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Andy Salazar Chapter 3 Identifications 1.

Menes/Narmer ID: Menes was an ambitious minor official from southern Egypt (known as Upper Egypt, since the Nile flows north) who rose to power and extended his authority north and into the delta (known as Lower Egypt). According to tradition, Menes founded the city of Memphis, near modern Cairo, which stood at the junction of Upper and Lower Egypt. Memphis served as Menes capital and eventually became the cultural as well as the political center of ancient Egypt. He was sometimes identified with an early Egyptian ruler called Narmer. Sig: Menes was a large part of what allowd Egypt to expand and become a great dominating force in their region of the world. As such, he significantly influenced history and was able to change the course of the human race. 2. Khufu/Cheops ID: One of the largest monuments is the pyramid of Khufu (also known as Cheops), which involved the precise cuttingand fitting of 2.3 million limestone blocks weighing up to 15 tons, with an average weight of 2.5 tons. Scholars estimate that construction of Khufus pyramid required the services of some eighty-four thousand laborers working eighty days per year for twenty years. Apart from the laborers, hundreds of architects, engineers, craftsmen, and artists also contributed to the construction of the pyramids. Sig: This effort shows the amount of sophisticated organization that could be found in Egypt. Although still ancient times, enough organization was maintained to construct some of the greatest monuments that can be found throughout the world. This displays the advancement that humans had achieved and the size of society established back then. 3. Harkhuf ID: The Egyptian explorer Harkhuf made four expeditions to Nubia. He returned from one of his trips with a caravan of some three hundred donkeys bearing exotic products from tropical Africa, as well as a dancing dwarf, and his cargo stimulated Egyptian desire for trade with southern lands. Meanwhile, Nubian peoples looked for opportunities to pursue in Egypt. By the end of the Old Kingdom, Nubian mercenaries were quite prominent in Egyptian armies. Indeed, they often married Egyptian women and assimilated into Egyptian society. Sig: Harkhuf was an explorer that advanced society by displaying the prosperity that could come from both exploring other lands and trading with others. This allowed ancient cultures to see the advancements that could be achieved by trading with others and allowed for a much more rapid advancement of human technology. 4. Tuthmosis III ID: Most vigorous of the New Kingdom pharaohs was Tuthmosis III (reigned 14791425 B.C.E.). After seventeen campaigns that he personally led to Palestine and Syria, Tuthmosis dominated the coastal regions of the eastern Mediterranean as well as north Africa. Rulers of the New Kingdom also turned their attention to the south and restored Egyptian dominance in Nubia. Sig: This marks another era of conquerors taking over new lands and shaping the face of society

and history through dominance of another land. This always affects society and shapes history making it a significant historical and cultural event. 5. King Kashta ID: King Kashta conquered Thebes about 760 B.C.E. and founded a Kushite dynasty that ruled Egypt for almost a century. Kashtas successors consolidated Kushite authority in Upper Egypt, claimed the title of pharaoh, and eventually extended their rule to the Nile delta and beyond. Sig: This marks another era of conquerors taking over new lands and shaping the face of society and history through dominance of another land. This always affects society and shapes history making it a significant historical and cultural event. 6. Hatshepsut ID: Many royal women also used their status to influence policy, sometimes going so far as to participate in plots to manipulate affairs in favor of their own sons or even in palace rebellions seeking to unseat a pharaoh. In one notable case, a woman took power as pharaoh herself: Queen Hatshepsut (reigned 14731458 B.C.E.) served as coruler with her stepson Tuthmosis III. The notion of a female ruler was unfamiliar and perhaps somewhat unsettling to many Egyptians. In an effort to present her in unthreatening guise, a monumental statue of Queen Hatshepsut depicts her wearing the stylized beard traditionally associated with the pharaohs. Sig: The concept of a female ruler was unfamiliar and as such it is very significant that it occurred. It showed that there were exceptions to this patriarchal society and that women did have the ability to rule and accomplish much. 7. Akhenaten ID: Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (reigned 13531335 B.C.E.), who changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of his preferred deity considered Aten the worlds sole god, like whom there is no other. Thus, unlike the priests of Amon-Re, most of whom viewed their god as one among many, Akhenaten and others devoted to Aten considered their deity the one and only true god. Their faith represented one of the worlds earliest expressions of monotheismthe belief that a single god rules over all creation. Sig: This was the introduction of monotheism, a concept found in a large amount of all major religions today. As such, it created a significant impact on the future creation of religions starting a trend that has lasted until today. Religion has had a large affect on society making this one of the biggest historical influences today. 8. Herodotus ID: Egyptian records rarely mention the techniques of mummification, but the Greek historian Herodotus traveled in Egypt about 450 B.C.E. and briefly explained the craft. Sig: Mummification was a process that became a large part of Egyptian culture and religion. Its spread is a very important part of their culture. 9. Sudan ID: African agriculture first took root in the Sudan, then moved into the Nile River valley and also to most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture flourished particularly in the fertile Nile valley, and abundant harvests soon supported fast-growing populations. That

agricultural bounty underwrote the development of Egypt, the most prosperous and powerful of the early agricultural societies in Africa, and also of Nubia, Egypts neighbor to the south. Sig: Agricultural transition is one of the most important events in world history. The fact that it first took hold in the Sudan area makes Sudan one of the most significant places in the world. 10. Nile River ID: African agriculture first took root in the Sudan, then moved into the Nile River valley and also to most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture flourished particularly in the fertile Nile valley, and abundant harvests soon supported fast-growing populations. That agricultural bounty underwrote the development of Egypt, the most prosperous and powerful of the early agricultural societies in Africa, and also of Nubia, Egypts neighbor to the south. Sig: Agricultural transition is one of the most important events in world history. The Nile river is a large part of what made the planting and growing of crops possible and fruitful making it an important part of the land. 11. Nubia ID: Nubian society emerged parallel to Egyptian society and exhibited many similar features and circumstances. Both experienced agricultural growth around the same period and utilized the resources of the Nile River. Sig: Having a parallel society allows both societies to observe the other and grow and make advancements based on what they see. In addition, the societies show two separate examples of the effects of advancement of technology and peoples. 12. Memphis ID: Menes founded the city of Memphis, near modern Cairo, which stood at the junction of Upper and Lower Egypt. Memphis served as Menes capital and eventually became the cultural as well as the political center of ancient Egypt. Sig: Capital cities are often a center of cultural domination and wealth. Memphis is no different and allows an insight into society based on how the leaders treated their most important city. 13. Upper Egypt ID: Area known as Upper Egypt, since the Nile flows north. Sig: Separate part of Egypt where much advancement occurred. 14. Lower Egypt ID: Opposite of upper Egypt region. Sig: Separate part of Egypt where much advancement occurred. 15. Pharaoh ID: Menes and his successors built a centralized state ruled by the pharaoh, the Egyptian king. The early pharaohs claimed to be gods living on the earth in human form, the owners and absolute rulers of all the land. In that respect, they continued the tradition of divine kingship inherited from the early agricultural societies of the Sudan. Indeed, as late as 2600 B.C.E., deceased pharaohs took royal servants with them to the grave. Sig: Pharaoh's were an important part of Egyptian culture and civilization as they displayed one of the earliest forms of Government and also displayed the effect that religion had on people as they considered the pharaohs to be their Gods.

16. Horus ID: Egyptians associated the early pharaohs with Horus, the sky god, and they often represented the pharaohs together with a falcon or a hawk, the symbol of Horus. Sig: Pharaoh's were an important part of Egyptian culture and civilization as they displayed one of the earliest forms of Government and also displayed the effect that religion had on people as they considered the pharaohs to be their Gods. 17. Apedemak ID: The most prominent of the Nubian deities was the lion-god Apedemak, often depicted with a bow and arrows, who served as war god for the kingdom of Kush. Sig: Religion played an extremely large role in early society and as such all Gods played an important role in the shaping of early society. 18. Sebiumeker ID: Another deity, Sebiumeker, was acreator god and divine guardian of his human devotees. Sig: Religion played an extremely large role in early society and as such all Gods played an important role in the shaping of early society. 19. Amon Re ID: Egyptians viewed rulers as offspring of Amon, a sun god, so that the pharaoh was a son of the sun. They considered the ruling pharaoh a human sun overseeing affairs on the earth, just as Amon was the sun supervising the larger cosmos, and they believed that after his death the pharaoh actually merged with Amon. Sig: Pharaoh's were an important part of Egyptian culture and civilization as they displayed one of the earliest forms of Government and also displayed the effect that religion had on people as they considered the pharaohs to be their Gods. 20. Archaic Period ID: The power of the pharaohs was greatest during the first millennium of Egyptian historythe eras known as the Archaic Period (31002660 B.C.E.) and the Old Kingdom (26602160 B.C.E.). The most enduring symbols of their authority and divine status are the massive pyramids constructed during the Old Kingdom as royal tombs, most of them during the century from 2600 to 2500 B.C.E. Sig: This era marked a period of time during which leadership was needed and considered very important allowing large advancements in organization and creation of large monuments and advancements significantly impacting history. 21. Old Kingdom ID: The power of the pharaohs was greatest during the first millennium of Egyptian historythe eras known as the Archaic Period (31002660 B.C.E.) and the Old Kingdom (26602160 B.C.E.). The most enduring symbols of their authority and divine status are the massive pyramids constructed during the Old Kingdom as royal tombs, most of them during the century from 2600 to 2500 B.C.E. Sig: This era marked a period of time during which leadership was needed and considered very important allowing large advancements in organization and creation of large monuments and advancements significantly impacting history.

22. Pyramids ID: Large structures ordered to be created by pharaohs. It is still not completely known how these were created but it is clear that it took significant man power and an abundance of organization to achieve them. Sig: Pyramids were a demonstration of the political and economic power that rulers of Egypt had over the people. 23. Kush ID: By about 2500 B.C.E. they had established a powerful kingdom, called Kush, with a capital at Kerma, about 700 kilometers (435 miles) south of Aswan. Though not as powerful as united Egypt, the kingdom of Kush was a formidable and wealthy state that dominated the upper reaches of the Nile and occasionally threatened southern Egypt. Sig: Opposition allows for advancement and amazing creations and rivalries. As kush became an opposing society, many fascinating discoveries were made. 24. Kerma ID: Kerma was the capital of the kingdom of Kush. Sig: Capital cities are often a center of cultural domination and wealth. Memphis is no different and allows an insight into society based on how the leaders treated their most important city. 25. Middle Kingdom ID: Pharaonic authority returned with the establishment of the Middle Kingdom (20401640 B.C.E.). Sig: Pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom were not as powerful as their predecessors of the Old Kingdom, but they effectively stabilized Egypt and supervised relations with neighboring lands of Nubia, north Africa, and Syria. 26. Hyksos ID: Egypt came under the pressure of foreign peoples from southwest Asia, particularly a Semitic people whom Egyptians called the Hyksos (foreign rulers). Little information survives about the Hyksos, but it is clear that they were horse-riding nomads. Indeed, they probably introduced horses to Egypt, and their horse-drawn chariots, which they learned about from Hittites and Mesopotamians, provided them with a significant military advantage over Egyptian forces. Sig: This caused Egypt to need to deal with foreign enemies and also introduced Horses to Egypt and displayed the need for military advances. 27. New Kingdom ID: Egyptian leaders gradually pushed the Hyksos out of the Nile delta and founded a powerful state known as the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.). Pharaohs of the New Kingdom presided over a prosperous and productive society. Agricultural surpluses supported a population of perhaps four million people as well as an army and an elaborate bureaucracy that divided responsibilities among different offices. Sig: This era created another time for pharaohs to rule allowing for more organization and advancement. This allowed society to prosper and advance. 28. Napata ID: About the tenth century B.C.E., Napata emerged as the new political center of Nubia. Located just below the Niles fourth cataract, Napata was more distant from Egypt than Kerma and hence less vulnerable to threats from the north.

Sig: Any major change in an empire is a notable historical event. In addition their protection makes it much harder for Egypt or other peoples to wipe them out. 29. Patriarchy ID: In early Mesopotamia the ruling classes consisted of kings and nobles who won their positions because of their valor and success as warriors. Community members originally elected their kings, but royal status soon became hereditary, as kings arranged for their sons to succeed them. Nobles were mostly members of royal families and other close supporters of the kings. Within their households men decided the work that family members would perform and made marriage arrangements for their children as well as any others who came under their authority. Men also dominated public life. Men ruled as kings, and decisions about policies and public affairs rested almost entirely in mens hands. Hammurabis laws throw considerable light on sex and gender relations in ancient Mesopotamia. The laws recognized men as heads of their households and entrusted all major family decisions to their judgment. Men even had the power to sell their wives and children into slavery to satisfy their debts. Sig: This resulted in the male dominance that shaped society in the way it was for the past several thousand years. In addition it outlined the various punishments and showed that laws were not always fair. 30. Thebes ID: Working from Thebes and later from Memphis, Egyptian leaders gradually pushed the Hyksos out of the Nile delta and founded a powerful state known as the New Kingdom (15501070 B.C.E.). King Kashta conquered Thebes about 760 B.C.E. and founded a Kushite dynasty that ruled Egypt for almost a century. Sig: Thebes was clearly an important city as it was used much by Egyptian leaders and eventually conquered by an extremely powerful force. 31. Heliopolis ID: Founded about 2900 B.C.E., Heliopolis reached the height of its influence during the New Kingdom, when it was the site of an enormous temple to the sun god Re. Sig: Religion played an extremely large role in early society and as such all Gods played an important role in the shaping of early society. Having a city where a temple was allowed for extreme devotion to religion. 32. Tanis ID: Yet another important city was Tanis on the Nile delta. At least by the time of the Middle Kingdom, and perhaps even earlier, Tanis was a bustling port and Egypts gateway to the Mediterranean. Nubian cities are not so well known as those of Egypt, but written records and archaeological excavations both make it clear that powerful and prosperous cities emerged in the southern Nile valley as well as in Egypt. Sig: Religion played an extremely large role in early society and as such all Gods played an important role in the shaping of early society. Having a city where a temple was allowed for extreme devotion to religion.

33. Coptic ID: Coptic, the language of ancient Egypt, was introduced to the lower reaches of the Nile valley. Sig: The spreading of languages is a very easy way to infuse cultures together. 34. Ta-Seti ID: One expansive kingdom was Ta-Seti, a strong Nubian realm that flourished about 3400 to 3200 B.C.E. and extended its rule north of the Niles first cataract into Egypt. When Ta-Seti declined, the local kingdoms of southern Egypt were in a strong position to increase. Sig: This marks another era of conquerors taking over new lands and shaping the face of society and history through dominance of another land. This always affects society and shapes history making it a significant historical and cultural event. 36. Bronze Metallurgy ID: Bronze metallurgy made its way from Mesopotamia to both Egypt and Nubia, and Sudanic peoples independently developed a technology of iron production that eventually spread to most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Sig: Bronze is a necessary tool for the advancement of humans and the creation of more parts and items which can be used to further advance human society. 37. Iron Metallurgy ID: Iron metallurgy in Africa arose independently from local experimentation with iron ores, which are plentiful in sub-Saharan Africa. Sig: Iron is a necessary tool for the advancement of humans and the creation of more parts and items which can be used to further advance human society. 38. Punt ID: The tomb of Queen Hatshepsut bears detailed illustrations of a trading expedition to Punt about 1450 B.C.E. Paintings in the tomb show large Egyptian ships bearing jewelry, tools, and weapons to Punt and then loading the exotic products of the southern land, including apes, monkeys, dogs, a live panther, and live myrrh trees with their roots carefully bound in bags. Sig: Specialization of labor and efficient technologies of transportation not only quickened the economies of complex societies in Egypt and Nubia but also encouraged their interaction with peoples of distant lands. 39.Hieroglyphs ID: Symbols were particularly prominent on temples, the visitors called them hieroglyphs, from two Greek words meaning holy inscriptions. Quite apart from monumental inscriptions, hieroglyphic writing survives also on sheets of papyrus, a paper-like material fashioned from the insides of papyrus reeds, which flourish along the Nile River. Sig: These symbols allowed archeologists to discover and understand written Egyptian language and word giving them ideas about the exact events that occurred. 40. Papyrus ID: Symbols were particularly prominent on temples, the visitors called them hieroglyphs, from two Greek words meaning holy inscriptions. Quite apart from monumental inscriptions, hieroglyphic writing survives also on sheets of papyrus, a paper-like material fashioned from the insides of papyrus reeds, which flourish along the Nile River.

Sig: This paper allowed for the written symbols which allowed archeologists to discover and understand written Egyptian language and word giving them ideas about the exact events that occurred. 41. Hieratic Script ID: Egyptians went to the trouble of using hieroglyphs for formal writing and monumental inscriptions, but for everyday affairs they commonly relied on the hieratic (priestly) script, a simplified, cursive form of hieroglyphs. Hieratic appeared in the early centuries of the third millennium B.C.E., and Egyptians made extensive use of the script for more than three thousand years, from about 2600 B.C.E. to 600 C.E. Hieratic largely disappeared after the middle of the first millennium C.E., when Egyptians adapted the Greek alphabet to their own language and developed alphabetic scripts known as the demotic (popular) and Coptic (Egyptian) scripts. Hieratic, demotic, and Coptic scripts all survive mostly in papyrus texts but occasionally also in inscriptions. Sig: This outlines the differences between common Egyptian people and their leaders reflecting the class outlines between people. It also broadens the spectrum of scripts which archeologists have to understand. 42. Aten ID: For a brief period the cult of Amon-Re faced a monotheistic challenge from the god Aten, another deity associated with the sun. Atens champion was Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (reigned 13531335 B.C.E.), who changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of his preferred deity. Sig: This was the introduction of monotheism, a concept found in a large amount of all major religions today. As such, it created a significant impact on the future creation of religions starting a trend that has lasted until today. Religion has had a large affect on society making this one of the biggest historical influences today. 43. Tell el-Amarna ID: Akhenaten built a new capital city called Akhetaten (Horizon of Aten, located at modern Tell el-Amarna), where broad streets, courtyards, and open temples allowed unobscured vision and constant veneration of the sun. Sig: This is the location of an important city making it a very significant spot. 44. Mummification ID: Egyptian records rarely mention the techniques of mummification, but the Greek historian Herodotus traveled in Egypt about 450 B.C.E. and briefly explained the craft. Sig: Mummification was a process that became a large part of Egyptian culture and religion. Its spread is a very important part of their culture. 45. Osiris ID: Egyptians associated Osiris with the Nile (which flooded, retreated, and then flooded again the following year) and with their crops (which similarly grew, died, and then sprouted again.) Egyptians also associated Osiris with immortality and honored him through a religious cult that demanded observance of high moral standards. As lord of the underworld, Osiris had the power to determine who deserved the blessing of immortality and who did not. Following their deaths, individual souls faced the judgment of Osiris, who had their hearts

weighed against a feather symbolizing justice. Sig: Osiris is another example of the religious beliefs and devotions which shaped and altered society in a very significant way that altered and changed exactly how humanity turned out. Her actions symbolize the beliefs and fears that Egyptians had at the time. 46. Bantu ID: The most prominent processes unfolding in sub-Saharan Africa during ancient times were the migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples and the establishment of agricultural societies in regions where Bantu speakers settled. Sig: This was the most prominent process in the establishment of agriculture which was one of the most important events of ancient times due to its large effect on human society. 47. Niger-Congo ID: The original Bantu language was one of many related tongues in the larger Niger-Congo family of languages widely spoken in west Africa after 4000 B.C.E. (Niger-Congo languages include also those spoken by Mande, Kru, Wolof, Yoruba, Igbo, and other peoples.) Sig: The origin and purpose of languages reveal much about a culture and allow us to study and understand the various intricacies of a culture. 49. Age sets ID: At maturity, members jointly underwent elaborate initiation rites that introduced them to adult society. Older men cultivated fields and provided military service, while women tended to domestic chores and sometimes traded at markets. In later years, members of age sets served as community leaders and military officers. Sig: This indicated that even early cultures had beliefs that people changed based on their age and grew to become adults at certain ages indicating a fascinating level of advancement in society.