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2.1 Applications

Low-pass : to extract short-term average or to eliminate high-frequency uctuations (eg. noise ltering, demodulation, etc.) High-pass : to follow small-amplitude high-frequency perturbations in presence of much larger slowly-varying component (e.g. recording the electrocardiogram in the presence of a strong breathing signal) Band-pass : to select a required modulated carrier frequency out of many (e.g. radio) Band-stop : to eliminate single-frequency (e.g. mains) interference (also known as notch ltering)

We will start with an analysis of analogue low-pass lters, since a low-pass lter can be mathematically transformed into any other standard type. Design of a lter may start from consideration of The desired frequency response.

11

notch | G( ) |

Figure 2.1: Standard lters. The majority of the time we will consider the rst case. Consider some desired response, in the general form of the (squared) magnitude of the transfer function, . This response is given as i.e.

$

where denotes complex conjugation. If represents a stable lter (its poles are on the LHS of the s-plane) then is unstable (as its poles will be on the RHS). The design procedure consists then of Considering some desired response of .

This means that, for any given lter response in the positive frequency domain, a mirror image exists in the negative frequency domain.

Any frequency-selective lter may be described either by its frequency response (more common) or by its impulse response. The narrower the band of frequencies transmitted by a lter, the more extended in time is its impulse response waveform. Indeed, if the support in the frequency domain is decreased by a factor of (i.e. made narrower) then the required support in the time domain is increased by a factor of (you should be able to prove this). 12

$

! #"

Consider an ideal low-pass lter with a brick wall amplitude cut-off and no phase shift, as shown in Fig. 2.2.

| G( ) | 1

Figure 2.2: The ideal low-pass lter. Note the requirement of response in the negative frequency domain. Calculate the impulse response as the inverse Fourier transform of the frequency response:

G B 2 5 U V8 1 1 0 ) & (' % 8 E D B A @ 9FC#(97 8 6 3 5 3 42

hence,

& U V8 & U aV8 Y X W `("

Figure 2.3 shows the impulse response for the lter (this is also referred to as the lter kernel). The output starts innitely long before the impulse occurs i.e. the lter is not realisable in real time. 13

D G

B CA 5

@ TSD G R

B A @ C#Q & P6

) 1 0

8 E D B A 9FC#@ H I) G B

1 0

& (' %

2 1.5 1

g(t)

0.5 0 0.5 5

Figure 2.3: Impulse response (lter kernel) for the ILPF. The zero crossings occur at integer multiples of .

d

A delay of time

such that

d R VF"V8 & U R e'"e8 & U Y X `(W U V8 1 & (F %

would ensure that most of the response occurred after the input (for large ). The use of such a delay, however, introduces a phase lag proportional to frequency, since . Even then, the lter is still not exactly realisable; instead the design of analogue lters involves the choice of the most suitable approximation to the ideal frequency response.

d d 8 p I9i 8 6 h S% f g$

Assume that the low-pass lter transfer function is a rational function in . The types of lters to be considered in the next few pages are all-pole designs, which means that will be of the form:

)

14

H P7 8 6

9C 8 6 R

x g$

8 96

x g$

P7 8 6

v v v wr

v v v wr

t u5

P7 8 6

9i 8 6

t u5

t u5

t u5

q g$

q P$

r sq

97 8 6

q g$

q P$

U V8

b c1

9i 8 6

Py

task of approximating the ideal magnitude-squared characteristic is that of choosing a suitable denominator polynomial in , i.e. selecting the function in the following expression:

) 8 8 6 P7

q U V8 8 q p U V8 8 h p U V8 8 h

i.e.

q B ) r 8 6 9i

where is the order of the lter. Figure 2.4 shows the response on linear (a) and log (b) scales for various orders .

quency) 2. For large :

)

1.

for

in the region

) v v v )

for 15

in the region

, the steepness of

is a direct function of .

V8 U B

where nominal cut-off frequency and rational function of The choice of is determined by functions such that to unity for and rises rapidly after that.

b 8 h r ) U V48 8

e 90

! G B

B G B

)

r )

9i 8 6

d

U V8 8

U V8 8

9B q

U V8

8 PE

U e8

. is close

(a)

1 0.8

|G()|

n=1 n=2

n=6

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

(b)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

10

log |G()|

10

1 2

10

10

log

10

Figure 2.4: Butterworth lter response on (a) linear and (b) log scales. On a log-log scale the response, for falls off at approx -20db/decade. Proof Express

9i 8 6 97 8 6 U ef48 8 s u8 gi h5

in a binomial expansion:

v v v wr q p U e8 8 96 o ) s t 8 n R q m U V8 8 jl kr ) q R U e8 0 0 8 ) R 6 vR ) q r p q U V8 8

P(97 8 6 R 8 6 9i 8 6

r )

9i 8 6

, the reverse

16

o !

j !

j !

j 0 ! l Pl 0

v v v o ! n 0 ! ) P ! n ) ! 9l r 0 ) 1 r P 0 r 0 ) s 1 l

) R

0 !

v v v !

) 0 ! ! d !

~ t

) } | z A # {#@ R q

U V8 6 vR

C R

G B y A 5 ) r

C R

G B

y 6 R )

) x w( R q

or

G B y A 5 r

Thus

i.e. the poles have the same modulus and equi-spaced arguments. For example, for a fth-order Butterworth low-pass lter (LPF), :

U V8

0 ) 1 1 r 0 r 0 6 S{vV8 U

~ i t

U V8 } | z A ##@ 6 vR

i A

@

Since

belong either to

n 0 0 ! o ) 0 ! ) l ! P ) ! l ) 0 1

or

9PP

) l

n ) 0

v v )

n )

j )

j v v v ) )

o 0 l j o

v l P v l v v

) 0 ) j ) l

PPP

PPP

P9P

g$

$ p

$ m

q

We want to design a stable lter. Since each unstable pole is we can let the stable ones be in , and the unstable ones in

Note that the coefcients are palindromic (read the same in reverse order) this is true for all Butterworth lters. Poles are always on same radii, at angular spacing, with half-angles at each end. If is odd, one pole is real.

G B y

G B y m

) o

j 0 v

j r G C

B y

) o

j 0 ) v n

G B p y r

G B o y

j W

) h

G B p y ) r

G B y 0

SW y

) h

G B y r

)

A

@ U V(! 8

p t A

@ U V(! 8

@ U CV(! 8

m t m A

@ U V(! 8

ax t A

@ U CV8

RC )

R C

x a t

0.5

0.5

1.5

18

o v v o j 0 PPP v v ) ) v j l ) Pl n n o 0 ) l 0 ) o ) j j 0 ) o v 0 v ) PPP PPP v v 0 ) ) v ) v n ) o ) 0 j 0 v v v nl v ) 0 ) ) l o P v n j ) v ) j ) v ) j o j l 0 j ) o v 0 j 0 v v ) ) 0 ) v v v j n j ) l n ) 0 v j o v n l ) o ) o ) o PP9 PP9 ) $ $ $ t PP9 $ r G B y ) o j 0 v n r G B y ) o j 0 v j r ) " ) R ) y

0.5

0.5

a stable pole,

The only design variable for Butterworth LPFs is the order of the lter . If a lter is to have an attenuation at a frequency :

e8 ) )

Butterworth design example Design a Butterworth LPF with at least 40 dB attenuation at a frequency of 1kHz and 3dB attenuation at = 500Hz. Answer

) U

40dB

= 100;

and

x t Py

rads/sec

0

Check: Substitute

which gives

. 19

n

6 i

Hence

0 6

= 7 meets the specication into the transfer function from the above table for

x t

9y

Therefore

Py

PP

U V8

or since usually

Py

G B

Py

i.e.

$

l q ) G B B R r ) Py 1 PP 0 V8 l 0 s B

You may have noticed that the Butterworth response is monotone i.e. it has no ripple. If a certain amount of ripple is allowed in the pass-band and/or the stopband, lters which have a sharper cut-off than the Butterworth lter (for a given order ) can be designed. There are three types of equi-ripple lters:

q Sd

'

. These two expressions are equivalent in that the latter can be derived from the former and so the result is a single Chebyshev polynomial which applies for . Alternatively, can be expressed as a polynomial in , which can be evaluated for any :

t u5 y F y F F q Sd w )

for

20

i.e.

where

t u5

t u5

(W

'

q d

'

for

; and

t u5

' W y

q Sd

Thus:

' t u5 q Sd R eF q d 0 F t } q d

The graphs of Fig. 2.6 below show that, for large , diverges very rapidly for ; for example, . This is just the kind of behaviour we need for a good lter function. For a Chebyshev Type I lter (i.e. equi-ripple in the pass-band):

q d 8 n v j 0 p n v ) m 8 d ) vh

Chebyshev type I notes sets the ripple amplitude in the ripple pass1. The parameter band which is dened as . Since, for will uctuate between and .

v p t ! U e8 8 U V8 8 )

e.g. with , the amplitude will vary between and or 1dB ripple since .

y y h

, ie.

2. At

21

q Sd

is a recurrence relationship which allows the computation of two previous polynomials. Using the recurrence relationship,

e R ) R 0 V 0 F t d R F d 0 F d

from the

q Sd

'

W G B B

y 0

Obviously, the same results are also valid with the Generally,

) R W y r ) r W y F t u5 q Sd r F t } q d

function.

t i } t

U V8

sd

R e ) q v d p { j ) r R

R )

t u5

l 8 6 9i v U V8 x t h Py v

V 0

' 0 X d l Pl

'

R h' n v

d 9i9! 8 6 ! d 8 )

F m d

T (x)

1

T (x)

2

8 6 4

0 2 1 0 2 2

2 2

x T (x)

3

x T (x)

4

30 20 10 0 10 20 30 2 1 0 1 2

100 80 60 40 20 0 20 2 1 0 1 2

d q r vE ) j U V8 '

( 8

cut-off frequency.

By denition,

is given by:

4. For gets large and decreases monotonically, as for the Butterworth LPF, but much more rapidly.

q d

22

9i 8 6

! U Vd8 8

G B

ie.

, since

U ef 8

)

aB

G B

if

is odd and 1 if

is even

G B y p

)

U V 8 7g ig r 0 U V8

t x

R C

! U ##e8 t R

"g }

g i 5

G ey D

7g ig

{g

5 g i } U e8

j r

0 6

d

t u5

U V8 6 d

j H

U V8

6

U V8 6 vR

j R

U V8 6 vR

t u5

k

y A

G B y A 5

sd ) r

) w( R

6 vR

s T8

9(9i 8 6 R 8 6

q

Figure 2.7: Response of Chebyshev type I lter. The lower limit of ripple in the pass-band is . Here .

l Pl

w

9i 8 6

As before, put

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

. Of the

G B

q Sd

i.e. 2 cubics

and

U V8

j r

w

R e

p t m

G Vy D

U e8

U V8 6 vR

t

Therefore

d j

G B y

t r

) h

G B y p

23

0 r ) h ) R y t |

(a)

, and let

n=4

1.2

1.4

1.6

n=1

1.8

(factorised form)

2

|G()|

In general, the poles lie on an ellipse (this is only meaningful for ; if , an ellipse can be drawn through any set of poles). A large means a larger ripple, narrower ellipse and less damped complex poles, ie. a more oscillatory impulse or step response but a steeper cut-off.

n

0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

at a frequency

) )

24

U V8

(W

U e8

ie.

V8

t u5

V8

G B

w

G B

V8

G B

w

Hence

)

(Note

Example Design a Chebyshev Type I LPF to meet the following specications: Maximum ripple of 1dB in pass-band from 0 to 50Hz

= 65 Hz 250 Hz

Answer

ie.

25

l Pl

t u5

t u5

x t

t u5

"

Therefore

. Minimum given by:

t u5

t u5

(W

(W

2. 3dB cut-off:

rads/sec. Minimum

given by:

1 8

for .

l Pl

B

t u5

or

t u5 i

t u5

U V8 W y

(W

y

i.e.

R

e8 t u5

These exhibit equiripple behaviour in the stop-band but have the same behaviour in the pass-band. This beas a Butterworth lter (ie. maximally at around haviour cannot be achieved with an all-pole lter; Chebyshev Type II lters have a transfer function which includes zeroes on the imaginary axis as well as poles in the left-half -plane.

d $ i ~ ~ y B 8

The magnitude-squared response for Chebyshev Type I and II lters in Fig. 2.9. For both these lters, the pass-band edge is at where and the stop-band edge is at where .

|G( )| 1/(1+ 2)

2

|G( )| 1/(1+ 2)

1/A

1/A c r Type I

c r Type II

n

Thus, for

:

y m y p r y ) h p g y B y r ) h y

with zeroes at

26

t i } t

G B

G B

U V8

G B

G B

8 96

G B

8 96

d

where

# z i G # z i

) r )

8 6 P7 8

Example Design a Chebyshev Type II LPF to meet the following specications: 3dB cut-off frequency at 50 Hz

100Hz.

Answer

1. For Chebyshev Type II LPFs, the pass-band behaviour is the same as that of a Butterworth LPF; ie. . Therefore which gives 2.

~ ~t z i G z i t i } t t G B r ( ) ) gi 8 U V8 ! y ) q d

When

! ) ) R B t u5 W y

= 10 and thus:

l v gi ) R 0 t u5

ie.

27

t u5

(W

G B

t u5

Since

) )

8

Elliptic lters3 have a magnitude response which is equi-ripple in both the passband and the stop-band. Elliptic lters are optimum in the sense that, for a given order and for given ripple specications, no other lter achieves a faster transition between the pass-band and the stop-band ie. has a narrower transition bandwidth. The magnitude-squared response of a low-pass elliptic lter is of the form:

) 8 6 9i

where is called a Chebyshev rational function and scribing the ripple properties of

v #! G B B q 8 G B q

Figure 2.10 shows the magnitude-squared response of a typical elliptic lowpass lter. The frequencies represent the edges of the pass- and stop-bands and it is noted that the cut-off frequency is given as . The latter, once again, is not the 3dB point though.

In order to design an elliptic LPF with arbitrary attenuations in both pass-band and stop-band, three of the four parameters:

lter order

can be chosen and the fourth parameter is uniquely dened. The theory behind the determination of the function involves an understanding of Jacobian elliptic functions, which are beyond the scope of this

3

#! G B B q

transition ratio

C B

28

! U V8 B

G B q

#

) y #! B

is a parameter de-

|G( )| 1/(1+ 2)

1/A

p s

Figure 2.10: Elliptic lter response.

course. Hence the design of elliptic lters will not be considered in detail in this lecture course. In any case, elliptic lters are usually designed with the help of graphical procedures (see, for example, Rabiner & Gold, Theory and Application of Digital Signal Processing) or computer programmes (see, for example, Daniels, Approximation methods for the design of passive, active and digital lters). You should remember, however, that for any given specication, the elliptic lter will always be of lower order than any other.

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