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**Article No. jsvi.1999.2257, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on
**

DYNAMICS OF TR ANSVER SELY VIBR ATING BEAMS

USING FOUR ENGINEER ING THEOR IES

SEON M. HAN, HAYM BENAROYA AND TIMOTHY WEI

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, the State ;niversity of New Jersey,

Piscataway, NJ 08854, ;.S.A.

(Received 18 September 1998, and in ,nal form 22 March 1999)

In this paper, the full development and analysis of four models for the

transversely vibrating uniform beam are presented. The four theories are the

Euler}Bernoulli, Rayleigh, shear and Timoshenko. First, a brief history of

the development of each beam model is presented. Second, the equation of motion

for each model, and the expressions for boundary conditions are obtained using

Hamilton's variational principle. Third, the frequency equations are obtained for

four sets of end conditions: free}free, clamped}clamped, hinged}hinged and

clamped}free. The roots of the frequency equations are presented in terms of

normalized wave numbers. The normalized wave numbers for the other six sets of

end conditions are obtained using the analysis of symmetric and antisymmetric

modes. Fourth, the orthogonality conditions of the eigenfunctions or mode shape

and the procedure to obtain the forced response using the method of eigenfunction

expansion is presented. Finally, a numerical example is shown for a non-slender

beam to signify the di!erences among the four beam models.

1999 Academic Press

1. INTRODUCTION

The beam theories that we consider here were all introduced by 1921. That is, the

problem of the transversely vibrating beam was formulated in terms of the partial

di!erential equation of motion, an external forcing function, boundary conditions

and initial conditions. Many e!orts had been devoted to obtaining and to

understanding the solution of this non-homogeneous initial-boundary-value

problem. However, work on this subject was done in a patchwork fashion by

showing parts of the solution at a time, and there is no paper that presents the

complete solution from the formulation of the governing di!erential equation to its

solution for all four models. The most complete study was done by Traill-Nash and

Collar [1], but they only derived the frequency equations for various end

conditions for four models. In this paper, the partial di!erential equation of motion

for each model is solved in full obtaining the frequency equations for each end

condition, the solutions of these frequency equations in terms of dimensionless

wave numbers, the orthogonality conditions among the eigenfunctions, and the

procedure to obtain the full solution to the non-homogeneous initial-

boundary-value problem using the method of eigenfunction expansion.

0022-460X/99/350935#54 $30.00/0 1999 Academic Press

For engineering purposes, the dimensionless wave numbers are tabulated or

plotted as functions of the slenderness ratio so that the natural frequencies can be

obtained directly for given geometrical and physical properties. The comparisons

among the natural frequencies and the dimensionless wave numbers of the four

models are then made. It is shown that the di!erences between the the

Euler}Bernoulli model and the other models monotonically decreases with

increasing slenderness ratio de"ned by the ratio of length of the beam to the radius

of gyration of the cross-section. A numerical example is given for the case of

a non-slender beam so that the di!erences among models are noticeable.

Following is a brief history of the development of each beam model.

1.1. LITERATURE REVIEW

An exact formulation of the beam problem was "rst investigated in terms of

general elasticity equations by Pochhammer (1876) and Chree (1889) [2]. They

derived the equations that describe a vibrating solid cylinder. However, it is

not practical to solve the full problem because it yields more information than

usually needed in applications. Therefore, approximate solutions for transverse

displacement are su$cient. The beam theories under consideration all yield the

transverse displacement as a solution.

It was recognized by the early researchers that the bending e!ect is the single

most important factor in a transversely vibrating beam. The Euler}Bernoulli model

includes the strain energy due to the bending and the kinetic energy due to the

lateral displacement. The Euler}Bernoulli model dates back to the 18th century.

Jacob Bernoulli (1654}1705) "rst discovered that the curvature of an elastic beam

at any point is proportional to the bending moment at that point. Daniel Bernoulli

(1700}1782), nephew of Jacob, was the "rst one who formulated the di!erential

equation of motion of a vibrating beam. Later, Jacob Bernoulli's theory was

accepted by Leonhard Euler (1707}1783) in his investigation of the shape of elastic

beams under various loading conditions. Many advances on the elastic curves were

made by Euler [3]. The Euler}Bernoulli beam theory, sometimes called the

classical beam theory, Euler beam theory, Bernoulli beam theory, or

Bernoulli}Euler beam theory, is the most commonly used because it is simple and

provides reasonable engineering approximations for many problems. However, the

Euler}Bernoulli model tends to slightly overestimate the natural frequencies. This

problem is exacerbated for the natural frequencies of the higher modes. Also, the

prediction is better for slender beams than non-slender beams.

The Rayleigh beam theory (1877) [4] provides a marginal improvement on the

Euler}Bernoulli theory by including the e!ect of rotation of the cross-section. As

a result, it partially corrects the overestimation of natural frequencies in the

Euler}Bernoulli model. However, the natural frequencies are still overestimated.

Early investigators include Davies (1937) [5], who studied the e!ect of rotary

inertia on a "xed-free beam.

The shear model adds shear distortion to the Euler}Bernoulli model. It should

be noted that this is di!erent from the pure shear model which includes the shear

936 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

distortion and rotary inertia only or the simple shear beam which includes the

shear distortion and lateral displacement only [6]. Neither the pure shear nor

the simple shear model "ts our purpose of obtaining an improved model to

the Euler}Bernoulli model because both exclude the most important factor, the

bending e!ect. By adding shear distortion to the Euler}Bernoulli beam, the

estimate of the natural frequencies improves considerably.

Timoshenko (1921, 1922) [7, 8] proposed a beam theory which adds the e!ect of

shear as well as the e!ect of rotation to the Euler}Bernoulli beam. The Timoshenko

model is a major improvement for non-slender beams and for high-frequency

responses where shear or rotary e!ects are not negligible. Following Timoshenko,

several authors have obtained the frequency equations and the mode shapes for

various boundary conditions. Some are Kruszewski (1949) [9], Traill-Nash and

Collar (1953) [1], Dolph (1954) [10], and Huang (1961) [11].

Kruszewski obtained the "rst three antisymmetric modes of a cantilever beam,

and three antisymmetric and symmetric modes of a free}free beam.

Traill-Nash and Collar gave a fairly complete theoretical treatment as well as

experimental results for the case of a uniform beam. In the "rst part of their paper,

they obtained the expressions for the frequency equation and mode shapes for

six common boundary conditions: "xed}free, free}free, hinged}free,

hinged}hinged, "xed}"xed and "xed}hinged. In the second part of the paper,

they reported the experimental results with the numerical results obtained by

the Euler}Bernoulli, shear, and Timoshenko models. They used non-slender

beams in which the shear and rotary e!ects were important. They reported the

di!erence for the "rst and second natural frequencies predicted by each of the

theoretical models and the experimental values. The summary of the result is

shown in Table 1.

Huang (1961) independently obtained the frequency equations and expressions

for the mode shapes for all six end conditions. The frequency equations are di$cult

to solve except for the case of a simply supported beam. Even when the roots of the

frequency equations are obtained, it is a challenge to present them in a meaningful

way. For example, Traill-Nash and Collar (1953), Dolph (1954), Huang (1961) and

Abbas and Thomas (1977) presented them in di!erent ways.

Kruszewski, Traill-Nash and Collar, and Huang only gave expressions for the

natural frequencies and mode shapes. They did not solve for the complete response

TABLE 1

¹he percentage deviates from the experimental values obtained by ¹raill-Nash and

Collar (1953)

Beam models First natural frequency Second natural frequency

Euler}Bernoulli #14% to #26% #78% to #133%

Shear 0% to #3% !1% to #6%

Timoshenko !1% to #2% !1% to #6%

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 937

of the beam due to initial conditions and external forces. To do so, knowledge of

the orthogonality conditions among the eigenfunctions is required. The

orthogonality conditions for the Timoshenko beam were independently noted by

Dolph (1954) and Herrmann (1955) [12]. Dolph solved the initial and

boundary-value problem for a hinged}hinged beam with no external forces. The

methods used to solve for the forced initial-boundary-value problem and for the

problem with time-dependent boundary conditions are brie#y mentioned in his

paper. A general method to solve for the response of a Timoshenko beam due to

initial conditions and the external forces is given in the book Elastokinetics by

Reismann and Pawlik (1974) [13]. They used the method of eigenfunction

expansion.

A crucial parameter in Timoshenko beam theory is the shape factor. It is also

called the shear coe$cient or the area reduction factor. This parameter arises

because the shear is not constant over the cross-section. The shape factor is

a function of Poisson's ratio and the frequency of vibration as well as the shape of

the cross-section. Typically, the functional dependence on frequency is ignored.

Davies (1948) [5], Mindlin and Deresiewicz (1954) [14], Cowper (1966) [15] and

Spence and Seldin (1970) [16] suggested methods to calculate the shape factor as

a function of the shape of the cross-section and Poisson's ratio. Stephen (1978) [17]

showed variation in the shape factor with frequency.

Despite current e!orts (Levinson (1979, 1981) [18}20] to come up with a new

and better beam theory, the Euler}Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories are

still widely used.

A summary of the four beam theories is tabulated in Table 2. The basic

assumptions made by all models are as follows.

1. One dimension (axial direction) is considerably larger than the other two.

2. The material is linear elastic (Hookean).

3. The Poisson e!ect is neglected.

4. The cross-sectional area is symmetric so that the neutral and centroidal axes

coincide.

5. Planes perpendicular to the neutral axis remain perpendicular after

deformation.

6. The angle of rotation is small so that the small angle assumption can be used.

TABLE 2

Four beam theories

Beam models Bending

moment

Lateral

displacement

Shear

deformation

Rotary

inertia

Euler}Bernoulli ; ;

Rayleigh ;

Shear ;

Timoshenko

938 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

2. EQUATION OF MOTION AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS VIA

HAMILTON'S PRINCIPLE

2.1. THE EULER}BERNOULLI BEAM MODEL

Detailed derivations for the Euler}Bernoulli model can be found in text books

by Benaroya [21], Inman [22], Meirovitch [23}25], Rao [26] and Thomson [27].

Here, the equation of motion is obtained using Hamilton's variational principle.

The potential energy of a uniform beam due to bending is given by

PE

*

@CLBGLE

"

1

2 ,

*

*

"

E*I*

c`v*(x*, t*)

cx*`

`

dx*, (1)

where E* is the modulus of elasticity, I* the area moment of inertia of the

cross-section about the neutral axis, v*(x*, t*) the transverse de#ection at the axial

location x* and time t*, and ¸* the length of the beam. Superscript

*

symbols are

used to signify that they are dimensional quantities. Now, the length scales (¸*, v*,

and x*) are non-dimensionalized by the length of the beam so that dimensionless

quantities (¸, v, and x) are given by

¸"¸*/¸*"1, v"v*/¸*, x"x*/¸*. (2)

In terms of the dimensionless length scales, the potential energy is given by

PE

*

@CLBGLE

"

1

2 ,

¹

"

E*I*

¸*

c`v(x, t)

cx`

`

dx. (3)

The potential energy is non-dimensionalized by E*I*/¸* so that we can write

PE

@CLBGLE

"

1

2 ,

¹

"

c`v(x, t)

cx`

`

dx. (4)

The kinetic energy is given by

KE

*

RP?LQ

"

1

2 ,

*

*

"

j*A*

cv*(x*, t*)

ct*

`

dx*, (5)

where j* is the density of the beam and A* the cross-sectional area. The

cross-sectional area A* is non-dimensionalized by ¸*`, and the time t by 1/c

*

¹

,

where c

*

¹

is the "rst natural frequency yet to be determined. The kinetic energy is

non-dimensionalized by E*I*/¸* so that we can write

KE

RP?LQ

"

1

2 ,

¹

"

j*

¸*"c

*`

¹

E*I*

A

cv(x, t)

ct

`

dx (6)

By non-dimensionalizing the density j* by E*I*/(¸*"c

*`

¹

), we can write

KE

RP?LQ

"

1

2 ,

¹

"

jA

cv(x, t)

ct

`

dx. (7)

The dimensionless Lagrangian, de"ned by KE!PE, is given by

¸"

1

2 ,

¹

"

_

jA

cv(x, t)

ct

`

!

c`v(x, t)

cx`

`

dx, (8)

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 939

The virtual work due to the non-conservative transverse force per unit length

f *(x*, t*) is given by

o=*

LA

"

,

*

*

"

f *(x*, t*) ov*(x*, t*) dx*. (9)

Non-dimensionalizing the work by E*I*/¸* and the transverse external force f * by

¸*`/E*I*, the dimensionless non-conservative work is given by

o=

LA

"

,

¹

"

f (x, t) ov(x, t) dx. (10)

Using the extended Hamilton's principle, by including the non-conservative

forcing, the governing di!erential equation of motion is given by

jA

c`v(x, t)

ct`

#

c"v(x, t)

cx"

"f (x, t), (11)

with the boundary conditions to be satis"ed

c`v

cx`

o

cv

cx

¹

"

"0,

c`v

cx`

ov

¹

"

"0. (12)

Before we go on, let us examine the physical meaning of the boundary conditions

above. v is the dimensionless displacement, the "rst derivative cv/cx is the

dimensionless slope, the second derivative c`v/cx` is the dimensionless moment,

and the third derivative c`v/cx` is the dimensionless shear. Keep in mind that

ov"0 means that the variation of the displacement is zero. That is, the

displacement is known. It does not necessarily mean that the displacement is zero.

Here, we do not consider base excited or end forcing problems. Therefore, only in

our case, ov"0 or o(cv/cx)"0 means that the displacement or the slope is zero. In

order for equation (12) to be satis"ed, four combinations of end conditions are

possible,

c`v

cx`

"0, v"0 for hinged end;

cv

cx

"0, v"0 for clamped end;

c`v

cx`

"0,

c`v

cx`

"0 for free end;

cv

cx

"0,

c`v

cx`

"0 for sliding end. (13)

These conditions are shown in Figure 1 where D, S, M, and Q represent

displacement, slope, moment and shear respectively.

The equation of motion, boundary conditions, and initial conditions form an

initial-boundary-value problem which can be solved using the methods of

separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion. First, we consider

a homogeneous problem by setting f (x, t)"0 in order to obtain the natural

frequencies and eigenfunctions. By separating v(x, t) into two functions such that

v(x, t)"=(x) ¹(t), the equation of motion (11) can be separated into two ordinary

940 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Figure 1. Four types of boundary conditions: (a) hinged, M(0, t)"0, D(0, t)"0; (b) clamped,

D(0, t)"0, S(0, t)"0; (c) free, M(0, t)"0, Q(0, t)"0; (d) sliding, S(0, t)"0, Q(0, t)"0.

di!erential equations,

d`¹(t)

dt`

#c`¹(t)"0,

d"=(x)

dx"

!a"=(x)"0, (14, 15)

where a is related to the angular frequency c by

a""jAc`. (16)

The quantity a is 1/2¬ times the number of cycles in a beam length, and we call a the

dimensionless wave number.R Equation (16) is called the dispersion relationship.

From Equations (14) and (15), ¹(t) is sinusoidal in time, and =(x) has both

sinusoidal and hyperbolic terms:

¹(t)"d

¹

sinct#d

`

cos ct, (17)

=(x)"C

¹

sin ax#C

`

cos ax#C

`

sinhax#C

"

coshax, (18)

where d

G

and C

G

are constant coe$cients.

Note that the boundary conditions can be expressed in terms of the spatial

function =(x) only. For instance, equation (12) can be rewritten as

d`=

dx`

o

d=

dx

¹

"

"0,

d`=

dx`

o=

¹

"

"0. (19)

from which we can obtain four possible end conditions, as in equation (13), in terms

of =(x) only. Now we are ready to apply the boundary conditions to the spatial

solution to obtain the corresponding frequency equations and eigenfunctions. This

is done is Section 3.2. We proceed next with the Rayleigh beam model.

2.2. THE RAYLEIGH BEAM MODEL

As mentioned in the introduction, the Rayleigh beam adds the rotary inertia

e!ects to the Euler}Bernoulli beam. The variables are non-dimensionalized in the

same fashion, and they are tabulated in Appendix A. The kinetic energy due to the

RWe are de"ning the wave number as a*"2¬/wavelength* so that the dimensionless wave number

is given by a"2¬/wavelength.

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 941

rotation of the cross-section is given by

KE

PMR

"

1

2 ,

¹

"

jI

c`v(x, t)

ctcx

`

dx, (20)

where I* is non-dimensionalized by ¸*". Combining equation (20) with equations

(4), (7) and (10) to form the Lagrangian and using Hamilton's principle, we obtain

the equation of motion given by

jA

c`v(x, t)

ct`

#

c"v(x, t)

cx"

!jI

c"v(x, t)

cx`ct`

"f (x, t), (21)

with the boundary conditions given by

c`v

cx`

o

cv

cx

¹

"

"0,

c`v

cx`

!jI

c`v

cxct`

ov

¹

"

"0, (22)

where v is the dimensionless displacement, cv/cx the dimensionless slope, c`v/cx`

the dimensionless moment and c`v/cx`!jI(c`v/cxct`) the dimensionless shear.

Four possible end conditions are

c`v

cx`

"0, v"0 for hinged end;

cv

cx

"0, v"0 for clamped end;

c`v

cx`

"0,

c`v

cx`

!jI

c`v

cxct`

"0 for free end;

cv

cx

"0,

c`v

cx`

!jI

c`v

cxct`

"0 for sliding end. (23)

The expression for shear might seem odd. Its validity can be veri"ed by summing

the forces and moments on an incremental beam element, as shown in Figure 2. The

sum of the forces on a beam element in the transverse direction isR

F

W

"j*A* dx*

c`v*

ct*`

"!(Q*#dQ*) cos(0#d0)#Q* cos 0#f *(x*, t*) dx*, (24)

where 0 can be approximated as cv/cx or cv*/cx*, and dQ* and d0 represent

(cQ*/cx*) dx* and (c0/cx*) dx* respectively. Expanding cos(0#d0) about 0 using

a Taylor series expansion and using the small angle assumption,S we obtain

!

cQ*

cx*

"j*A*

c`v*

ct*`

!f *(x*, t*). (25)

Similarly, taking the sum of the moments about the center of the beam element, we

obtain

cM*

cx*

!Q*"j*I*

c`v*

ct*`cx*

. (26)

RSymbols with superscript

*

are dimensional quantities.

SThe small angle assumption means that 0`1.

942 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Figure 2. An incremental beam element.

Taking the "rst derivative of equation (26) with respect to x*, and subtracting

equation (25) from it, we obtain

c`M*

cx*`

"j*I*

c"v*

ct*`cx*`

!j*A*

c`v*

ct*`

#f *(x*, t*) , (27)

whose dimensionless form is given by

c`M

cx`

"jI

c"v

ct`cx`

!jA

c`v

ct`

#f (x, t) . (28)

Comparing this with the equation of motion (21), the moment is given by

M"

c`v

cx`

or M*"E*I*

c`v*

cx*`

. (29)

Using equation (29) and (26), the shear is given by

Q*"E*I*

c`v*

cx*`

!j*I*

c`v*

ct*`cx*

, (30)

or

Q"

c`v

cx`

!jI

c`v

ct`cx

,

which veri"es our interpretation.

In order to obtain the homogeneous solution, f (x, t) is set equal to zero in

equation (21). Separating v(x, t) into spatial and time functions, v(x, t)"=(x)¹(t),

equation (21) can also be separated into two ordinary di!erential equations. The

time function ¹(t) obeys the same di!erential equation as the one for the

Euler}Bernoulli model given in equation (14), and the spatial di!erential equation

is given by

d"=(x)

dx"

!c`

jA=(x)!jI

d`=(x)

dx`

"0. (31)

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 943

Again, the time solution ¹(t) is sinusoidal, and the spatial solution =(x) has both

sinusoidal and hyperbolic terms,

¹(t)"d

¹

sin ct#d

`

cos ct, (32)

=(x)"C

¹

sinax#C

`

cos ax#C

`

sinhbx#C

"

coshbx, (33)

where the dispersion relations are

a"(jIc`/2#((jIc`/2)`#jAc`,

b"(!jIc`/2#((jIc`/2)`#jAc`. (34)

Note that there are two wave numbers in this case. It will be shown in Section 3.3

that these wave numbers are related only by the slenderness ratio.

The boundary conditions given in equation (22) can be written in terms of =(x)

only,

d`=

dx`

o

d=

dx

¹

"

"0,

d`=

dx`

#jIc`

d=

dx

o=

¹

"

"0. (35)

2.3. THE SHEAR BEAM MODEL

This model adds the e!ect of shear distortion (but not rotary inertia) to the

Euler}Bernoulli model. We introduce new variables :, the angle of rotation of the

cross-section due to the bending moment, and [, the angle of distortion due to

shear. The total angle of rotation is the sumof : and [ and is approximately the "rst

derivative of the de#ection,

:(x, t)#[(x, t)"cv(x, t)/cx. (36)

Therefore, the potential energy due to bending given in equation (4) is slightly

modi"ed in this case such that

PE

@CLBGLE

"

1

2 ,

¹

"

c:(x, t)

cx

`

dx. (37)

The potential energy due to shear is given by

PE

*

QFC?P

"

1

2 ,

*

"

k'G*A*

cv*(x*, t*)

cx*

!:(x*, t*)

`

dx*. (38)

Using the dimensionless length scales and the dimensionless potential energy

expressions,

PE

QFC?P

"

1

2 ,

*

"

k'

G*¸*"

E*I*

A

cv(x, t)

cx

!:(x, t)

`

dx. (39)

Non-dimensionalizing G* by E*I*/¸*", we can write

PE

QFC?P

"

1

2 ,

¹

"

k'GA

cv(x, t)

cx

!:(x, t)

`

dx, (40)

944 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

TABLE 3

¹he shear factor

Cross section k'

Circle 6(1#v)

7#6v

Hollow circle with m"r

GLLCP

/r

MSRCP

6(1#v)(1#m`)`

(7#6v) (1#m`)`#(20#12v) m`

Rectangle

10(1#v)

12#11v

Thin-walled round tube

2(1#v)

4#3v

Thin-walled square tube

20(1#v)

48#39v

where k' is the shape factor. Following Cowper's [15] work, some of the values are

tabulated in Table 3.

Together with the kinetic energy due to lateral displacement given in equation

(7), the Lagrangian is given by

¸"

1

2 ,

¹

"

_

jA

cv(x, t)

ct

`

!

c:(x, t)

cx

`

!k'GA

cv(x, t)

cx

!:(x, t)

`

dx. (41)

Unlike in the Euler}Bernoulli and the Rayleigh beam models, there are two

dependent variables for the shear beam. The equations of motion, using Hamilton's

principle, are given by

jA

c`v(x, t)

ct`

!k'GA

c`v(x, t)

cx`

!

c:(x, t)

cx

"f (x, t), (42)

c`:(x, t)

cx`

#k'GA

cv(x, t)

cx

!:(x, t)

"0,

with the boundary conditions given by

c:

cx

o:

¹

"

"0, k'GA

cv

cx

!:

ov

¹

"

"0. (43)

v is the dimensionless displacement, : the angle of rotation due to the bending

moment, c:/cx the dimensionless moment, and k'GA(cv/cx!:(x, t)) the

dimensionless shear. Four possible boundary conditions are

c:

cx

"0, v"0 for hinged end; :"0, v"0 for clamped end; (44)

c:

cx

"0, k'GA

cv

cx

!:

"0 for free end; :"0,

cv

cx

!:

**"0 for sliding end.
**

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 945

Note that the slope due to the bending moment : is zero (instead of the total slope

cv/cx) at the clamped or sliding end.

Now, we try to solve the homogeneous problem without the external forcing

function. The two equations of motion (42) can be decoupled to yield

c"v(x, t)

cx"

!

j

k'G

c"v(x, t)

cx`ct`

#jA

c`v(x, t)

ct`

"0,

c":(x, t)

cx"

!

j

k'G

c":(x, t)

cx`ct`

#jA

c`:(x, t)

ct`

"0. (45)

Note that the forms of the di!erential equations for v and : are identical.R

Therefore, we can expect that the forms of v(x, t) and :(x, t) are the same.

The next step is to separate the variables. Here, we "rst assume that they share

the same time solution ¹(t). In other words, v(x, t) and :(x, t) are synchronized in

time,

_

v(x, t)

:(x, t)

"¹(t)

_

=(x)

(x)

. (46)

Now, let us substitute the above expression into the governing di!erential equation

(42) without the term f (x, t) to obtain

jA=(x) ¹G (t)!k'GA(="(x)!' (x)) ¹(t)"0,

"(x)¹(t)#k'GA(=' (x)!(x))¹(t)"0, (47)

where the prime and dot notations are used for the derivatives with respect to x and

t respectively. The "rst expression in equation (47) can be separated into two

ordinary di!erential equations given by

¹G (t)#c`¹(t)"0,

k'GA(="(x)!' (x) )#c`jA=(x)"0. (48)

Again, ¹(t) is sinusoidal with angular frequency c as in equation (17). The spatial

equations, the second in equation (47) and the second in equation (48), are written

using matrix notation as

0"

_

k'GA

0

0

1_

="(x)

"(x)

#

_

0

k'GA

!k'GA

0 _

=' (x)

' (x)

#

_

jAc`

0

0

!k'GA _

=(x)

(x)

. (49)

These equations can be decoupled to yield

='''' (x)#

jc`

k'G

="(x)!jAc`=(x)"0,

'''' (x)#

jc`

k'G

"(x)!jAc`(x)"0. (50)

RThe equations can be decoupled in this way only when the cross-sectional area and the density are

uniform.

946 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Note that the di!erential equations for =(x) and (x) have the same form, so that

we can further assume that the solutions of =(x) and (x) also have the same form

and only di!er by a constant as

_

=(x)

(x)

"duePV, (51)

where d is the constant coe$cient, u a vector of constant numbers and r the wave

number.

When equation (51) is substituted into equation (49), we obtain

_

k'GAr`#jAc`

k'GAr

!k'GAr

r`!k'GA

u"0, (52)

from which we obtain the eigenvalues r and eigenvectors u. In order to have

a non-trivial solution, the determinant of the above matrix has to be zero, that is,

r"#

jc`

k'G

r`!jAc`"0. (53)

The eigenvalues are given by

r

G

"$

,

!

jc`

2k'G

$

,

jc`

2k'G

`

#jAc` for i"1, 2, 3, 4, (54)

of which two are real and the other two are imaginary. The corresponding

dimensionless eigenvectors u

G

are given by

u

G

"

_

k'GAr

G

k'GAr`

G

#jAc`

or

_

r`

G

!k'GA

!k'GAr

G

. (55)

The spatial solution is given by

_

=(x)

(x)

"

"

G¯¹

d

G

u

G

ePG V

"d

¹

u

¹

e@V#d

`

u

`

e@V#d

`

u

`

e?V#d

"

u

"

e?V, (56)

where

a"

,

jc`

2k'G

#

,

jc`

2k'G

`

#jAc`, b"

,

!

jc`

2k'G

#

,

jc`

2k'G

`

#jAc`.

(57)

We can write the spatial solution (56) in terms of the sinusoidal and hyperbolic

functions with real arguments,

_

=(x)

(x)

"

_

C

¹

D

¹

sin ax#

_

C

`

D

`

cos ax#

_

C

`

D

`

sinhbx#

_

C

"

D

"

cosh bx. (58)

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 947

It may seem that the spatial solution has eight unknown constant coe$cients,

C

G

and D

G

, instead of the four that we started with [d

G

in equation (56) ]. By

expressing the exponential functions ePG V in equation (56) in terms of sinusoidal and

hyperbolic functions, the expressions for the coe$cients C

G

and D

G

are obtained in

terms of eigenvectors,

_

C

¹

D

¹

"(d

`

u

`

!d

"

u

"

) i,

_

C

`

D

`

"d

`

u

`

#d

"

u

"

,

_

C

`

D

`

"(d

¹

u

¹

!d

`

u

`

) ,

_

C

`

D

`

"d

¹

u

¹

#d

`

u

`

. (59)

Keeping in mind that d

`

and d

"

are complex conjugates of each other, we obtain

D

¹

"!

k'GAa`!jAc`

k'GAa

C

`

, D

`

"

k'GAa`!jAc`

k'GAa

C

¹

,

D

`

"

k'GAb`#jAc`

k'GAb

C

"

, D

"

"

k'GAb`#jAc`

k'GAb

C

`

. (60)

Therefore, there are four unknowns. These relations can be obtained more

easily by substituting the assumed solution (58) into the spatial di!erential

equations (49).

The boundary conditions in equation (43) are written in terms of spatial solutions

as

d

dx

o

¹

"

"0, k'GA

d=

dx

!

o=

¹

"

"0. (61)

2.4. THE TIMOSHENKO BEAM MODEL

Timoshenko proposed a beam theory which adds the e!ects of shear distortion

and rotary inertia [7, 8] to the Euler}Bernoulli model.R Therefore, the Lagrangian

includes the e!ects of bending moment (37), lateral displacement (7), rotary inertia

(20) and shear distortion (40). We assume that there is no rotational kinetic energy

associated with shear distortion, but only with the rotation due to bending.

Therefore, the kinetic energy term used in the Rayleigh beam (20) is modi"ed to

include only the angle of rotation due to bending by replacing cv/cx with :.

Combining modi"ed equation (20) with equations (7), (37) and (40), the

Lagrangian is given by

¸"

1

2 ,

¹

"

_

jA

cv(x, t)

ct

`

#jI

c:(x, t)

ct

`

!

c:(x, t)

cx

`

!k'GA

cv(x, t)

cx

!:(x, t)

`

dx. (62)

REquivalently, the Timoshenko model adds rotary inertia to the shear model or adds shear

distortion to the Rayleigh model.

948 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

The equations of motion are given by

jA

c`v(x, t)

ct`

!k'GA

c`v(x, t)

cx`

!

c:(x, t)

cx

"f (x, t),

jI

c`:(x, t)

ct`

!

c`:(x, t)

cx`

!k'GA

cv(x, t)

cx

!:(x, t)

"0, (63)

and the boundary conditions are given by

c:

cx

o:

¹

"

"0, k'GA

cv

cx

!:

ov

¹

"

"0, (64)

which are identical to those of the shear beam.

In order to solve the homogeneous problem, the forcing function is set to zero.

The equations of motion (63) can be decoupled into

c"v

cx"

!

jI#

j

k'G

c"v

cx`ct`

#jA

c`v

ct`

#

j`I

k'G

c"v

ct"

"0,

c":

cx"

!

jI#

j

k'G

c":

cx`ct`

#jA

c`:

ct`

#

j`I

k'G

c":

ct"

"0, (65)

where it is implied that v and : are functions of x and t. Again, both v(x, t) and :(x, t)

obey di!erential equations of the same form, so that we can make the same

argument as we did for the shear beam that v(x, t) and :(x, t) themselves are of the

same form.

First, we use the method of separation of variables to separate the equations of

motion (63) to obtain the time and the spatial ordinary di!erential equations. The

time equation is the same as the ones for the other models given in equation (14),

and the spatial equation is given by

0"

_

k'GA

0

0

1_

="(x)

"(x)

#

_

0

k'GA

!k'GA

0 _

=' (x)

' (x)

#

_

jAc`

0

0

Jc`!k'GA _

=(x)

(x)

. (66)

Following the procedure used previously from equations (46)}(53), we obtain the

characteristic equation

r"#

jI#

j

k'G

c`r`!jAc`#

j`I

k'G

c""0, (67)

whose roots are

r"$

,

!

I#

1

k'G

jc`

2

$

,

I!

1

k'G

` j`c"

4

#jAc`. (68)

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 949

Of the four roots, the two given by

r

¹ `

"$

,

!

I#

1

k'G

jc`

2

!

,

I!

1

k'G

` j`c"

4

#jAc`

are always imaginary, and the other two roots given by

r

` "

"$

,

!

I#

1

k'G

jc`

2

#

,

I!

1

k'G

` j`c"

4

#jAc` (69)

are either real or imaginary depending on the frequency c (for a given material and

geometry). They are real when the frequency is less than (k'GA/jI and are

imaginary when the frequency is greater than (k'GA/jI. We call this cuto!

frequency the critical frequency c

A

. Therefore, we must consider two cases when

obtaining spatial solutions: c(c

A

and c'c

A

.

When c(c

A

, the spatial solution is written in terms of both sinusoidal and

hyperbolic terms,

_

=(x)

(x)

"

_

C

¹

D

¹

sinax#

_

C

`

D

`

cos ax#

_

C

`

D

`

sinhbx#

_

C

"

D

"

coshbx, (70)

where

a"

,

I#

1

k'G

jc`

2

#

,

I!

1

k'G

` j`c"

4

#jAc`,

b"

,

!

I#

1

k'G

jc`

2

#

,

I!

1

k'G

` j`c"

4

#jAc`. (71)

and C

G

and D

G

are related by equation (60).

When c'c

A

, the spatial solution only has sinusoidal terms,

_

=(x)

(x)

"

_

CI

¹

D

¹

sin ax#

_

CI

`

D

`

cos ax#

_

CI

`

D

`

sin b

J

x#

_

CI

"

D

"

cos b

J

x, (72)

where

a"

,

I#

1

k'G

jc`

2

#

,

I!

1

k'G

` j`c"

4

#jAc`,

b

J

"

,

I#

1

k'G

jc`

2

!

,

I!

1

k'G

` j`c"

4

#jAc`, (73)

and CI

G

and D

G

are related by

D

¹

"!

k'GAa`!jAc`

k'GAa

CI

`

, D

`

"

k'GAa`!jAc`

k'GAa

CI

¹

,

D

`

"!

k'GAb

J

`!jAc`

k'GAb

J

CI

"

, D

"

"

k'GAb

J

`!jAc`

k'GAb

J

CI

`

, (74)

950 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Notice that b and b

J

are related by

b"ib

J

. (75)

Let us examine the frequency and the wave number where the transition occurs.

This critical frequency can be written as

c

A

"

,

k'GA

jI

"

1

k ,

k'G

j

, (76)

where k is the dimensionless radius of gyration or the inverse of the slenderness

ratio,

k"

,

I*

A*

1

¸*

"

1

s

. (77)

By substituting equation (76) into equations (71) and (73), the critical wave numbers

are

a

A

"

1

k

((k'GI#1), b

A

"b

J

A

"0. (78)

Writing in terms of dimensional variables

a

A

"

1

k ,

k'

G*

E*

#1

"

1

k ,

1

¸`

#1

, (79)

where ¸ is given byR

¸`"

E*

k'G*

"

2(1#v)

k'

. (81)

Recall that k' depends on the Poisson ratio and the shape of the cross-section. Both

k' and v do not vary much so that we can say that the critical wave number

essentially depends on the slenderness ratio.

Also, the case when c(c

A

is equivalent to the case when a(a

A

. This can be

veri"ed by taking a derivative of a in the dispersion relationship [equations (71) or

(73)] with respect to c. We will "nd that the derivative is always positive implying

that a is a monotonically increasing function of c.

3. NATURAL FREQUENCIES AND MODE SHAPES

So far, we have obtained the spatial solutions with four unknowns [equations

(18) for the Euler}Bernoulli and Rayleigh models, equations (58) with equation (60)

for the shear and the Timoshenko models for c(c

A

, and equation (72) with

equation (74) for the Timoshenko model for c'c

A

], and we have identi"ed the

possible boundary conditions that the spatial solutions have to satisfy equation (19)

RHere, we use

G*"E*/2(1#v). (80)

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 951

for the Euler}Bernoulli, equation (35) for the Rayleigh and equation (61) for the

shear and Timoshenko models]. The next step is to apply a set of boundary

conditions in order to obtain the four unknown coe$cients in the spatial solution.

Upon applying the boundary conditions, we obtain four simultaneous equations

which can be written as

[F]

"

;

"

¦C}

"

;

¹

"¦0}

"

;

¹

, (82)

where ¦C} is the vector of coe$cients in the spatial solution, and the matrix [F]

typically has sinusoidal and hyperbolic functions evaluated at the end points. The

determinant of [F] has to be zero to avoid the trivial solution or ¦C}"0. At this

point, the best we can do is to reduce the number of unknowns from four to one.

The equation obtained by setting the determinant to zero is the frequency equation,

which has an in"nite number of roots. For each root, the coe$cients C

G

of the

corresponding spatial solution are unique only to a constant. The roots are in the

form of dimensionless wave numbers, which can be translated into natural

frequencies using the dispersion relationships. The corresponding spatial solutions

are called the eigenfunctions or the mode shapes. The remaining constant in the

eigenfunction is usually determined by normalizing the modal equation for

convenience.R In this section, for each model, we obtain the frequency equations,

their roots and the mode shapes for four of the ten boundary conditions. Those for

the other six cases are obtained using the symmetric and antisymmetric modes.

3.1. SYMMETRIC AND ANTISYMMETRIC MODES

First, let us identify all 10 cases. They are free}free, hinged}hinged, clamped}

clamped, clamped}free, sliding}sliding, free}hinged, free}sliding, clamped}hinged,

clamped}sliding and hinged}sliding supports. Using the symmetric and

antisymmetric modes, we try to minimize the cases to be considered.

Excluding the rigid-body mode, the free}sliding is the symmetric modeS and the

free}hinged is the antisymmetric mode of the free}free case as shown in Figure 3.

Similarly, the clamped}sliding is the symmetric mode and the clamped}hinged is

the antisymmetric mode of the clamped}clamped case. The hinged}sliding is the

symmetric mode of the hinged}hinged case and the antisymmetric mode of the

sliding}sliding case.

Once we obtain the dimensionless wave numbers of the free}free, hinged}hinged,

clamped}clamped, and clamped}free cases, we can "nd the dimensionless wave

numbers of the remaining cases using the de"nition of the dimensionless wave

number. The dimensionless wave number is 1/2¬ times the number of cycles

contained in the beam length. As shown in Figure 3 for the free}free beam, the

Rsee sections 5.1 and 5.2 for normalization process.

SThe symmetric mode of the free}free beam requires that the total slope of the beam v' (x, t) in the

middle of the beam is zero. On the other hand, for the shear and Timoshenko models, the free}sliding

beam requires that the angle of rotation due to bending : is zero at the sliding end. It seems that the

symmetric mode of the free}free beam cannot represent the free}sliding beam. However, if we look

more closely, the other condition for the sliding end is that ["0 which leads to v'"0. Therefore, the

free}sliding beam can be replaced by the symmetric mode of the free}free beam.

952 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Figure 3. The (a) symmetric and (b) antisymmetric modes of the free}free beam.

Figure 4. The "rst three modes of the sliding}sliding beam: (a) "rst, (b) second, (c) third.

symmetric (free}sliding) and the antisymmetric (free}hinged) cases contain half of

the cycles contained in the free}free case. Therefore, the dimensionless wave

numbers are also half of that of the free}free case. The dimensionless wave

numbers are related as shown in Table 4. Keep in mind that the rigid-body mode

(a

¹

"0) is omitted for the free}sliding, free}hinged, free}free, sliding}sliding cases.

Note that the "rst mode of the free}free and the clamped}clamped cases are

symmetric whereas the "rst mode of sliding}sliding case is antisymmetric as shown

in Figure 4.

From the last four relations in Table 4, we can further deduce that the

sliding}sliding support case is the same as the hinged}hinged case. Therefore, there

are only four cases to be considered: free}free, hinged}hinged, clamped}clamped,

clamped}free. Similarly, the mode shapes of these four cases can be used to

generate the mode shapes of the other six cases. For instance, the "rst and third

mode shapes (symmetric modes) of the free}free case generate the "rst and second

mode shapes of the free}sliding case (excluding the rigid-body mode), and the

second and fourth mode shapes (antisymmetric modes) generate the "rst and

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 953

TABLE 4

¹he relationship between normalized wave numbers of various boundary conditions for

n"1, 2, 3,

2

1. aDPCCQJGBGLE

L

"¹

`

a

DPCCDPCC

`L¹

5. aFGLECBQJGBGLE

L

"¹

`

a

FGLECBFGLECB

`L¹

2. aDPCCFGLECB

L

"¹

`

a

DPCCDPCC

`L

6. aFGLECBFGLECB

L

"¹

`

a

FGLECBFGLECB

`L

3. aAJ?KNCBQJGBGLE

L

"¹

`

a

AJ?KNCBAJ?KNCB

`L¹

7. aQJGBGLEQJGBGLE

L

"¹

`

a

QJGBGLEQJGBGLE

`L

4. aAJ?KNCBFGLECB

L

"¹

`

a

AJ?KNCBAJ?KNCB

`L

8. aQJGBGLEFGLECB

L

"¹

`

a

QJGBGLEQJGBGLE

`L¹

second mode shapes of the free}hinged case as shown in Figure 3. Similarly, mode

shapes of the sliding}sliding case can be generated by hinged}hinged case.

It is important to note that it is implied in Figure 3 that the cross-sectional areas

of the beams are the same, and the lengths of the free}sliding or free}hinged beams

are half of the free}free beam. In fact, this does not always have to be the case. As

long as the slenderness ratio of the free}free beam is twice that of the free}sliding or

free}hinged beam, this analysis works. Therefore, more precisely, we can say that

the dimensionless wave numbers of the free}free beam with the slenderness ratio of

s is twice the dimensionless wave numbers of the free}sliding or free}hinged case

with the slenderness ratio of s/2.

3.2. THE EULER-BERNOULLI BEAM MODEL

The spatial solution =(x) is given in equation (18), and the expressions for the

boundary conditions are given in equation (13). Here the dimensionless wave

numbers are obtained by applying the four sets of boundary conditions to the

spatial solution.

One special characteristic of this model is that the frequency equations for the

free}free and clamped}clamped cases are the same. This is the case only for this

model. The frequency equations for four cases and the "rst "ve dimensionless wave

numbers are tabulated in Table 5. The wave numbers for the remaining cases, using

Table 4, are tabulated in Table 6. Note that we were able to obtain the numerical

values for the dimensionless wave numbers. It will be shown that for other models,

it is not possible to do so.

The actual frequency of vibration can be found using the dispersion relationship

in equation (16). That is,

c*"

,

E*I*

j*A*¸*"

a`. (83)

Using the dispersion relationship, we can also write

c*

L

¸*(j*/E*"

a`

L

s

, (84)

so that we can plot c*

L

¸*(j*/E* as a function of 1/s. This will be useful when we

compare the natural frequencies predicted by other models.

954 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

TABLE 5

¹he frequency equations and the ,rst ,ve wave numbers of Euler}Bernoulli model

The frequency equation a

¹

a

`

a

`

a

"

a

`

c-c and f-f cos a cosh a!1"0 4)730 7)853 10)996 14)137 17)279

h-h or s-s sina sinha"0 ¬ 2¬ 3¬ 4¬ 5¬

c-f cos a cosh a#1"0 1)875 4)694 7)855 10)996 14)137

TABLE 6

¹he ,rst ,ve wave numbers obtained using the symmetric and antisymmetric modes

a

¹

a

`

a

`

a

"

a

`

c-s and f-s 2)365 5)498 8)639 11)781 14)923

c-h and f-h 3)927 7)069 10)210 13)352 16)493

h-s 0)5¬ 1)5¬ 2)5¬ 3)5¬ 4)5¬

3.3. THE RAYLEIGH BEAM MODEL

The expressions for the boundary conditions are given in equation (23). Unlike in

the Euler}Bernoulli beam case, there are two wave numbers in the Rayleigh beam,

a and b.R The frequency equation will have both a and b. In order to "nd the

solution to the frequency equations, one of the wave numbers has to be expressed in

terms of the other so that the frequency equation is a function of one wave number

only, let us say a. Following is the procedure used to express b in terms of a.

The dispersion relations given in equation (34) can be written as

a`"B

¹

#(B`

¹

#B

`

, b`"!B

¹

#(B`

¹

#B

`

, (85)

where B

¹

and B

`

, in this case, are

B

¹

"

jIc`

2

, B

`

"jAc`. (86)

Solving for B

¹

and B

`

in equation (85) we obtain

B

¹

"(a`!b`) /2, B

`

"a`b` (87)

Note that equations (87) are still the dispersion relations. Now, let us examine the

ratio of B

¹

to B

`

. From equations (87) and (86),

B

¹

B

`

"

1

2

1

b`

!

1

a`

"

I

2A

, (88)

RNote that the wave number of a hyperbolic function, b, does not have a physical meaning while the

wave number of a sinusoidal function, a, does. Nonetheless, we call b the wave number of the

hyperbolic function.

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 955

TABLE 7

¹he frequency equations of the Rayleigh model

f-f (b"!a") sin a sinhb#2a`b` cos a coshb!2a`b`"0

c-c (b`!a`) sina sinhb!2ab cos a coshb#2ab"0

h-h or s-s sina sinhb"0

c-f (b`!a`) ab sina sinhb#(b"#a") cos a coshb#2a`b`"0

where the ratio of I to A is k` from equation (77). Now, we can write

1

b`

!

1

a`

"k`"

1

s`

. (89)

Therefore, the wave numbers of the Rayleigh beam are related by the slenderness

ratio. This contrasts with the case of the Euler}Bernoulli beam where the

dimensionless wave numbers are independent of the geometry of the beam

but dependent solely on the boundary conditions. Expressing b in terms of a and

k (or s),

b"a

,

1

a`k`#1

"as

,

1

a`#s`

. (90)

Let us consider the case when k"0. Then, a equals b by equation (89) or (90), and

B

¹

is zero by equation (87). Comparing equation (85) with equation (16), we also

"nd that the wave numbers a and b are equal to the wave number of the

Euler}Bernoulli beam. For a slender beam where s is large (k is small), the two wave

numbers approach each other so that the result resembles that of the

Euler}Bernoulli beam.R

The frequency equations for four cases are given in Table 7. Notice that the

frequency equations contain both a and b as predicted earlier. Further, notice that

when b is expressed in terms of a using equation (90), the geometrical property,

slenderness ratio, enters the frequency equations. Therefore, the roots of the

frequency equations depend on the slenderness of the beam and are no longer

independent of the geometry of the beam. The signi"cance of the previous

statement is that it implies that the mode shapes also vary with the slenderness

ratio.

As mentioned earlier, as s approaches in"nity, the frequency equation becomes

identical to that of the Euler}Bernoulli beam. The best way to represent the

solution of the frequency equation is to plot wave numbers as a continuous

function of s or k. Here, we will use k for a reason which will become apparent

shortly. The frequency equations in Table 7 are transcendental equations that have

to be solved numerically. In order to obtain a smooth function, a(k), we use the

following analysis. Let one of the frequency equations be F(a, b). From equation

RIn general, the slenderness ratio of 100 is su$cient so that there is little di!erence among all four

models (Euler}Bernoulli, Rayleigh, shear and Timoshenko).

956 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

(90), b is a function of a and k, b(a, k). dF and db are given by

dF"

cF

ca

da#

cF

cb

db, db"

cb

ca

da#

cb

ck

dk. (91)

Combining two expressions, dF is given by

dF"

cF

ca

da#

cF

cb

cb

ca

da#

cb

ck

dk

"0, (92)

where dF is zero because F is zero. Solving for da/dk, we obtain

da

dk

"

!(cF/cb)(cb/ck)

(cF/ca)#(cF/cb)(cb/ca)

, (93)

where the right-hand side is a function of a, b and k. After b is expressed in terms of

a and k by equation (90), the right-hand side is a function of a and k only. Now, this

is a "rst order ordinary di!erential equation which can be solved once we know the

initial value a(k"0). The initial value is identical to the wave numbers of the

Euler}Bernoulli model given in Tables 5 and 6. Note that depending on which

wave number we use as an initial value, a

¹

, a

`

,

2

, we can track that particular wave

number as the slenderness ratio varies. The initial value problem is solved using

MATLAB, and the results are shown in Figures 5}8. The four solid lines in each

"gure are the wave numbers obtained using the Euler}Bernoulli theory. They are

not a!ected by the slenderness ratio. The two lines (dotted and dot-dashed) that

emerge from nth solid line near 1/s"0 are the nth waves numbers, a

L

and b

L

, of the

Figure 5. The "rst four pairs of wave numbers of the free}free Rayleigh beam and clamped}

clamped shear beam: *, Euler}Bernoulli; 2, a; }

)

}

)

}, b.

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 957

Figure 6. The "rst four pairs of wave numbers of the clamped}clamped Rayleigh beam and

free}free shear beam: *, Euler}Bernoulli; 2, a; }

)

}

)

}, b.

Figure 7. The "rst four pairs of wave numbers of the hinged}hinged (or sliding}sliding) Rayleigh

and shear beam: *, Euler}Bernoulli or a; }

)

}

)

}, b.

958 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Figure 8. The "rst four pairs of wave numbers of the clamped}free Rayleigh and shear beam: *,

Euler}Bernoulli; 2, a; }

)

}

)

}, b.

Rayleigh model. Using these plots, we obtain up to four sets of wave numbers for

each case.

Having such plots, we can instantly obtain the dimensionless wave numbers once

we know the slenderness ratio. These dimensionless wave numbers together with

the complete properties of the beam lead to the natural frequencies using the

dispersion relations. The natural frequency, solved in terms of the wave numbers

and the property of the beam using the dispersion relations (86) and (87), is given by

c`"

a`!b`

jI

or c`"

a`b`

jA

, (94)

which is equivalent to

c*`"(a`!b`)

E*

j*¸*`

or c*`"

a`b`

s`

E*

j*¸*`

. (95)

Since we know a and b as discrete functions of 1/s from Figures 5}8, we can plot

c*¸*(j*/E* as a function of 1/s using the "rst relation in equation (95),

c*¸*(j*/E*"(a`!b`. (96)

The plots of c*¸*(j*/E* as a function of 1/s are shown in Figures 9}12. The

bene"t of having such plots is that once we know s, ¸*, j*, and E*, c* can be

obtained instantly. For example, the "rst four pairs of wave numbers of the

clamped}free Rayleigh beam when s"9)1192 (or 1/s"0)11) can be obtained from

Figure 8 and the natural frequencies, where ¸*"1 m, j*"7830 kg/m`, and

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 959

Figure 9. The frequency curves for the free}free Rayleigh and clamped}clamped shear beam; *,

c

*

¹

2

; 2, c

*

`

2

; }

)

}

)

}, c

*

`

2

; }}}, c

*

"

2

.

Figure 10. The frequency curves for the clamped}clamped Rayleigh and free}free shear beam; *,

c

*

¹

2

; 2, c

*

`

2

; }

)

}

)

}, c

*

`

2

; }}}, c

*

"

2

.

960 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Figure 11. The frequency curves for the hinged}hinged (or sliding}sliding) Rayleigh and shear

beam; *, c

*

¹

2

; 2, c

*

`

2

; }

)

}

)

}, c

*

`

2

; }}}, c

*

"

2

.

Figure 12. The frequency curves for the clamped}free Rayleigh and shear beam; *, c

*

¹

2

; 2,

c

*

`

2

; }

)

}

)

}, c

*

`

2

; }}}, c

*

"

2

.

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 961

E*"200 GPa, can be obtained from Figure 12. The exact numbers are

(a

¹

, b

¹

)"(1)869, 1)831), c

¹

"1; (a

`

, b

`

)"(4)571, 4)086), c

`

"5)459;

(a

`

, b

`

)"(7)629, 5)851), c

`

"13)046; (a

"

, b

"

)"(10)686, 6)937), c

"

"21)664.

(97)

Note that the natural frequencies are non-dimensionalized by the "rst natural

frequency given by c

*

¹

"1896 rad/s. These numbers will be used in the example

problem at the end of this paper.

One comment is made here regarding the wave numbers and the frequency

charts for the other six sets of boundary conditions. It was mentioned earlier that

the dimensionless wave numbers of the free}free beam with the slenderness ratio of

s are twice the dimensionless wave numbers of the free}sliding or free}hinged case

with the slenderness ratio of s/2, where the same analogy is applied to the other

cases: the clamped}clamped and hinged}hinged beams. For example, the wave

numbers of the free}sliding beam are obtained from the wave numbers of the odd

modes of free}free beams (a

¹

, b

¹

), (a

`

, b

`

),

2

by replacing the abscissa label 1/s with

1/(2s) and ordinate label wave numbers with 2;(wave numbers) in Figure 5. In this

way, a point that corresponds to the inverse slenderness ratio of 1/s

"

and wave

numbers of a

"

and b

"

in Figure 5, would correspond to the inverse slenderness ratio

of 2/s

"

and the wave numbers of a

"

/2 and b

"

/2 in the new plot. The frequency charts

can be modi"ed in the same way so that the abscissa label 1/s is replaced by 1/(2s)

and the wave numbers in ordinate label, (a`!b`, are replaced by 2;(wave

number) so that the new ordinate label is 2(a`!b` or 2c*¸*(j*/E*. The wave

numbers and the frequency charts of the shear and Timoshenko models are

obtained in the same way.

3.4. THE SHEAR BEAM MODEL

The same analysis as for the Rayleigh beam is applied here. Again, the dispersion

relationship given in equation (57) is written in the form of equation (85) where

B

¹

and B

`

are given by

B

¹

"

jc`

2k'G

, B

`

"jAc` (98)

and

B

¹

"(a`!b`)/2, B

`

"a`b`. (99)

The latter relations are identical to those of the Rayleigh beam (87). Using equation

(99), the ratio of B

¹

to B

`

is reduced to

B

¹

B

`

"

1

2

1

b`

!

1

a`

, (100)

962 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

TABLE 8

¹he frequency equations of the shear model

f-f (b`!a`) sin a sinhb!2ab cos a coshb#2ab"0

c-c (b"!a") sin a sinhb#2a`b` cos a coshb!2a`b`"0

h-h or s-s sina sinhb"0

c-f (b`!a`) ab sina sinhb#(b"#a") cos a coshb#2a`b`"0

and using equation (98) the ratio is reduced to

B

¹

B

`

"

1

2k'GA

"

E*I*¸*`

2k'G*¸*"A*

"

(1#v)

k'

1

s`

"

1

2

¸

s

`

, (101)

where ¸ is given in equation (81) and G* is related to E* by equation (80). Therefore,

we can write

1

b`

!

1

a`

"

¸

s

`

"(¸k)`. (102)

Solving for b, we obtain

b"a

,

1

¸`k`a`#1

"

as

¸ ,

1

a`#s`/¸`

. (103)

Looking again at equation (60), we "nd that the coe$cients in the spatial solutions

are related by

D

¹

"!

b`

a

C

`

, D

`

"

b`

a

C

¹

, D

`

"

a`

b

C

"

, D

"

"

a`

b

C

`

, (104)

so that we can write the spatial solution in terms of the wave numbers only.

The frequency equations for the shear beam are given in Table 8. Note that the

frequency equation for the free}free shear beam is identical to the clamped}

clamped Rayleigh beam. Also, the frequency equation for the clamped}clamped

shear beam is identical to that of the free}free Rayleigh beam. The frequency

equations for the other two cases are the same as the ones for the Rayleigh beam.

Also note that the relationship between wave numbers (102) is similar to that of the

Rayleigh beam (89). In fact, 1/s is modi"ed by the factor ¸. We can use the plots for

the Rayleigh beam here by just replacing the label for the abscissa 1/s with ¸/s and

switching the free}free case with the clamped}clamped case. The clamped}

clamped case is shown in Figure 5, free}free in Figure 6, hinged}hinged (or

sliding}sliding) in Figure 7, and clamped}free in Figure 8.

From equations (98) and (99), the natural frequency is given by

,

j*¸*`

E* ,

2(1#v)

k'

c*"(a`!b`, (105)

where (2(1#v)/k' is denoted as ¸ throughout this paper as shown in equation

(81). Notice the similarity between equations (96) and (105). Therefore, we can use

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 963

the plots used in the Rayleigh beam (Figures 9}12) by simply replacing the ordinate

with c*¸*¸(j*/E*. The notation c*

L

2

in the captions are representative of

c*

L

¸*(j*/E* for the Rayleigh and c*

L

¸*¸(j*/E* for the shear model.

Again, these plots are convenient for easily obtaining the natural frequencies for

a given s and ¸. From Figures 8 and 12, for 1/s"0)11, ¸*"1 m, ¸"2)205,

j*"7830 kg/m`, and E*"200 GPa, the pairs of wave numbers and the natural

frequencies are

(a

¹

, b

¹

)"(1)846, 1)686), c

¹

"1; (a

`

, b

`

)"(4)352, 2)998), c

`

"4)1923;

(a

`

, b

`

)"(7)539, 3)626), c

`

"8)7823; (a

"

, b

"

)"(10)686, 3)857), c

"

"13)241;

(106)

where the natural frequencies are non-dimensionalized by the "rst natural

frequency c

*

¹

"1725 rad/s.

3.5. THE TIMOSHENKO BEAM MODEL

Here, we follow the same procedure used for the Rayleigh and the shear beams

by letting

B

¹

"

jIc`

2

, B

`

"

jc`

2k'G

"B

¹

¸`, B

`

"jAc`, (107)

so that the dispersion relations in equations (71) and (73) can be written as

a"((B

¹

#B

`

)#((B

¹

!B

`

)`#B

`

,

b"(!(B

¹

#B

`

)#((B

¹

!B

`

)`#B

`

"ib

J

. (108)

Solving for B

¹

, B

`

and B

`

, we obtain

B

¹

"

a`!b`

2(1#¸`)

, B

`

"

¸`(a`!b`)

2(1#¸`)

,

B

`

"

1

4

(a`#b`)`!

(1!¸`)`

(1#¸`)`

(a`!b`)`

, (109)

where ¸ is a constant given in equation (81). Note that B

¹

, B

`

, and B

`

can be

obtained in terms of a and b

J

by replacing b` with b

J

` in equation (109). By equating

the ratio of B

`

to B

¹

using equations (107) and (109), we obtain the relationship

between the wave numbers given by

(¸`b`#a`)(a`¸`#b`)

(a`!b`) (1#¸`)

"s`. (110)

Again, the relationship between a and b

J

can be obtained by replacing b with ib

J

in

equation (110) as

(!¸`b

J

`#a`)(¸`a`!b

J

`)

(a`#b

J

`) (1#¸`)

"s`. (111)

Note that the wave numbers are related by s and ¸.

964 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Using equations (107) and (109), we can write equation (60) as

D

¹

"!

a`#¸`b`

(1#¸`)a

C

`

, D

`

"

a`#¸`b`

(1#¸`) a

C

¹

,

D

`

"

b`#¸`a`

(1#¸`)b

C

"

, D

"

"

b`#¸`a`

(1#¸`) b

C

`

, (112)

so that the spatial solution for c(c

A

can be written in terms of wave numbers

only. Using equations (107) and (109) with b replaced by ib

J

, the coe$cients CI

G

and

D

G

in equation (74) are then related by

D

¹

"!

a`!¸`b

J

`

(1#¸`)a

CI

`

, D

`

"

a`!¸`b

J

`

(1#¸`) a

CI

¹

,

D

`

"!

b

J

`!¸`a`

(1#¸`)b

J

CI

"

, D

"

"

b

J

`!¸`a`

(1#¸`) b

J

CI

`

, (113)

which we can use to express the spatial solution for c'c

A

in terms of the wave

numbers only.

Note that we only need to obtain one frequency equation for each boundary

condition. Once the frequency equation for the case a(a

A

is obtained, the other

frequency equation for a'a

A

can be obtained by replacing b with ib

J

. The frequency

equations for the case a(a

A

are tabulated in Table 9 and for the case a'a

A

in

Table 10.

The frequency equations depend on a, b, (or b

J

) and ¸. From equations (110) [or

equation (111)], b (or b

J

) can be written as a function of a, s and ¸ so that the

frequency equation can be written in terms of a, s, and ¸ only. Therefore, the roots of

the frequency equations, a, depend on both s and ¸. After obtaining the roots of the

frequency equations in terms of a for a given s and ¸, b (or b

J

) can be found using the

relationship (110) [or equation (111)]. Similarly, a can be written as a function of

TABLE 9

¹he frequency equations of the ¹imoshenko model when a(a

A

f-f

(a`!b`)(a`#b`#¸`ab!ab) (a`#b`!¸`ab#ab)

2ab(b`#¸`a`) (a`#¸`b`)

sina sinhb

!cos a coshb#1"0

c-c

(a`!b`)(¸`a`#¸`b`#¸`ab!ab) (¸`a`#¸`b`!¸`ab#ab)

2ab(b`#¸`a`) (a`#¸`b`)

sina sinhb

!cos a coshb#1"0

h-h sina sinhb"0

c-f (a`!b`) sina sinhb!ab

(a"#a"¸"#4¸`a`b`#b"¸"#b")

(b`#¸`a`)(a`#¸`b`)

cos a coshb!2ab"0

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 965

TABLE 10

¹he frequency equations of the ¹imoshenko model when a'a

A

f-f

(a`#b

J

`)[(a`!b

J

`)`#(ab

J

¸`!ab

J

)`]

2ab

J

(!b

J

`#¸`a`)(a`!¸`b

J

`)

sina sin b

J

!cos a cos b

J

#1"0

c-c

(a`#b

J

`) [(¸`a`!¸`b

J

`)`#(¸`ab

J

!ab

J

)`]

2ab

J

(!b

J

`#¸`a`)(a`!¸`b

J

`)

sina sinb

J

!cos a cos b

J

#1"0

h-h sina sinb

J

"0

c-f (a`#b

J

`) sin a sin b

J

!ab

J

(a"#a"¸"!4¸`a`b

J

`#b

J

"¸"#b

J

")

(!b

J

`#¸`a`)(a`!¸`b

J

`)

cos a cos b

J

!2ab

J

"0

b (or b

J

) using equations (110) [or equation (111)] so that the frequency equation can

be written in terms of b (or b

J

), s, and ¸. The roots of the frequency equation b (or b

J

)

are found for a given s and ¸. Then, the corresponding a can be found using

equations (110) or (111).

The proper way to represent the roots is to make a three-dimensional plot of

wave numbers as functions of s and ¸. Note that the roots of the frequency

equations (a and b) in the shear beam case also depend on both s and ¸. However, in

that case, s and ¸ always appear as ¸/s so that we can treat ¸/s as one variable.

Therefore, we only needed two-dimensional plots of wave numbers as functions of

¸/s. In the case of the Timoshenko beam, such a simpli"cation cannot be made

because s and ¸ do not always appear together. Therefore, the wave numbers are

plotted for ¸"2)205 which is a reasonable value for a thin steel hollow section.R

In order to obtain the pairs of wave numbers a

L

and b

L

for a

L

(a

A

that satisfy the

frequency equations, we would solve the initial-value problem given in equation

(93) with the nth wave number of the Euler}Bernoulli model as an initial value to

obtain a

L

"rst, and then we would obtain b

L

using equation (110) as we have done

for the Rayleigh and shear models. In order to obtain the pairs of wave numbers

a

L

and b

J

L

for a

L

'a

A

, we would again solve the same initial-value problemwith a

L

at

the transition (a

A

) as the initial value instead. The value of the slenderness ratio at

the nth transition is denoted as s

L

so that a

L

(a

A

or c

L

(c

A

refers to the region

where 1/s(1/s

L

. The pairs of wave numbers are plotted in Figures 13}16. The

wave number for the Euler}Bernoulli beam is included for comparison. These plots

are obtained by solving an initial-value problem for the region 1/s(1/s

L

as done in

the Rayleigh and shear beam cases. For the region 1/s'1/s

L

, a root-"nding

program is used because the solution to the initial-value problem had di$culties in

converging.

Note that four separate plots are shown for the hinged}hinged beam in Figure

15. Only in this case, a

L

always corresponds to two values of b: a

L

corresponds to

RPoisson's ratio of 0)29, outer radius of 0)16 m, and the inner radius of 0)15 m are used to obtain

the shear factor k'"0)53066 using Table 3. The value of ¸"2)205 is then obtained using

equation (81).

966 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Figure 13. The "rst four sets of wave numbers of the free}free Timoshenko beam: *,

Euler}Bernoulli; 2, a; }

)

}

)

}, b; }}}, b

J

.

Figure 14. The "rst four sets of wave numbers of the clamped}clamped Timoshenko beam: *,

Euler}Bernoulli; 2, a; }

)

}

)

}, b; }}}, b

J

.

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 967

Figure 15. The "rst four sets of wave numbers of the hinged}hinged (or sliding}sliding)

Timoshenko beam: *, Euler}Bernoulli; 2, a; }

)

}

)

}, b; }}}, b

J

. (a) n"1, (b) 2, (c) 3, (d) 4.

Figure 16. The "rst four sets of wave numbers of the clamped}free Timoshenko beam: *,

Euler}Bernoulli; 2, a; }

)

}

)

}, b; }}}, b

J

.

968 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

b

L

and b

J

'`'

L

for 1/s(1/s

L

and to b

J

'¹'

L

and b

J

'`'

L

for 1/s'1/s

L

. It is important to note

that each pair corresponds to a distinct natural frequency. The consequence is that

there are twice as many natural frequencies in the hinged}hinged case as in other

cases.

In order to explain why this is the case, let us look at the frequency equation of

the hinged}hinged beam given in Table 9 or 10.

sin a sinhb"0 for a(a

A

, sina sinb

J

"0 for a'a

A

. (114)

Note that the frequency equation is satis"ed for any value of b (or b

J

) as long as

sinax is zero (or a

L

"n¬ for n"1, 2, 3,

2

). When we solve for b

L

(or b

J

) that

corresponds to a

L

in equation (110) or (111), there are two unique expressions.

When 1/s(1/s

L

, one is real and the other is imaginary. We call the real root b

L

and

the imaginary root ib

J

'`'

L

. When 1/s'1/s

L

, both roots are imaginary where one is

ib

J

'¹'

L

and the other is ib

J

'`'

L

.

The natural frequencies that correspond to each pair can be calculated using the

relation for B

¹

in equations (107) and (109). The natural frequencies for the

free}free, clamped}clamped, and clamped}free cases are given by

c*

L

¸*(j*/E*"

,

a`

L

!b`

L

1#¸`

for 1/s(1/s

L

"

,

a`

L

#(b

J

L

)`

1#¸`

for 1/s'1/s

L

. (115)

Figure 17. The frequency curves for the free}free Timoshenko beam; *, c

*

¹

2

; 2, c

*

`

2

; }

)

}

)

},

c

*

`

2

; }}}, c

*

"

2

.

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 969

Figure 18. The frequency curves for the clamped}clamped Timoshenko beam; *, c

*

¹

2

; 2,

c

*

`

2

; }

)

}

)

}, c

*

`

2

; }}}, c

*

"

2

.

Figure 19. The frequency curves for the hinged}hinged Timoshenko beam; *, c

'¹ `'*

¹

2

; 2,

c

'¹`'*

`

2

; }

)

}

)

}, c

'¹`'*

`

2

; }}}, c

'¹ `'*

"

2

.

970 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

The quantity c*

L

¸*(j*/E* is plotted as a function of 1/s for ¸"2)205 in Figures

17, 18, and 20 using the values of a

L

, b

L

and b

J

L

that we know already from Figures

13, 14 and 16.

The natural frequency that corresponds to the wave number pairs (a

L

, b

L

) and

(a

L

, b

J

'¹'

L

) in the hinged}hinged case is denoted as c*'¹'

L

and is given by

c*'¹'

L

¸*(j*/E*"

,

a`

L

!b`

L

1#¸`

for 1/s(1/s

L

"

,

a`

L

#(b

J

'¹'

L

)`

1#¸`

for 1/s'1/s

L

, (116)

and the natural frequency that corresponds to the pairs of wave numbers (a

L

, b

J

'`'

L

)

for all 1/s is denoted as c*'`'

L

and given by

c*'`'

L

¸*(j*/E*"

,

a`

L

#(b

J

'`'

L

)`

1#¸`

for all 1/s. (117)

The quantities c*'¹ `'

L

¸*(j*/E* are plotted as functions of 1/s for ¸"2)205 in

Figure 19 using the values of a

L

, b

L

, b

J

'¹'

L

, and b

J

'`'

L

that we know from Figure 15. Note

that as the slenderness ratio becomes larger (1/sP0), the natural frequencies

c*'`'

L

disappear by approaching in"nity. This is consistent with the other models for

which c*'`'

L

does not exist.

It is interesting to note that in Figures 17 and 18, curves cross each other. Thus, it

is possible for a set of wave numbers with a lower index to produce a higher natural

frequency. The indices of the wave numbers should not be used to gauge the order

of the natural frequencies. In the other cases*the Euler}Bernoulli, Rayleigh, and

shear cases*a set of wave numbers with a high index always corresponds to

a higher natural frequency.

These "gures can be used to obtain the wave numbers and the natural

frequencies. Let us consider a clamped}free beam for 1/s"0)11 and ¸"2)205. The

critical wave number a

A

, obtained using equation (79), at this slenderness ratio is

10)013, which is slightly above a

"

. Although a

`

is not plotted, we can guess that a

`

is

greater than a

A

. Therefore, only "rst four eigenfunctions will have hyperbolic terms.

The sets of the wave numbers can be extracted from Figure 16. For example, a

¹

in

the "gure is slightly less than 1)875, which is the wave number of the

Euler}Bernoulli problem represented by the "rst solid line obtained from Table 5,

and b

¹

is slightly below a

¹

. Note that in order to obtain more accurate readings, the

"gures should be enlarged. When j*"7830 kg/m`, ¸*"1 m, and E*"200 GPa,

the natural frequencies can be obtained using Figure 20. For example, from the

"gure the quantity c

*

¹

¸*(j*/E* is approximately 0)32 which corresponds to

c

*

¹

"1620 rad/s. The exact wave numbers and the natural frequencies are given by

(a

¹

, b

¹

)"(1)843, 1)655), c

¹

"1; (a

`

, b

`

)"(4)236, 2)727), c

`

"3)991;

(a

`

, b

`

)"(7)305, 2)575), c

`

"8)412; (a

"

, b

"

)"(9)813, 0)803), c

"

"12)037;

(a

`

, b

J

`

)"(11)770, 2)581), c

`

"14)829; (a

"

, b

J

"

)"(13)463, 3)823), c

"

"17)224;

(118)

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 971

Figure 20. The frequency curves for the clamped}free Timoshenko beam; *, c

*

¹

2

; 2, c

*

`

2

;

}

)

}

)

}, c

*

`

2

; }}}, c

*

"

2

.

Figure 21. The "rst set of wave numbers of the free}free Timoshenko beam when 1/s(1/s

¹

: *,

Euler}Bernoulli; 2, ¸"2)435; }}}, ¸"2)205; }

)

}

)

}, ¸"1)777.

where the natural frequencies are non-dimensionalized by the "rst natural

frequency c

*

¹

"1696 rad/s. Note that frequencies can be read from the "gure more

accurately than the wave numbers.

972 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Figure 21 shows the variation of the "rst pair of wave numbers (a

¹

, b

¹

) for

1/s(1/s

¹

for the free}free Timoshenko beam shown in Figure 13. The values of

¸ used here are 1)7777, 2)2050 and 2)435. ¸"1)7777 is a reasonable value for a solid

circular or rectangular section, and ¸"2)435 is a reasonable value for a thin square

tubeR with the Poisson ratio of 0)29.

4. COMPARISONS OF FOUR MODELS

So far, we obtained the wave numbers and natural frequencies of four engineer-

ing beam theories. The di!erence among them was the inclusion of di!erent second

order terms: rotary and shear terms. The Euler}Bernoulli model included only the

"rst order terms, translation and bending. The Rayleigh model included the

rotation, the shear model included the shear and the Timoshenko model included

both rotation and shear in addition to the "rst order e!ects. In this section, we

compare the relative signi"cance of rotary and shear e!ects and see how it is

manifested in the natural frequency and mode shapes.

The rotary e!ect is represented by the term jI and the shear by j/k'G. Note that

the shear term is always ¸` times larger than the rotary term,

j

k'G

"

j

k'

E*I*

G*¸*"

"

j

k'

E*I

G*

"jI

2(1#v)

k'

"jI¸`. (119)

Recall that the Poisson ratio v is a physical property that depends on the material

and the shear factor k' depends on the Poisson ratio and the geometry of the

cross-section. The Poisson ratio for a typical metal is about 0)3, and with this value,

the shear factor for di!erent cross-sections using, Table 3, ranges from 0)436 for the

thin-walled square tube to 0)886 for the circular cross-section. Using these values,

¸` ranges from 2)935 for the circular cross-section to 5)96 for the thin-walled square

tube. We have established, for a typical material and cross-section, the shear term is

roughly 3}6 times larger than the rotary term.

Now we look into circumstances under which those second order e!ects become

important. Consider the frequency equations obtained previously in Tables 5 and

7}10. We observe that the frequency equations for the Euler}Bernoulli model

depend neither on the geometrical nor the physical properties. Therefore, wave

number a is independent of any properties. On the other hand, the frequency

equations for the Rayleigh model are functions of a and b which are related by the

slenderness ratio s. Therefore, the wave numbers a and b depend on the geometrical

property s. The frequency equations for the shear and Timoshenko models depend

on both s and ¸. Therefore, the wave numbers depends on both geometrical and

physical properties. The e!ects of s and/or ¸ on the wave numbers are shown in

Figures 5}8 for the Rayleigh and shear model and in Figures 13}16 and Figure 21

for the Timoshenko model. Generally, the wave numbers deviate from those of

RThe values of ¸ are calculated using the Table 3 and equation (81).

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 973

Figure 22. The frequency curves for the "rst natural frequency: *, Euler}Bernoulli; 2, Rayleigh;

}

)

}

)

}, shear; }}}, Timoshenko. (a) Free}free beam, (b) clamped}clamped, (c) clamped}free,

(d) hinged}hinged.

Figure 23. The "rst four mode shapes of the clamped}free beam: *, Euler}Bernoulli; 2,

Rayleigh; }

)

}

)

}, shear; }}}, Timoshenko. (a) First mode, (b) second, (c) third, (d) fourth.

974 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Euler}Bernoulli model as s decreases and ¸ increases. However, the range of ¸` is

more restricted (between 3 and 6 for a typical metal and cross-section). Therefore,

the wave numbers are strong functions of the slenderness ratio.

As a numerical example, the "rst natural frequencies predicted by each of

the four models are plotted in Figure 22. The natural frequency is multiplied

by ¸*(j*/E* and ¸"2)205 is used. The straight solid line for the Euler}Bernoulli

model is obtained using equation (84). Note that the natural frequency predicted

by the Euler}Bernoulli model approaches in"nity as the slenderness ratio

decreases whereas the natural frequencies predicted by other models level o!

at some point. In Figure 23, the "rst four mode shapes of a clamped}free

beam with s"9)1192 and ¸"2)205 are plotted. The mode shapes are

normalized with respect to each other for easy comparison. Notice that the natural

frequencies and mode shapes obtained using the Euler}Bernoulli and Rayleigh

models are similar, and those based on the shear and Timoshenko models are

similar. This con"rms our result that the shear is more dominant than the rotary

e!ects.

In summary, when the slenderness ratio is large (s'100), the Euler}Bernoulli

model should be used. When the slenderness ratio is small, either shear or

Timoshenko model can be used.

5. THE FREE AND FORCED RESPONSE

5.1. THE ORTHOGONALITY CONDITIONS FOR THE EULER}BERNOULLI, SHEAR

AND TIMOSHENKO MODELS

In order to obtain the free or forced response of the beam, we use the method

of eigenfunction expansion. Therefore, the orthogonality conditions of the

eigenfunctions have to be established for each beam model. For the models

discussed so far, with the exception of the Rayleigh beam,R the spatial equations of

the homogeneous problem, (15), (49) and (66) can be written using the operator

formalism

¸(W

L

)"c`

L

M(W

L

) , (120)

where W

L

can denote the nth eigenfunction =

L

for the Euler}Bernoulli model, or

the nth vector of eigenfunctions [=

L

L

]' for the shear and Timoshenko models,

and corresponds to the natural frequency c`

L

uniquely to within an arbitrary

constant [28, p. 135]. The expressions for the operators for each model are given

below.

Euler}Bernoulli model:

¸(=

L

)"

d"=

L

dx"

, M(=

L

)"jA=

L

. (121)

RThe analysis for the Rayleigh beam is slightly di!erent due to the mixed term in the governing

di!erential equation. It will be discussed in detail in the next section.

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 975

Shear model:

¸(W

L

)"

k'GA

d`

dx`

k'GA

d

dx

!k'GA

d

dx

d`

dx`

!k'GA

_

=

L

L

, M(W

L

)"

_

jA

0

0

0 _

=

L

L

. (122)

¹imoshenko model:

¸(W

L

)"

k'GA

d`

dx`

k'GA

d

dx

!k'GA

d

dx

d`

dx`

!k'GA

_

=

L

L

, M(W

L

)"

_

jA

0

0

jI _

=

L

L

. (123)

The operators ¸ and M are self-adjoint (with corresponding boundary

conditions) if [23]

,

¹

"

[W'

L

¸(W

K

)!W'

K

¸(W

L

) ] dx"0, (124)

,

¹

"

[W'

L

M(W

K

)!W'

K

M(W

L

) ] dx"0. (125)

Note that the second condition, equation (125), is automatically satis"ed for all

three models. Using equation (120) we can write equation (124) as

(c`

K

!c`

L

)

,

¹

"

W'

L

M(W

K

) dx"0. (126)

Since eigenvalues (squares of natural frequencies) are unique to the eigenfunctions,

c`

K

Oc`

L

for mOn, in order for above equation to be zero, the integral has to be

zero,

,

¹

"

W'

L

M(W

K

) dx"0 for mOn. (127)

This is the orthogonality condition for the eigenfunctions. When m"n, we

normalize the eigenfunctions by setting the integral equal to one,

,

¹

"

W'

L

M(W

L

) dx"1 for n"1, 2, 3,

2

(128)

Combining equations (127) and (128), we can write

,

¹

"

W'

L

M(W

K

) dx"o

LK

, (129)

where o

LK

is the Kronecker delta.

Now we discuss which boundary conditions make the operator ¸ self-adjoint or

satisfy equation (124). The conditions can be found by substituting the expression

for the operator ¸ into equation (124) and integrating by parts. For example, for the

976 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Euler}Bernoulli model, equation (124) becomes, substituting equation (121),

,

¹

"

_

W'

L

d"=

K

dx"

!W'

K

d"=

L

dx"

dx"0. (130)

Integrating twice by parts, we obtain

=

L

d`=

K

dx`

!=

K

d`=

L

dx`

¹

"

#

!

d=

L

dx

d`=

K

dx`

#

d=

K

dx

d`=

L

dx`

¹

"

"0, (131)

where the remaining integrals cancel each other due to symmetry. These are the

conditions that have to be satis"ed in order for the system to be self-adjoint and the

orthogonality condition to hold. Note that the boundary conditions from the

variational problem (19) satisfy this condition.

For the shear and Timoshenko models, the corresponding boundary conditions

for the self-adjoint operator ¸ are found to be

0"k'GA

_

=

L

d=

K

dx

!

K

!=

K

d=

L

dx

!

L

¹

"

#

_

L

d

K

dx

!

K

d

L

dx

¹

"

, (132)

where the boundary conditions obtained from the variational problem (61) also

satisfy this condition.

Therefore, for the systems we consider, they are self-adjoint and the

eigenfunctions are orthogonal to each other as given in equation (127).

5.2. THE ORTHOGONALITY CONDITIONS FOR THE RAYLEIGH MODEL

The spatial equation for the Rayleigh beam (31) can be written in the form given

by equation (120) as was done for the other three models with the operators ¸ and

M given by

¸(=

L

)"

d"=

L

dx"

, M(=

L

)"

jA=

L

!jI

d`=

L

dx`

. (133)

However, in this case, the operator M is a di!erential operator unlike those in the

other cases. Equation (124), with the operator ¸ substituted with equation (120) is

given by

,

¹

"

[=

L

¸(=

K

)!=

K

¸(=

L

)] dx"

,

¹

"

[c`

K

=

L

M(=

K

)!c`

L

=

K

M(=

L

)] dx. (134)

Substituting the expressions for the ¸ and M operators and integrating by parts

twice, the left-hand side of equation (134) is reduced to

=

L

d`=

K

dx`

!=

K

d`=

L

dx`

¹

"

#

!

d=

L

dx

d`=

K

dx`

#

d=

K

dx

d`=

L

dx`

¹

"

"0, (135)

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 977

where the remaining integrals cancel each other. The right-hand side of equation

(134) is reduced to

(c`

K

!c`

L

)

,

¹

"

_

jA=

K

=

L

#jI

d=

K

dx

d=

L

dx

dx!jI

_

c`

K

=

L

d=

K

dx

!c`

L

=

K

d=

L

dx

¹

"

.

(136)

Combining the left- and right-hand sides equations [(135) and (136)], we obtain

_

=

L

d`=

K

dx`

#jIc`

K

d=

K

dx

!=

K

d`=

L

dx`

#jIc`

L

d=

L

dx

¹

"

#

!

d=

L

dx

d`=

K

dx`

#

d=

K

dx

d`=

L

dx`

¹

"

"(c`

K

!c`

L

)

,

¹

"

_

jA=

K

=

L

#jI

d=

K

dx

d=

L

dx

dx. (137)

Let us examine the left-hand side of equation (137). Comparing with the boundary

conditions from the variational problem, we "nd that the left-hand side vanishes

[see equations (35)] so that the orthogonality condition is given by

,

¹

"

_

jA=

K

=

L

#jI

d=

K

dx

d=

L

dx

dx"o

LK

. (138)

There are other orthogonality conditions that we can obtain by manipulating

equation (120), where the expressions for the operators are given by equation (133).

Multiplying equation (120) by =

K

and integrating over the domain (0)x)1), we

obtain

,

¹

"

=

L

d"=

K

dx"

dx"

,

¹

"

c`

K

=

L

jA=

K

!jI

d`=

K

dx`

dx, (139)

which can be rewritten as

,

¹

"

=

L

d"=

K

dx"

dx#c`

K

jI

,

¹

"

_

d=

L

dx

d=

K

dx

#=

L

d`=

K

dx`

dx

"c`

K

,

¹

"

_

jA=

L

=

K

#jI

d=

L

dx

d=

K

dx

dx, (140)

where the right-hand side equals c`

K

o

LK

from equation (138). We integrate the

left-hand side twice by parts to obtain

=

L

d`=

K

dx`

#c`

K

jI

d=

K

dx

¹

"

!

,

¹

"

d=

L

dx

d`=

K

dx`

dx"c`

K

o

LK

. (141)

From the boundary conditions (35), the "rst term vanishes and we are left with

!

,

¹

"

d=

L

dx

d`=

K

dx`

dx"c`

K

o

LK

. (142)

978 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Integrating equation (142) by parts and using the boundary conditions (35) again,

we obtain

,

¹

"

d`=

L

dx`

d`=

K

dx`

dx"c`

K

o

LK

. (143)

Therefore, we now have three orthogonality conditions given by equations (138),

(142) and (143). The orthogonality condition in equation (142) will be used later.

Note that a similar procedure can be applied to the other models to obtain other

orthogonality conditions.

5.3. THE FREE AND FORCED RESPONSE VIA EIGENF;NC¹ION EXPANSION OF THE

EULER}BERNOULLI, SHEAR, AND TIMOSHENKO MODELS

The method of eigenfunction expansion assumes that the solutions v(x, t) [or

solutions v(x, t) and :(x, t)] to equations of motion given in equations (11), (42), (63)

and the forcing function f (x, t) can be represented as a summation of eigenfunctions

(the spatial solution to the homogeneous problem) multiplied by functions of time

that are to be determined, that is,

v(x, t)"

`

L¯¹

p

L

(t) W

L

(x), f (x, t)"

`

L¯¹

F

L

(t) M(W

L

(x) ). (144, 145)

Note that v(x, t) stands for v(x, t) for the Euler}Bernoulli and Rayleigh models and

[v(x, t) :(x, t) ]' for shear and Timoshenko models. If we know time-dependent

coe$cients p

L

(t), we can solve for the complete solution to the problem as follows.

The expressions for p

L

(t) can be obtained by applying the operator M to equation

(144) multiplying it by W'

K

and integrating over the domain. Simpli"cations can be

made using the orthonormality conditions given in equation (129).

,

¹

"

W'

K

M(v(x, t)) dx"

`

L¯¹

p

L

(t)

,

¹

"

W'

K

M(W

L

(x) ) dx. (146)

Therefore,

p

L

(t)"

,

¹

"

W'

K

M(v(x, t) ) dx. (147)

Similarly, F

K

(t) can be found by multiplying equation (145) by W'

K

and integrating

over the domain,

F

K

(t)"

,

¹

"

W'

K

f (x, t) dx. (148)

Substituting the assumed solution (144) and the forcing function (145) into the

equations of motion (11), (42), and (63), respectively, we obtain

`

L¯¹

d`p

L

(t)

dt`

M(W

L

(x))#

`

L¯¹

p

L

(t)¸(W

L

(x) )"

`

L¯¹

F

L

(t) M(W

L

(x) ) , (149)

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 979

where the expressions for the operators M and ¸ are given in equations (121), (122),

and (123) respectively. Using equation (120), the last equation becomes

`

L¯¹

_

d`p

L

(t)

dt`

#c`

L

p

L

(t)

M(W

L

(x))"

`

L¯¹

F

L

(t)M(W

L

(x)) . (150)

Multiplying by W'

K

(x) and integrating over the domain (0)x)1) results in

d`p

K

(t)

dt`

#c`

K

p

K

(t)"F

K

(t), (151)

where the solution is given by

p

K

(t)"

1

c

K

,

R

"

F

K

(t) sinc

K

(t!t) dt

#p

K

(0) cos c

K

t#

1

c

K

dp

K

dt

R¯"

sinc

K

t. (152)

F

K

(t) is given by equation (148), and p

K

(0) and dp

K

/dt ¦

R¯"

are obtained from the

initial conditions, v(x, 0) and vR (x, 0), using equation (147),

p

K

(0)"

,

¹

"

W'

K

M(v(x, 0)) dx, pR

K

(0)"

,

¹

"

W'

K

M(v (x, 0)) dx. (153)

We now know the time-dependent coe$cients p

K

(t) of equation (144) in terms of

initial conditions and the forcing function. Finally, the solution is given by

v(x, t)"

`

L¯¹

p

L

(t)W

L

(x) , (154)

where p

L

(t) is given by equation (152).

5.4. THE FREE AND FORCED RESPONSE VIA EIGENF;NC¹ION EXPANSION OF THE

RAYLEIGH MODEL

We follow a similar procedure to obtain the solution using the method of

eigenfunction expansion. It is assumed that the solution v(x, t) to the equation of

motion given in equation (21) can be expanded in terms of eigenfunctions as in

equation (144) or

v(x, t)"

`

L¯¹

p

L

(t) =

L

(x). (155)

We can obtain the time-dependent coe$cient p

L

(t) using the orthogonality

condition given in equations (138), (142) or (143). Note that it is awkward to use the

"rst orthogonality condition (138). Instead, we use equation (142). Taking a spatial

derivative of v(x, t) in equation (155), we obtain

cv(x, t)

cx

"

`

L¯¹

p

L

(t)

d=

L

(x)

dx

. (156)

980 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

Multiplying equation (156) by d`=

K

/dx` and integrating over the domain, we

obtain

p

K

(t)"!

1

c`

K

,

¹

"

cv(x, t)

cx

d`=

K

(x)

dx`

dx. (157)

The equations of motion can be written as

`

L¯¹

p

L

d"=

L

dx"

#

d`p

L

dt`

jA=

L

!jI

d`=

L

dx`

"f (x, t). (158)

The boundary conditions given in equation (22) can be written as

d`=

L

dx`

o

d=

K

dx

¹

"

"0,

p

d`=

dx`

!jI

d`p

dt`

d=

dx

o=

¹

"

"0. (159)

Multiplying equation (158) by =

K

and integrating over the domain (0(x(1),

we obtain

`

L¯¹

,

¹

"

_

p

L

d"=

L

dx"

#

d`p

L

dt`

jA=

L

!jI

d`=

L

dx`

=

K

dx"

,

¹

"

f (x, t) =

K

dx. (160)

The left-hand side of this equation is integrated by parts,

,

¹

"

_

p

L

d"=

L

dx"

#

d`p

L

dt`

jA=

L

!jI

d`=

L

dx`

=

K

dx

"=

K

p

L

d`=

L

dx`

!

d`p

L

dt`

jI

d=

L

dx

¹

"

!p

L

d=

K

dx

d`=

L

dx`

¹

"

#

,

¹

"

p

L

d`=

L

dx`

d`=

K

dx`

dx#

d`p

L

dt` ,

¹

"

_

jA=

L

=

K

#jI

d=

L

dx

d=

K

dx

dx. (161)

Note that the terms evaluated at the boundaries disappear due to boundary

conditions given in equation (159). Also, from the orthogonality conditions given in

equations (138) and (143) we can simplify to

,

¹

"

_

p

L

d"=

L

dx"

#

d`p

L

dt`

jA=

L

!jI

d`=

L

dx`

=

K

dx"

p

L

c`

L

#

d`p

L

dt`

o

LK

, (162)

which is substituted into equation (160) so that

d`p

K

dt`

#c`

K

p

K

"

,

¹

"

f (x, t)=

K

dx. (163)

By denoting j¹

"

f (x, t)=

K

dx as F

K

(t), p

K

(t) is given as in equation (152). The initial

conditions, p

K

(0) and pR

K

(0), can be obtained using equation (157),

p

K

(0)"!

1

c`

K

,

¹

"

cv

cx

'V "'

d`=

K

(x)

dx`

dx, pR

K

(0)"!

1

c`

K

,

¹

"

c`v

cxct

'V "'

d`=

K

(x)

dx`

dx.

(164)

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 981

5.5. SAMPLE RESPONSES

In this section, the response of a non-slender clamped}free beam is obtained

using all four models. The transverse force is given by

f *(x*, t*)"x* cos 100t*. (165)

The beam is made of steel whose properties are given in Table 11. Using the

formula given in Table 3 and the Poisson ratio given in Table 11, the shear factor

for the thin round tube is k'"0)53066.

Note that the beam is not slender. Therefore, the critical wave number of the

Timoshenko beam is relatively low, and the di!erence among the models are

signi"cant. In reality, it is hard to build a beam with such geometry and obtain

reliable experimental results because the end e!ect will dominate the vibration. In

order to avoid such problems Traill-Nash and Collar built box beams supported by

diaphragms [1].

For the Euler}Bernoulli and Rayleigh models the initial displacement is given by

v*(x*, 0)"(1)667x*`!5x*`) 10`, (166)

and for the shear and Timoshenko models, the initial displacement and rotation are

given by

v*(x*, 0)"(2)021x*`!6)0635x*`#0)7094x*) 10`,

:*(x*, 0)"(6)0635x*`!12)127x*) 10`. (167)

The initial displacements are chosen so that they satisfy the boundary conditionsR

and the magnitude of the tip displacements are the same.

The natural frequencies are obtained from the frequency charts. The "rst four

natural frequencies of the Rayleigh, shear, and Timoshenko beams are obtained

previously in equations (106), (97) and (118). The natural frequencies of the

Euler}Bernoulli model are obtained using the wave numbers tabulated in Table

5 and the dispersion relation given in Table 16. The natural frequencies predicted

by four models are given in Table 12. The natural frequencies of the Timoshenko

beam appear in pairs beyond the critical frequency because each pair of mode

shapes has the same number of nodes. It may seem odd that only the Timoshenko

model has more than one mode shape with same number of nodes. Experimentally,

Barr (1956) [31] observed two frequencies corresponding to the same number of

nodal points in the study of free}free vibration of a thick beam.

The responses are obtained using the method of eigenfunction expansion by

summing the "rst eight modes of equation (144) or (155) for the Euler}Bernoulli,

Rayleigh, and shear models and the "rst 12 modes of equation (155) for the

Timoshenko model. The reason why 12 modes instead of eight are included is that

by including eight modes, the Timoshenko model will be missing modes with higher

number of nodes. The responses are shown in Figure 24.

RIn fact, these initial displacements correspond to the shape of the beam when it is statically loaded

by a point force at the free end.

982 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

TABLE 11

Properties of the beam

Young's modulus E* 200 GPa [29]

Modulus of rigidity G* 77)5 GPa

Poisson's ratio v 0)29 [30]

Density j* 7830 kg/m` [29]

Cross-section round tube with r

GLLCP

"0)15 m, r

MSRCP

"0)16 m

Cross-sectional area A* 0)0097389 m`

Area moment of inertia I* 0)0001171 m`

Length ¸* 1 m

Slenderness ratio ¸*(A*/I* 9)1192

Shear factor k' 0)53066

¸ 2)205

TABLE 12

Natural frequencies (rad/s)

No. of nodes Euler}Bernoulli Rayleigh Shear Timoshenko

1 1948)62 1896)16 1797)07 * 1696)03

2 12211)80 10351)13 7231)92 * 6768)24

3 34193)39 24737)47 15150)10 * 14267)26

4 67005)41 41078)62 22842)44 * 20415)37

5 110764)74 58187)35 30509)81 25150)52 29211)86

6 165463)34 75396)16 37994)56 33792)23 38003)37

7 231101)69 92504)64 45437)80 44958)47 46401)78

8 307679)76 109447)44 52799)94 53183)33 58849)04

Notice that the response obtained using the Euler}Bernoulli and Rayleigh

models are close to each other and that obtained using the shear and Timoshenko

models are close to each other.

5.6. DISCUSSION ON THE SECOND FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF THE TIMOSHENKO BEAM

Traill-Nash and Collar (1953) "rst claimed the existence of two separate spectra

of frequencies beyond the critical frequency c

A

"(k'GA/jI for the free}free and

hinged}hinged cases. That is, it is possible that two natural frequencies correspond

to a single mode shape.

Both Anderson (1953) [32] and Dolph (1954) in their studies of the Timoshenko

theory con"rmed the result of Traill-Nash and Collar for the hinged}hinged case.

Since their studies, it was generally accepted that the second spectrum existed for

the hinged}hinged case. More recently, Thomas and Abbas (1975, 1977) [33, 6]

showed using their "nite element model that &&

2

except for the special case of

a hinged}hinged beam there is no separate second spectrum of frequencies''.

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 983

Figure 24. The response of the beam: *, Euler}Bernoulli; 2, Rayleigh; }

)

}

)

}, shear; }}},

Timoshenko.

Bhashyam and Prathap (1981) [34] also came to the same conclusion using their

"nite element model.

However, what previous studies neglected is that the mode shape includes both

displacement and angle of rotation as a pair. If we see the displacement and the

angle of rotation together, the two natural frequencies do not correspond to one

mode shape. They correspond to two di!erent mode shapes. For example, let us

consider a hinged}hinged beam whose properties are given in Table 11. The

natural frequencies for 1/s"0)11 are shown in Figure 19, and the four lowest

natural frequencies are c

'¹'*

¹

, c

'¹'*

`

, c

'¹'*

`

, and c

'`'*

¹

. From Figure 15, the "rst

natural frequency corresponds to the wave numbers (a

¹

, b

¹

)and the fourth natural

frequency corresponds to the wave numbers (a

¹

, b

J

'`'

¹

). Note that the numerical

value of a

¹

is ¬. The spatial function in each case is given in equations (70) and (72)

with coe$cients related by equations (112) and (113). Upon applying boundary

conditions, we "nd that the spatial functions are reduced to

_

=

¹

¹

"C

¹

sina

¹

x

a`

¹

#¸`b`

¹

(1#¸`) a

¹

cos a

¹

x

, (168)

_

=

"

"

"CI

¹

sina

¹

x

a`

¹

!¸`(b

J

'`'

¹

)`

(1#¸`) a

¹

cos a

¹

x

, (169)

984 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

where the coe$cients other than C

¹

and CI

¹

are zeros. The coe$cients C

¹

and

CI

¹

are then set so that the modes are normalized according to equation (129).

The "rst and the fourth modes with corresponding natural frequencies are

given by

_

=

¹

¹

"

_

0)158 sin¬x

0)323 cos ¬x

, c

'¹'*

¹

"4252)56 rad/s; (170)

_

=

"

"

"

_

0)035 sin¬x

!1)443 cos ¬x

, c

'`'*

¹

"26881)97 rad/s. (171)

Note that when the beam is vibrating at the natural frequency belonging to the

&&"rst spectrum'', the amplitudes of the lateral displacement and the angle of

rotation could be comparable and the bending moment (E*I*) and the shear

(k'G*A*(='!)) are in phase. When the beam is vibrating at the natural

frequency belonging to the &second spectrum', the amplitude of the angle of rotation

is considerably larger than that of the lateral displacement and the bending

moment and the shear are completely out of phase.

From Figure 15, we can establish inequalities given by

b

L

(a

L

(b

J

'`'

L

for 1/s(1/s

L

and n"1, 2,

2

,

b

J

'¹'

L

(a

L

(b

J

'`'

L

for 1/s'1/s

L

and n"1, 2,

2

. (172)

The amplitude of the angle of rotation (a`

¹

!¸`(b

J

'`'

¹

)`)/(1#¸`)a

¹

in equation (169)

is easily a large negative number. That is, the rotation of the cross-section may be

large whereas the lateral de#ection is minimal in the &&second spectrum''.

To see whether the bending moment and the shear are in phase or not, the ratios

of the bending moment to the shear are obtained in both spectra,

¹

='

¹

!

¹

E*I*

k'G*A*

"

a`

¹

#¸`b`

¹

(a`

¹

!b`

¹

) ¸`

E*I*

k'G*A*

,

"

='

"

!

"

E*I*

k'G*A*

"

a`

¹

!¸`(b

J

'`'

¹

)`

¸`(a`

¹

#(b

J

'`'

¹

)`)

E*I*

k'G*A*

. (173)

Note that the "rst expression is always positive because a

L

is always greater than b

L

,

and the second expression is always negative because b

J

'`'

L

is always greater than a

L

.

Therefore, we arrive at the conclusion that the bending moment and the shear are

in phase in the &&"rst spectrum'' and completely out of phase in the &&second

spectrum''.

Now, we can say that the two pairs of mode shapes are indeed distinct and

correspond to distinct natural frequencies. There is no need to refer to them as

separate frequency spectra. This has been observed by Levinson and Cooke (1982)

[35] who said &&

2

the two spectra interpretation of the predictions of Timoshenko

beam theory is rather a matter of taste and not even a particularly fruitful

interpretation at that''.

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 985

6. SUMMARY

In this paper, we examined four approximate models for a transversely

vibrating beam: the Euler}Bernoulli, Rayleigh, shear, and Timoshenko models.

The equation of motion and the boundary conditions were obtained and the

frequency equations for four end conditions were obtained. The solutions of

the frequency equations are presented in terms of dimensionless wave numbers.

Also the frequency charts are plotted so that, for a given material and geo-

metry, the natural frequency can be obtained instantly. For each model, the

orthogonality conditions are identi"ed, and the forced response is obtained using

the method of eigenfunction expansion. A numerical example is given for

a non-slender beam and a brief discussion on the second frequency spectrum is

included.

We found that the second order e!ects become more important for small

s and large ¸. The range of possible ¸ is small when compared to that of s.

Therefore, the slenderness ratio alone can let us determine roughly whether or

not the second order e!ects are important. We also found that the shear is

always more dominant than the rotary e!ect for a given geometry and

material. Therefore, either the shear or the Timoshenko model should be used for

a beam with small s. The shear model may give reasonable results for less

complexity.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work is supported by the O$ce of Naval Research Grant No.

N00014-94-10753. We would like to thank our program manager Dr. Thomas

Swean for his interest and "nancial support. The "rst author also would like to

thank Dr. Ronald Adrezin, my predecessor, for his previous works in this "eld [36]

and his early assistance.

REFERENCES

1. R. W. TRAILL-NASH and A. R. COLLAR 1953 Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied

Mathematics 6, 186}213. The e!ects of shear #exibility and rotatory inertia on the

bending vibrations of beams.

2. A. E. H. LOVE 1927 A ¹reatise on the Mathematical ¹heory of Elasticity. New York:

Dover Publications, Inc.

3. S. P. TIMOSHENKO 1953 History of Strength of Materials. NewYork: Dover Publications,

Inc.

4. J. W. STRUTT 1877 ¹heory of Sound. London: Macmillan Publications Co., Inc.

5. R. M. DAVIES 1937 Philosophical Magazine, 563. The frequency of transverse vibration

of a loaded "xed-free bar III. The e!ect of rotatory inertia of the bar.

6. B. A. H. ABBAS and J. THOMAS 1977 Journal of Sound and <ibration 51, 123}137. The

second frequency spectrum of Timoshenko beams.

7. S. P. TIMOSHENKO 1921 Philosophical Magazine, 744. On the correction for shear of the

di!erential equation for transverse vibrations of bars of uniform cross-section.

8. S. P. TIMOSHENKO 1922 Philosophical Magazine, 125. On the transverse vibrations of

bars of uniform cross-section.

986 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

9. E. T. KRUSZEWSKI 1949 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 1909. E!ects of

transverse shear and rotary inertia on the natural frequencies of a uniform beam.

10. C. L. DOLPH 1954 Quarterly of Applied Mathematics 12, 175}187. On the Timoshenko

theory of transverse beam vibrations.

11. T. C. HUANG 1961 Journal of Applied Mechanics, 579}584. The e!ect of rotatory inertia

and of shear deformation on the frequency and normal mode equations of uniform

beams with simple end conditions.

12. G. HERRMANN 1955 Journal of Applied Mechanics, ¹ransactions of the ASME 77, 53}56.

Forced motions of Timoshenko beam theory.

13. H. REISMANN and P. S. PAWLIK 1974 Elastokinetics. West Publishing Co.

14. R. D. MINDLIN and H. DERESIEWICZ 1954 Proceedings of 2nd ;.S. National Congress of

Applied Mechanics, 175}178. New York: ASME.

15. G. R. COWPER 1966 Journal of Applied Mechanics, 335}340. The shear coe$cient in

Timoshenko's beam theory.

16. G. B. SPENCE and E. J. SELDIN Journal of Applied Physics, 3383}3389. Sonic resonance of

a bar compound torsion oscillator.

17. N. G. STEPHEN 1978 ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 45, 695}697. On the variation

of Timoshenko's shear coe$cient with frequency.

18. M. LEVINSON 1981 Journal of Sound and <ibration 77, 440}444. Further results of a new

beam theory.

19. M. LEVINSON 1981 Journal of Sound and <ibration 74, 81}87. A new rectangular beam

theory.

20. N. G. STEPHEN and M. LEVINSON 1979 Journal of Sound and <ibration 67, 293}305.

A second order beam theory.

21. H. BENAROYA 1998 Mechanical <ibration. Englewood Cli!s, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.

22. D. INMAN 1994 Engineering <ibration. Englewood Cli!s, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.

23. L. MEIROVITCH 1967 Analytical Methods in <ibrations. New York: Macmillan

Publications Co., Inc.

24. L. MEIROVITCH 1986 Elements of <ibration Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill Book

Company, Inc.

25. L. MEIROVITCH 1997 Principles and ¹echniques of <ibrations. Englewood Cli!s, NJ:

Prentice Hall, Inc.

26. S. S. RAO 1995 Mechanical <ibrations, third edition. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley

Publishing Company.

27. W. THOMSON 1993 ¹heory of <ibration with Applications, Englewood Cli!s, NJ: Prentice

Hall, Inc., fourth edition.

28. R. HABERMAN 1987 Elementary Applied Partial Di+erential Equations, Englewood Cli!s,

NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc., second edition.

29. E. POPOV 1990 Engineering Mechanics of Solids. Englewood Cli!s, NJ: Prentice Hall,

Inc.

30. I. S. SOKOLNIKOFF 1956 Mathematical ¹heory of Elasticity. New York: McGraw-Hill

Book Company.

31. A BARR 1956 Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Applied Mechanics 7,

448}458.

32. R. A. ANDERSON 1953 Journal of Applied Mechanics 75, 504}510. Flexural vibration of

uniform beams according to the Timoshenko theory.

33. J. THOMAS and B. A. H. ABBAS 1975 Journal of Sound and <ibration 41, 291}299. Finite

element model for dynamic analysis of Timoshenko beam.

34. G. R. BHASHYAM and G. PRATHAP 1981 Journal of Sound and <ibration 76, 407}420. The

second frequency spectrum of Timoshenko beam.

35. M. LEVINSON and D. W. COOKE 1982 Journal of Sound and <ibration 84, 319}326. On

the two frequency spectra of Timoshenko Beams.

36. R. ADREZIN 1997 ¹he nonlinear stochastic dynamics of tension leg platforms. Ph.D. thesis,

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 987

APPENDIX A: NOMENCLATURE

Dimensional variables

A* cross-sectional area, m`

a*, b*, b

J

* wave numbers, 1/m

E* Young's modulus, N/m`

f transverse force normal to the structure per length, N/m

G* shear modulus, N/m`

I* mass moment of inertia of the cross-section about the neutral axis, m"

Q* shear, N

¸* length of the beam, m

M* moment, Nm

k* radius of gyration I*/A*, m

k' shape factor,

KE* kinetic energy, kg m`/s`

PE* potential energy, kg m`/s`

r

*

G

ith root of the characteristic equation, 1/m

t* time, s

x* axial co-ordinate of the beam, m

v*(x*, t*) transverse displacement of the beam, m

:(x*, t*) angle of rotation due to bending, rad

[(x*, t*) angle of rotation due to shear, rad

v Poisson's ratio,

j* density of the beam, kg/m`

c

*

G

ith natural frequency of the beam, rad/s

Dimensionless variables

A dimensionless area (A*/¸*`)

a, b, b

J

dimensionless wave numbers (a*¸*, b*¸*, b

J

*¸*)

Energy dimensionless energy [Energy*¸*/(E*I*) ]

f dimensionless transverse force per unit length [ f *¸*`/(E*I*)]

G dimensionless shear modulus [G*¸*"/(E*I*)]

I dimensionless mass moment of inertia of the cross-section about the

neutral axis (I*/¸*")

Q dimensionless shear [Q*¸*`/(E*I*)]

k

dimensionless radius of gyration (k*/¸*"(I/A)

M dimensionless moment [M*¸*/(E*I*)"c:/cx]

r

G

dimensionless ith root of the characteristic equation (r

*

G

¸)

s the slenderness ratio (¸*/k*)

t dimensionless time (t*c

*

¹

)

x dimensionless axial co-ordinate (x*/¸*)

v dimensionless transverse displacement (v*/¸*)

j dimensionless density [j*(¸*"c

*`

¹

) /(E*I*)]

c

L

dimensionless nth natural frequency (c*

L

/c

*

¹

)

988 S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

936

S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

For engineering purposes, the dimensionless wave numbers are tabulated or plotted as functions of the slenderness ratio so that the natural frequencies can be obtained directly for given geometrical and physical properties. The comparisons among the natural frequencies and the dimensionless wave numbers of the four models are then made. It is shown that the di!erences between the the Euler}Bernoulli model and the other models monotonically decreases with increasing slenderness ratio de"ned by the ratio of length of the beam to the radius of gyration of the cross-section. A numerical example is given for the case of a non-slender beam so that the di!erences among models are noticeable. Following is a brief history of the development of each beam model.

1.1.

LITERATURE REVIEW

An exact formulation of the beam problem was "rst investigated in terms of general elasticity equations by Pochhammer (1876) and Chree (1889) [2]. They derived the equations that describe a vibrating solid cylinder. However, it is not practical to solve the full problem because it yields more information than usually needed in applications. Therefore, approximate solutions for transverse displacement are su$cient. The beam theories under consideration all yield the transverse displacement as a solution. It was recognized by the early researchers that the bending e!ect is the single most important factor in a transversely vibrating beam. The Euler}Bernoulli model includes the strain energy due to the bending and the kinetic energy due to the lateral displacement. The Euler}Bernoulli model dates back to the 18th century. Jacob Bernoulli (1654}1705) "rst discovered that the curvature of an elastic beam at any point is proportional to the bending moment at that point. Daniel Bernoulli (1700}1782), nephew of Jacob, was the "rst one who formulated the di!erential equation of motion of a vibrating beam. Later, Jacob Bernoulli's theory was accepted by Leonhard Euler (1707}1783) in his investigation of the shape of elastic beams under various loading conditions. Many advances on the elastic curves were made by Euler [3]. The Euler}Bernoulli beam theory, sometimes called the classical beam theory, Euler beam theory, Bernoulli beam theory, or Bernoulli}Euler beam theory, is the most commonly used because it is simple and provides reasonable engineering approximations for many problems. However, the Euler}Bernoulli model tends to slightly overestimate the natural frequencies. This problem is exacerbated for the natural frequencies of the higher modes. Also, the prediction is better for slender beams than non-slender beams. The Rayleigh beam theory (1877) [4] provides a marginal improvement on the Euler}Bernoulli theory by including the e!ect of rotation of the cross-section. As a result, it partially corrects the overestimation of natural frequencies in the Euler}Bernoulli model. However, the natural frequencies are still overestimated. Early investigators include Davies (1937) [5], who studied the e!ect of rotary inertia on a "xed-free beam. The shear model adds shear distortion to the Euler}Bernoulli model. It should be noted that this is di!erent from the pure shear model which includes the shear

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS

937

distortion and rotary inertia only or the simple shear beam which includes the shear distortion and lateral displacement only [6]. Neither the pure shear nor the simple shear model "ts our purpose of obtaining an improved model to the Euler}Bernoulli model because both exclude the most important factor, the bending e!ect. By adding shear distortion to the Euler}Bernoulli beam, the estimate of the natural frequencies improves considerably. Timoshenko (1921, 1922) [7, 8] proposed a beam theory which adds the e!ect of shear as well as the e!ect of rotation to the Euler}Bernoulli beam. The Timoshenko model is a major improvement for non-slender beams and for high-frequency responses where shear or rotary e!ects are not negligible. Following Timoshenko, several authors have obtained the frequency equations and the mode shapes for various boundary conditions. Some are Kruszewski (1949) [9], Traill-Nash and Collar (1953) [1], Dolph (1954) [10], and Huang (1961) [11]. Kruszewski obtained the "rst three antisymmetric modes of a cantilever beam, and three antisymmetric and symmetric modes of a free}free beam. Traill-Nash and Collar gave a fairly complete theoretical treatment as well as experimental results for the case of a uniform beam. In the "rst part of their paper, they obtained the expressions for the frequency equation and mode shapes for six common boundary conditions: "xed}free, free}free, hinged}free, hinged}hinged, "xed}"xed and "xed}hinged. In the second part of the paper, they reported the experimental results with the numerical results obtained by the Euler}Bernoulli, shear, and Timoshenko models. They used non-slender beams in which the shear and rotary e!ects were important. They reported the di!erence for the "rst and second natural frequencies predicted by each of the theoretical models and the experimental values. The summary of the result is shown in Table 1. Huang (1961) independently obtained the frequency equations and expressions for the mode shapes for all six end conditions. The frequency equations are di$cult to solve except for the case of a simply supported beam. Even when the roots of the frequency equations are obtained, it is a challenge to present them in a meaningful way. For example, Traill-Nash and Collar (1953), Dolph (1954), Huang (1961) and Abbas and Thomas (1977) presented them in di!erent ways. Kruszewski, Traill-Nash and Collar, and Huang only gave expressions for the natural frequencies and mode shapes. They did not solve for the complete response

TABLE 1 ¹he percentage deviates from the experimental values obtained by ¹raill-Nash and Collar (1953)

Beam models Euler}Bernoulli Shear Timoshenko First natural frequency #14% to #26% 0% to #3% !1% to #2% Second natural frequency #78% to #133% !1% to #6% !1% to #6%

938

S. M. HAN E¹ A¸.

of the beam due to initial conditions and external forces. To do so, knowledge of the orthogonality conditions among the eigenfunctions is required. The orthogonality conditions for the Timoshenko beam were independently noted by Dolph (1954) and Herrmann (1955) [12]. Dolph solved the initial and boundary-value problem for a hinged}hinged beam with no external forces. The methods used to solve for the forced initial-boundary-value problem and for the problem with time-dependent boundary conditions are brie#y mentioned in his paper. A general method to solve for the response of a Timoshenko beam due to initial conditions and the external forces is given in the book Elastokinetics by Reismann and Pawlik (1974) [13]. They used the method of eigenfunction expansion. A crucial parameter in Timoshenko beam theory is the shape factor. It is also called the shear coe$cient or the area reduction factor. This parameter arises because the shear is not constant over the cross-section. The shape factor is a function of Poisson's ratio and the frequency of vibration as well as the shape of the cross-section. Typically, the functional dependence on frequency is ignored. Davies (1948) [5], Mindlin and Deresiewicz (1954) [14], Cowper (1966) [15] and Spence and Seldin (1970) [16] suggested methods to calculate the shape factor as a function of the shape of the cross-section and Poisson's ratio. Stephen (1978) [17] showed variation in the shape factor with frequency. Despite current e!orts (Levinson (1979, 1981) [18}20] to come up with a new and better beam theory, the Euler}Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories are still widely used. A summary of the four beam theories is tabulated in Table 2. The basic assumptions made by all models are as follows. 1. 2. 3. 4. One dimension (axial direction) is considerably larger than the other two. The material is linear elastic (Hookean). The Poisson e!ect is neglected. The cross-sectional area is symmetric so that the neutral and centroidal axes coincide. 5. Planes perpendicular to the neutral axis remain perpendicular after deformation. 6. The angle of rotation is small so that the small angle assumption can be used.

**TABLE 2 Four beam theories
**

Beam models Euler}Bernoulli Rayleigh Shear Timoshenko Bending moment Lateral displacement Shear deformation ; ; Rotary inertia ; ;

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS

939

2. EQUATION OF MOTION AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS VIA HAMILTON'S PRINCIPLE

2.1. THE EULER}BERNOULLI BEAM MODEL Detailed derivations for the Euler}Bernoulli model can be found in text books by Benaroya [21], Inman [22], Meirovitch [23}25], Rao [26] and Thomson [27]. Here, the equation of motion is obtained using Hamilton's variational principle. The potential energy of a uniform beam due to bending is given by *v*(x*, t*) 1 ** dx*, (1) PE* " E*I* @CLBGLE 2 *x* where E* is the modulus of elasticity, I* the area moment of inertia of the cross-section about the neutral axis, v*(x*, t*) the transverse de#ection at the axial location x* and time t*, and ¸* the length of the beam. Superscript * symbols are used to signify that they are dimensional quantities. Now, the length scales (¸*, v*, and x*) are non-dimensionalized by the length of the beam so that dimensionless quantities (¸, v, and x) are given by

¸"¸*/¸*"1,

v"v*/¸*,

x"x*/¸*.

(2)

In terms of the dimensionless length scales, the potential energy is given by 1 E*I* *v(x, t) dx. (3) PE* " @CLBGLE 2 ¸* *x The potential energy is non-dimensionalized by E*I*/¸* so that we can write

1 *v(x, t) " dx. @CLBGLE 2 *x The kinetic energy is given by PE

(4)

*v*(x*, t*) 1 ** dx*, (5) KE* " *A* RP?LQ 2 *t* where * is the density of the beam and A* the cross-sectional area. The cross-sectional area A* is non-dimensionalized by ¸*, and the time t by 1/ * , where * is the "rst natural frequency yet to be determined. The kinetic energy is non-dimensionalized by E*I*/¸* so that we can write

1 KE " RP?LQ 2

¸* * *v(x, t) A * dx *t E*I*

(6)

By non-dimensionalizing the density * by E*I*/(¸* * ), we can write 1 *v(x, t) KE " A dx. RP?LQ 2 *t The dimensionless Lagrangian, de"ned by KE!PE, is given by

(7)

1 ¸" 2

A

*v(x, t) *v(x, t) dx, ! *t *x

(8)

By separating v(x. t) v(x. t*) v*(x*. "0 for sliding end. t*) is given by =*" LA ** f *(x*. and initial conditions form an initial-boundary-value problem which can be solved using the methods of separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion. *v "0. t) dx. *x *t (11) with the boundary conditions to be satis"ed *v *v "0. the "rst derivative *v/*x is the dimensionless slope. boundary conditions. *x *v *v "0. we do not consider base excited or end forcing problems. v is the dimensionless displacement. t) # "f (x. *x *x (13) *v *x These conditions are shown in Figure 1 where D. M. the dimensionless non-conservative work is given by =" LA f (x. t). and the third derivative *v/*x is the dimensionless shear. *x *v *v "0. t)"=(x)¹(t). moment and shear respectively. (9) Non-dimensionalizing the work by E*I*/¸* and the transverse external force f * by ¸*/E*I*. HAN E¹ A¸. The equation of motion. four combinations of end conditions are possible. and Q represent displacement. v"0 for hinged end. M. only in our case. First. the displacement is known.940 S. It does not necessarily mean that the displacement is zero. Therefore. That is. S. *x *x *v "0. v"0 for clamped end. (12) v "0. the second derivative *v/*x is the dimensionless moment. Here. t) *v(x. In order for equation (12) to be satis"ed. t*) dx*. (10) Using the extended Hamilton's principle. slope. Keep in mind that v"0 means that the variation of the displacement is zero. by including the non-conservative forcing. the equation of motion (11) can be separated into two ordinary . let us examine the physical meaning of the boundary conditions above. we consider a homogeneous problem by setting f (x. t) into two functions such that v(x. t)"0 in order to obtain the natural frequencies and eigenfunctions. *x *x Before we go on. v"0 or (*v/*x)"0 means that the displacement or the slope is zero. The virtual work due to the non-conservative transverse force per unit length f *(x*. the governing di!erential equation of motion is given by A *v(x. "0 for free end.

as in equation (13). ¹(t) is sinusoidal in time. This is done is Section 3. D(0. (c) free. S(0. Q(0. We proceed next with the Rayleigh beam model. (b) clamped. t)"0.2. t)"0. t)"0. t)"0. (18) where d and C are constant coe$cients. The variables are non-dimensionalized in the same fashion. "0. dt d=(x) !a=(x)"0. d¹(t) # ¹(t)"0. The quantity a is 1/2 times the number of cycles in a beam length. and we call a the dimensionless wave number. M(0. t)"0. (19) dx dx from which we can obtain four possible end conditions. Four types of boundary conditions: (a) hinged. From Equations (14) and (15). d= dx 2. D(0. Q(0. t)"0. Now we are ready to apply the boundary conditions to the spatial solution to obtain the corresponding frequency equations and eigenfunctions.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 941 Figure 1.2. and =(x) has both sinusoidal and hyperbolic terms: (17) ¹(t)"d sin t#d cos t. 15) where a is related to the angular frequency a" A . THE RAYLEIGH BEAM MODEL As mentioned in the introduction. dx by (16) (14. t)"0. For instance. equation (12) can be rewritten as d= d= = "0. G G Note that the boundary conditions can be expressed in terms of the spatial function =(x) only. S(0. M(0. =(x)"C sin ax#C cos ax#C sinh ax#C cosh ax. and they are tabulated in Appendix A.R Equation (16) is called the dispersion relationship. the Rayleigh beam adds the rotary inertia e!ects to the Euler}Bernoulli beam. (d) sliding. . The kinetic energy due to the R We are de"ning the wave number as a*"2 /wavelength* so that the dimensionless wave number is given by a"2 /wavelength. t)"0. di!erential equations. in terms of =(x) only.

(7) and (10) to form the Lagrangian and using Hamilton's principle. *x *x*t *x *v *v *v "0. we obtain *v* *M* !Q*" *I* . (20) PMR 2 *t*x where I* is non-dimensionalized by ¸*. Combining equation (20) with equations (4). Its validity can be veri"ed by summing the forces and moments on an incremental beam element. t) # ! I "f (x. *v/*x the dimensionless moment and *v/*x! I(*v/*x*t) the dimensionless shear. taking the sum of the moments about the center of the beam element.942 S. HAN E¹ A¸. rotation of the cross-section is given by 1 *v(x. t) *v(x. M. (24) where can be approximated as *v/*x or *v*/*x*. v"0 for clamped end. as shown in Figure 2. we obtain the equation of motion given by A *v(x. (26) . *v/*x the dimensionless slope. (22) *x*t *x *x where v is the dimensionless displacement. t*). and dQ* and d represent (*Q*/*x*) dx* and (* /*x*) dx* respectively. *x *v "0. *x *x*t *t (21) with the boundary conditions given by *v *v *v ! I v "0. v"0 for hinged end. S The small angle assumption means that 1. t). *x *x *x*t (23) The expression for shear might seem odd. t*) dx*. The sum of the forces on a beam element in the transverse direction isR *v* F " *A* dx* W *t* " !(Q*#dQ*) cos( #d )#Q* cos #f *(x*. *x *v *v *v "0. *t**x* *x* R Symbols with superscript * are dimensional quantities. t) KE " I dx. t) *v(x. ! *t* *x* (25) Similarly. ! I "0 for free end. ! I "0 for sliding end. Expanding cos( #d ) about using a Taylor series expansion and using the small angle assumption. Four possible end conditions are *v *x *v "0. "0.S we obtain *v* *Q* " *A* !f *(x*.

and the spatial di!erential equation is given by d=(x) ! dx A=(x)! I d=(x) "0. the shear is given by Q*"E*I* or *v *v Q" ! I . v(x. t) into spatial and time functions. *x *t*x which veri"es our interpretation.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 943 Figure 2. we obtain *v* *v* *M* " *I* ! *A* #f *(x*. In order to obtain the homogeneous solution. *t**x* *t* *x* whose dimensionless form is given by *M *v *v " I ! A #f (x. dx (31) *v* *v* ! *I* . t*). t) is set equal to zero in equation (21). f (x. *x* (29) (28) (27) Using equation (29) and (26). t)"=(x)¹(t). and subtracting equation (25) from it. Separating v(x. An incremental beam element. Taking the "rst derivative of equation (26) with respect to x*. t). the moment is given by *v or M" *x M*"E*I* *v* . equation (21) can also be separated into two ordinary di!erential equations. *t**x* *x* (30) . *x *t*x *t Comparing this with the equation of motion (21). The time function ¹(t) obeys the same di!erential equation as the one for the Euler}Bernoulli model given in equation (14).

t) dx. we can write PE (39) PE 1 *v(x. dx d= d= # I dx dx = "0. t*) dx*. kG*A* QFC?P 2 *x* Using the dimensionless length scales and the dimensionless potential energy expressions. THE SHEAR BEAM MODEL This model adds the e!ect of shear distortion (but not rotary inertia) to the Euler}Bernoulli model. the angle of distortion due to shear. t) dx. and . It will be shown in Section 3. (35) 2. (36) Therefore. Again. M. (34) (32) (33) Note that there are two wave numbers in this case. d= dx d= "0.3. kGA QFC?P 2 *x (40) . the potential energy due to bending given in equation (4) is slightly modi"ed in this case such that 1 * (x.3 that these wave numbers are related only by the slenderness ratio.944 S. We introduce new variables . t) " ! (x. The total angle of rotation is the sum of and and is approximately the "rst derivative of the de#ection. where the dispersion relations are a"( I /2#(( I /2)# A . The boundary conditions given in equation (22) can be written in terms of =(x) only. 1 * G*¸* *v(x. and the spatial solution =(x) has both sinusoidal and hyperbolic terms. ¹(t)"d sin t#d cos t. HAN E¹ A¸. the time solution ¹(t) is sinusoidal. t) " A ! (x. t)/*x. t) dx. t*) PE * " (38) ! (x*. (x. t)# (x. k QFC?P 2 *x E*I* Non-dimensionalizing G* by E*I*/¸*. the angle of rotation of the cross-section due to the bending moment. b"(! I /2#(( I /2)# A . =(x)"C sin ax#C cos ax#C sinh bx#C cosh bx. t)"*v(x. PE " @CLBGLE 2 *x The potential energy due to shear is given by (37) 1 * *v*(x*.

*x *x with the boundary conditions given by v "0. the Lagrangian is given by 1 ¸" 2 A *v(x. the angle of rotation due to the bending moment. t) * (x. * /*x the dimensionless moment. v"0 for clamped end. t) #kGA ! (x. *x *x *t *v(x. The equations of motion. *v ! *x (44) (42) *v ! *x "0 for sliding end. *x * *v "0. t) *v(x. t) * (x. Following Cowper's [15] work. and kGA(*v/*x! (x. kGA * "0. t)) the dimensionless shear. t) ! !kGA ! (x. t) *v(x. Four possible boundary conditions are * *x "0. some of the values are tabulated in Table 3. t) "0. t). "0. kGA ! *x *x "0 for free end. "0. . t) * (x. using Hamilton's principle. (43) v is the dimensionless displacement. there are two dependent variables for the shear beam. t) dx. Together with the kinetic energy due to lateral displacement given in equation (7). t) !kGA ! "f (x. (41) *t *x *x Unlike in the Euler}Bernoulli and the Rayleigh beam models. v"0 for hinged end. are given by A *v(x.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 945 TABLE 3 ¹he shear factor Cross section Circle k 6(1# ) 7#6 6(1# )(1#m) (7#6 )(1#m)#(20#12 )m 10(1# ) 12#11 2(1# ) 4#3 20(1# ) 48#39 Hollow circle with m"r /r GLLCP MSRCP Rectangle Thin-walled round tube Thin-walled square tube where k is the shape factor.

t) ! # A "0. (x) =(x) (x) (49) # A 0 0 !kGA These equations can be decoupled to yield =(x)# =(x)! A =(x)"0. The next step is to separate the variables.R Therefore. kGA(=(x)! (x))# A=(x)"0. kG *x*t *t *x * (x. HAN E¹ A¸. Note that the slope due to the bending moment is zero (instead of the total slope *v/*x) at the clamped or sliding end. (48) Again. v(x. *x kG *x*t *t (45) Note that the forms of the di!erential equations for v and are identical. Now. we try to solve the homogeneous problem without the external forcing function. The two equations of motion (42) can be decoupled to yield *v(x. (x)¹(t)#kGA(=(x)! (x))¹(t)"0. Here. t) *v(x. the second in equation (47) and the second in equation (48). (47) where the prime and dot notations are used for the derivatives with respect to x and t respectively. M. t) (x) Now. are written using matrix notation as 0" kGA 0 0 1 =(x) 0 !kGA # (x) kGA 0 =(x) . t) ! # A "0. v(x. we can expect that the forms of v(x. t) are synchronized in time.946 S. . let us substitute the above expression into the governing di!erential equation (42) without the term f (x. t) =(x) "¹(t) . The "rst expression in equation (47) can be separated into two ordinary di!erential equations given by G ¹ (t)# ¹(t)"0. t) are the same. kG kG (x)! A (x)"0. t) *v(x. ¹(t) is sinusoidal with angular frequency as in equation (17). t) * (x. t) and (x. (50) (x)# R The equations can be decoupled in this way only when the cross-sectional area and the density are uniform. (46) (x. t) and (x. In other words. we "rst assume that they share the same time solution ¹(t). t) to obtain G A=(x)¹ (t)!kGA(=(x)! (x))¹(t)"0. t) * (x. The spatial equations.

The corresponding r!kGA G . 4. r# The eigenvalues are given by r" $ ! $ G 2kG r! A "0. so that we can further assume that the solutions of =(x) and (x) also have the same form and only di!er by a constant as =(x) "duePV. In order to have a non-trivial solution. that is. the determinant of the above matrix has to be zero. 2kG (54) of which two are real and the other two are dimensionless eigenvectors u are given by G kGAr G or u" G kGAr# A G The spatial solution is given by imaginary. 2kG b" ! # 2kG # A . 2. 2kG (57) We can write the spatial solution (56) in terms of the sinusoidal and hyperbolic functions with real arguments. we obtain kGAr# A !kGAr u"0. 3. kG (53) # A for i"1. (x) (51) where d is the constant coe$cient.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 947 Note that the di!erential equations for =(x) and (x) have the same form. kGAr r!kGA (52) from which we obtain the eigenvalues r and eigenvectors u. When equation (51) is substituted into equation (49). (58) (x) D D D D . u a vector of constant numbers and r the wave number. =(x) C C C C " sin ax# cos ax# sinh bx# cosh bx. !kGAr G (55) =(x) " d u ePG V G G (x) G "d u e@V#d u e\@V#d u e ?V#d u e\ ?V. where a" (56) # 2kG # A .

lateral displacement (7).R Therefore. C C "(d u !d u )i. THE TIMOSHENKO BEAM MODEL Timoshenko proposed a beam theory which adds the e!ects of shear distortion and rotary inertia [7. t) * (x. D D C C "(d u !d u ). HAN E¹ A¸. 8] to the Euler}Bernoulli model. (59) D D Keeping in mind that d and d are complex conjugates of each other. t) ! (x. . there are four unknowns. kGA d= ! dx = "0. It may seem that the spatial solution has eight unknown constant coe$cients. The boundary conditions in equation (43) are written in terms of spatial solutions as d dx "0. (61) 2. the kinetic energy term used in the Rayleigh beam (20) is modi"ed to include only the angle of rotation due to bending by replacing *v/*x with . By G G G expressing the exponential functions ePG V in equation (56) in terms of sinusoidal and hyperbolic functions. t) *v(x. Therefore. (37) and (40). t) dx. "d u #d u . the Timoshenko model adds rotary inertia to the shear model or adds shear distortion to the Rayleigh model. t) # I *t *t (62) ! * (x. These relations can be obtained more easily by substituting the assumed solution (58) into the spatial di!erential equations (49). instead of the four that we started with [d in equation (56)]. we obtain kGAa! A kGAa! A C . "d u #d u . rotary inertia (20) and shear distortion (40). Combining modi"ed equation (20) with equations (7). kGAb kGAb# A D " C . kGAb (60) Therefore.4. but only with the rotation due to bending. M. D " C .948 S. !kGA *x *x R Equivalently. the expressions for the coe$cients C and D are obtained in G G terms of eigenvectors. C and D . the Lagrangian is given by 1 ¸" 2 A *v(x. the Lagrangian includes the e!ects of bending moment (37). We assume that there is no rotational kinetic energy associated with shear distortion. D " ! kGAa kGAa kGAb# A D " C .

kG *x*t *t kG *t * * I * I# # A # "0. In order to solve the homogeneous problem. t) obey di!erential equations of the same form. and the spatial equation is given by 0" kGA 0 0 1 =(x) 0 !kGA # (x) kGA 0 =(x) . we use the method of separation of variables to separate the equations of motion (63) to obtain the time and the spatial ordinary di!erential equations. t) !kGA ! "f (x. The equations of motion (63) can be decoupled into "0. t) "0. 4 kG (68) . we obtain the characteristic equation r# whose roots are r"$ I# kG I r! A # kG "0. t) and (x. the forcing function is set to zero. The time equation is the same as the ones for the other models given in equation (14).TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 949 The equations of motion are given by A I *v(x. t) and (x. t) * (x. (x) =(x) (x) (66) # A 0 0 J !kGA Following the procedure used previously from equations (46)}(53). Again. t) themselves are of the same form. *x *x *t (63) *v(x. (67) 1 ! I# kG 2 $ 1 I! # A . *x *t *x and the boundary conditions are given by (64) which are identical to those of the shear beam. First. *v ! *x * ! *x *v I *v *v I# # A # "0. t) ! !kGA ! (x. t) *v(x. where it is implied that v and are functions of x and t. t) * (x. t). kG *x*t *t kG *t (65) * *x kGA *v ! *x v "0. t) * (x. so that we can make the same argument as we did for the shear beam that v(x. both v(x.

and the other two roots given by r "$ 1 ! I# kG 2 ! 1 I! # A 4 kG are either real or imaginary depending on the frequency (for a given material and geometry). we must consider two cases when A obtaining spatial solutions: ( and ' . D " ! J J kGAb kGAb 1 I# kG 1 I# kG 2 # ! 2 1 I! # A . =(x) C C C C " sin ax# cos ax# sinh bx# cosh bx. HAN E¹ A¸. A I I I I =(x) C C C C J J " sin ax# cos ax# sin bx# cos bx. D " C .950 S. 4 kG 1 I! # A . kG 4 (73) (74) . the spatial solution is written in terms of both sinusoidal and A hyperbolic terms. D " C . (70) (x) D D D D where a" 1 ! I# kG 2 # 1 I! # A kG 4 (69) b" and C and D are related by equation (60). 4 kG 1 ! I# kG 2 # 1 I! # A . the spatial solution only has sinusoidal terms. They are real when the frequency is less than (kGA/ I and are imaginary when the frequency is greater than (kGA/ I. (x) D D D D where a" J b" 1 I# kG 2 # 1 I! # A . the two given by r "$ are always imaginary. kG 4 (71) (72) I and C and D are related by G G kGAa! A kGAa! A I I C . Of the four roots. A A When ( . Therefore. M. G G When ' . D " ! kGAa kGAa J J kGAb! A kGAb! A I I C . We call this cuto! frequency the critical frequency .

3. NATURAL FREQUENCIES AND MODE SHAPES So far. kG* k (81) k G* 1 #1 " E* k 1 #1 . (79) Recall that k depends on the Poisson ratio and the shape of the cross-section. we use G*"E*/2(1# ). We will "nd that the derivative is always positive implying that a is a monotonically increasing function of . equations (58) with equation (60) for the shear and the Timoshenko models for ( . This critical frequency can be written as " A kGA 1 " I k kG . (78) a " ((kGI#1). Both k and do not vary much so that we can say that the critical wave number essentially depends on the slenderness ratio. we have obtained the spatial solutions with four unknowns [equations (18) for the Euler}Bernoulli and Rayleigh models.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 951 J Notice that b and b are related by J b"ib . A A A k Writing in terms of dimensional variables 1 a" A k where is given byR E* 2(1# ) " " . (76) where k is the dimensionless radius of gyration or the inverse of the slenderness ratio. k" I* 1 1 " . the case when ( is equivalent to the case when a(a . Also. A* ¸* s (77) By substituting equation (76) into equations (71) and (73). (80) . and we have identi"ed the A possible boundary conditions that the spatial solutions have to satisfy equation (19) R Here. This can be A A veri"ed by taking a derivative of a in the dispersion relationship [equations (71) or (73)] with respect to . (75) Let us examine the frequency and the wave number where the transition occurs. and equation (72) with A equation (74) for the Timoshenko model for ' ]. the critical wave numbers are 1 J b "b "0.

."0. the coe$cients C of the G corresponding spatial solution are unique only to a constant.952 S. hinged}hinged.1. [F] 3. where +C. and the matrix [F] typically has sinusoidal and hyperbolic functions evaluated at the end points. For each root. On the other hand. "+0. The determinant of [F] has to be zero to avoid the trivial solution or +C. which has an in"nite number of roots. . sliding}sliding. we obtain the frequency equations. Therefore. clamped}sliding and hinged}sliding supports. the free}sliding beam requires that the angle of rotation due to bending is zero at the sliding end. . let us identify all 10 cases. S The symmetric mode of the free}free beam requires that the total slope of the beam v(x. The corresponding spatial solutions are called the eigenfunctions or the mode shapes. the best we can do is to reduce the number of unknowns from four to one. for the shear and Timoshenko models. Excluding the rigid-body mode. clamped}free. At this point. we try to minimize the cases to be considered. . clamped}hinged.R In this section. Those for the other six cases are obtained using the symmetric and antisymmetric modes. The roots are in the form of dimensionless wave numbers. free}hinged. Using the symmetric and antisymmetric modes. HAN E¹ A¸. we obtain four simultaneous equations which can be written as +C. hinged}hinged. M. Upon applying the boundary conditions. The next step is to apply a set of boundary conditions in order to obtain the four unknown coe$cients in the spatial solution. free}sliding. for the Euler}Bernoulli. which can be translated into natural frequencies using the dispersion relationships. the free}sliding beam can be replaced by the symmetric mode of the free}free beam. clamped} clamped. is the vector of coe$cients in the spatial solution. SYMMETRIC AND ANTISYMMETRIC MODES First. As shown in Figure 3 for the free}free beam. and clamped}free cases. The remaining constant in the eigenfunction is usually determined by normalizing the modal equation for convenience. the free}sliding is the symmetric modeS and the free}hinged is the antisymmetric mode of the free}free case as shown in Figure 3. the other condition for the sliding end is that "0 which leads to v"0. They are free}free. we can "nd the dimensionless wave numbers of the remaining cases using the de"nition of the dimensionless wave number. The hinged}sliding is the symmetric mode of the hinged}hinged case and the antisymmetric mode of the sliding}sliding case. the R see sections 5. Similarly. clamped}clamped.1 and 5. Once we obtain the dimensionless wave numbers of the free}free. It seems that the symmetric mode of the free}free beam cannot represent the free}sliding beam. their roots and the mode shapes for four of the ten boundary conditions.2 for normalization process. The equation obtained by setting the determinant to zero is the frequency equation. the clamped}sliding is the symmetric mode and the clamped}hinged is the antisymmetric mode of the clamped}clamped case. for each model. However. if we look more closely. equation (35) for the Rayleigh and equation (61) for the shear and Timoshenko models]. The dimensionless wave number is 1/2 times the number of cycles contained in the beam length. (82) . t) in the middle of the beam is zero.

there are only four cases to be considered: free}free. sliding}sliding cases. free}free. The (a) symmetric and (b) antisymmetric modes of the free}free beam. (b) second. Therefore. Similarly. The dimensionless wave numbers are related as shown in Table 4. (c) third. For instance. we can further deduce that the sliding}sliding support case is the same as the hinged}hinged case. Keep in mind that the rigid-body mode (a "0) is omitted for the free}sliding. symmetric (free}sliding) and the antisymmetric (free}hinged) cases contain half of the cycles contained in the free}free case. clamped}free. hinged}hinged. the mode shapes of these four cases can be used to generate the mode shapes of the other six cases.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 953 Figure 3. the dimensionless wave numbers are also half of that of the free}free case. Therefore. Figure 4. From the last four relations in Table 4. The "rst three modes of the sliding}sliding beam: (a) "rst. and the second and fourth mode shapes (antisymmetric modes) generate the "rst and . the "rst and third mode shapes (symmetric modes) of the free}free case generate the "rst and second mode shapes of the free}sliding case (excluding the rigid-body mode). clamped}clamped. Note that the "rst mode of the free}free and the clamped}clamped cases are symmetric whereas the "rst mode of sliding}sliding case is antisymmetric as shown in Figure 4. free}hinged.

One special characteristic of this model is that the frequency equations for the free}free and clamped}clamped cases are the same. aAJ?KNCB\QJGBGLE" a AJ?KNCB\AJ?KNCB L L\ 4. That is. M. and the lengths of the free}sliding or free}hinged beams are half of the free}free beam. As long as the slenderness ratio of the free}free beam is twice that of the free}sliding or free}hinged beam. Note that we were able to obtain the numerical values for the dimensionless wave numbers. The actual frequency of vibration can be found using the dispersion relationship in equation (16). aDPCC\QJGBGLE" a DPCC\DPCC L L\ 2. It is important to note that it is implied in Figure 3 that the cross-sectional areas of the beams are the same. using Table 4. . we can also write a *¸* ( */E*" L . more precisely. HAN E¹ A¸. It will be shown that for other models. Therefore.954 S. THE EULER-BERNOULLI BEAM MODEL The spatial solution =(x) is given in equation (18). aAJ?KNCB\FGLECB" a AJ?KNCB\AJ?KNCB L L 5. aFGLECB\QJGBGLE" a FGLECB\FGLECB L L\ 6.2 1. The wave numbers for the remaining cases. The frequency equations for four cases and the "rst "ve dimensionless wave numbers are tabulated in Table 5. aQJGBGLE\FGLECB" a QJGBGLE\QJGBGLE L L\ second mode shapes of the free}hinged case as shown in Figure 3. TABLE 4 ¹he relationship between normalized wave numbers of various boundary conditions for n"1. are tabulated in Table 6. 2. this does not always have to be the case. aFGLECB\FGLECB" a FGLECB\FGLECB L L 7. This is the case only for this model. In fact. we can say that the dimensionless wave numbers of the free}free beam with the slenderness ratio of s is twice the dimensionless wave numbers of the free}sliding or free}hinged case with the slenderness ratio of s/2.2. This will be useful when we L compare the natural frequencies predicted by other models. Similarly. 3. it is not possible to do so. aQJGBGLE\QJGBGLE" a QJGBGLE\QJGBGLE L L 8. aDPCC\FGLECB" a DPCC\DPCC L L 3. *A*¸* (83) so that we can plot *¸*( */E* as a function of 1/s. this analysis works. and the expressions for the boundary conditions are given in equation (13). 3. Here the dimensionless wave numbers are obtained by applying the four sets of boundary conditions to the spatial solution. mode shapes of the sliding}sliding case can be generated by hinged}hinged case. L s (84) E*I* a. *" Using the dispersion relationship.

B " A . we call b the wave number of the hyperbolic function. in this case. there are two wave numbers in the Rayleigh beam. a. let us say a. one of the wave numbers has to be expressed in terms of the other so that the frequency equation is a function of one wave number only. Following is the procedure used to express b in terms of a. Unlike in the Euler}Bernoulli beam case. a and b. let us examine the ratio of B to B .rst .rst . .TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 955 TABLE 5 ¹he frequency equations and the . THE RAYLEIGH BEAM MODEL The expressions for the boundary conditions are given in equation (23). (85) (86) Solving for B and B in equation (85) we obtain B "(a!b)/2. where B and B . b. In order to "nd the solution to the frequency equations. Now. does. Nonetheless. B 1 1 1 I " ! " . From equations (87) and (86). 2 b" !B #(B#B .ve wave numbers obtained using the symmetric and antisymmetric modes a c-s and f-s c-h and f-h h-s 2)365 3)927 0)5 a 5)498 7)069 1)5 a 8)639 10)210 2)5 a 11)781 13)352 3)5 a 14)923 16)493 4)5 3. B "ab (87) Note that equations (87) are still the dispersion relations.R The frequency equation will have both a and b.ve wave numbers of Euler}Bernoulli model The frequency equation c-c and f-f h-h or s-s c-f cos a cosh a!1"0 sin a sinh a"0 cos a cosh a#1"0 a 4)730 1)875 a 7)853 2 4)694 a 10)996 3 7)855 a 14)137 4 10)996 a 17)279 5 14)137 TABLE 6 ¹he .3. are I B " . The dispersion relations given in equation (34) can be written as a"B #(B#B . (88) B 2 b a 2A R Note that the wave number of a hyperbolic function. does not have a physical meaning while the wave number of a sinusoidal function.

Therefore. b). a equals b by equation (89) or (90). The signi"cance of the previous statement is that it implies that the mode shapes also vary with the slenderness ratio. . a(k). the roots of the frequency equations depend on the slenderness of the beam and are no longer independent of the geometry of the beam. 1 1 "as . slenderness ratio. Here. Comparing equation (85) with equation (16). we can write 1 1 1 ! "k" . Rayleigh. the slenderness ratio of 100 is su$cient so that there is little di!erence among all four models (Euler}Bernoulli. the frequency equation becomes identical to that of the Euler}Bernoulli beam. we also "nd that the wave numbers a and b are equal to the wave number of the Euler}Bernoulli beam. shear and Timoshenko). the geometrical property.R The frequency equations for four cases are given in Table 7. and B is zero by equation (87). we use the following analysis. Notice that the frequency equations contain both a and b as predicted earlier. Let one of the frequency equations be F(a. Then.956 S. From equation R In general. For a slender beam where s is large (k is small). This contrasts with the case of the Euler}Bernoulli beam where the dimensionless wave numbers are independent of the geometry of the beam but dependent solely on the boundary conditions. TABLE 7 ¹he frequency equations of the Rayleigh model f-f c-c h-h or s-s c-f (b!a)sin a sinh b#2ab cos a cosh b!2ab"0 (b!a) sin a sinh b!2ab cos a cosh b#2ab"0 sin a sinh b"0 (b!a)ab sin a sinh b#(b#a) cos a cosh b#2ab"0 where the ratio of I to A is k from equation (77). as s approaches in"nity. enters the frequency equations. In order to obtain a smooth function. As mentioned earlier. Expressing b in terms of a and k (or s). HAN E¹ A¸. the wave numbers of the Rayleigh beam are related by the slenderness ratio. M. the two wave numbers approach each other so that the result resembles that of the Euler}Bernoulli beam. Further. Now. The frequency equations in Table 7 are transcendental equations that have to be solved numerically. we will use k for a reason which will become apparent shortly. notice that when b is expressed in terms of a using equation (90). The best way to represent the solution of the frequency equation is to plot wave numbers as a continuous function of s or k. b a s (89) Therefore. (90) b"a ak#1 a#s Let us consider the case when k"0.

b is a function of a and k. b and k. The "rst four pairs of wave numbers of the free}free Rayleigh beam and clamped} clamped shear beam: *. k).2. Euler}Bernoulli. a . we can track that particular wave number as the slenderness ratio varies. Solving for da/dk. of the L L Figure 5. } ) } ) }.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 957 (90). a and b . the right-hand side is a function of a and k only. we obtain da !(*F/*b)(*b/*k) " . The two lines (dotted and dot-dashed) that emerge from nth solid line near 1/s"0 are the nth waves numbers. *a *b Combining two expressions. Note that depending on which wave number we use as an initial value. a. The initial value problem is solved using MATLAB. dF is given by *F *F *b *b dF" da# da# dk "0. this is a "rst order ordinary di!erential equation which can be solved once we know the initial value a(k"0). The four solid lines in each "gure are the wave numbers obtained using the Euler}Bernoulli theory. b(a. b. After b is expressed in terms of a and k by equation (90). *a *b *a *k where dF is zero because F is zero. dk (*F/*a)#(*F/*b)(*b/*a) (93) (92) *b *b db" da# dk. a . and the results are shown in Figures 5}8. They are not a!ected by the slenderness ratio. dF and db are given by *F *F dF" da# db. . *a *k (91) where the right-hand side is a function of a. Now. 2. The initial value is identical to the wave numbers of the Euler}Bernoulli model given in Tables 5 and 6.

b. M. . The "rst four pairs of wave numbers of the clamped}clamped Rayleigh beam and free}free shear beam: *. Euler}Bernoulli. 2. a. } ) } ) }. } ) } ) }. Figure 6. Figure 7. b.958 S. The "rst four pairs of wave numbers of the hinged}hinged (or sliding}sliding) Rayleigh and shear beam: *. HAN E¹ A¸. Euler}Bernoulli or a.

(96) ab " . solved in terms of the wave numbers and the property of the beam using the dispersion relations (86) and (87). 2. ¸*. Rayleigh model. is given by a!b or " I which is equivalent to E* ab E* or *" . * can be obtained instantly. *. and E*. These dimensionless wave numbers together with the complete properties of the beam lead to the natural frequencies using the dispersion relations. *"7830 kg/m. a. *"(a!b) *¸*( */E*"(a!b. The "rst four pairs of wave numbers of the clamped}free Rayleigh and shear beam: *.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 959 Figure 8. we can plot *¸*( */E* as a function of 1/s using the "rst relation in equation (95). we obtain up to four sets of wave numbers for each case. A (94) The plots of *¸*( */E* as a function of 1/s are shown in Figures 9}12. b. Having such plots. and . Euler}Bernoulli. The natural frequency. (95) *¸* s *¸* Since we know a and b as discrete functions of 1/s from Figures 5}8. For example. we can instantly obtain the dimensionless wave numbers once we know the slenderness ratio. where ¸*"1 m. Using these plots. the "rst four pairs of wave numbers of the clamped}free Rayleigh beam when s"9)1192 (or 1/s"0)11) can be obtained from Figure 8 and the natural frequencies. The bene"t of having such plots is that once we know s. } ) } ) }.

} ) } ) }. *2. *2. M. HAN E¹ A¸. *2. The frequency curves for the free}free Rayleigh and clamped}clamped shear beam. *2. *. *2. 2. The frequency curves for the clamped}clamped Rayleigh and free}free shear beam. *2.960 S. 2. Figure 9. *. } } }. *2. } } }. *2. } ) } ) }. Figure 10. .

2 . *2. *2. The frequency curves for the hinged}hinged (or sliding}sliding) Rayleigh and shear beam. *2. The frequency curves for the clamped}free Rayleigh and shear beam. *2.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 961 Figure 11. } ) } ) }. } } }. } ) } ) }. } } }. *. *2. * . Figure 12. *2. 2. *. *2. 2.

"21)664. b ).962 S. the ratio of B to B is reduced to B 1 1 1 " ! . "1. THE SHEAR BEAM MODEL The same analysis as for the Rayleigh beam is applied here. M. a point that corresponds to the inverse slenderness ratio of 1/s and wave numbers of a and b in Figure 5. (a . For example.(wave numbers) in Figure 5.4. 6)937). (a!b. 4)086). Again. The wave numbers and the frequency charts of the shear and Timoshenko models are obtained in the same way. b ). These numbers will be used in the example problem at the end of this paper. are replaced by 2. One comment is made here regarding the wave numbers and the frequency charts for the other six sets of boundary conditions. b )"(10)686. The exact numbers are (a . (a . "13)046. b )"(1)869.2 by replacing the abscissa label 1/s with 1/(2s) and ordinate label wave numbers with 2. The frequency charts can be modi"ed in the same way so that the abscissa label 1/s is replaced by 1/(2s) and the wave numbers in ordinate label. 1)831). B " A (98) B " 2kG and B "(a!b)/2. (a . b )"(4)571. where the same analogy is applied to the other cases: the clamped}clamped and hinged}hinged beams. 3. would correspond to the inverse slenderness ratio of 2/s and the wave numbers of a /2 and b /2 in the new plot. E*"200 GPa. (97) Note that the natural frequencies are non-dimensionalized by the "rst natural frequency given by *"1896 rad/s. the dispersion relationship given in equation (57) is written in the form of equation (85) where B and B are given by . b )"(7)629.(wave number) so that the new ordinate label is 2(a!b or 2 *¸*( */E*. (a . "5)459. 5)851). Using equation (99). It was mentioned earlier that the dimensionless wave numbers of the free}free beam with the slenderness ratio of s are twice the dimensionless wave numbers of the free}sliding or free}hinged case with the slenderness ratio of s/2. can be obtained from Figure 12. B "ab. (100) B 2 b a . In this way. the wave numbers of the free}sliding beam are obtained from the wave numbers of the odd modes of free}free beams (a . HAN E¹ A¸. (99) The latter relations are identical to those of the Rayleigh beam (87).

b a s Solving for b. we obtain b"a (102) as 1 " ka#1 1 . Therefore.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 963 TABLE 8 ¹he frequency equations of the shear model f-f c-c h-h or s-s c-f (b!a)sin a sinh b!2ab cos a cosh b#2ab"0 (b!a) sin a sinh b#2ab cos a cosh b!2ab"0 sin a sinh b"0 (b!a)ab sin a sinh b#(b#a) cos a cosh b#2ab"0 and using equation (98) the ratio is reduced to 1 E*I*¸* (1# ) 1 1 B " " " " . In fact. the natural frequency is given by *¸* E* 2(1# ) k *"(a!b. we "nd that the coe$cients in the spatial solutions are related by b D " ! C . (105) where (2(1# )/k is denoted as throughout this paper as shown in equation (81). Note that the frequency equation for the free}free shear beam is identical to the clamped} clamped Rayleigh beam. Also. The frequency equations for the other two cases are the same as the ones for the Rayleigh beam. b a D " C . b (104) so that we can write the spatial solution in terms of the wave numbers only. The frequency equations for the shear beam are given in Table 8. Therefore. (101) 2kGA 2kG*¸*A* k s 2 s B where is given in equation (81) and G* is related to E* by equation (80). and clamped}free in Figure 8. we can use . We can use the plots for the Rayleigh beam here by just replacing the label for the abscissa 1/s with /s and switching the free}free case with the clamped}clamped case. a a D " C . From equations (98) and (99). 1/s is modi"ed by the factor . a#s/ (103) Looking again at equation (60). hinged}hinged (or sliding}sliding) in Figure 7. The clamped} clamped case is shown in Figure 5. free}free in Figure 6. we can write 1 1 ! " "( k). a b D " C . Notice the similarity between equations (96) and (105). Also note that the relationship between wave numbers (102) is similar to that of the Rayleigh beam (89). the frequency equation for the clamped}clamped shear beam is identical to that of the free}free Rayleigh beam.

Note that B . "4)1923. HAN E¹ A¸. and B can be J J obtained in terms of a and b by replacing b with b in equation (109). (111) J (a#b)(1# ) Note that the wave numbers are related by s and . J b"(!(B #B )#((B !B )#B "ib. 3)857). B and B .5. 2kG B " A . 1)686). b )"(1)846. THE TIMOSHENKO BEAM MODEL Here. The notation *2 in the captions are representative of L *¸*( */E* for the Rayleigh and *¸* ( */E* for the shear model. (a . these plots are convenient for easily obtaining the natural frequencies for a given s and . we obtain the relationship between the wave numbers given by ( b#a)(a #b) "s. (110) (a!b)(1# ) J J Again. B " . 4 (1# ) (108) (109) where is a constant given in equation (81). M. B . "1. we follow the same procedure used for the Rayleigh and the shear beams by letting I B " . the relationship between a and b can be obtained by replacing b with ib in equation (110) as J ( b #a)( a!b) ! J "s. ¸*"1 m. we obtain a!b (a!b) B " . 3)626). b )"(7)539. "8)7823. for 1/s"0)11. (a . Solving for B . (a . b )"(4)352. (107) so that the dispersion relations in equations (71) and (73) can be written as a"((B #B )#((B !B )#B . 2)998). and E*"200 GPa. 2(1# ) 2(1# ) 1 (1! ) B " (a#b)! (a!b) . (106) where the natural frequencies are non-dimensionalized by the "rst natural frequency *"1725 rad/s. *"7830 kg/m. 2 B " "B . From Figures 8 and 12.964 S. 3. By equating the ratio of B to B using equations (107) and (109). "13)241. . the plots used in the Rayleigh beam (Figures 9}12) by simply replacing the ordinate with *¸* ( */E*. "2)205. L L Again. b )"(10)686. the pairs of wave numbers and the natural frequencies are (a .

b. (1# )b (113) which we can use to express the spatial solution for ' in terms of the wave A numbers only. From equations (110) [or Jb ) can be written as a function of a. and only. D " ! (1# )a (1# )a J b! a I D " ! J C . D " C . D " ! (1# )a b# a C . (or b ) and . s.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 965 Using equations (107) and (109). D " (1# )b a# b D " C . Once the frequency equation for the case a(a is obtained. s and so that the equation (111)]. the other A J frequency equation for a'a can be obtained by replacing b with ib. the coe$cients C and G D in equation (74) are then related by G J J a! b a! b I I C . b (or frequency equation can be written in terms of a. a can be written as a function of TABLE 9 ¹he frequency equations of the ¹imoshenko model when a(a A f-f (a!b)(a#b# ab!ab)(a#b! ab#ab) sin a sinh b 2ab(b# a)(a# b) !cos a cosh b#1"0 (a!b)( a# b# ab!ab)( a# b! ab#ab) sin a sinh b 2ab(b# a)(a# b) !cos a cosh b#1"0 h-h c-f (a!b) sin a sinh b!ab sin a sinh b"0 (a#a #4 ab#b #b) cos a cosh b!2ab"0 (b# a)(a# b) c-c . a. After obtaining the roots of the J frequency equations in terms of a for a given s and . Using equations (107) and (109) with b replaced by ib. (1# )a b# a D " C . b (or b ) can be found using the relationship (110) [or equation (111)]. (1# )b J b! a I D " J C . J The frequency equations depend on a. the roots of the frequency equations. The frequency A equations for the case a(a are tabulated in Table 9 and for the case a'a in A A Table 10. Note that we only need to obtain one frequency equation for each boundary condition. (1# )b (112) so that the spatial solution for ( can be written in terms of wave numbers A J I only. Therefore. depend on both s and . Similarly. we can write equation (60) as a# b C .

in that case. TABLE 10 ¹he frequency equations of the ¹imoshenko model when a'a A f-f J J J J (a#b)[(a!b)#(ab !ab)] J J sin a sin b!cos a cos b#1"0 J !J J 2ab ( b# a)(a! b) J J J J (a#b)[( a! b)#( ab!ab)] J J sin a sin b!cos a cos b#1"0 J !J J 2ab ( b# a)(a! b) J sin a sin b"0 J J J J J J J J (a#a !4 ab#b #b) cos a cos b!2ab"0 (a#b) sin a sin b!ab J ( b# a)(a! b) !J c-c h-h c-f J b (or b ) using equations (110) [or equation (111)] so that the frequency equation can J J be written in terms of b (or b ). The value of the slenderness ratio at A the nth transition is denoted as s so that a (a or ( refers to the region L L A L A where 1/s(1/s . and the inner radius of 0)15 m are used to obtain the shear factor k"0)53066 using Table 3. Note that four separate plots are shown for the hinged}hinged beam in Figure 15. and . However. we would solve the initial-value problem given in equation (93) with the nth wave number of the Euler}Bernoulli model as an initial value to obtain a "rst. outer radius of 0)16 m. The roots of the frequency equation b (or b ) are found for a given s and . Therefore. a always corresponds to two values of b: a corresponds to L L R Poisson's ratio of 0)29. The pairs of wave numbers are plotted in Figures 13}16. The L wave number for the Euler}Bernoulli beam is included for comparison. Therefore. a root-"nding L program is used because the solution to the initial-value problem had di$culties in converging. . we only needed two-dimensional plots of wave numbers as functions of /s. the corresponding a can be found using equations (110) or (111). The proper way to represent the roots is to make a three-dimensional plot of wave numbers as functions of s and . the wave numbers are plotted for "2)205 which is a reasonable value for a thin steel hollow section. we would again solve the same initial-value problem with a at L L L A L the transition (a ) as the initial value instead. Only in this case. HAN E¹ A¸. and then we would obtain b using equation (110) as we have done L L for the Rayleigh and shear models.R In order to obtain the pairs of wave numbers a and b for a (a that satisfy the L L L A frequency equations. M. For the region 1/s'1/s . s. s and always appear as /s so that we can treat /s as one variable. These plots are obtained by solving an initial-value problem for the region 1/s(1/s as done in L the Rayleigh and shear beam cases. Note that the roots of the frequency equations (a and b) in the shear beam case also depend on both s and .966 S. Then. In the case of the Timoshenko beam. In order to obtain the pairs of wave numbers J a and b for a 'a . such a simpli"cation cannot be made because s and do not always appear together. The value of "2)205 is then obtained using equation (81).

J Euler}Bernoulli. The "rst four sets of wave numbers of the clamped}clamped Timoshenko beam: *. } } }. a. The "rst four sets of wave numbers of the free}free Timoshenko beam: *. b. b. 2. } ) } ) } . a. J Euler}Bernoulli. b. .TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 967 Figure 13. } } }. Figure 14. } ) } ) } . b. 2.

. J Euler}Bernoulli. (d) 4. HAN E¹ A¸. 2.968 S. Figure 15. b. Figure 16. Euler}Bernoulli. (b) 2. M. b. a. The "rst four sets of wave numbers of the hinged}hinged (or sliding}sliding) J Timoshenko beam: *. 2. b. a. } ) } ) } . b. } ) } ) } . The "rst four sets of wave numbers of the clamped}free Timoshenko beam: *. (a) n"1. } } }. } } }. (c) 3.

} } }. sin a sin b"0 for a'a . The frequency curves for the free}free Timoshenko beam. The consequence is that there are twice as many natural frequencies in the hinged}hinged case as in other cases.2). We call the real root b and L L J the imaginary root ib .TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 969 J J J b and b for 1/s(1/s and to b and b for 1/s'1/s . both roots are imaginary where one is LJ L J ib and the other is ib . J sin a sinh b"0 for a(a . . When 1/s'1/s . *. When we solve for b (or b ) that L L corresponds to a in equation (110) or (111). 2. 3. clamped}clamped. L When 1/s(1/s . one is real and the other is imaginary. L L The natural frequencies that correspond to each pair can be calculated using the relation for B in equations (107) and (109). let us look at the frequency equation of the hinged}hinged beam given in Table 9 or 10. It is important to note L L L L L L that each pair corresponds to a distinct natural frequency. L (115) Figure 17. *2. } ) } ) }. and clamped}free cases are given by *¸*( */E*" L " a!b L L 1# J a#(b ) L L 1# for 1/s(1/s L for 1/s'1/s . *2. (114) A A J Note that the frequency equation is satis"ed for any value of b (or b ) as long as J sin ax is zero (or a "n for n"1. there are two unique expressions. *2. 2. The natural frequencies for the free}free. In order to explain why this is the case. *2.

*2. 2. } } }. . *. The frequency curves for the clamped}clamped Timoshenko beam. *2. *2. The frequency curves for the hinged}hinged Timoshenko beam. *. } ) } ) }. } ) } ) }. * . 2 Figure 19. *2. 2. M. HAN E¹ A¸. } } }. Figure 18. *2.970 S. *2. *2.

b ) L L for all 1/s is denoted as * and given by L J a#(b ) L for all 1/s.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 971 The quantity *¸*( */E* is plotted as a function of 1/s for "2)205 in Figures L J 17. "17)224. b . only "rst four eigenfunctions will have hyperbolic terms. the natural frequencies can be obtained using Figure 20. the natural frequencies * disappear by approaching in"nity. (118) J a#(b ) L L 1# for 1/s'1/s . and E*"200 GPa. curves cross each other. 2)581). "8)412. In the other cases*the Euler}Bernoulli. (117) * ¸*( */E*" L L 1# The quantities * ¸*( */E* are plotted as functions of 1/s for "2)205 in L J J Figure 19 using the values of a . 2)727). J J (a . at this slenderness ratio is A 10)013. For example. from the "gure the quantity *¸*( */E* is approximately 0)32 which corresponds to *"1620 rad/s. which is the wave number of the Euler}Bernoulli problem represented by the "rst solid line obtained from Table 5. 2)575). "1. Although a is not plotted. b )"(1)843. L It is interesting to note that in Figures 17 and 18. (a . 18. L (116) . a in the "gure is slightly less than 1)875. the "gures should be enlarged. b )"(4)236. b . Note L L L L that as the slenderness ratio becomes larger (1/sP0). and b that we know from Figure 15. The critical wave number a . "14)829. The exact wave numbers and the natural frequencies are given by (a . b ) in the hinged}hinged case is denoted as * and is given by L L L a!b L L for 1/s(1/s * ¸*( */E*" L L 1# " J and the natural frequency that corresponds to the pairs of wave numbers (a . A The sets of the wave numbers can be extracted from Figure 16. ¸*"1 m. Note that in order to obtain more accurate readings. The natural frequency that corresponds to the wave number pairs (a . which is slightly above a . b )"(9)813. b ) and L L J (a . This is consistent with the other models for L which * does not exist. Therefore. For example. "12)037. and 20 using the values of a . it is possible for a set of wave numbers with a lower index to produce a higher natural frequency. Let us consider a clamped}free beam for 1/s"0)11 and "2)205. Rayleigh. 1)655). 14 and 16. (a . Thus. b )"(11)770. obtained using equation (79). "3)991. b )"(7)305. (a . (a . 0)803). The indices of the wave numbers should not be used to gauge the order of the natural frequencies. we can guess that a is greater than a . b and b that we know already from Figures L L L 13. and b is slightly below a . 3)823). and shear cases*a set of wave numbers with a high index always corresponds to a higher natural frequency. When *"7830 kg/m. These "gures can be used to obtain the wave numbers and the natural frequencies. b )"(13)463.

"2)205. The "rst set of wave numbers of the free}free Timoshenko beam when 1/s(1/s : *. } ) } ) }. Figure 21. M. Figure 20. *2. } } } .972 S. 2. *2. "2)435. Euler}Bernoulli. *2. 2. where the natural frequencies are non-dimensionalized by the "rst natural frequency *"1696 rad/s. HAN E¹ A¸. "1)777. *. The frequency curves for the clamped}free Timoshenko beam. . Note that frequencies can be read from the "gure more accurately than the wave numbers. } } }. *2. } ) } ) } .

TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 973 Figure 21 shows the variation of the "rst pair of wave numbers (a . We observe that the frequency equations for the Euler}Bernoulli model depend neither on the geometrical nor the physical properties. . we compare the relative signi"cance of rotary and shear e!ects and see how it is manifested in the natural frequency and mode shapes. Therefore. In this section. Now we look into circumstances under which those second order e!ects become important. Therefore. On the other hand. and "2)435 is a reasonable value for a thin square tubeR with the Poisson ratio of 0)29. the shear model included the shear and the Timoshenko model included both rotation and shear in addition to the "rst order e!ects. the wave numbers a and b depend on the geometrical property s. The rotary e!ect is represented by the term I and the shear by /kG. ranges from 0)436 for the thin-walled square tube to 0)886 for the circular cross-section. wave number a is independent of any properties. Generally. The frequency equations for the shear and Timoshenko models depend on both s and . 2)2050 and 2)435. the frequency equations for the Rayleigh model are functions of a and b which are related by the slenderness ratio s. The e!ects of s and/or on the wave numbers are shown in Figures 5}8 for the Rayleigh and shear model and in Figures 13}16 and Figure 21 for the Timoshenko model. 4. The Euler}Bernoulli model included only the "rst order terms. The di!erence among them was the inclusion of di!erent second order terms: rotary and shear terms. the shear factor for di!erent cross-sections using. We have established. The Poisson ratio for a typical metal is about 0)3. and with this value. the shear term is roughly 3}6 times larger than the rotary term. b ) for 1/s(1/s for the free}free Timoshenko beam shown in Figure 13. "1)7777 is a reasonable value for a solid circular or rectangular section. we obtained the wave numbers and natural frequencies of four engineering beam theories. k kG k G*¸* k G* (119) Recall that the Poisson ratio is a physical property that depends on the material and the shear factor k depends on the Poisson ratio and the geometry of the cross-section. ranges from 2)935 for the circular cross-section to 5)96 for the thin-walled square tube. COMPARISONS OF FOUR MODELS So far. the wave numbers depends on both geometrical and physical properties. The Rayleigh model included the rotation. E*I* E*I 2(1# ) " " " I " I . Therefore. translation and bending. for a typical material and cross-section. Using these values. Note that the shear term is always times larger than the rotary term. the wave numbers deviate from those of R The values of are calculated using the Table 3 and equation (81). The values of used here are 1)7777. Consider the frequency equations obtained previously in Tables 5 and 7}10. Table 3.

shear. . shear. Timoshenko. (c) third. (d) hinged}hinged. Figure 22. Euler}Bernoulli. (b) clamped}clamped. HAN E¹ A¸. Timoshenko. } ) } ) } . } ) } ) } . } } }. (a) Free}free beam. The frequency curves for the "rst natural frequency: *. (a) First mode. Rayleigh. 2. (d) fourth. Figure 23. M. (b) second. } } }. 2. The "rst four mode shapes of the clamped}free beam: *. (c) clamped}free. Euler}Bernoulli.974 S. Rayleigh.

R the spatial equations of the homogeneous problem. As a numerical example. (49) and (66) can be written using the operator formalism ¸(W )" M(W ). Euler}Bernoulli model: d= L . The mode shapes are normalized with respect to each other for easy comparison. This con"rms our result that the shear is more dominant than the rotary e!ects. When the slenderness ratio is small. Notice that the natural frequencies and mode shapes obtained using the Euler}Bernoulli and Rayleigh models are similar. M(= )" A= . we use the method of eigenfunction expansion. It will be discussed in detail in the next section. In summary. However. Therefore. L L and corresponds to the natural frequency uniquely to within an arbitrary L constant [28. or L L the nth vector of eigenfunctions [= ]2 for the shear and Timoshenko models. the wave numbers are strong functions of the slenderness ratio. The expressions for the operators for each model are given below. with the exception of the Rayleigh beam.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 975 Euler}Bernoulli model as s decreases and increases.1. THE FREE AND FORCED RESPONSE 5. (15). the orthogonality conditions of the eigenfunctions have to be established for each beam model. Note that the natural frequency predicted by the Euler}Bernoulli model approaches in"nity as the slenderness ratio decreases whereas the natural frequencies predicted by other models level o! at some point. the range of is more restricted (between 3 and 6 for a typical metal and cross-section). 135]. the Euler}Bernoulli model should be used. The natural frequency is multiplied by ¸*( */E* and "2)205 is used. . and those based on the shear and Timoshenko models are similar. The straight solid line for the Euler}Bernoulli model is obtained using equation (84). SHEAR AND TIMOSHENKO MODELS In order to obtain the free or forced response of the beam. the "rst four mode shapes of a clamped}free beam with s"9)1192 and "2)205 are plotted. p. Therefore. 5. In Figure 23. THE ORTHOGONALITY CONDITIONS FOR THE EULER}BERNOULLI. For the models discussed so far. when the slenderness ratio is large (s'100). either shear or Timoshenko model can be used. (120) L L L where W can denote the nth eigenfunction = for the Euler}Bernoulli model. ¸(= )" L L L dx (121) R The analysis for the Rayleigh beam is slightly di!erent due to the mixed term in the governing di!erential equation. the "rst natural frequencies predicted by each of the four models are plotted in Figure 22.

The conditions can be found by substituting the expression for the operator ¸ into equation (124) and integrating by parts.2 (128) Combining equations (127) and (128). in order for above equation to be zero. 2. Using equation (120) we can write equation (124) as ( ! ) K L L W2M(WK) dx"0. L K [W2M(WK)!W2 M(WL)] dx"0. is automatically satis"ed for all three models. For example. the integral has to be K L zero. for the . d d !kGA dx dx ¸(W )" L d d kGA !kGA dx dx kGA ¹imoshenko model: d d !kGA dx dx ¸(W )" L d d kGA !kGA dx dx kGA = A 0 L . (123) L The operators ¸ and M are self-adjoint (with corresponding boundary conditions) if [23] L K [W2¸(WK)!W2 ¸(WL)] dx"0. M(W )" L 0 0 L = L . (129) where is the Kronecker delta. L W2M(WL) dx"1 for n"1. W2 M(W ) dx"0 for mOn. 3. we can write L W2M(WK) dx" LK . When m"n. (126) Since eigenvalues (squares of natural frequencies) are unique to the eigenfunctions. we normalize the eigenfunctions by setting the integral equal to one. M(W )" L 0 L 0 I = L .976 Shear model: S. (124) (125) Note that the second condition. M. O for mOn. (122) L = A L . equation (125). (127) L K This is the orthogonality condition for the eigenfunctions. HAN E¹ A¸. LK Now we discuss which boundary conditions make the operator ¸ self-adjoint or satisfy equation (124).

A= ! I L dx (133) However. the operator M is a di!erential operator unlike those in the other cases. the left-hand side of equation (134) is reduced to d= d= d= d= d= d= K# K L "0. in this case. These are the conditions that have to be satis"ed in order for the system to be self-adjoint and the orthogonality condition to hold. they are self-adjoint and the eigenfunctions are orthogonal to each other as given in equation (127). ¸(= )" L dx M(= )" L d= L . (132) where the boundary conditions obtained from the variational problem (61) also satisfy this condition.2. for the systems we consider. W2 L dx K dx (130) Integrating twice by parts. Equation (124). K!= L #! L = L dx K dx dx dx dx dx (135) . For the shear and Timoshenko models. d d K! L L dx K dx 5. substituting equation (121).TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 977 Euler}Bernoulli model. Therefore. (134) K L K L K L Substituting the expressions for the ¸ and M operators and integrating by parts twice. with the operator ¸ substituted with equation (120) is given by [= ¸(= )!= ¸(= )] dx" L K K L [ = M(= )! = M(= )] dx. equation (124) becomes. we obtain d= d= d= d= d= d= K# K L "0. d= d= K!W2 L dx"0. the corresponding boundary conditions for the self-adjoint operator ¸ are found to be 0"kGA = L # d= d= K! L! != K K dx L dx . Note that the boundary conditions from the variational problem (19) satisfy this condition. THE ORTHOGONALITY CONDITIONS FOR THE RAYLEIGH MODEL The spatial equation for the Rayleigh beam (31) can be written in the form given by equation (120) as was done for the other three models with the operators ¸ and M given by d= L. K!= L #! L (131) = L dx K dx dx dx dx dx where the remaining integrals cancel each other due to symmetry.

K A= = # I K L dx dx (137) Let us examine the left-hand side of equation (137). A= ! I K dx (139) d= d= d= d= L K#= K dx K dx# I K L dx dx dx dx d= d= K dx. where the expressions for the operators are given by equation (133).and right-hand sides equations [(135) and (136)]. L A= = # I (140) " L K K dx dx where the right-hand side equals from equation (138). we obtain = L d= d= d= d= K# I L# I K != L K dx K dx L dx dx d= d= d= d= K# K L #! L dx dx dx dx "( ! ) K L d= d= L dx. HAN E¹ A¸. Comparing with the boundary conditions from the variational problem. The right-hand side of equation (134) is reduced to ( ! ) K L d= d= L dx! I K A= = # I K L dx dx d= d= K! = L .978 S. K A= = # I K L LK dx dx (138) There are other orthogonality conditions that we can obtain by manipulating equation (120). where the remaining integrals cancel each other. K LK dx dx (142) . (141) K K LK dx dx dx dx From the boundary conditions (35). = K L dx L K dx (136) Combining the left. We integrate the K LK left-hand side twice by parts to obtain =L d= d= d= d= K# I L K dx" K ! . Multiplying equation (120) by = and integrating over the domain (0)x)1). we "nd that the left-hand side vanishes [see equations (35)] so that the orthogonality condition is given by =L d= d= L dx" . M. we K obtain d= K dx" = K L dx which can be rewritten as d= K dx. the "rst term vanishes and we are left with = L ! d= d= L K dx" .

we now have three orthogonality conditions given by equations (138). If we know time-dependent coe$cients (t). Simpli"cations can be K made using the orthonormality conditions given in equation (129). t) for the Euler}Bernoulli and Rayleigh models and [v(x. we obtain d (t) L M(W (x))# (t)¸(W (x))" F (t)M(W (x)). t)) dx. t)]2 for shear and Timoshenko models. AND TIMOSHENKO MODELS The method of eigenfunction expansion assumes that the solutions v(x.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 979 Integrating equation (142) by parts and using the boundary conditions (35) again. (142) and (143). (144. t)) dx" (t) W2 M(W (x)) dx. W2 M(v(x. (42). (147) Similarly. we can solve for the complete solution to the problem as follows. K LK dx (143) Therefore. (42).NC¹ION EXPANSION OF THE EULER}BERNOULLI. t) [or solutions v(x. f (x.3. L The expressions for (t) can be obtained by applying the operator M to equation L (144) multiplying it by W2 and integrating over the domain. F (t) can be found by multiplying equation (145) by W2 and integrating K K over the domain. t) stands for v(x. t)" (t)W (x). t) and (x. SHEAR. K L K L L (146) L (t)" K W2 M(v(x. t)" F (t)M(W (x)). THE FREE AND FORCED RESPONSE VIA EIGENF. 145) L L L L L L Note that v(x. t) (x. t) dx. we obtain dxL d= d= K dx" . t) can be represented as a summation of eigenfunctions (the spatial solution to the homogeneous problem) multiplied by functions of time that are to be determined. L L L L L dt L L L (149) . (148) Substituting the assumed solution (144) and the forcing function (145) into the equations of motion (11). respectively. 5. t)] to equations of motion given in equations (11). (63) and the forcing function f (x. Therefore. Note that a similar procedure can be applied to the other models to obtain other orthogonality conditions. that is. F (t)" K K W2 f (x. The orthogonality condition in equation (142) will be used later. and (63). v(x.

t)" (t)= (x). t) in equation (155). (122). t)" (t)W (x). " (t) L dx *x L (156) . using equation (147). 0)) dx. 0). Instead. K R (0)" K K W2 M(v (x. (155) L L L (t) using the orthogonality We can obtain the time-dependent coe$cient L condition given in equations (138). the solution is given by v(x. 0) and v (x. t) to the equation of motion given in equation (21) can be expanded in terms of eigenfunctions as in equation (144) or v(x. Using equation (120). 0)) dx. Taking a spatial derivative of v(x. v(x. we obtain d= (x) *v(x. HAN E¹ A¸.980 S.4. (150) L L L L L dt L L Multiplying by W2 (x) and integrating over the domain (0)x)1) results in K d (t) K # (t)"F (t).NC¹ION EXPANSION OF THE RAYLEIGH MODEL We follow a similar procedure to obtain the solution using the method of eigenfunction expansion. we use equation (142). (142) or (143). R t# K (0)" W2 M(v(x. Note that it is awkward to use the "rst orthogonality condition (138). and (0) and d /dt " are obtained from the K K K R initial conditions. THE FREE AND FORCED RESPONSE VIA EIGENF. and (123) respectively. (151) K K K dt where the solution is given by K (t)" 1 K # K FK (t) sin (0) cos K R K (t! ) d 1 d K sin t. It is assumed that the solution v(x. the last equation becomes d (t) L # (t) M(W (x))" F (t)M(W (x)). L L L (t) is given by equation (152). t) L . (154) where L 5. (153) We now know the time-dependent coe$cients (t) of equation (144) in terms of K initial conditions and the forcing function. where the expressions for the operators M and ¸ are given in equations (121). M. Finally. (152) K dt R K F (t) is given by equation (148).

t)= dx as F (t). can be obtained using equation (157). from the orthogonality conditions given in equations (138) and (143) we can simplify to "= K d= d L# L L dx dt d= L A= ! I L dx = dx" K d # L L L dt LK . (161) L A= = # I # L dx dx L K dt dx dx Note that the terms evaluated at the boundaries disappear due to boundary conditions given in equation (159). (162) which is substituted into equation (160) so that d K# " f (x. (159) dx dx dt dx Multiplying equation (158) by = and integrating over the domain (0(x(1). t)= dx. (160) d= d L# L L dx dt d= L A= ! I L dx = dx K d= d d= d= d= L L! L I L ! K L dx L dx dx dt dx d= d= d d= d= L K dx# L K dx. (0)" ! K K dx dx *x *x*t V V K K (164) . d= d L# L L dx dt d= L A= ! I L dx = dx" K f (x. we K obtain 1 *v(x. ! I = "0. t)=K dx. t). R (0)" ! dx. (t) is given as in equation (152). A= ! I L dx (158) L The left-hand side of this equation is integrated by parts. and R (0). The initial K K K conditions. (157) K *x dx K The equations of motion can be written as L The boundary conditions given in equation (22) can be written as d= d= d d= K "0. K we obtain d= L dx d= d L# L L dx dt d= L "f (x. Also. t) d= (x) K (t)" ! dx.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 981 Multiplying equation (156) by d= /dx and integrating over the domain. (163) K K K dt By denoting f (x. (0) K K d= (x) d= (x) 1 *v 1 *v K K dx.

0)"(2)021x*!6)0635x*#0)7094x*)10\. Barr (1956) [31] observed two frequencies corresponding to the same number of nodal points in the study of free}free vibration of a thick beam. R In fact. M. The natural frequencies predicted by four models are given in Table 12. In reality. 0)"(1)667x*!5x*)10\. it is hard to build a beam with such geometry and obtain reliable experimental results because the end e!ect will dominate the vibration. (166) and for the shear and Timoshenko models. (97) and (118). HAN E¹ A¸. and Timoshenko beams are obtained previously in equations (106). Using the formula given in Table 3 and the Poisson ratio given in Table 11. and the di!erence among the models are signi"cant. SAMPLE RESPONSES S. The natural frequencies of the Timoshenko beam appear in pairs beyond the critical frequency because each pair of mode shapes has the same number of nodes. the initial displacement and rotation are given by v*(x*. For the Euler}Bernoulli and Rayleigh models the initial displacement is given by v*(x*. The transverse force is given by f *(x*. . shear. The responses are shown in Figure 24. It may seem odd that only the Timoshenko model has more than one mode shape with same number of nodes. (167) The initial displacements are chosen so that they satisfy the boundary conditionsR and the magnitude of the tip displacements are the same.982 5. the response of a non-slender clamped}free beam is obtained using all four models. Therefore. In this section. In order to avoid such problems Traill-Nash and Collar built box beams supported by diaphragms [1]. and shear models and the "rst 12 modes of equation (155) for the Timoshenko model. The reason why 12 modes instead of eight are included is that by including eight modes. t*)"x* cos 100t*.5. the critical wave number of the Timoshenko beam is relatively low. The "rst four natural frequencies of the Rayleigh. The responses are obtained using the method of eigenfunction expansion by summing the "rst eight modes of equation (144) or (155) for the Euler}Bernoulli. The natural frequencies of the Euler}Bernoulli model are obtained using the wave numbers tabulated in Table 5 and the dispersion relation given in Table 16. *(x*. Note that the beam is not slender. these initial displacements correspond to the shape of the beam when it is statically loaded by a point force at the free end. Rayleigh. The natural frequencies are obtained from the frequency charts. Experimentally. (165) The beam is made of steel whose properties are given in Table 11. the Timoshenko model will be missing modes with higher number of nodes. the shear factor for the thin round tube is k"0)53066. 0)"(6)0635x*!12)127x*)10\.

6. That is. 5. of nodes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Euler}Bernoulli 1948)62 12211)80 34193)39 67005)41 110764)74 165463)34 231101)69 307679)76 Rayleigh 1896)16 10351)13 24737)47 41078)62 58187)35 75396)16 92504)64 109447)44 Shear 1797)07 7231)92 15150)10 22842)44 30509)81 37994)56 45437)80 52799)94 Timoshenko * * * * 25150)52 33792)23 44958)47 53183)33 1696)03 6768)24 14267)26 20415)37 29211)86 38003)37 46401)78 58849)04 Notice that the response obtained using the Euler}Bernoulli and Rayleigh models are close to each other and that obtained using the shear and Timoshenko models are close to each other. .TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 983 TABLE 11 Properties of the beam Young's modulus E* Modulus of rigidity G* Poisson's ratio Density * Cross-section Cross-sectional area A* Area moment of inertia I* Length ¸* Slenderness ratio ¸*(A*/I* Shear factor k 200 GPa [29] 77)5 GPa 0)29 [30] 7830 kg/m [29] round tube with r "0)15 m. 1977) [33. DISCUSSION ON THE SECOND FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF THE TIMOSHENKO BEAM Traill-Nash and Collar (1953) "rst claimed the existence of two separate spectra of frequencies beyond the critical frequency "(kGA/ I for the free}free and A hinged}hinged cases. r "0)16 m GLLCP MSRCP 0)0097389 m 0)0001171 m 1m 9)1192 0)53066 2)205 TABLE 12 Natural frequencies (rad/s) No. it is possible that two natural frequencies correspond to a single mode shape. Thomas and Abbas (1975. it was generally accepted that the second spectrum existed for the hinged}hinged case. Both Anderson (1953) [32] and Dolph (1954) in their studies of the Timoshenko theory con"rmed the result of Traill-Nash and Collar for the hinged}hinged case. 6] showed using their "nite element model that &&2 except for the special case of a hinged}hinged beam there is no separate second spectrum of frequencies''. More recently. Since their studies.

we "nd that the spatial functions are reduced to sin a x = . "C a# b cos a x (1# )a sin a x = . From Figure 15. shear. Euler}Bernoulli. For example. "C a! (b ) I J cos a x (1# )a (168) (169) . b ). HAN E¹ A¸. } ) } ) } . b )and the fourth natural J frequency corresponds to the wave numbers (a . and *. Upon applying boundary conditions. They correspond to two di!erent mode shapes. the two natural frequencies do not correspond to one mode shape. Figure 24. *.984 S. let us consider a hinged}hinged beam whose properties are given in Table 11. 2. *. the "rst natural frequency corresponds to the wave numbers (a . The natural frequencies for 1/s"0)11 are shown in Figure 19. M. Timoshenko. The spatial function in each case is given in equations (70) and (72) with coe$cients related by equations (112) and (113). However. Bhashyam and Prathap (1981) [34] also came to the same conclusion using their "nite element model. } } }. The response of the beam: *. If we see the displacement and the angle of rotation together. Rayleigh. Note that the numerical value of a is . what previous studies neglected is that the mode shape includes both displacement and angle of rotation as a pair. and the four lowest natural frequencies are *.

we can establish inequalities given by J b (a (b for 1/s(1/s and n"1. we arrive at the conclusion that the bending moment and the shear are in phase in the &&"rst spectrum'' and completely out of phase in the &&second spectrum''. The coe$cients C and I C are then set so that the modes are normalized according to equation (129). L L L L J The amplitude of the angle of rotation (a! (b ))/(1# )a in equation (169) is easily a large negative number. The "rst and the fourth modes with corresponding natural frequencies are given by = 0)158 sin x " . L L L L J J (172) b (a (b for 1/s'1/s and n"1. There is no need to refer to them as separate frequency spectra. 0)323 cos x = 0)035 sin x " .2. the ratios of the bending moment to the shear are obtained in both spectra. kG*A* (a!b) kG*A* = ! J a! (b ) E*I* E*I* " . (170) (171) Note that when the beam is vibrating at the natural frequency belonging to the &&"rst spectrum''. Now. This has been observed by Levinson and Cooke (1982) [35] who said &&2the two spectra interpretation of the predictions of Timoshenko beam theory is rather a matter of taste and not even a particularly fruitful interpretation at that''.TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 985 I where the coe$cients other than C and C are zeros. . the amplitude of the angle of rotation is considerably larger than that of the lateral displacement and the bending moment and the shear are completely out of phase.2. E*I* a# b E*I* " . From Figure 15. L L Therefore. the rotation of the cross-section may be large whereas the lateral de#ection is minimal in the &&second spectrum''. When the beam is vibrating at the natural frequency belonging to the &second spectrum'. !1)443 cos x *"4252)56 rad/s. 2. To see whether the bending moment and the shear are in phase or not. L J L and the second expression is always negative because b is always greater than a . 2. J (a#(b )) kG*A* kG*A* = ! (173) Note that the "rst expression is always positive because a is always greater than b . *"26881)97 rad/s. That is. we can say that the two pairs of mode shapes are indeed distinct and correspond to distinct natural frequencies. the amplitudes of the lateral displacement and the angle of rotation could be comparable and the bending moment (E*I* ) and the shear (kG*A*(=! )) are in phase.

3. TRAILL-NASH and A. THOMAS 1977 Journal of Sound and <ibration 51. We found that the second order e!ects become more important for small s and large . H. my predecessor. the natural frequency can be obtained instantly. We also found that the shear is always more dominant than the rotary e!ect for a given geometry and material. LOVE 1927 A ¹reatise on the Mathematical ¹heory of Elasticity. SUMMARY In this paper. The range of possible is small when compared to that of s. and Timoshenko models. Ronald Adrezin. The second frequency spectrum of Timoshenko beams. S. W.986 S. Therefore. TIMOSHENKO 1953 History of Strength of Materials. We would like to thank our program manager Dr. 5. M. New York: Dover Publications. The e!ect of rotatory inertia of the bar. N00014-94-10753. The "rst author also would like to thank Dr. 123}137. H. S. . REFERENCES 1. Therefore. P. 7. J. TIMOSHENKO 1921 Philosophical Magazine.. and the forced response is obtained using the method of eigenfunction expansion. For each model. 125. ABBAS and J. for a given material and geometry. 186}213. COLLAR 1953 Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics 6. 6. A. HAN E¹ A¸. The equation of motion and the boundary conditions were obtained and the frequency equations for four end conditions were obtained. for his previous works in this "eld [36] and his early assistance. 8. M. London: Macmillan Publications Co. Inc. R. On the transverse vibrations of bars of uniform cross-section. A numerical example is given for a non-slender beam and a brief discussion on the second frequency spectrum is included. either the shear or the Timoshenko model should be used for a beam with small s. 2. S. 6. New York: Dover Publications. The solutions of the frequency equations are presented in terms of dimensionless wave numbers. P. Inc. we examined four approximate models for a transversely vibrating beam: the Euler}Bernoulli. shear. Rayleigh. DAVIES 1937 Philosophical Magazine. E. The e!ects of shear #exibility and rotatory inertia on the bending vibrations of beams. On the correction for shear of the di!erential equation for transverse vibrations of bars of uniform cross-section. STRUTT 1877 ¹heory of Sound. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is supported by the O$ce of Naval Research Grant No. W. the slenderness ratio alone can let us determine roughly whether or not the second order e!ects are important. Also the frequency charts are plotted so that. 563. TIMOSHENKO 1922 Philosophical Magazine. R. The shear model may give reasonable results for less complexity. Inc. Thomas Swean for his interest and "nancial support. 4. 744. The frequency of transverse vibration of a loaded "xed-free bar III. P. B. the orthogonality conditions are identi"ed. R. A.

SPENCE and E. Finite element model for dynamic analysis of Timoshenko beam. thesis. H. 407}420. 1909. Flexural vibration of uniform beams according to the Timoshenko theory. C. Rutgers. 23. 15. NJ: Prentice Hall. 335}340. Sonic resonance of a bar compound torsion oscillator. HABERMAN 1987 Elementary Applied Partial Di+erential Equations.. 12. BENAROYA 1998 Mechanical <ibration.. NJ: Prentice Hall. DERESIEWICZ 1954 Proceedings of 2nd .TRANSVERSELY VIBRATING BEAMS 987 9. L. Inc. West Publishing Co. Inc. On the two frequency spectra of Timoshenko Beams. 11. 33. E. STEPHEN 1978 ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 45. On the Timoshenko theory of transverse beam vibrations. S. 579}584. L. 10. LEVINSON 1979 Journal of Sound and <ibration 67. J. NJ: Prentice Hall. The State University of New Jersey. E!ects of transverse shear and rotary inertia on the natural frequencies of a uniform beam. 16. 30. N. T. MEIROVITCH 1986 Elements of <ibration Analysis. 31. S. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York: ASME. MEIROVITCH 1997 Principles and ¹echniques of <ibrations. 21. PRATHAP 1981 Journal of Sound and <ibration 76. C. 14. S. The second frequency spectrum of Timoshenko beam.. HERRMANN 1955 Journal of Applied Mechanics. J. Englewood Cli!s. STEPHEN and M. A second order beam theory. 24. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. A new rectangular beam theory. 35. G. New York: Macmillan Publications Co. G. RAO 1995 Mechanical <ibrations. 26. NJ: Prentice Hall. W. REISMANN and P. 319}326. T. ¹ransactions of the ASME 77. B. NJ: Prentice Hall. A. 81}87. Englewood Cli!s. R. MEIROVITCH 1967 Analytical Methods in <ibrations. 18. A BARR 1956 Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Applied Mechanics 7. G. LEVINSON 1981 Journal of Sound and <ibration 77. Reading. THOMAS and B. third edition. DOLPH 1954 Quarterly of Applied Mathematics 12. G. 13. Englewood Cli!s. 34. NJ: Prentice Hall. LEVINSON 1981 Journal of Sound and <ibration 74. G. ABBAS 1975 Journal of Sound and <ibration 41. R. ANDERSON 1953 Journal of Applied Mechanics 75. Inc. 504}510. 53}56. fourth edition. KRUSZEWSKI 1949 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. 3383}3389. Inc. Englewood Cli!s. Ph. 20. 28. .S. HUANG 1961 Journal of Applied Mechanics. 440}444. L. 695}697. Englewood Cli!s. W. M. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.. L. 25. Inc. Englewood Cli!s. D. 175}178. 175}187. POPOV 1990 Engineering Mechanics of Solids. H. 17. THOMSON 1993 ¹heory of <ibration with Applications. BHASHYAM and G. A. PAWLIK 1974 Elastokinetics. 29. 448}458. D. 27. INMAN 1994 Engineering <ibration. COOKE 1982 Journal of Sound and <ibration 84. MINDLIN and H. SELDIN Journal of Applied Physics. MA. National Congress of Applied Mechanics. E. COWPER 1966 Journal of Applied Mechanics. 291}299. SOKOLNIKOFF 1956 Mathematical ¹heory of Elasticity. Inc. R. H. Further results of a new beam theory. S. M. On the variation of Timoshenko's shear coe$cient with frequency. M. 22. The shear coe$cient in Timoshenko's beam theory. 32. ADREZIN 1997 ¹he nonlinear stochastic dynamics of tension leg platforms. N. second edition. 36. R. G. I. R. 293}305. Inc. 19. R. Inc.D. The e!ect of rotatory inertia and of shear deformation on the frequency and normal mode equations of uniform beams with simple end conditions. Forced motions of Timoshenko beam theory. LEVINSON and D.

b. APPENDIX A: NOMENCLATURE cross-sectional area. m angle of rotation due to bending. rad Poisson's ratio. kinetic energy. 1/m time. m shear. N/m mass moment of inertia of the cross-section about the neutral axis. t*) (x*. kg m/s potential energy. b Energy f G I Q k M r G s t x v L S. m shape factor. kg m/s ith root of the characteristic equation. N length of the beam. 1/m Young's modulus. s axial co-ordinate of the beam. m moment. t*) (x*.988 Dimensional variables A* J a*. kg/m ith natural frequency of the beam. m wave numbers. N/m shear modulus. N m radius of gyration I*/A*. b *¸*) dimensionless energy [Energy*¸*/(E*I*)] dimensionless transverse force per unit length [ f *¸*/(E*I*)] dimensionless shear modulus [G*¸*/(E*I*)] dimensionless mass moment of inertia of the cross-section about the neutral axis (I*/¸*) dimensionless shear [Q*¸*/(E*I*)] dimensionless radius of gyration (k*/¸*"(I/A) dimensionless moment [M*¸*/(E*I*)"* /*x] dimensionless ith root of the characteristic equation (r *¸) G the slenderness ratio (¸*/k*) dimensionless time (t* * ) dimensionless axial co-ordinate (x*/¸*) dimensionless transverse displacement (v*/¸*) dimensionless density [ *(¸* * )/(E*I*)] dimensionless nth natural frequency ( * / * ) L . b * E* f G* I* Q* ¸* M* k* k KE* PE* r* G t* x* v*(x*. rad angle of rotation due to shear. t*) * * G A J a. b*¸*. M. N/m transverse force normal to the structure per length. rad/s Dimensionless variables dimensionless area (A*/¸*) J dimensionless wave numbers (a*¸*. m transverse displacement of the beam. density of the beam. b*. HAN E¹ A¸.

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