contains 8 questions, Q1 & Q5 are compulsory. Answer 3 more questions doing at least one from each sections.

SECTION-A Q.1. Answer any three 203 (a) The importance of Civil Service in India is best documented by the elaborate provisions mentioned in the constitution in this regard. Elucidate. Key Themes : The Constitution of India makes the following provisions with regard to recruitment and service condition of All-India and Central Services: 1. 2. 3. Article 309 empowers the Parliament to regulate the recruitment and service conditions of persons appointed to Central Services and posts. Article 310 provides that the members of All-India Services and Central Services and posts hold office during the pleasure of the President. Article 311 provides that no member of All-India Services and Central Services and posts shall be dismissed or removed by an authority subordinate to that by which he was appointed. It further lays down that no such member shall be dismissed or removed or reduced in rank except after an inquiry in which he has been informed of the charges against him and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of those charges. Article 312 authorizes the Parliament to create new All-India Services (including an All-India Judicial Service) and regulate the recruitment and service conditions of persons appointed to these services. However, they can be created by the Parliament only after the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution supported by two-third majority saying that it is necessary in the national interest to do so. It also says that the services known at the commencement of the constitution as the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service shall be deemed be services created by Parliament under this article. Moreover, the All-India judicial service shall not include any post inferior to that of a district judge. Though the 42nd Amendment (1976) made the provision for the creation of All-India Judicial Service, no such law has been made so far. 5. Article 323-A authorizes the Parliament to provide for the setting up of an Administrative Tribunal for the adjudication or trail of disputes and complaints with respect to recruitment and service conditions of persons appointed to Central Services and posts. Article 335 lays down that the claims of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration in making appointments to the Central Services and Posts. Article 16 prohibits discrimination with respect to employment in public services.

M. Puri Pub Admn. Test Series

4.

6. 7.

(b) Theories of Retirement benefits. Short Note. Key Themes : Retirement benefits have come to the fore front rather late in the sphere of personnel management. Retirement benefits, from the employer point of view, is a graceful method of eliminating the old as efficiency declines with age and a sound superannuation programme earns the good will of employee as also helps in attracting competent. From the employee perspective retirement benefits provide security to functionaries in old age and also reduce communitys burden of maintaining the old. Several theoretical premises have been advanced to explain retirement benefits :A. Benevolence Theory B. Reward Theory C. Social Security Theory

D. Deferred Wage Theory (c) Importance of Probationary Period in organizations. Short Note. Key Themes : The final stage in the selection process is the probationary period. Since tests are not perfect, and since in any case there is no assurance that individuals will work up to their abilities this trial period is necessary. (a) No recruitment process is foolproof. (b) It helps in assessing the on the job competence of the employee, thereby complementing the selection process. (c) Often probationary programmes are followed by examinations. This serves to assess the learning abilities of probationers. (d) It can be used to assess an employees core competencies by assigning him to various units of the organization. (e) It helps in identifying training needs of functionaries. Unfortunately, in most jurisdictions the probationary period is not taken very seriously. Only a tiny percentage of appointees are dropped, even though in most places all the appointing officer has to do is file a report that the probationers services are not satisfactory. As nonpermanent employees, the probationers usually do not have the same appeal rights as those who have permanency. Greater efforts should certainly be made to persuade supervisors to make real use of the probationary period. The duration of the probationary period varies according to the jurisdiction. It should be stressed that good selection is the key to good personnel administration. If the recruits are of high quality, promotion, training, and other programs stand a much better chance of being successful than when the new appointees are of poor caliber. With good people coming into the service, prospects are excellent for developing a really efficient public service.

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(d) National Training Policy. Short Note. Key Themes : 1. Training Objectives Keeping upto date and enhancing professional knowledge and skills. Promoting better understanding of professional requirement as well as sensitization to social, economic and political environment. Bringing about the right attitudinal orientation. 2. Training Concerns Responsiveness to changing needs. Commitment to democratic values and participatory decision making and partnership. Accountability to ensure high level of performance and cost effective method of delivery. Features Training for all (operating/cutting edge level functionaries, supervisory & middle management level and Senior Civil Services). All categories of civil services to receive in-service training with an element of compulsion. All organizations to go for job analysis and training need analysis. Establishment of National Training Council headed by Minister of Personnel department for advising the govt. on matters relating to training policy. All organizations to designate training managers at appropriate levels to act as nodal authorities for developing and coordinating training programmes. Utmost care in selection of trainers. DOPT to evaluate the working of training institutions. A trainer staffing scheme to be operationalised whereby DOPT shall maintain a panel of trainers and potential trainers. Each department to earmark 1.5% of its salary budget for training.

3.

Q.2.

(a)

Many Managers/Administrators overlook the tremendous value of an effective orientation programme especially for new employees, and re-orientation for older employees. In this context bring out the importance of a sound system of orientation as an integral part of manpower planning in organizations. 30 Key Themes : Orientation training is a planned effort to adjust an employee to his organization and his job. It introduces the employee to the basic concepts of his job, new work environment, aims and objectives of his organization and his own place in the organization. It provides important socialization for the employee and produces the following benefits to management and the organization :

(i) Aids in reducing the anxiety level experienced by the new employee. Most of the anxiety first experienced by an employee is fear of failing and not being able to do the job adequately. Proper orientation can reduce this counterproductive anxiety. (ii) Reduce initial training costs for the new recruit. Initial worker inefficiency is due to lack of knowledge regarding all that the job requires, how to do it, how the organization works and where the authority and informational sources are. Some research has suggested that startup costs for employees range from $400 for a secretary to $1,000 for a middle manager or supervisor to $2,000 for an executive-level manager. These costs exclude recruiting and hiring costs and probably extremely conservative. Whatever the costs, well-implemented orientation can substantially reduce these startup costs and get employees on line sooner. (iii) Cuts down on employee turnover. Many companies experience high turnover during the first few weeks of the break-in period because employees perceive themselves to be unwanted, unimportant or unable to handle the job or environment. Effective orientation can resolve many of these costly problems. (iv) Save time for managers and fellow employees. Managers and co-workers must help a new worker to get the job done. The better oriented the employee, the more time is saved by everyone in breaking in and reaching standard. (v) Fosters greater organizational loyalty, positive attitudes, and job satisfaction via realistic job expectations. Employees must learn what expectations management has of them and begin to experience job satisfaction fairly soon or become demoralized. Management must seek to integrate the goals of the organization with those of the individual employee rapidly; otherwise, poor attitude and work patterns quickly develop. Orientation is the best strategy for accomplishing this purpose. (vi) The role of orientation training can hardly the over emphasized in the context of public services. (a) Enables the civil servant to understand not only the work culture of his agency, but also the general ethos, pressures and constraints that the organization has to negotiate. (b) If properly designed, orientation training can be an effective tool for generating citizen centricity in civil services. (c) In developing countries like India a majority of recruits to higher civil services come from an Urban background. (d) Orientation training, therefore, becomes a must to attune then to the requirements of functioning in a largely rural ethos. (vii) Re-orientation of older employees (a) Prevents experienced employees from falling into a rut. (b) Attunes older employees to the rapidly changing work environment. (c) Helps in improving morale and motivation as efficiency declines with age which can demoralize the worker. (b) There are numerous considerations and several steps in an effective performance appraisal. Explain. 30 Key Themes : Performance appraisal is the periodic evaluation of an employees job performance measured against the jobs stated or presumed requirements. The ultimate purpose of performance appraisal is to maximize organizational output, but it also is a means of (1) motivating managers and subordinates by clarifying expectations and improving communications and mutual understanding of organizational problems; (2) providing a basis for salary increases, bonuses, promotion, and extrinsic or intrinsic rewards (or punishment); and (3) coaching and developing employees based on their strengths weaknesses, and needs. Numerous surveys suggest that most organizations use some sort of appraisal system for all levels of employees and managers with some degree of internal regularity. There are numerous considerations and several steps in effective performance appraisal : (1) The job description is the best basis for an objective appraisal. As description should be developed in writing for every position that will be evaluated. (2) Written policies should be established on when and how often to evaluate personnel and the purposes of appraisal. (3) The method of appraisal must be ascertained, including specific criteria for evaluation. (4) If must be determined who does the rating one or several peopleand how much training they need to accurately evaluate performance. (5) Evaluators must gather substantial data on performance for each individual to be appraised.

M. Puri Pub Admn. Test Series

(6) Evaluators should then actually appraise employee performance and discuss the results with the employee. (7) Management decisions must then be made and implemented based on the evaluation (promote, raise pay, fire, etc.). Appraising accurately is difficult. Having to state capabilities and accomplishments in writing necessitates keen observation, good judgement, and objectivity. To some degree what is stated as the persons performance reflects the appraisers concept of performance adequacy and the persons most outstanding personality characteristics. The evaluator tends to describe the appraisal in terms of personal values and understanding. (1) Halo effect. It can resulting in an evaluator assigning the same rating to each factor being evaluated for an employee based on the overall impression of the employee. (2) Standard of Evaluation. This also relates to communication difficulties based on perceptual differences in the meanings of evaluative words such as excellent, above average, average, and poor. (3) Central tendency. This is the tendency of evaluators to rate all personnel within a very narrow range regardless of their actual performance. (4) Present behavior bias. Timing is a critical factor in performance evaluation. Evaluators tend to forget more about past behavior than current output; thus, many people are evaluated more on performance in the last several weeks than on an entire year or six months. (5) Personal biases. Numerous studies indicate that the personal biases of evaluators substantially influence their employee evaluations. Racial, sexual, religious and other biases result in unfair considerations for promotions and pay.

M. Puri Pub Admn. Test Series

Q.3.

It is generally held that Neutrality model has not worked in India according to its basic spirit, and that it has not and cannot meet the requirement of rapid socio-economic development and that India needs a committed bureaucracy to serve developmental needs. Do you agree? 30 Key Themes : In India concept of neutrality of Indian bureaucracy began to be attacked after Mrs. Indira Gandhi expressed her dissatisfaction at the slow rate of socio-economic change in the country and blamed the bureaucracy for sabotaging the government programmes. She expressed the view that only a committed bureaucracy could bring about social transformation envisaged in the Five Years Plans and in progressive legislation. She felt that the bureaucracy in India, with its background, education and training has isolated itself from the masses and thus was unable to keep pace with the rapidly changing socio-economic scene. (a) India inherited from the British rule the concept of the neutral and apolitical bureaucracy which the British had created to maintain their colonial regime, and to isolate the public servants from the growing sentiments of nationalism. Under our Constitution adopted in 1950 and the Civil Service Conduct Rules the neutral character of our public services was sought to be maintained. The civil services were assured appointments and promotions on the basis of merit through public service commissions, security of service, fixed and guaranteed salaries etc. They were given right to vote in elections but debarred from participating in party meetings, addressing press conferences etc. Their anonymity was sought to be protected through the principle of ministerial responsibility. Little thinking was done on what kind of bureaucracy India would need in changed environment. The concept of neutrality worked for about two decades, but thereafter it came under great strain. The assumptions on which this model worked are not entirely valid today. There is large volume of empirical evidence to support the view, that in India neither civil servants strictly adhere to its principles, nor are the politicians intent on maintaining it. There is breakdown of the concept. Indian bureaucracy is politicized. Several reasons have been given in favour of the view that neutral model has not worked in India according to its basic spirit. (i) The myth of neutrality of Indian bureaucracy has been exploded. (ii) Too much political interference at all levels of the administration have forced the bureaucracy to abandon its neutrality and follow the directives of the political masters. (iii) The Congress Government did not regard itself as a party, but as a movement and it expected the public servants to subscribe to its political faith in all its aspects. (iv) Due to their different social and economic backgrounds, there has not been, by and large proper rapport between the ministers and top civil servants, making it difficult for the latter to stay neutral. (v) Continuous emphasis on neutrality has led to ideological indifference among civil servants. They are divorced from the basic philosophical, social and economic controversies behind the decisions of the Government.

(vi) Political neutrality creates as dilemma for the civil servants. It lies in the paradox of civil servants being in and yet out of politics. (vii) In a society like ours where bureaucracy is caught between intensely competing political forces and strong tendencies towards social fragmentations and national disintegration, neutrality is a difficult art to practice. (viii) As stated above, neither civil servants nor the politicians have shown sincere willingness to maintain the tradition of neutrality. In view of the above, it has been felt in India, that is supported by field studies also, that a change in the ideological and behavioural aspect of bureaucratic functioning is definitely desired. Once reason why the progress in land reforms implementation and community development programme, has been tardy is that the administration lacks commitment because in many cases they themselves are land owners. The caste legislation is administered by the officials who are themselves of high caste. Therefore, bureaucrats in India, and in other developing countries, need to be much more than an impartial instrument of implementing policy. This does not, however, mean that there should be wholesale transformation or complete politicization of existing bureaucracy. What it means is political responsiveness, and being imbued with human values of service and sympathy for all, especially for the weaker sections, of the community. It does not mean that the bureaucrats should be partisan fighters for the policies of the party in power. Their involvement with politics should be intellectual and not emotional or physical. They should keep aloof from partisan politics and speak up fearlessly on issues before them, having regard for public interest. But once a policy is politically determined, they must implement it as if it emanated from them irrespective of their personal views.

M. Puri Pub Admn. Test Series

(b)

In the context of increasing specialization of govt. activities, functionalisation of the IAS has been suggested by several experts. Do you concur? 30 Key Themes : There is growing dissatisfaction among specialists at what they feel are outmoded administrative practices, creation of ponderous hierarchies and distortion of prioritieswhich affect not only their personal interest but also hinder national development. The specialists ask why an I.A.S. officer with little technical experience should be appointed to head highly technical undertaking, superseding those who might have spent a life-time in gaining competence in their particular fields. The bureaucrats liberal education, background and training in general administration, they hold, do not necessarily qualify him to direct the functioning of a technical unit. Irritative delays occur in explaining technical matters to non-technical Secretaries who in turn have to explain them to a lay Minister. Often, the specialists who are involved in actual decision-making are not allowed a direct access to the Ministers. The technocrats see unnecessary duplication of functions in having a Secretariat department sitting over them, often involving notings by the office assistant upward. The specialists quote in their favour cabinet resolutions, committee recommendations and even two Prime Ministers who have come out openly in support of them. They are bitter that all these, had remained pious resolution on paper. Disputing the claim of the I.A.S. officers to be better administrators, the specialists refer to the deteriorating law and order situation in the country for which the so called efficient administrators of the I.A.S. were responsible. Although these arguments are in the context of the Indian Administration, nevertheless most of these are valid for the generalist dominated administration in general. Thus the need for specialization of professionalism in public services in India, Britain and other countries having this model of administration cannot be over-emphasised. In 1968, the Fultom Report in U.K. recommended a greater role for the specialists. In India the Administrative Reforms Commission, 1969 recommended a scheme of functional cadres having equal status. The 8 Cadres in non-functional areas are : 1. Economic, 2. Industrial, 3. Agricultural and Rural Development, 4. Social and Educational 5. Personnel 6. Financial 7. Defence and Internal Security, and 8. Planning The commission advised that the I.A.S. should no more be a generalist service but should have a purely functional role, restricted to revenue administration and exercise of magisterial functions. Recommendations of the ARC-II wrt assignment of domains to higher civil services.

Q.4.

(a)

Clause (1) of Article 310 lays down that every person who is a member of a defence or civil service of the union or an All India Service holds office during the pleasure of the President. Examine. 30 Key Themes : Clause (1) of Article 310 lays down that every person who is a member of a defence service or a civil service of the Union or an All-India Service or holds any post connected with defence or any civil post under the Union holds office during the pleasure of the President. Thus Article 310 makes the tunure of civil servants at the pleasure of the President or the Governor as the case may be. This pleasure doctrine has been imported from England. Common law doctrine of pleasure is based on the principle of public policy in order to make civil servants responsible to the government and responsive to the people. In common law this doctrine implies that the civil service is not a contract and hence service can be terminated at any time without assigning any reason and a civil servant cannot enforce any condition of his service in a court of law and cannot claim damages or arrears of salary against the government. In this common law doctrine Parliament has now made many inroads by legislation relating to employment, social security and labour relations. Doctrine of pleasure as developed in England has not been accepted in full in India. It is subject to the provisions of Article 311 which lays down procedural safeguards for civil servants. Thus Article 311 becomes a proviso to Article 310. Therefore, service of any civil servants cannot be terminated at pleasure unless the mandatory provisions of Article 311 have been observed. Doctrine of pleasure is further restricted by the general law of the land which empowers any civil servant to file suit in a court of law for enforcing any condition of his service and for claiming arrears of pay. Power to dismiss at pleasure ay civil servant is not a personal right of the President or the Governor as the case may be. It is an executive power which is to be exercised at the advice of council of ministers. Doctrine of pleasure as contained in Article 310, being a constitutional provision, cannot be abrogated by any legislative or executive law, therefore, Article 309 is to be read subject to Article 310. This is not the case in England where Constitution is unwritten and hence the common law doctrine of pleasure can be whittled down by any act of Parliament. Doctrine of pleasure only applies to civil services and posts held under the State. Therefore, this doctrine has no application to various constitutional posts of Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, Chairman and member of Public Service Commissions, Chief Election Commissioner and Comptroller and AuditorGeneral of India. Clause (2) of Article 310 especially empowers the government to enter into service contracts with persons having special qualifications. Doctrine of pleasure can be qualified or limited by such service agreements. Limitation on pleasure doctrine Article 14, 15 and 16 place limitations on the free exercise of pleasure doctrine. Article 14 prohibits any discriminatory and arbitrary termination of service. Article 15 prohibits termination of service on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth or any of them. Article 16(1) obligates equal treatment and bars arbitrary discrimination. Article 320(3)(c) places another limitation on the pleasure doctrine by providing that in all disciplinary matters affecting civil servants, Union or State Public Service Commission, as the case may be, is to be consulted. Article 311 places two more limitations on the free exercise of pleasure doctrine.

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(b) What are the principal consideration in developing a sound remuneration system for civil servants? 30 Key Themes : There are several such consideration, some of them complementary, others mutually incompatible, which have been put forward for determination of the pay policy. In the first place it is said that public servants should be paid at a rate corresponding to that for comparable situation in private employment. The principle, though plausible, is not free from difficulties. Private employments in business and industry do not furnish parallels to many of the positions in public services, e.g., policemens posts. Again, trade unionism and strike to push up the wages are not allowed in the higher sectors of public service, and a quid pro quo may be provided for the denial of these. Also the principle runs counter to another principle which requires the state to be a model employer i.e., more generous in the rate payment to its employees than private business and industry. There are some who point to the advantage of public service at against private, e.g., security of tenure, continuous employment, free from the disturbances of strikes and lockouts, benefits of the several kinds of leave and allowance and the provisions for pensions, and argue that in view of these, the lower rate of remuneration than in business or industry should prevail in the public services. The better view of the matter however, seems to be that public pay scales should not be less favourable than those of private employment, but more so if possible. The staff side of National Whitley Council in its

evidence before the Tomlin Commission supported this contention on the ground that the Civil Service was a highly selected class and the rates to pay of civil servants should accordingly be more favourable than for private employees. A second principle as hinted above is that the state should act as a model employer in the fixation of pay rates for its employees. The Tomlin Commission noted three different interpretations of the phrase model employer. To some of term model employer means an employer who in the matter of conditions of service is ahead of other employers; to others it means that the state should be one of the front rank employers but not ahead of them; and to still others the phrase means nothing more than an emphasis on the responsibility of the state towards its employees. The most usual and popular interpretation of the term is, however, the first but how much more generous the state should be in the matter of the pay of its employees is a debatable point. Clearly, its generosity in the matter must be limited by the resources available for the purpose and by its responsibility towards the tax-payer. A third principle governing any scales, emphasized by the Anderson Committee on the pay, etc., of State Servants (1923) was that the employer should pay what is necessary to recruit and retain an efficient staff. This principle, in the Committees opinion, included within it, all the relevant factors of responsibility, cost of living, marriage, children, social position, etc. This principle is undoubtedly correct but it is not of much practical help and leaves what is necessary to recruit and retain an efficient staff, to be determined by a process of trial and errors. A fourth principle for fixing the standard of pay is that it should be related to the cost of living so that it would go up or down with the wages, and salaries in private sectors of employment. Its adoption in public service would, however, mean frequent change in pay structures with every fluctuation of the economic situation. This would be highly inconvenient. Accordingly, the public salary rates are usually fixed somewhat above the bare subsistence level so that small fluctuations in prevailing price may not throw the pay structures out of gear. A fifth principle which has been frequently debated and insisted upon in India is that pay scales should be related to the means or the per capita income of the country. It was under the influence of this principle that the Indian National Congress laid down the maximum salary for public servants in India at Rs.500. Although this principle has resulted in the scaling down of salaries of the top positions in India after independence, it would not be acted upon in this entirely, for there is danger in giving too low a pay to public servants entrusted with position of responsibility and power. Still another principle advocated by some witnesses before the Central Pay Commission (1951) in India was that salaries for the various posts should be so fixed as to promote the democratic principle of equity as far as possible. This would have involved the scaling up of salaries of the lower posts and scaling down of those of the higher ones. Finally, there is principle of equal pay for equal work and equitable relationship between salaries for different kinds of work so that higher type of work should be paid at a higher scale than the lower one. Most of the above principles relate to some one aspect of the problem of pay determination, and so taken singly each of them is incomplete. A synthesis of them has to be made to obtain practical guidance from them. SECTION B Q.5. Attempt all three 203 (a) Much of what a recruit learns in an organization is communicated in the fashion of Benthams Dog law. Comment. Key Themes: 1. Bentham and Dog Law - Jeremy Bentham was a liberal reformer of the 19th century in the United Kingdom. He was a great critic of criminal laws prevalent in England. Bentham popularised the view that the primary aim of the criminal law was deterrence. He called the criminal laws as dog law because it condemned the offenders after the event has taken place in much the same way that owners punish their dogs after they have erred. Bentham believed that such laws do not have any deterrent value. 2. In the present context. - The statement is an indictment of present day arrangements for HRD and complexity of rules, regulations, precedents, statutory or customary ways of doing things in modern organizations. - Emergence of half way houses between the academic source pool and place of employment. - Learning by doing cannot be avoided completely. Much depends upon superiors expectations and peer pressures.

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3.

Counter measures - On entry training, probation and orientation courses are designed to counter the ill-effects of Dog Law. - Yet not training programme can cover every aspect of work. - Guidance of superiors and experienced colleagues and communication of freedom to fail to recruits. - Besides the statement is extreme as the purpose of organisational rules is not merely to prevent certain types of behavior but also to actuate certain actions.

(b)

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New Pension Scheme. Short Note. Key Themes: 1. Main Features and Architecture of the New Pension System - The new pension system would be based on defined contributions. It will also offer a basket of investment choices and Fund managers. - The system would be mandatory for new recruits to the Central Government service (except the armed forces). The monthly contribution would be 10 percent of the salary and DA to be paid by the employee and matched by the Central Government. However, there will be no contribution from the Government in respect of individuals who are not Government employees. The contributions and returns thereon would be deposited in a non-withdrawable pension account. The existing provisions of defined benefit pension and GPF would not be available to the new recruits in the central Government service. - In addition to the above pension account, each individual can have a voluntary tier-II withdrawable account at his option. Government will make no contribution into this account. These assets would be managed in the same manner as the pension. The accumulations in this account can be withdrawn anytime without assigning any reason. - Individuals can normally exit at or after age 60 years from the pension system. At exit, the individual would be required to invest at least 40 percent of pension wealth to purchase an annuity. In case of Government employees, the annuity should provide for pension for the lifetime of the employee and his dependent parents and his spouse at the time of retirement. The individual would receive a lumpsum of the remaining pension wealth, which she would be free to utilize in any manner. Individuals would have the flexibility to leave the pension system prior to age 60. However, in this case, the mandatory annuitisation would be 80% of the pension wealth. - There will be one or more central record keeping agency (CRA), several pension fund managers (PFMs) to choose from which will offer different categories of schemes. - The participating entities (PFMs, CRA etc.) would give out easily understood information about past performance & regular NAVs, so that the individual would able to make informed choices about which scheme to choose. 2. Conclusion - The NPS is a part of series of steps initiated by the Union Government to rationalize its expenditure and the burden of maintaining public servants after retirement. Critics lament the move as a clever ploy by government to relieve itself of its social responsibilities as also to align its general economic policy with the requirements of the neo-liberal agenda.

(c)

Higher Civil Service training in India is too pedagogic to be result oriented, to casual to be promotion linked and too generalistic to be professionally relevant. Elaborate. Key Themes: 1. Problems with training Predominance of lecture method. Poor innovation in this regard. Element of participation of trainees in training exercise largely absent. No evaluation of training programmes. Training of lower staff neglected. Content of training not linked with professional needs / career development. Few organized services have a well developed mid-career training programme. Training of trainers neglected. Casual attitude of trainees (training as a paid holiday, or reward especially if the module is to be held in a foreign country). Training of state civil services in very bad shape. Inadequate budgetary support. 2. Reforms National Training Policy (1996) Training for all Inculcation of functional skills and altitudinal change.

Q.6.

Establishments of National Training Council headed by Minister of DOPT. Yugandhar Committee: New Midcareer Training Schedule for IAS.

What is meant by the expression Human Resource Development. Explain its importance in the context of public services in developing countries. 60 Key Themes: 1. HRD (Definition) - T.V. Rao: A process by which employees of an organization are helped, in a continuous and planned way to acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles; to develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for their own and organizational development purposes; and develop an organizational culture in which superior subordinate relationships, team work and collaboration among sub units are strong enough to contribute to professional well being, motivation and pride of employees. 2. Three aspects of HRD - Persons in organizations are valuable resources. - Human resources have their own characteristics which are different from material resources. - Focus is not only on humans but other processes such as dyadic units, team process, inter team process etc. Assumptions of HRD - Employees are resources and not problems. - There is a need to develop human potentialities for the benefit of both organization and employees. - Work environment needs to be conducive to inter-relationships of workers and management so that workers identify with organizational objectives. - Increasing pride of employees in the work force. Objectives of HRD - Find ways to better adjust individuals to their job and environment. - To ensure greatest involvement of employees in various aspects of work. - Enhancement of capabilities / capacities of individuals. - HRD as a concept gained currency in the mid 70s and 80s was an outcome of re-engineering of personnel management (which was based on the ideology of give and take). Importance of HRD - Right man in right place. - Checks redundancy of work force - Removes intellectual sluggishness, promotes innovative thinking and productivity. - Links manpower planning with planning process. - HRD is basis for resource development - Additional functional areas / aspects (specialization, E-governance, PPP, RTI, citizen charter, Privatisation and regulation) - Effectiveness of public policy process (welfare state orientation) - Modernisation of administration. - Interactive learning and inter-operability - Better and scientific DM - Enhances paying capacity of organization. Macro aspect of HRD - At the macro level HRD is an aggregate concept of society, a total approach for systematic enhancement of peoples knowledge, skills and capacities to elevate the society as a whole (thus one finds organization such as Ministry of HRD, National Knowledge Commission etc. in government) - In this sense HRD helps in building a knowledge based / entrepreneurial society, fostering social and economic democracy and optimizing demographic dividend. The case in favour of the Generalists is based more on normative acceptance as opposed to empirical validation of their claim of superiority. Comment. 30 Key Themes 1. Origin of generalist superiority (Macaulay Report, Northcote-Trevelyan Report) 2. Generalist qualities. - Wider outlook - Strategic perspective - Flexible bent of mind

3.

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5.

6.

Q.7.

(a)

3.

Ability to synthesize and synergize political, economic, social and technical inputs.

Generalist rationale as a revealed truth. - Limited empirical validity (superiority raised to scriptural level) - Critique of generalist in the current context.

(b)

Define the expression Career Planning and Advancement. Discuss the key stages of a career in higher public services, illustrating your answer with examples. 30 Key Themes : 1. Career Planning and Development may be understood from 3 perspectives: Employees perspective: All those events either happening to or initiated by individuals which affect their progress, promotions, availability of opportunities, and help him in acquiring higher status, better conditions of service and increased satisfaction with his job. Employers perspective: Career Planning & Advancement is a process that enables the organization to meet its current and projected manpower requirements. It aims at optimizing the effectiveness of human resources in an organization. Balanced Perspective: Career Planning & Advancement refers to a planned and systematic progression of events and development in the field of work or vocation of individuals during the employable period of life. 2. Nature of Career Planning & Advancement It concerns itself with both the individual and the organization. It is based on the notion that individual welfare and organizational welfare are not separate. Basic character of career planning and advancement is futuristic in the sense that its policies and programmes are devoted to management of tomorrow. It is multidimensional and multitiered. It subsumes all aspects of personnel administration from the entry point to superannuation. It is a proactive exercise in the sense that it must anticipate and take steps to address future problems. Benefits Helps secure right person in the right place. Facilitates effective development of available talent. Enables organization to survive and prosper in ever changing environment. It impacts motivational levels of functionaries. Helps in injecting proper balance between needs of organization and its employees. It helps in attracting and retaining talent. Facilitates succession planning. Stages of a career Budding stage: Formative stage of ones career. The duty of the organization is to ensure that a recruit is helped to settle down and establish himself. At this stage not only induction training but also technical and professional training as well as OJT are imparted to the employees. Blooming stage: Stage of growth. Organisation must not only orient the employees in a manner that creates maximum learning opportunities and favourable attitude towards organization, it should also be ensured that assignments given are optimally challenging. Full bloom/Mature stage: The executive occupies senior management positions involving high level policy and programming assignments. Organisation must help the employee to flourish to the maximum extent by giving him a wider range of responsibility and broader opportunity in realizing his overall potential. Withering/decline stage: Principle responsibility of the organization is to facilitate smooth transition from working to a retired life. 30

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Q.8.

(a) The Civil Service System in India displays features of an aristocratic personnel system. Do you agree? Key Themes : 1. Aristocratic Personnel System (Features) :

Sharp distinction between different grades of personnel. Promotion for lower grades/class to higher ones is either debarred or restricted. Nature of examination and qualifications required amounts to class preference. Educational Qualification of a general character are required and examination also tends to test general mental attainments. Narrow age band for selection to higher civil service.

The above features, to a greater or less degree, characterizes the working of civil service system in India. It is a legacy of British Raj and are also manifest in British and French Civil Services.

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2.

Problems of Aristocratic System Undemocratic, as Administrative class tends to be drawn mainly from higher strata of society. Creates conservative minded administrator. Rejects claims of expertise and experience. Higher training costs. Motivational implications for lower civil services.

(b) Discuss the features and problems of the Joint Consultative Machinery (JCM) of the Central Govt. 30 Key Themes : On the recommendations of the First Pay Commission (1946) Staff Councils were established by the Government of India in 1954. The Second Pay Commission (1957-59) found these Staff Councils unsatisfactory. It said these Councils have little in common with the Whitley machinery. Their powers and procedures do not allow them to function effectively. The Commission recommended that a Whitley type machinery be set up. It should have a Central Joint Council representing the whole body of Central Government employees for negotiation and settlement of disputes. There should be provision for compulsory arbitration, limited to questions of pay and allowances, weekly hours of work, and leave of employees not above the Class II level. In 1966 the Government of India came out with the announcement of establishing a machinery for joint consultation and compulsory arbitration (J.C.M.). This scheme covers all regular employees of the Central Government with the exception of : (a) Group A Services; (b) Group B Services other than the Central Secretariat Services and other comparable services in headquarters organization of the Government, (c) Managerial and administrative personnel in industrial establishments and other supervisory industrial personnel, (d) employees of the Union Territories and police personnel. The objective of J.C.M. are : (i) to promote harmonions relations between the Government and its employees. (ii) to secure greatest cooperation between the government as employer and its employees in matters of common concern; and (iii) to increase the efficiency of the public services through a collaborative endeavour to narrow the area of unresolved differences and widen the ambit of agreement on issues of common concern. The J.C.M. would not take up individual cases which are treated separately through the grievance redressal machinery. It would concentrate only on matters of general policy relating to conditions of service and work, welfare of employees, and improvement of efficiency and standards of work. The J.C.M. is a three-tier machinery at the base is office and/or region. The Councils at this level deal with local or regional matters only. The second level is the departmental level. The Council at this level deals with matters which are of common concern to the staff of the entire department. Each departmental council consists about 30 to 40 members but the actual strength of each departmental Council depends on the total strength of the staff and the number of grades and services in the department. At the apex or national level (third tier) there is a National Council consisting of 85 members 25 members representing the official side and appointed by the Government; and 60 members representing the staff who are nominated by the recognized associations for a term of three years. The Cabinet Secretary is the chairman of this Council. The National Council may meet as often as it deems fit but it must hold at least one meeting in a period of four months. It is long time since these Whitley Councils were established in India. But their working leaves much to be desired. There is no visible impact of this machinery either on the efficiency of the government employees or on the relations between the Government and its employees. This is clear from the fact that there have been occasional strikes which is the extreme form of staff unrest. The machinery suffers from both structural and operational defects. Each side blames the other for its failure. But the greatest drawback in it is behavioural. It is alleged by the employees that the officials do not take this machinery seriously and there is no willingness on their part to try to arrive at mutually agreed solutions. They also allege that there is too much political interference at the national level. Whatever the truth in these allegations the facts remains that the experiment in Whitleyism in India has not succeeded.

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