Using Prefixes

Circum- Words Lesson 1. Latin Prefixes Lesson 2. Greek Prefixes Lesson 3. Anglo-Saxon Prefixes

A prefix is a letter or group of letters placed at the beginning of a word to change its meaning. Later we will show you how knowing a handful of roots can help you figure out scores of words. Here we will begin by teaching you a few prefixes that can open the door to more powerful words. Here, for example, is a sampling of words that derive from the Latin prefix "circum-," meaning around.

Circum- Words

circumambulate circumference circumfluent circumfuse circumjacent circumlocution circumlunar circumnavigate circumpolar circumrotate circumscribe

to walk around the outer boundary of something flowing around; encompassing to surround, as with fluid lying around; surrounding a roundabout way of speaking rotating about the moon to sail around around or near one of the earth's poles to rotate like a wheel to encircle; mark off or delimit; restrict

Lesson 1. Latin Prefixes

Test 1: Applying Latin Prefixes Test 2: Defining Words

Below are ten common Latin prefixes and their variations. Study the chart and examples. Then, to help you remember them, complete the self-tests that follow.

Prefix

Meaning

Variations Examples aacafagatcocolconcor-

1. ad-

to, toward

adjoin, adverb, ascribe, accede, affix, aggregate, attempt

2. com3. de4. dis-

with, together

commotion, cohabit, coworker, collaborate, concede, conduct, correlate, correspond depress, deform

down away, apart, opposite of out didifeecefilimirigilimir-

disagree, dishonest, divert, diffuse exchange, excavate, elongate, evaporate, eccentric, effluent, effuse

5. ex-

6. in-

in, into

inscribe, inhabit, illuminate, import, impart, irradiate

7. in-

not

inflexible, indecent, ignoble, illiterate, illegal, immodest, impatient, irregular premature proclaim recover, return

8. pre9. pro10. re-

before forward again, back

Test 1: Applying Latin Prefixes
Each of the following phrases contains an italicized word. Based on the meaning of its prefix, select the closest synonym. Circle the correct response. 1. adjudicate the matter

a. sit in judgment on
2. an illicit affair

b. throw out

c. argue

d. adjust

a. public

b. external
3. an important confederation

c. unlawful

d. renewed

a. visit

b. return
4. prolong a speech

c. church

d. alliance

a. shorten

b. dictate
5. an accredited school

c. extend

d. preserve

a. second-rate

b. authorized

c. undesirable

d. separated

6. valuable collateral

a. security

b. comments
7. ascribe the phrase to

c. opinions

d. animals

a. write

b. scrawl
8. imbibe too freely

c. scribble

d. credit

a. speak

b. drink
9. precursor of greater things

c. travel

d. laugh

a. banner

b. detractor
10. compress metal

c. forerunner

d. hope

a. help

b. coat

c. squeeze

d. buff

Answers to Using Prefixes Lesson 1 Test 1:

Test 2: Defining Words
Based on the meaning of its prefix, define each of the following words. 1. accord ______________________________________________

2. irradiate ______________________________________________ 3. predestination ______________________________________________ 4. reincarnation ______________________________________________ 5. convolution ______________________________________________ 6. invoke ______________________________________________ 7. cohabit ______________________________________________ 8. irrelevant ______________________________________________ 9. irreducible ______________________________________________ 10. excommunicate ______________________________________________ Suggested Answers to Using Prefixes Lesson 1 Test 2:

Lesson 2. Greek Prefixes
Test 1: Applying Greek Prefixes Test 2: Matching Synonyms

Below are five common Greek prefixes and their variations. Study the chart and examples. Then, to help you remember the prefixes, complete the self-tests that follow.

Prefix 1. a2. apo3. epi-

Meaning not, without off, away beside, upon

Variations Examples anatypical, asexual anarchy apology, apostrophe epepigraph, epidermis, epoch paragraph, paraphrase sylsymsynthesis, synonym syllable, syllogism symbiosis, symphony

4. para- beside 5. syntogether, with

Test 1: Applying Greek Prefixes

Each of the following phrases contains an italicized word. Based on the meaning of its prefix, select the closest synonym. Circle your response.

1. a new synagogue a. combination b. sentence c. house of worship d. building

Formed from:

Greek "syn-" + "-agogos," bringer, gatherer

2. the true apogee a. limit of endurance b. insult c. closest point of an orbit d. farthest point of an orbit

Formed from:

Greek "apo-" + "ge," earth

3. the fifth annual synod a. church council b. religious holiday c. house-cleaning d. painting

Formed from:

Greek "syn-" + "hodos," way

4. the sad episode

Formed from:

a. incident b. anecdote c. death d. accident Greek "epi-" + "hodos," way

5. the witty epigram a. television show b. radio broadcast c. saying d. song

Formed from:

Greek "epi-" + "gramma," something written

6. guilty of apostasy a. murder b. desertion c. an unnamed crime d. abandonment of religious faith

Formed from:

Greek "apo-" + "stasis," standing

7. aseptic ointment

Formed from:

a. free from germs b. effective c. expensive d. greasy Greek "a-" + "septos," rotted

8. clear and effective syntax a. treatment b. word arrangement c. speech d. magazine article

Formed from:

Greek "syn-" + "taxis," order

9. injured epidermis a. leg ligament b. elbow c. skin d. shinbone

Formed from:

Greek "epi-" + "dermis," skin

10. a cutting epithet

Formed from:

a. weapon b. funeral oration c. knife d. descriptive word
Answers to Using Prefixes Lesson 2 Test 1:

Greek "epi-" + "theton," placed

Test 2: Matching Synonyms
Based on your knowledge of Greek prefixes, match each of the numbered words with the closest synonym. Write your answer in the space provided.

1. SYLLOGISM 2. PARALEGAL 3. ANONYMOUS 4. ANESTHETIC 5. APOSTLE 6. PARALLEL 7. APOCRYPHAL 8. APOGEE 9. AGNOSTIC 10. ABYSS

a. running beside b. climax; highest point c. bottomless hole d. one sent out; messenger e. logical argument f. doubting God's existence g. attorney's assistant h. false; spurious i. causing loss of feeling j. nameless

_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

Answers to Using Prefixes Lesson 2 Test 2:

Lesson 3. Anglo-Saxon Prefixes
Test 1: Applying Anglo-Saxon Prefixes Test 2: Matching Synonyms

Below are the five most common Anglo-Saxon prefixes and their variations. Study the chart and examples. Then, to help you remember the prefixes, complete the self-tests that follow.

Prefix abemisoverun-

Meaning on, to, at, by over, around wrong, badly beyond, above not

Examples ablaze, afoot bespeak, besiege mistake, misspell overreach, overawe unwilling, unethical

Test 1: Applying Anglo-Saxon Prefixes
Each of the following phrases contains an italicized word. Based on the meaning of its prefix, select the closest synonym. Circle your response. 1. a miscarriage of justice

a. instance

b. hero
2. beseech movingly

c. failure

d. example

a. implore

b. search
3. walking two abreast

c. evoke

d. refuse

a. together

b. side by side
4. bestowed on us

c. back to back

d. in tandem

a. hurled

b. smashed
5. an unfortunate misalliance

c. dependent

d. presented

a. treaty

b. conversation
6. an overwrought patient

c. bad deal

d. improper marriage

a. highly emotional

b. extremely ill

c. very restrained

d. overmedicated

7. an unkempt look

a. funny

b. messy
8. an embarrassing miscue

c. ugly

d. pretty

a. joke

b. anecdote
9. bedaub with clay

c. step

d. error

a. sculpt

b. present

c. smear

d. create

10. bemoan his situation

a. celebrate

b. share

c. lament

d. hide

Answers to Using Prefixes Lesson 3 Test 1:

Test 2: Matching Synonyms
Based on your knowledge of Anglo-Saxon prefixes, match each of the numbered words with the closest synonym. Write your answer in the space provided.

1. UNFEIGNED 2. MISBEGOTTEN 3. BEGUILE 4. MISCARRIAGE 5. BEMUSE 6. MISHAP 7. OVERCOME 8. BEGRUDGE 9. UNERRING 10. OVERZEALOUS

a. conquer b. right on the mark c. too fervent d. envy; resent e. sincere; genuine f. accident g. illegitimate h. mislead i. bewilder j. spontaneous abortion

_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

Answers to Using Prefixes Lesson 3 Test 2:

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