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Lecture VII

General principles of tissue organization. Epithelium


Tissue is a historically (phylogenetically) formed system of the cellular and non-cellular structures, having common constitution and sometimes origin and specialized on performing particular functions. Cell population is the aggregate of the cells of the particular type. Cell programmed differentiation (differon) or histogenetic set is the aggregate of the particular cells (cells of the same population) being in different stages if differentiation. The initial sell of the programmed differentiation is stem cell, then several transitional staged follow: semi-stem, young (blast) and maturing cells, and finally, mature and differentiated cells. Regeneration is the restoration (renewal) of the cells, aimed at the maintenance of the functional activity of the particular system. Forms of regeneration: - physiological regeneration the restoration of the tissue cells after their natural death (e.g. blood formation hemopoiesis) - reparative regeneration the restoration of tissues and organs after their damage (trauma, inflammation, surgery, etc.). Levels of regeneration correspond with the levels of the living matter organization: - cellular (intracellular) - histic (tissue) - organ. Methods of regeneration: - cellular method cell reproduction - intracellular method restoration of the organelles, hypertrophy - substitutive method substitution for the tissue or organ defect by the connective tissue, usually with the formation of a scar (e.g. myocardial scarring after the myocardial infarction). Factors regulating regeneration: - hormones biologically active substances - mediators metabolic processes indicators - chalones synthesized by the somatic cells, inhibiting cell maturation - chalone antagonists growth factors - microenvironment of any cell.
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Epithelial tissue or epithelium forms external and internal tegument of the organism and most of the glands. Functions of epithelium: - defensive (barrier) - secretary - excretory - absorptive (epithelium of gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Structural and functional peculiarities of epithelial tissues: - epithelial cells always lie in layers - epithelial cells always lie on the basal membrane - epithelial tissues do not contain blood or lymph vessels - epithelial cells are strictly differentiated into apical and basal poles - epithelial tissues have high regenerative ability - in epithelial tissues there is a predominance of the cells above the intercellular substance. Structural components of epithelial tissue Epithelial cells are the basic cells of epithelial tissues, they are connected to each other by means of the intercellular junctions: - simple - desmosome - tight - gap-junction (nexus). The cells attach to the basal (basement) membrane by means of hemidesmosomes. The basal membrane is about 1 micrometer thick and consists of: - thin collagenous fibers - amorphous substance consisting of the carbohydrate protein lipid complex. Classification of epithelial tissues: - tegumental forming external and internal tegument - glandular forming most glands of the organism. Morphological classification of tegumental epithelia: - simple squamous epithelium (endothelium lines the vascular system, mesothelium lines natural cavities of the body: pleural, abdominal, pericardial) - simple cuboidal epithelium (e.g. kidney tubules)
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- simple (one-row) columnar epithelium (gastrointestinal tract) - pseudostratified (simple multirowed) epithelium the nuclei lie on different

levels (pulmonary epithelium) - stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium skin (epidermis) - stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium oral cavity, esophagus, vagina - transitional epithelium the form of the cells depends on the functional condition of the organ (urinary bladder). Glandular epithelium forms most glands of the organism. It consists of: - glandular cells glandulocytes - basal membrane. Classification of glands 1) According to the number of the cells: - unicellular (goblet gland) - multicellular (vast majority of glands). 2) According to the structure and method of excretion: - exocrine (excretory), having an excretory duct - endocrine (incretory), having no excretory duct and secreting hormones (incretes) into blood and lymph. 3) According to the manner of secretion in the glandulocyte: - merocrine (eccrine): the cells do not disintegrate after the secretion (sweat and salivary glands) - apocrine: the apical part of the cell disintegrates after the secretion (mammary gland) - holocrine: the cells completely disintegrate after the secretion (sebaceous glands) 4) According to the secretion composition: - protein (serous) - mucous - mixed (protein + mucous) - sebaceous. 5) According to the source of development: - ectodermal - endodermal - mesodermal. 6) According to the structure:
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- simple - compound - branched - unbranched. Exocrine glands consist of secretory portions and excretory ducts. Secretory portions may have a form of an alveole or a tubule. If the excretory duct is branched, the gland is compound and branched as well (alveolar, tubular or tubuloalveolar).