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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- : if
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- for
-------------------------- enter
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- while
----------------------------------------------------- fprintf
----------------------------------------------- menu

10s

------------------------------------------------------ switch
-------------------------------------------------------...............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
---------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------- R
---------------------------- image show
------------------------- im2bw()
------------- mat2gray()
------------------ imread(),imwrite()
--------------------------------------------------............................................................. imresize()
........................................................................
............................................. imrotate()
.............................................. imcrop
-----------------------.......................................

3x3

----------------------------------------------------............................ conv2()

............................................................................................... imfilter()
......................... fspecial()

..... ftrans2()
....................................................................................
................................................

FIR

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- object detection by white filter
-----------------------------------------------------

mfile

Help

salehijun@gmail.com

Learning MATLAB

a
a =
1 2
6 7
11 12
16 17

3
8
13
18

4
9
14
19

5
10
15
20

a(4:-1:1,:)
ans =
16 17
11 12
6 7
1 2

18
13
8
3

19
14
9
4

20
15
10
5

a(:,5:-1:1)
ans =
5
4 3 2 1
10 9 8 7 6
15 14 13 12 11
20 19 18 17 16

f=[1,2,3,...
4,5,6]
f =

1 2 3 4 5 6

size(a)
ans =
4 5
a
a =
1 2
6 7
11 12
16 17

3
8
13
18

4
9
14
19

5
10
15
20

[L,C]=size(a)
L =
4
C =
5

eye(2)
ans =
1 0
0 1
eye(3)
ans
1 0
0 1
0 0

=
0
0
1

eye(4)
ans
1 0
0 1
0 0

=
0 0
0 0
1 0

0 0 0 1
eye(2,3)
ans =
1 0 0
0 1 0
eye(4,3)
ans
1 0
0 1
0 0
0 0

=
0
0
1
0

zeros(3)
ans
0 0
0 0
0 0

=
0
0
0

zeros(2,3)
ans =
0 0 0
0 0 0

ones(3)
ans
1 1
1 1
1 1

=
1
1
1

ones(2,3)

ans =
1 1 1
1 1 1

rand(3)
ans =
0.9501 0.4860 0.4565
0.2311 0.8913 0.0185
0.6068 0.7621 0.8214
rand(2,3)
ans =
0.4447 0.7919 0.7382
0.6154 0.9218 0.1763

magic(3)
ans
8 1
3 5
4 9

=
6
7
2

magic(4)*ones(4)
ans =
34 34 34 34
34 34 34 34

34 34 34 34
34 34 34 34

inv(a)
??? Error using ==> inv
Matrix must be square.

e=[1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9]
e
1
4
7

=
2 3
5 6
8 9

inv(e)
ans =
1.0e+016 *
-0.4504 0.9007 -0.4504
0.9007 -1.8014 0.9007
-0.4504 0.9007 -0.4504
e^(-1)
ans =
1.0e+016 *
-0.4504 0.9007
0.9007 -1.8014
-0.4504 0.9007
det(e)
ans =
0
e'
ans =
1 4 7
2 5 8

-0.4504
0.9007
-0.4504

3 6 9
e
e
1
4
7

=
2 3
5 6
8 9

f=[1 1+2*i
2 2+3*i]
f =
1.0000 1.0000 + 2.0000i
2.0000 2.0000 + 3.0000i
f'
ans =
1.0000
1.0000 - 2.0000i

2.0000
2.0000 - 3.0000i

f.'
ans =
1.0000
1.0000 + 2.0000i

trace(c)
ans =
40
c
c =
1
2

3

4

2.0000
2.0000 + 3.0000i

6
7 8 9
11 12 13 14
16 17 18 19

tril(c)
ans =
1 0
6 7
11 12
16 17

0
0
0
0
13 0
18 19

c
c =
1 2
6 7
11 12
16 17

3
8
13
18

4
9
14
19

triu(c)
ans =
1 2 3 4
0 7 8 9
0 0 13 14
0 0 0 19

diag(c)
ans =
1
7
13
19
diag(ans)

ans =
1 0 0 0
0 7 0 0
0 0 13 0
0 0 0 19

help inf
INF Infinity.
INF returns the IEEE arithmetic representation for positive
infinity. Infinity is also produced by operations like
dividing by
zero, eg. 1.0/0.0, or from overflow, eg. exp(1000).
INF('double') is the same as INF with no inputs.
INF('single') is the single precision representation of
INF.
INF(N) is an N-by-N matrix of INFs.
INF(M,N) or INF([M,N]) is an M-by-N matrix of INFs.
INF(M,N,P,...) or INF([M,N,P,...]) is an M-by-N-by-P-by-...
array of INFs.
INF(...,CLASSNAME) is an array of INFs of class specified
by CLASSNAME.
CLASSNAME must be either 'single' or 'double'.
See also Na<a href="matlab:help n">n</a>, <a
href="matlab:help isinf">isinf</a>, <a
href="matlab:help isfinite">isfinite</a>, <a
href="matlab:help isfloat">isfloat</a>.
Reference page in Help browser
<a href="matlab:doc inf">doc inf</a>

format short
1/3
ans =
0.3333

format long
1/3
ans =
0.33333333333333

format bank
1/3
ans =
0.33

format
1/3
ans =
0.3333

format hex
pi
ans =
400921fb54442d18

format rat
pi
ans =
355/113

format +
22
ans =
+
-22
ans =
0
ans =

triu(c)*tril(c)
diary

abs(-1.2)
ans =
1.2000
a=[-1.2 2]
a =
-1.2000 2.0000
abs(a)
ans =
1.2000 2.0000
b=[-1.2 1.2-2*i]
b =
-1.2000 1.2000 - 2.0000i

abs(b)
ans =
1.2000 2.3324

ceil(1.2)
ans =
2
ceil(-1.2)
ans =
-1

floor(1.2)
ans =
1
floor(-1.2)
ans =
-2

round(1.2)
ans =
1
round(1.8)
ans =
2
round(-1.8)
ans =
-2
round(-1.2)

ans =
-1

fix(1.8)
ans =
1
fix(-1.8)
ans =
-1

sqrt(2)
ans =
1.4142
sqrt(4)
ans =
2

c=2-4i
c =
2.0000 - 4.0000i
angle(c)
ans =
-1.1071

d=1+i
d =
1.0000 + 1.0000i
angle(d)

ans =
0.7854
ans*180/pi
ans =
45

real(d)
ans =
1
imag(d)
ans =
1
d
d =
1.0000 + 1.0000i

complex(2,6)
ans =
2.0000 + 6.0000i

conj(1+2*i)
ans =
1.0000 - 2.0000i

gcd(12,3)
ans =
3
gcd(5,3)

ans =
1

lcm(12,3)
ans =
12
lcm(5,3)
ans =
15

sign(1-(2*3)+4)
ans =
-1
sign(-11)
ans =
-1
sign(11)
ans =
1
sign(0)
ans =
0
sign(10000)
ans =
1

log(2)
ans =
0.6931

log10(1000)
ans =
3

log2(8)
ans =
3

mod(5,2)
ans =
1

nchoosek(5,3)
ans =
10

a=pi/2
a =
1.5708
sin(a)
ans =
1
cos(a)
ans =
6.1232e-017
tan(a)

ans =
1.6331e+016
cot(a)
ans =
6.1232e-017
asin(a)
ans =
1.5708 - 1.0232i
acos(a)
ans =
0 + 1.0232i
atan(a)
ans =
1.0039
acot(a)
ans =
0.5669
asinh(a)
ans =
1.2334
acosh(a)
ans =
1.0232
atanh(a)
ans =
0.7525 + 1.5708i
acoth(a)
ans =
0.7525
sec(a)
ans =
1.6331e+016
csc(a)
ans =
1

sech(a)
ans =
0.3985
csch(a)
ans =
0.4345

x=0:0.1:pi/2;

y=sin(x);

plot(x,y)

z=cos(x);
plot(x,y)
hold on
Current plot held
plot(x,z)
hold off

figure(2)

salam='salam mahdi'
salam =
salam mahdi
salam
salam =
salam mahdi
a='salam'
a =
salam
a
a =
salam

axis([1 2 0 1])
axis([1 2 0 1 5 6])
plot(x,y)

grid

plot(x,y,'r')

plot(x,y,'b')

plot(x,y,'k')

plot(x,y,'g')

plot(x,y,'y')

plot(x,y,'c')

plot(x,y,'w')

plot(x,y,'m')

plot(x,y,'-')

plot(x,y,'--')

plot(x,y,'-.')

plot(x,y,':')

plot(x,y,'*')

plot(x,y,'o')

plot(x,y,'^')

plot(x,y,'d')

plot(x,y,'s')

plot(x,y,'v')

plot(x,y,'p')

plot(x,y,'h')

plot(x,y,'x')

plot(x,y,'-.rs')
plot(x,y,'-.sr')
plot(x,y,'linewidth',2,'markersize',12,'markerfacecolor','r','markered
gecolor', [0.4 0.2 0.3])
plot(x,y,'s','linewidth',2,'markersize',12,'markerfacecolor','r',
'markeredgecolor',[0.4 0.2 0.3])

Linewidth :
Markersize :

Markerfacecolor :
Markeredgecolor :
[0.4 0.2 0.3] :
x=[1:0.1:5];
y=sin(x);
plot(x,y,'sr' ,'linewidth',2,'markersize',12,'markerfacecolor',[0.4 1
0.6]);xlabel('x axis'); ylabel('y axis');

subplot(2,3,1);plot(x,y,'sr','linewidth',2,'markersize',12,'markerface
color',[0.4 1 0.6]);xlabel('x axis');ylabel('y
axis');title('rasm');text(2,0,'(2,0)');

plot(x,y,'sr' ,'linewidth',2,'markersize',12,'markerfacecolor',[0.4 1
0.6]);grid;xlabel ('x axis');ylabel('y axis');title('rasm'
);text(2,0,'(2,0)');

teta=0:.1:2*pi;
c=1-2*sin(teta);
polar(teta,c);

semilogx(x,y);

semilogy(x,y);

loglog(x,y);

comet(x,y);

bar(x,y);

barh(x,y);

hist(y,x);

x=-pi:.1:pi;
bar(x,exp(x.^2));
hist(y,x)

stairs(x,y);

stem(x,y);

pie(x)

a=[1 3 4 2];
b=[1 0 0 1];
pie(a,b)

c=[1 0 0 9];
pie(a,c)

t=0:0.1:2*pi;
x=sin(t);
y=cos(t);
plot3(x,y,t)

[x y]=meshgrid(0:.1:10,0:3);
z=peaks(x,y);
mesh(x,y,z)

meshz(x,y,z)

meshc(x,y,z)

surf(x,y,z)

[x,y,z]=cylinder(2+cos(t))
surf(x,y,z)

x=[1 3 0.5 2.5 2];
e=[0 0 1 0 0];
pie3(x,e);

fplot('sin',[-pi 2*pi])

c=[1 0 9;1 3 9;2 5 7];
det(c)
ans =
-33
syms x
int(1/(1+x^2))
ans =
atan(x)
syms x y
int(y/(1+x),x)
ans =
y*log(1+x)
int(y/(1+x),x,0,1)
ans =
y*log(2)
diary

mfile
m

(save as)

text

help

X=input('please enter a number for X')

Input('please enter a phrase','s')

: if
If(a~=b)|(a==b)
disp('this is an example')
end

~=

'elseif','else'

for
For i=1:2:50
..
.
End

mfile

mfile

go to

/n _
clc

clear

mfile
n

enter
pause

10s
pause(10)

while

While i=0
.
.
i=i+1
end

fprintf

Fprintf('epsilon is equal to %6.2e in %2.3d',epsilon,i)

engineering

E

decimal

D

fix point

F
%6.2

break

return

menu
Menu('choose one of these','factorial','i^2','i^3')

mfile
mfile

switch

stat.m

stat.m

function [mean,stdev] = stat(x)
x
1x2

stat

mean , stdev
stat

n = length(x);
mean = sum(x)/n;
stdev = sqrt(sum((x-mean).^2/n));

f = sym('2*x')
int(f)

int(f,1,2)

bmp, jpg, pcx, png, tif, xwd
Image Read
R = imread ( 'C:\Documents and Settings\hp\My Documents\My Pictures\me.jpg' ) ;

R
whos R
Name
r

Size

300x225x3

Bytes Class
202500 uint8 array

imfinfo ( 'C:\Documents and Settings\hp\My Documents\My Pictures\me.jpg' )
Filename: [1x60 char]
FileModDate: '15-Jan-2008 02:31:54'
FileSize: 9770
Format: 'jpg'
FormatVersion: ''
Width: 290
Height: 368
BitDepth: 24
ColorType: 'truecolor'
FormatSignature: ''
NumberOfSamples: 3
CodingMethod: 'Huffman'
CodingProcess: 'Sequential'
Comment: {}

Image Show
imshow(R)

Imwrite ( R , 'C:\Documents and Settings\hp\My Documents\My Pictures\test.jpg' ) ;
jpg
test
R

I = imread ( ' cameraman.tif ' );
BW = dither (I);
Imview (BW)
Imshow(I)

I

BW
Imshow()

Imview()

im2bw()
v = imread ( 'C:\Documents and Settings\hp\Desktop\131339-b.jpg' );
BW = im2bw (v,0.5);
Imshow (BW)
figure
imshow (v)

im2bw()

v

BW

mat2gray()
m=magic(100);
g=mat2gray(m);
imshow(g)

imread(),imwrite()
v= imread( 'C:\Documents and Settings\hp\Desktop\131339-b.jpg' );
imwrite( v , 'C:\Documents and Settings\hp\Desktop\131339-b.tif' );

tif

v

imwrite()

imresize()
v= imread ( 'C:\Documents and Settings\hp\Desktop\131339-b.jpg' );
r= imresize (v,2);
whos r v

v
Name Size
r
732x958x3
v
366x479x3

Bytes Class
2103768 uint8 array
525942 uint8 array

r= imresize ( r,[150 100] );
whos r v
Name

Size

Bytes Class

imresize()

r
v

150x100x3
366x479x3

45000 uint8 array
525942 uint8 array
imrotate()

ro= imrotate ( r,90,'bilinear' );
imshow (ro)
figure
Imshow (r)

r

ro

imcrop
v= imread ( 'C:\Documents and Settings\hp\Desktop\131339-b.jpg' );
c= imcrop;
imshow (c)

v

cubic

c

nearest

bilinear

3x3
r= imread ( 'tire.tif' );
f= inline ( 'max(x(:))' );
r2= nlfilter ( r,[3 3],f );
imshow(r2)
figure
imshow(r)

r

c++

inline

r2

link

conv2()
i=magic(1000);
f=magic(10);
c=conv2(i,f);
whos i f c
Name
Size
c
1009x1009
f
10x10
i
1000x1000
mesh(c)

Bytes
8144648
800
8000000

Class
double array
double array
double array

f

imfilter()
r= imread ( 'C:\Documents and Settings\hp\Desktop\131339-b.jpg' );
f= ones(5,5)/25;
r2= imfilter (r,f);
imshow (r2)

r

r2

fspecial()
r= imread ( 'C:\Documents and Settings\hp\Desktop\131339-b.jpg' );
fi= fspecial ( 'unsharp' );
r2= imfilter (r,fi);
imshow (r)
figure

Imshow (r2)

r

'average'
'disk'
'gaussian'
'laplacian'
'log'
'motion'
'prewitt'
'sobel'
'unsharp'

r2

averaging filter
circular averaging filter
Gaussian lowpass filter
filter approximating the 2-D Laplacian operator
Laplacian of Gaussian filter
motion filter
Prewitt horizontal edge-emphasizing filter
Sobel horizontal edge-emphasizing filter
unsharp contrast enhancement filter

h = fspecial ( 'average',hsize )
h = fspecial ( 'disk',radius )
h = fspecial ( 'gaussian',hsize,sigma )
h = fspecial ( 'laplacian',0<alpha<1 )
h = fspecial ( 'log',hsize,sigma )
h = fspecial ( 'unsharp',0<alpha <1)
h = fspecial ( 'motion' ,

=
=
=
=
=
=

h = fspecial ( 'average',[3 3] )
h=fspecial ( 'disk',5 )
h=fspecial ( 'gaussian',[3 3],0.5 )
h=fspecial ( 'laplacian',0.2 )
h=fspecial ( 'log',[5 5],0.5 )
h=fspecial ( 'unsharp',0.2)
,
)

h = fspecial ( 'prewitt' )
h = fspecial ( 'sobel' )
ftrans2()
colormap(jet(64))
b = remez(10,[0 0.05 0.15 0.55 0.65 1],[0 0 1 1 0 0]);
[H,w] = freqz(b,1,128,'whole');
plot(w/pi-1,fftshift(abs(H)))

mx3
blue

green

colormap()

red

RGB
m

remez()

H

b

freqz()

H
128x1
2

Whole
fftshift()

plot(w/pi-1,fftshift(abs(H)))
hold on
plot(w,(abs(H)), r )

h = ftrans2(b);
freqz2(h)

b

ftrans2()

f2 f1 64x1

H

64x64

freqz2()

[H,f1,f2] = freqz2 ( h , [n2 n1] )

f2 f1

H

hd=zeros(11,11);
hd(4:8,4:8)=1;
[f1,f2]=freqspace(11,'meshgrid');
f2
f2

f1 11x11

freqspace()

f1

[f1,f2]=freqspace(11);
f2 f1

F1=f2=[-n:2:n-2]/n

f1=f2=[-n+1:2:n-1]/n
meshgrid

mesh(f1,f2,hd)
f2

f1

hd

z

hd

y

f2

x

f1 mesh()

hd

hd
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

h=fsamp2(hd);

0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

h

hd

FIR

fsamp2()

mesh()

hd

FIR filter
FIR

h
32x32

freqz2(h,[32 32])

FIR filter
FIR
h=fwind1(hd,hamming(11))

n
hd

FIR
hd

freqz2(h,[32 32])

hamming(n)
fwind1()

FIR
11x11

FIR filter

0

0

0

0

0

0.0005 -0.0003 -0.0027 -0.0041 -0.0027 -0.0003 0.0005

0

0

0.0025

0

0

0

0.0005

0.0018 -0.0013 -0.0126 -0.0198 -0.0126 -0.0013

0

0

0

0

0.0005

0

0 -0.0003 -0.0013

0.0010

0.0093

0.0147

0.0093

0.0010 -0.0013 -0.0003

0

0 -0.0027 -0.0126

0.0093

0.0833

0.1324

0.0833

0.0093 -0.0126 -0.0027

0

0.0147 0.1324 0.2066

0.1324

0.0147 -0.0198 -0.0041

0.0025

0.0025 -0.0041 -0.0198

0.0018

0

0 -0.0027 -0.0126

0.0093

0.0833

0.1324

0.0833

0.0093 -0.0126 -0.0027

0

0 -0.0003 -0.0013

0.0010

0.0093

0.0147

0.0093

0.0010 -0.0013 -0.0003

0

0

0.0005

0

0

0

0

0.0018 -0.0013 -0.0126 -0.0198 -0.0126 -0.0013

0.0005

0

0.0005 -0.0003 -0.0027 -0.0041 -0.0027 -0.0003 0.0005

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.0025

0

0

0.0018

0

h=[

];

Freqz2(h)

1x3
RGB

y

x

R,G,B
z

Help

+12

-12

Max232

1200
ser=serial('COM1','BaudRate',1200)

1

COM1

fopen(ser);
R
fwrite(ser,'B')

fclose(ser);

delete(ser);

clear ser;

usb
IMAQHWINFO(2)
vid=videoinput('winvideo',2,'RGB24_160x120');
160x120
R,G,B

preview(vid)
for i=1:200
I=getsnapshot(vid);

RGB24

End

vid=videoinput('winvideo',2,'RGB24_160x120');
preview(vid)
I=getsnapshot(vid);
a=I(1:15,5:20);
fa=mean(mean(a));

Object Detection By White Filter
clear;
colorimg=imread('white lines.bmp');
imshow(colorimg);
title('original image');
pause;

%load color image.

%dissect image
for a=1:1:170
%ys
for b=1:1:228
%x s
%must cast intensities from uint8 to uint16 since they will
%overflow 2^8 limit when added together
red=cast(colorimg(a,b,1),'uint16');
%get red intensity
green=cast(colorimg(a,b,2),'uint16'); %get green intensity
blue=cast(colorimg(a,b,3),'uint16'); %get blue intensity

%cast back to uint8 for standard intensity image format
gsimage(a,b)=cast((red+green+blue)/3,'uint8');
end
end

%whites-only filter
thresholdw=input('Whites-only intensity threshold: ');
for a=1:1:170
for b=1:1:228
%all three color intensities must be higher than thresholdw
if (colorimg(a,b,1) > thresholdw) && (colorimg(a,b,2) >
thresholdw) && (colorimg(a,b,3) > thresholdw)
%if white detected, copy original pixel
woimage(a,b,1)=colorimg(a,b,1);
woimage(a,b,2)=colorimg(a,b,2);
woimage(a,b,3)=colorimg(a,b,3);
else
%otherwise make pixel black
woimage(a,b,1)=0;
woimage(a,b,2)=0;
woimage(a,b,3)=0;
end
end
end
imshow(woimage);
title('whites-only image');

%detect white pixels.
for a=1:2:170
%only scan every other line.
for b=1:1:228
if woimage(a,b) ~= 0
%calculate position as percentage of entire width or height
ypos = [num2str(floor(a/170*1000)/10) '%'];
xpos = [num2str(floor(b/228*1000)/10) '%'];
stroutput=['Object detected at x=' ypos ' y=' xpos]
break; %skip to next line after first positive pixel found
end
end
end

clc
p=input('enter your path : ')
path=char(p);
i=imread(path);
[l,c,d]=size(i);
for a=1:l
for b=1:c
red(a,b)=i(a,b,1);
green(a,b)=i(a,b,2);
blue(a,b)=i(a,b,3);
end
end
%redPHOTO
for a=1:l
for b=1:c
rphoto(a,b,1)=i(a,b,1);
rphoto(a,b,2)=0;
rphoto(a,b,3)=0;
end
end
%greenPHOTO
for a=1:l
for b=1:c
gphoto(a,b,1)=0;
gphoto(a,b,2)=i(a,b,2)/255;
gphoto(a,b,3)=0;
end
end
%bluePHOTO
for a=1:l
for b=1:c
bphoto(a,b,1)=0;
bphoto(a,b,2)=0;
bphoto(a,b,3)=i(a,b,3)/255;
end
end

imshow(rphoto)
figure
imshow(gphoto)
figure
imshow(bphoto)

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