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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background of the Problem Information and Communication Technology (ICT) may be viewed in different ways. Rodriguez and Wilson (2000) defined ICT as a set of activities which facilitate by electronic means the processing, transmission and display of information. ESCAP (2000) in its own definition defined ICT as techniques people use to share, distribute, and gather information and to communicate through computers and computer networks. Marcelle (2000) described ICT as a complex varied set of goods, applications and services used for producing, distributing, processing, transforming information (including) telecoms, TV and radio broadcasting, hardware and software, computer services and electronic media. Ogunsola and Aboyade (2005) viewed ICT as a cluster of associated technologies defined by their functional usage in information access and communication of which one embodiment is the internet. Information and Communication Technology are computer based tools used by people to work with information and communication processing needs of an organization. It purview covers computer hardware, software, the network and other digital devices like video, audio, camera and so on which convert information (text, sound, motion etc) into digital form (Moursund and Bielefeldt, 1999). Information and Communication Technology as tools within the school environment include use for school administration and management, teaching and learning of ICT related skills for enhancing the presentation of classroom work, teaching/learning repetive tasks,

teaching/learning intellectual, thinking and problem solving skills, stimulating creativity and imagination, for research by teachers and students and as communication tool by teachers and students (Collis and Moonen, 2001, Derbyshire, 2003; Moursund and Bielefeldt, 1999). The field of education has been affected by ICTs, which have undoubtedly affected teaching and research (Yusuf, 2005). A great deal of research has proven the benefits of ICT in improving quality of education (AL-Ansari, 2006). As a result of this, developed nations have integrated ICT into their educational system. Adomi and Kpangban (2010) observed that there are developments in the Nigerian education sector which indicate some level of ICT application in secondary schools in Nigeria. They traced the introduction of computer education in secondary schools to 1988, when Nigeria government enacted a policy on computer education. The Federal Government of Nigeria in the National Policy on education 2004 recognizes the prominent role of ICTs in the modern world and has integrated ICTs into education in Nigeria (Adomi and Kpangban, 2010). To actualize this goal, the document states that government will provide basic infrastructure and training at the primary school. At the junior secondary school, computer education is made a pre-vocational elective and is a vocational elective at the senior secondary school. The Federal Ministry of Education launched an ICT-driven project known as SchoolNet, which was intended to equip all schools in Nigeria with computers and communication techniques. Under the SchoolNet programme, MTN provided fully operational computer laboratories with 21 personal computers, VSAT interconnectivity, and hand-on training in 24 secondary schools in Kaduna, Lagos, Enugu, Kwara, Rivers

and the Federal Capital Territory Abuja. In all, over 49,524 pupils and 2,412 teachers were trained on how to use ICT facilities (Abdul-Salaam, 2007). To adequate provide ICT facilities to secondary schools, the Nigerian Federal Government commissioned a Mobile Internet Unit (MIU) which is operated by the Nigerian National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA). The MIU is a locally-made bus that has been converted into a mobile training and cyber centre. Its interior has ten workstations, all networked and connected to the internet. The MIU is also equipped with printers, photocopiers and a number of multimedia facilities. Internet connectivity is provided via VSAT with a 1.2m dish mounted on the roof of the bus. It is also equipped with a small electric generator to ensure regular power supply. The MIU takes the internet to places, areas and various and secondary schools (Adomi and Kpangban, 2010). They added that the number of these buses is so small and as a result most rural schools are yet to benefit from this project. A cursory look at the secondary schools in Nigeria has shown that many teachers in the system still rely much on the traditional chalk and talk method of teaching rather than embracing the use of ICT. According to Okebukola (1997), computer is not part of classroom technology in over 90% of public schools in Nigeria, thus the chalkboard and textbooks continue to dominate classroom activities. This is an indication that the students are still lagging behind in the trend of changes in the world. This presupposes that there is the tendency for the teachers and students to be denied the opportunities which ICT offers in the teaching-learning activities. There is the need to replace the traditional pedagogical practices that still underpin the educational system is the country, hence the need for the application of ICT in Nigerian Secondary Schools. The various

ICT facilities used in the teaching learning process in schools according to Babajide and Bolaji (2003), Bryers (2004), Bandele (2006) and Ofodu (2007) include; radio, television, computers, overhead projecttors, optical fibres, fax machines, CD-Rom, Internet, electronic notice board, slides, digital multimedia, video/VCD machine and so on. It appears some of the facilities are not sufficiently provided for teaching learning process in the secondary schools. Successful integration of ICT in the school system depends largely on the availability, competence and the attitude of teachers towards the role of modern technologies in teaching and learning. Research works have shown that most secondary schools have either insufficient or no ICT tools to cater for the ever increasing population of students in the schools and where they are available, they are by implication a matter of out-of-bounds to the students (Chattel, 2002; Cheng, 2003; Chiemeke, 2004). A survey carried out by Cirfat and Longshak (2003) revealed that only one school, out of ten has computer sets. It is worth noting that none of the ten schools has internet facility. Ozoji (2003) reported in a study that most of our secondary schools do not have software for the computer to function. One of the unity schools has five computers against a population of 900 and no internet software was installed. The facilities are grossly inadequate for any meaningful teaching or learning to take place. On teachers competence, teachers in Nigerian secondary schools are not competent in basic computer operation and in the use of generic software (Yusuf, 2005), although they have positive attitude towards the use of computer in Nigerian secondary schools. This finding revealed the low level of ICT penetration in the Nigerian school system. This reveals the state of ICT in most of the Nigerian secondary schools. The main purpose of this study

was to investigate the availability of ICT facilities, level of accessibility and the extent of usage possessed by both students and teachers in some selected secondary schools in Bauchi Metropolis.

1.2

Statement of the Problem As earlier stated in the background, information and communication technology facilities hold a great promise in improving teaching and learning process. With the enormous increase in student enrolment in Nigerian secondary schools as been noted by educationist, there is a need for the use of sophisticated equipment and facilities such as ICT for an effective teaching and learning process. The problem of this study therefore was to survey the availability and usage of those facilities for the development of education in the State.

1.3

Purpose of the Study The main purpose of the study is to examine the availability and the capacity of usage of ICT facilities in secondary schools in Bauchi metropolis. Specifically, the study would find out the following;

The availability of ICT facilities The accessibility of ICT facilities to both students and teachers The extent of usage of ICT facilities

1.4

Research Questions This research study is aimed to answer the following questions on the availability and usage of ICT facilities in secondary schools in Bauchi Metropolis:

I.

How readily available are ICT facilities for teaching and learning in secondary schools in Bauchi metropolis?

II.

How accessible are ICT facilities to both students and teachers in secondary schools in Bauchi metropolis?

III.

What is the extent of the usage of ICT facilities by both students and teachers in Bauchi metropolis?

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Significance of the Study This research finding will be of great importance to the government, practicing educators, policy makers, decision makers, private sectors, parents, as well as the education stake holders and the general public in ascertaining the extent to which ICT facilities are available and used. It would also aid in the realization of the ways to improve the use of computer in Nigerian secondary schools. Government, Ministries of Education, Examination bodies, curriculum

developers, students and parents my find this research discovery useful in determining the level of preparedness for computer to be taken as a certified subject. Policy makers may find this research finding appreciable in making necessary adjustments, as well as bridging the gaps that might have been discovered. Schools will also benefit from this study by knowing the extent to which these facilities are available and to which their students use for educational purposes.

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Scope of the Study This research work will cover some selected secondary schools, both public and private within Bauchi metropolis. These schools include:

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X.

Harmony High School Bauchi City Comprehensive Secondary School Bauchi Dolphin Maria College Bauchi Divine International Secondary School Bauchi International Secondary School ATBU Bauchi Federal Government Girls College Bauchi Government Day Secondary School Kofar Wambai Bauchi Government Day Comprehensive Secondary School Bauchi Government Day Secondary School Army Barracks Bauchi Government Day Secondary School Yelwan Kagadama Bauchi

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Definition of Terms ICT this is an abbreviation of information and communication technologies. ICT is a genetic term referring to diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information.

Internet internet is a vast source of information. It connects millions of computers in the world for the purpose of sharing resource.

School Net Nigeria (snng) School Net Nigeria is a non-profit organization created to support effective and sustainable use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) into teaching and learning process within the primary and secondary education sector in Nigeria.

Digital Divide the digital divide is a term that is often used in describing disparities in access to, and usage of the telephone, personal computers and the internet across demographic groups within the same country or between countries (Sonaike, 2004: 42).

Software is a computer program. It is a step by step instruction which tells the computer how to perform task.

Hardware these are equipment that makes up the computer system. They include monitor, central processing unit (cpu), keyboard, mouse, printer, scanner and modem.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1

Introduction This Chapter will take a look at various works already done by other researchers in the field of using ICT in education. It arranged under the following sub headings, data sources from research through different published materials and the internet:

Use of ICT in secondary schools across the world ICT as aids to teaching and learning ICT as a tool for educational management ICTs in education and for education Challenges to the use of ICT in secondary schools Prospects of using ICT Summary of related literature

2.2

Use of ICT in Secondary Schools across the World In more advanced industrialized nations, there has been a staggering amount of research and publication related to ICT use for educational purposes during the last decade. Today, nearly everyone in the industrialized nations gained access to ICT and the purchase of computers for school use in such nations as the United State has been increasing in such a pace that is difficult to keep track of how many computer machines are now in American schools (Harper, 1987). According to (Becker 1986) report, a comprehensive survey of the instructional uses of computers in United State public and

non-public schools, suggested that over one million computers were in American elementary and secondary schools and that more than fifteen million students used them during 1985. The report also says that half a million teachers use computers during the same period and that half of U.S secondary schools (about 16,500 schools) owned around15 or more computers, while over 7,500 elementary schools also owned 15 or more computers. It has been almost two decades since the figures quoted were released. There is no doubt that those figures would have increased tremendously since then. Bergheim and Chin (1984) reported that the U.S government made available $529 million to schools, out of which 60 70 percent was spent on computer education. However, in the U.S administrations fiscal 2001 budget, more than $900 million was earmarked for educational technologies (Hess & Lead 2001). In Britain, the story is the same, as the wider availability of computers in schools was made possible by government funding, largely through the local education authority (LEA). Visscher etal (2003) reported that, following the educational reform Act in 1988, the central government made available $325 million over time to promote use of computers in schools administration and management. Just as the United state and Britain here have been budgeting huge sum of money for cyber education, so have other developed nations been doing same. Even many developing nations have embraced ICT. In Africa, concerted efforts have been made by many governments to initiate internet connectivity and technology training programmes. Such programmes link schools around the world, in other to improve education, enhance cultural understanding and develop skills that youths need for securing jobs in the 21st Century. In Uganda, an interconnectivity programme known as Uganda School Net is dedicated to extending

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educational technology throughout Uganda (Carlson & Firpo, 2001). In Senegal, teachers and students are using computers extensively as information tool. These programmes in African countries are supported by their governments through the ministries of education. In a rapidly changing world of global market competition, automation, and increasing democratization, basic education is necessary for an individual too have the capacity and capability to access and apply information. Such ability and capacity must find bearing in information and communication technology in the global village. The economic commission for Africa has indicated that the ability to access and effectively utilize is no longer a luxury but a necessity for development. Unfortunately, many developing countries, especially in Africa are already on the wrong side of the digital divide in the educational use of ICT (Aduwa-Ogiegbean and Iyamu, 2005). The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in schools is taken very seriously by government and educational systems around the world. Nigeria like other countries made efforts towards using ICT in education through the establishment of School Net Nigeria which was launched in September 2001, with the support of the ministries of education, telecommunications, science and technology and the education tax fund. School Net Nigeria is a non-profit organization created to address the secondary educational sector in Nigeria. School Net Nigeria embodies a partnership between a diverse range of public and private sector interests in other to mobilize Nigerias human and financial resources for the purpose of using ICTs in education. School Net Nigeria created learning opportunities of educators and learners who use information and communication technologies (ICTs) to enhance education within and beyond Nigeria, and to contribute to the transformation of the educational system in

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Nigeria into one which participate in and benefit from the knowledge in the society (Olaolu, 2003). In educational institutions of learning, there appear to be some critical steps and vital ingredients needed for the successful infusion of ICT into educational environments. Although, stand alone computers have been in most schools for some years now, networked ICT is relatively new for many schools, as they continue to grapple with how to use ICT to enhance teaching and learning environments. School Net Nigeria emerged directly under the influence of its interaction with other School Net formation through the School Net African formation process, particularly with School Net South Africa, which was officially launched in September 2001, with high level support from the ministries of education, communications and science and technology. It is established as a partner organization of the Nigerian Education Tax Fund (ETF), which is funded based on 2 percent taxation of companys profit in Nigeria. Since its launch, School Net Nigeria has initiated a print media project in partnership with MTN; a pan African cellular network company and Direqlearn, which involves educational information and curriculum, inserted in Nigerias national newspapers. This ensures widespread distribution of educational resources, which is also a novel way of using traditional ICT. In addition, School Net Nigeria and the ETF partnered with local companies on projects in the diginet laboratories on a low cost solution to an initial 35 schools in Nigeria. Five schools were chosen from each state of the federation to benefit from the project.

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2.3

ICT as aid to Teaching and Learning The importance of ICT is quite evident from the educational perspective. Though over the years, the chalkboard, textbooks, radio, television and films have been used for educational purposes, none has quite impacted the educational process like the computers. While television and films impact only on the audiovisual faculties of the user, computers are capable of activating the sense of sight, hearing and touch of the user. ICT has the capacity to provide higher interactive potential to users to develop their individual, intellectual and creative ability. The main purpose of ICT consists just in the development of human mental resources, which allow people to successfully apply both the existing knowledge and produce new knowledge (Shavining, 2001, p 70). Improving the quality of education and training is a critical issue, particularly at a time of educational expansion. ICTs can enhance the quality of education in several ways:

Motivating to Learn ICTs such as videos, television and multimedia computer software that combine text, sound, and colorful, moving images can be used to provide challenging and authentic content that will engage the student in the learning process and telecollaboration. Interactive radio likewise makes use of sound effects, songs, dramatizations, comic skits, and other performance conventions to compel the students to listen and become involved in the lessons being delivered. More so than any other type of ICT, networked computers with Internet connectivity can increase learner motivation as it combines the media richness and interactivity of other ICTs with the opportunity to connect with real people and to participate in real world events.

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Facilitating the Acquisition of Basic Skills The transmission of basic skills and concepts that are the foundation of higher order thinking skills and creativity can be facilitated by ICTs through drill and practice. Educational television programs such as Who Want to be a Millionaire; Nigerias biggest thought provoking program, enlightens people because of the questions that are required to be answered before the cash price is awarded. Questions are drawn from all works of life ranging from religious, cultural, educational to contemporary issues, thereby facilitating the acquisition of basic skills amongst populace.

Enhancing Teacher Training ICTs have also been used to improve access to and the quality of teacher training. For example, institutions like the Cyber Teacher Training Center (CTTC) in South Korea are taking advantage of the Internet to provide better teacher professional development opportunities to in-service teachers. The government funded CTTC, established in 1997, offers self-directed, self-paced Web-based courses for primary and secondary school teachers. Courses include Computers in the Information Society,Education Reform, and Future Society and Education. Online tutorials are also offered, with some courses requiring occasional face-to-face meetings (Jung, 2002). In Nigeria, The National Open University of Nigeria, satellite-based video and audio conferencing was founded in 2000 by the then Nigerian President, Olusegun Obasanjo, supplemented by print-materials and recorded video, to train teachers who have not obtained the requisite degree for their current job placement from any geographical distance. The teachers interacted with remote lecturers by telephone and fax.

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ICT as an Evaluative Tool Other areas of ICT utilization include evaluation of learning outcome and classroom management. ICT facilities could be used to prepare lesson plan, write students report, storage of data, collect and analyze students achievements. Curriculum content could be enriched through search in internet by teachers or curriculum experts. Information, messages skills strategies and relevant school practices hitherto unknown to both students and teachers that cannot be found in recommended school textbooks could be easily downloaded for information and academic development of students. Recent research findings in any particular subject area could be easily obtained through internet. ICT do not only bring about improvement in what is taught in the classroom but encourage personal and professional advancement. ICT encourages active participation in classroom interaction as knowledge is shared (Emenike, 2003). Hence, ICT gives room for modern method of assessment and evaluation of students performance.

2.4

ICT as a Tool for Educational Management It is not uncommon to find that many establishments in Nigeria including educational institutions still keep records in files and tucked them away in filling cabinets, where they accumulate dust. Many of these files are often eaten up by rodents and cockroaches thus, rendering them irretrievable. A great deal of most countrys administrative work in government establishment is still done manually, with the state and federal government showing little or no interest in embracing ICT. The official administrative drudgery in government offices and educational institutions can be better managed through ICT. Educational administrative functions include a wide variety of activities such as educational governance, supervision, support services, infrastructure,

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finance, budgeting, accounting, personnel selection and training system, monitoring and evaluation, facilities and so on (Thomas, 1987). In most Nigerian schools, officials still go through the laborious exercise of manual enrolment of pupils, population mobility, performance, maintaining records, keeping inventory list of supplies, doing cost accounting, paying bills and drawing architectural designs. This complexity requires the use of powerful administrative tools resulting in better communication, efficient operations and better personal services. One of such tools is the computer. This is necessary in the areas of budgeting, collection of student data, recording of results and effective keeping of school records, as it will be impossible task to plan and administer any institution in which records are not kept or are carelessly and fraudulently kept. Thomas (1987) said that computers bring great speed and accuracy to each of these tasks, along with the convenience of storing large quantity of information on small disks or tapes (p.5). Consequently, the educational planners and administrators need to have adequate and accurate data of student enrolment, school personnel i.e. academic and non-academic staff and school records for effective planning and management of schools. One cannot over-estimate the utilization of ICT in everyday activities of the school. ICT assists the school administrator to meet the task of school management in the areas of curriculum and instruction, school community relationship and school business operations. Introduction of ICT in schools will therefore; enhance the daily school routine, programme, updating the evaluation of school programmes, solving individuals or groups as well as staff development.

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2.5

ICTs in Education and for Education The idea that teaching and learning can successfully take place through the application of electronic communication facilities between teachers and students is one which had generated, sometimes, hope and dismay and at other times, excitement and fear. Hope that many more learners can be reached at a more convenient pace that had erstwhile been the case, dismay that the infrastructures necessary for deploying an effective ICT platform is lacking in low-income countries like Nigeria (Olakulehin, 2007). However, the use of information and communication technologies in the education process has been divided into two broad categories: ICTs for Education and ICTs in Education. ICTs for education connote the development of information and communications technology specifically for teaching/learning purposes, while the ICTs in Education involves the adoption of general components of information and communication technologies in the teaching learning process (Olakulehin, 2007). Generally, however, the educational relevance of computers and other components of information technology cannot be overemphasized. Reference can be made to the period when skinner applied programmed instructions to teaching machines, through Brunners experiment with computers in instruction, to the current wave of information transmission and exchange via the worldwide web; we have seen different applications of ICTs in enhancing cognitive development. Thomas and Ranga in UNESCO (2004) in their classification divided the application of computers and other communication technologies in education into three broad categories. These are: Pedagogy, Training and Continuing Education. The pedagogical applicability of the ICTs

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is concerned essentially with the more effective learning and with the support of the various components of ICTs. Almost all subjects ranging from mathematics (the most structured) to music (the least structured) can be learnt with the help of computers. Olakulehin (2007) emphasized that pedagogic application of ICTs, involves effective learning with the aid of computers and other information technologies, serving the purpose of learning aids, which plays complementary roles in teaching/learning situations, rather than supplements to the teacher/instructor/facilitator. Computer is regarded as add-on rather than a replacing device. The pedagogic uses of the computer necessitate the development, among teachers as well as students, of skills and attitude related to effective use of information and communications technologies. Aside of literacy, ICTs also facilitates learning to programme, learning in subject areas and learning at home on ones own, and these necessitate the use of new methods like modeling, simulation, use of data bases, guided discovery, closed-word exploration etc. The implications in terms of changes in the teaching strategy, instructional content, role of the teachers and context of the curricula are obvious as well as inevitable. Pedagogy through the application of information and communications technologies has the advantage of heightening the motivation; helping recall previous learning; providing new instructional stimuli; activating the learners response; providing systematic and steady feedback; facilitating appropriate practice; sequencing learning appropriately; and providing a viable source of information for enhanced learning. Teachers who use this system of instructional strategy would be able to kindle in the hearts of the learners a desirable attitude towards information technology tools in their entire way of life.

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2.6

Challenges to the Use of ICT in Secondary Schools In spite of the accompanying gains and clarion call for full introduction and utilization of ICT facilities in our school system, there are still serious inhibiting factors encountered in the implementation of the policy at the institutional and classroom level. Such factors include cost, inadequate funding, management attitudes, energy related problems, culture, box of coloured chalk, lack of relevant software.

Cost The price of computer hardware and software continues to drop in most developed countries. But in developing countries such as Nigeria, the cost of computers is several times more expensive. While personal computer may cost less than a months wage in the United state, the average Nigerian worker may require some months income to buy one.

Inadequate Funding Inadequate funding is directly on the part of the government. Low level funding in schools is as a result of inadequate budgetary allocation. ICT equipment or accessories, soft and hardware are costly. Investment in ICT educational services is also at a low level, coupled with low level of budgetary allocation and poverty among Nigerians, to procure ICT tools for private use. Few available computers in some secondary schools cannot serve all the students.

Management Attitude The attitude of various managements in and outside educational institutions towards the ICT related facilities such as the internet and procurement of computers is

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rather slow in some instances and in others, there are no aids or support by the government (Peter, 2007). Energy Related Problems Power supply all over the country appears erratic. All ICT depend heavily on steady supply of electricity if they are to function effectively. In urban cities, where there are power supplies, it is irregular and regularly interrupted. Interrupted power supply disrupts actual utilization of ICT services. The negative effect of erratic power supply in Nigeria makes ICT dysfunctional. Culture Culture morale or imperialism of different countries determines the use of information and communication technology. In Nigerian context, the culture of some zones did not allow teachers to use ICT facilities, believing that students could be corrupted and that it could influence their attitudes, norms and values. In other to achieve maximum impact and influence of ICT, the cultures of the society to which teachers belong have to be adjusted to meet the challenges of knowledge economy age. Box of Coloured Chalk In Nigerian secondary schools, teachers presentation in the classroom is often by chalk and talk method. Teachers are seen carrying the box of coloured chalk to the classroom for their lessons. Today, technology had brought changes from chalk to PowerPoint, e-learning and gradually moving towards mobile learning. Implicit in this, is that secondary school teachers are suppose to move from the box of coloured chalk to e-learning and probably

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to m-learning (combination of internet, computer and mobile phones) to make teaching less strenuous for teachers and the students. Lack of Relevant Software There is no doubt that the ultimate power of technology is the content and the communication. Though, software developers and publishers in developed countries have been trying for long to develop software and multimedia that have universal application, due to the differences in educational standards and requirements, these products do not integrate into curriculum across countries. Software that is appropriate and culturally suitable to the Nigerian educational system is in short supply. There is a great discrepancy between relevant software supply and demand in developing countries like Nigeria. Even if Nigeria tries to approach this software famine by producing software that would suit educational philosophies, there are two major problems to be encountered; first, is the cost of producing relevant softwares for the countrys educational system is enormous. Secondly, there is dearth of qualified computer software designers in the country. To overcome this, people need to be trained in instructional design (Samuel and Iyamu, 2005).

2.7

Prospects of Using ICT There are numerous and good prospects for the use of ICT in teaching and learning in secondary schools in Nigeria. The following major areas suggest the range of applications that computer can serve teachers and learners in Nigeria:

Enhancing Educational Efficiency The efficiency of teaching various subjects could be improved with the use of ICTs for many secondary school teachers are already teaching large classes of students.

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In this situation, students no longer receive the much desired individual assistance. Furthermore, English language is taught and learned as a second language in Nigeria, and many teachers of English are weak. It is possible to use carefully prepared computer programs to ensure that learners are accurately and systematically instructed. Computers can also enhance problem-solving skills of the learner by focusing on thinking skills especially in subjects such as mathematics. Serving Administrative Functions Computers/ICTs can replace the laborious exercise of filling papers in filling cabinets and shelves records accumulating dust over a long period of time. They could also aid in budget planning, accounting for expenditure, writing correspondences, and reports, assigning students to classes, reporting students progress, testing students and scoring tests, which help to reduce paper work. It is time that many of the tasks above are not effectively and efficiently done in secondary schools in Nigeria. Promoting Individualized Learning Due to large classes and differences in individual learning style and pace, micro computers will enable the student to progress at his or her own pace and receive continual evaluation feedback and correction for error made. In this way, computers allow the development of partner-like interactive and individualized relations with the user. Computers play the role of the tutor and present the learners with a variety of content and symbolic modes. Change of Pedagogical Practices Computers can change current pedagogical practices in secondary schools in Nigeria, which is dependent heavily on the traditional lecture method. It is universally

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accepted that computers allows more independent exploration, more personally tailored activities, more teamwork, and more significantly, less didactic instruction. The role of the teacher therefore, changes from informational dispenser to that of information manager, from authoritative source of information to a guide of self-propelled exploration (Smith, 1989). Improving Techniques of Research Computers will offer the Nigerian teacher improvement techniques of research. The cumbersome exercise of searching by hand through the librarys card catalog or periodical indexes can be made easier by typing few key words pertinent to the research topic into a computer and the researcher can receive extensive list of related sources of articles in books and journal in just a matter of minutes.

2.8

Summary of Related Literature There is no doubt that teachers and students in secondary school in Nigeria will have incredible resources available if they have access to internet. By integrating information and communication technology into secondary school curriculum, a fundamental shift in the way teachers teach and students learn will be evolved. Nigeria needs to invest heavily in the internet business and create enabling environment for secondary school students to participate in downloading available and useful knowledge in the internet. Secondary school students in Nigeria are already further behind their peers in developed countries, thus widening the global digital divide, even though, Nigeria has started making effort towards using ICT education in some secondary schools through the establishment of School Net Nigeria.

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CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOOGY

3.1

Research Design This work is accomplished by employing some means of information gathering. A descriptive survey research design was employed as a research design. This is because the study is directed towards people and their opinion, and also to allow the researcher a vivid description of how ICTs are being used in secondary schools in Bauchi state.

3.2

Area of the Study The research study was undertaken in Bauchi state. It covers both public and private selected secondary schools in the metropolis.

3.3

Population of the Study The population of this study comprised all secondary school students and teachers in Bauchi, the capital of Bauchi state Nigeria where the study was conducted. Ten (10) secondary schools were randomly selected using the random sampling technique. From the selection, a census of students and teachers in each of the school was taken. These gave a total of 300 respondents which consists of 270 students and 30 teachers.

3.4

Sample and Sampling Techniques Random sampling techniques will be used for selecting the respondents. The sample of this study consists of 10 secondary schools (5 public and 5 private). These schools were randomly selected as representative of the other secondary schools.

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3.5

Development of Instrumentation The instrument for the study was developed by the researcher based on established procedures in literature. The instrument contained three sections. Section A focused on the demographic information of the students and teachers. Section B focused on the accessibility of ICT facilities in the schools while section C contained questions on the extent of usage of these facilities by secondary school students and teachers. A checklist was used by the researcher to determine the availability of these facilities in the selected schools.

3.6

Validation of Instrument The face validity and content validity of the instrument were verified by experts in the Science Education Department, School of Technology Education, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. The various suggestions made were used to modify the instrument.

3.7

Method of Data Collection An introductory letter was collected by the researcher from the Coordinator, Science Education Programme of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, addressed to the principals of the selected schools. The researcher visited the selected schools to administer the questionnaires developed for the study. The 300 questionnaires were administered by the researcher to the sampled respondents and collected back on the spot. Data was collected via the structured questionnaires from both the teachers and students of all the ten (10) secondary schools selected from the metropolis.

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3.8

Method of Data Analysis The responses of both teachers and students to the items of the questionnaire is listed, organized and analyzed in a tabular form by the use of frequency count and simple percentage in research question 2, but in research question 3, a decision mean of 2.00 is used to show the extent of usage. 2.00 is taken because we are having a 3-piont Likert scale questionnaire.

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CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1

Introduction This chapter presents the data collected for the study, thereby making analysis on the findings of the result obtained from the 10 schools. It presents and analyzed the responses of the samples selected for the study in tables, using percentage. The respondent of this study consist of 270 students and 30 teachers drawn from the sampled schools in Bauchi Metropolis.

4.1.1 Research Question 1: How readily available are ICT Facilities for teaching and learning in secondary schools in Bauchi Metropolis? The analysis as it applies to the above research question is as shown on Table 1 below

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Table 1: Availability of ICT Facilities in secondary schools in Bauchi metropolis S/N Facilities S1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Computer Printer Scanner Digital Camera Handset Photocopying Machine Computer Accessories Projector Internet Services Radio Cassette Disc Player Television Set UPS A A A B B B A B B A B A A S2 A A A B A A A A A B B B B S3 A A B B B B B B B A A A B S4 A A B B B A B B A A B A B Decision S5 A A B B B B B B B B B B A S6 A A A B B A B A A B B B A S7 A A B B B B B B A B B B A S8 A A A B B A A A A B A A A S9 B B B B B B B B B B B B B S10 B B B B B B B B B B B B B

Keys

S1 S10 A B

= School 1 to School 10 = Available = Not Available

Remarks From the table above, it was observed that out of the 10 selected schools, ICT facilities are available in schools 1, 2, 6 and 8, and are not available in schools 3, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10.

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4.1.2 Research Question 2: How accessible are ICT facilities to both teachers and students in secondary schools in Bauchi metropolis? The research question 2 is answered on table 2.1 and 2.2. Table 2.1 comprised the responses of 270 students from the ten schools selected, while table 2.2 comprised the responses of the 30 teachers from the ten selected schools.

Table 2.1: Responses from students of the ten selected Secondary Schools in Bauchi Metropolis. S/N 1. Items Computer Accessible Not Accessible 2. Printer Accessible Not Accessible 3. Scanner Accessible Not Accessible 4. Internet Services Accessible Not Accessible 5. Digital Camera 20 250 7.4 92.6 270 21 249 7.8 92.2 270 43 227 15.9 84.1 270 112 158 41.5 58.5 270 Number of Responses Percentages Total

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Accessible Not Accessible 6. Projector Accessible Not Accessible 7. Computer Accessories Accessible Not Accessible Total Accessible Not Accessible

0 270

0 100

270

24 246

8.9 91.1

270

92 178

34.1 65.9

270

312 1578

16.5 83.5

Remarks From the table above, the percentage of accessibility of all the ICT facilities to students is 16.5%, while that of non accessibility is 83.5%. Therefore, the results show that, ICT facilities are not accessible to students in the sampled Secondary Schools in Bauchi Metropolis.

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Table 2.2: Responses from teachers of the ten selected Secondary Schools in Bauchi Metropolis. S/N 1. Items Computer Accessible Not Accessible 2. Printer Accessible Not Accessible 3. Scanner Accessible Not Accessible 4. Internet Services Accessible Not Accessible 5. Digital Camera Accessible Not Accessible 6. Projector Accessible Not Accessible 7. Computer Accessories Accessible 24 80 30 15 15 50 50 30 0 30 0 100 30 21 9 70 30 30 21 9 70 30 30 24 6 80 20 30 24 6 80 20 30 Number of Responses Percentages Total

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Not Accessible Total Accessible Not Accessible

20

129 81

61.4 38.6

Remarks From the table above, the percentage of accessibility of all the ICT facilities to teachers is 61.4%, while that of non accessibility is 38.6%. Therefore, the results show that ICT facilities are accessible to teachers in the sampled Secondary Schools in Bauchi Metropolis.

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4.1.3 Research Question 3: What is the extent of the usage of ICT facilities by both students and teachers in Bauchi metropolis? Table 3 below shows results for the analysis of the research question stated above.

Table 3: Responses from students and teachers of the ten selected Secondary Schools in Bauchi Metropolis. S/N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Items Computer Internet Services Radio Cassette Television Educational Software Research Tools Printer Total Mean Mean 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 8.9/7 = 1.3 Remarks Not Used Not Used Not Used Not Used Not Used Not Used Not Used

Remarks From the table above, all the ICT facilities observed are not being used by both teachers and students of the selected schools. This conclusion is made because the Grand Mean is 1.3, which is less than the decision mean of 2.00.

4.2

Results The results of the study are presented below

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4.2.1 Research Question 1: How readily available are ICT Facilities for teaching and learning in secondary schools in Bauchi Metropolis? As indicated in Table 1, result shows that ICT facilities are not readily available, with items 1 to 13. Findings show that many schools in the state are deficient in the availability of information communication and technology (ICT) equipment. Although most schools have computers and printers, almost all the schools did not have digital cameras, projectors, handsets, computer accessories, radio cassettes, disc players, scanners. This is an indication that ICT materials are not vigorously provided for the schools. 4.2.2 Research Question 2: How accessible are ICT facilities to both teachers and students in secondary schools in Bauchi metropolis? From table 2.1, the finding shows that 16.5% of the students have access to ICT facilities listed 1 to 7, while 83.5% do not have access to these facilities. It further implies that secondary school students in the state do not have access to ICT facilities. From table 2.2, the finding shows that 61.4% of the teachers have access to ICT facilities, while 38.6% of them do not have access to these facilities. The findings further imply that quite a percentage of teachers in secondary schools in the state have access to ICT facilities. 4.2.3 Research Question 3: What is the extent of the usage of ICT facilities by both students and teachers in Bauchi metropolis? From table 3, result shows that ICT facilities are not readily used, with items 1 to 7. The findings indicated that students as well as some teachers of the sampled schools do not use ICT facilities.

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4.3

Summary of the Findings The findings of the study revealed that;

i.

ICT facilities are not readily available in secondary schools in the state. Many schools in the state are deficient in the availability of information communication and technology (ICT) equipment.

ii. iii.

There is a low level of ICT facilities accessibility in secondary schools in the state. ICT facilities are also not used in the secondary schools in the state. This is an indication that ICT materials are not vigorously provided for the schools. It further shows that secondary schools in the state are lagging behind in the level of application of ICT in the teaching-learning process. The ICT facilities are lacking in the schools, the capacity for using ICT by both teachers and students is also very low. Despite the perceived benefits in the use of ICT in schools, there are a lot of factors inhibiting the successful application of ICT in secondary schools.

4.4

Discussion of Findings The foregoing shows the analysis of data collected for this study. It was reviewed that many schools in the state are deficient in the availability of information communication and technology (ICT) equipment and facilities. Although most schools have computers and printers, almost all the schools did not have digital cameras, projectors, handsets, computer accessories, radio cassettes, disc players, scanners. This is an indication that ICT materials are not vigorously provided for the schools and it suggest that, the state is not fully ready to imbibe information communication and technology. This finding was consistent with the findings made by (Kolawole, 1997, Afolabi and Popoola, 1999) which indicated that information communication technology (ICT)

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equipment for effective teaching and learning are deficient in schools. The findings also agreed with those of other researchers (Alebiosu, 2000 and Adeosun, 2002), all of which revealed that equipment and facilities for effective teaching and learning are deficient in Nigerian schools. On students accessibility of ICT facilities, the study reveals that students do not have access to ICT facilities in the state. This Fakeye (2010) attributed to non availability of ICT facilities. He believed that the non availability of these facilities greatly hinders access and inadequate training of teachers on the use and application of the computer. In a rapidly changing world of global market competition, automation, and increasing democratization, basic education is necessary for an individual to have the capacity and capability to access and apply information. Such ability and capacity must find bearing in information and communication technology in the global village. The economic commission for Africa has indicated that the ability to access and effectively utilize ICT facilities is no longer a luxury but a necessity for development. Unfortunately, many developing countries, especially in Africa are already on the wrong side of the digital divide in the educational use of ICT (Aduwa-Ogiegbean and Iyamu, 2005). On teachers accessibility, the result generally show that a considerable number of teachers access ICT. This is an indication that using ICT by the Nigeria secondary school teachers is relatively high. This corroborates the report by (Gray and Souter, 2004) that teachers came out positively with regards to the use of ICTs. It also confirms the assertion that availability usually determines access. If the ICTs are available, this will motivate the teachers to access them than when they are not available or available but not in sufficient quantity and quality.

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The study also revealed that teachers and students were not exposed to the use of ICT. This is a pointer to the low level of application in the teaching learning in secondary schools. The implication is that most of the teachers are still fond of the old method of chalk and talk, the practice which will make them lag behind in the world of ICT. Research works have shown that most secondary schools have either insufficient or no ICT tools to cater for the ever increasing population of students in the schools and where they are available, they are by implication a matter of out-of-bounds to the students (Chattel, 2002; Cheng, 2003; Chiemeke, 2004). Fakeye (2010) also found out in a study carried in Ibadan that most of schools covered in the study do not have computers, hence are not connected to the internet. He added those who have computers do not use them for teaching but solely for administrative purposes. In another study by Okwudishu (2005), he found out that the unavailability of some ICT components in schools hampers teachers use of ICTs.

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CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1

Summary of the Procedure Used The study is about the availability and usage of ICT facilities in some selected secondary schools in Bauchi state. Its purpose is to find out the availability, accessibility and extent of usage of ICT facilities in the state. Literature review was carried out under subheadings such as ICTs as aids to teaching and learning, ICTs as tool for educational management, ICTs in education and for education, obstacles to the use of ICT in secondary schools and the prospects of using ICT. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study, where a sampled population was drawn from ten (10) randomly selected secondary schools within Bauchi metropolis. A structured questionnaire was developed and used for data collection. Responses to the items of the questionnaire were listed, organized and analyzed in a tabular form by the use of frequency count and simple percentage in research question 2, but in research question 3, a decision mean of 2.00 is used to show the extent of usage. Results of the study revealed the following findings; 1. Many secondary schools in the metropolis are deficient in the availability of ICT facilities. 2. Secondary schools students in the metropolis do not have access to ICT facilities. Furthermore, quite a percentage of teachers have access to ICT facilities, while others do not.

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3. Students as well as some teachers do not use ICT facilities in secondary schools in the Metropolis.

5.2

Conclusions The finding of this study shows that ICT facilities are not readily available in our secondary schools and that there is a low level of ICT utilization in our secondary schools. Similarly, it has also shown that secondary schools in Bauchi Metropolis are lagging behind in the level of application of ICT in the teaching-learning process. The ICT facilities are lacking in schools, the capacity for using ICT by both teachers and students is also very low. Despite the perceived benefits in the use of ICT in school, there are a lot of factors inhibiting the successful application of ICT in secondary schools. In order to fit into the new scientific order, it is necessary for Nigerian institutions and individuals alike to develop a society and culture that places a high value on information and communication technology.

5.3

Recommendations The research was aimed at finding the availability of ICT facilities in secondary schools, their accessibility and extent of usage. Based on the findings, it was discovered that ICT facilities are not readily available, accessible (to students and some teachers), and not being used. Therefore, from the findings of the researcher, the following recommendations are made;

i.

Government should ensure that ICT facilities be provided in schools. Education Tax Fund should be involved in procuring computer for secondary schools.

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ii.

Government should revisit the curriculum at secondary schools level with a view to incorporating the use of computer and ICT assisted instruction in the teaching and learning process.

iii.

Teachers at secondary school levels should be trained on the use of ICT facilities through regular seminars and computer literacy workshops to keep them abreast of computer and ICT based instruction. This will help provide them with practical and functional knowledge of the computer, the internet and associated areas of ICT with the hope of integrating it with instructional methods of teaching and learning.

iv.

The government should increase funding for the entire educational sector with emphasis on ICT. This will help improve the level of ICT facilities in the schools.

v.

The state government should endeavour to provide generating set to all schools in the state in order to forestall the intermittent disruption of electricity.

5.4

Suggestions for Further Research It is worthy to note some of the limitations of this study. First, it is limited to secondary schools within Bauchi Metropolis. This is because it drew sample from among private and public secondary schools students and teachers. This means that findings of the study are expected to be applied to only similar environment. Secondly, the sample used in the study was drawn from a local government out of the 22 local governments in the state. In the light of these, future research should try and build on the limitations of this study by expanding its scope to cover more local governments. Effort should as well be made to compare ICT availability and use among students and teachers in private and government own secondary schools in the state.

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