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Halogenoalkanes, also known as haloalkanes or alkyl halides, are organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane

have been replaced by halogen atoms, fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. In carbon-halogen bond, halogens have significantly greater electronegativities than carbon except iodine. In result, this functional group is polarized so that the carbon is electrophilic and the halogen is nucleophilic. Halogenoalkanes are can be classified depending on the halogen atom position on the chain of carbon atoms. The carbon which is attached with the halogen atom is linked up with only one other alkyl group in primary halogenoalkanes, whereas directly linked up with two and three other alkyl groups in secondary halogenoalkanes and tertiary halogenoalkanes respectively. In some case, primary halogenoalkanes are counted even though there are no alkyl groups attached to the carbon with the halogen on it. Three characteristics provide important influences on the chemical behavior of halogenoalkanes, these are electronegativity, covalent bond strength and the relative stability of the corresponding halide anions. Fluoroalkanes have the strongest of the carbon-halogen covalent bonds so that they are unreactive. This is stronger single bond than a carbon-carbon bond. The carbon-chlorine covalent bond is slightly weaker than a carbon-carbon bond, and the bonds to the other halogens are weaker. The stability may be estimated from the relative acidities of the H-X acids. All the hydrohalic acids are very strong, but with small differences in the direction HCl < HBr < HI, with the exception of HF. Halogenoarenes, also called haloarene, or aryl Halide, are an organic compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an aromatic ring have been replaced by halogen atoms. The Haloarenes exhibit many differences compare to haloalkanes in the method of preparation and their chemical and phisical properties. Haloalkanes are used in as refrigerants, solvents, blowing agents, aerosol propellants, fire extinguishing media , and in semiconductor device fabrication. One of big consumption of halogenoalkanes (properly speaking, halogenoalkenes) is as a raw material to prepare plastics such as PVC [poly(chloroethene)] from chloroethene and PTFE [poly(tetrafluoroethene)] from tetrafluoroethene. Halogenoalkanes and halogenoarenes react with lots of compounds resulting in a wide range of different target substances. They are useful intermediates in making other organic compounds. Summary of substitution and elimination reaction based on alkyl group structure SN1 and E1

Alkyl Halides

SN2 and E2 both SN2 and E2 will occur Primary (RCH2X) Neither SN1 nor E1 occur (SN2 preferred. E2 preferred when sterically hindered base is used) both SN2 and E2 will occur will occur slowly in high (SN2 preferred if base is weaker than Secondary (R2CHX) dielectric ionizing solvents acetate, pKa = 4.8, E2 preferred if ( SN1 preferred) base is strong) both SN1 and E1 will occur No SN2 will occur Tertiary (R3CX) (SN1 preferred) E2 will dominate if base is strong Rapid SN2 for primary and secondary Allyl will occur slowly in high halides but slow for tertiary. E2 when (H2C=CHCH2X) dielectric ionizing solvents nucleophile is basic. Rapid SN2 for primary and secondary will occur slowly in high Benzyl (C6H5CH2X) halides but slow for tertiary. E2 when dielectric ionizing solvents nucleophile is basic. SN1 and SN2 reaction order based on alkyl group structure o SN2 : CH3X (100%) > RCH2X > R2CHX > R3CX

SN1 : CH3X < RCH2X < R2CHX < R3CX (100%)

Nucleophilicity order o F- < Cl- < Br- < I- In a protic solvent which decrease SN2 rate due to solvating nucleophile o F- > Cl- > Br- > I- In a polar aprotic solvent which increase SN2 reaction due to no solvating nucleophile o F- > Cl- > Br- > I- SN2 in the gas phase

(Both protic and aprotic polar solvent enhance SN1 due to the stabilization of the carbocation intermediate) Leaving group Among halogens: I > Br > Cl > F

Sodium carbonate is also used as a relatively strong base in various settings. For example, sodium carbonate is used as a pH regulator to maintain stable alkaline conditions necessary for the action of the majority of developing agents.[citation needed] It is a common additive in municipal pools used to neutralize the acidic effects of chlorine and raise pH. [2] In cooking, it is sometimes used in place of sodium hydroxide for lying, especially with German pretzels and lye rolls. These dishes are treated with a solution of an alkaline substance in order to change the pH of the surface of the food and thus improve browning. Sodium carbonate is soluble in water, but can occur naturally in arid regions, especially in the mineral deposits (evaporites) formed when seasonal lakes evaporate. Deposits of the mineral natron, natural sodium carbonate decahydrate, have been mined from dry lake bottoms in Egypt since ancient times, when natron was used in the preparation of mummies and in the early manufacture of glass. Sodium carbonate has three known forms of hydrates: sodium carbonate decahydrate (natron), sodium carbonate heptahydrate (not known in mineral form) and sodium carbonate monohydrate (mineral thermonatrite). The anhydrous mineral form of sodium carbonate is quite rare and called natrite. Sodium carbonate also erupts from Tanzania's unique volcano Ol Doinyo Lengai [10] , and probably erupted from other volcanoes in the past [11]. All three mineralogical forms of sodium carbonate, as well as trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate), are also known from ultra-alkaline pegmatitic rocks, i.e. from the Kola Peninsula.

Bumping is a process in which a solvent becomes superheated and then undergoes a sudden release of a large vapor bubble, explosively forcing liquid outside of a flask. You may have tried using boiling chips in organic chemistry lab during a distillation experiment. Boiling chips are made of a porous material and have a nonreactive Teflon

coating - they provide nucleation sites (extremely localized budding for gaseous bubbles) so the liquid boils smoothly/more easily. The air bubbles break the surface tension of the liquid being heated and prevent superheating and bumping. An ebulliator can also be lowered into a distillation flask to introduce small air bubbles this serves the same function as boiling chips.

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