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making them understand and apply it fully. CONTENTS: The program contains subjects like quality, quality tests, history of TQM, globalization, VSM test, mistakes about TQM and success factors of TQM along with ISO concepts DETAILS OF THE SUBJECT: What is quality Quality concept in Turkey Quality test History of TQM Globalization and way to TQM Design quality- Fitness quality Nominal value and tolerance concepts VFM concept Internal and external customer Pool principle in TQM Factors that affect quality TQM processes What customers dislike SWOT analysis withinTQM Pareto law Success factors of TQM Main indicators of success Mistakes about TQM Classical vs. Total quality management Concept of change Kaizzen management Zero Defects(ZD) program ZD test Quality control and quality assurance concepts Reactive vs Proactive management Measurement tools of quality ISO 9001, 9002, 9003 ve 9004-2 and certificationSponsored Links
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Origins Of TQM Total quality management has evolved from the quality assurance methods that were first developed around the time of the First World War. The war effort led to large scale manufacturing efforts that often produced poor quality. To help correct this, quality inspectors were introduced on the production line to ensure that the level of failures due to quality was minimized. After the First World War, quality inspection became more commonplace in manufacturing environments and this led to the introduction of Statistical Quality Control (SQC), a theory developed by Dr. W. Edwards Deming. This quality method provided a statistical method of quality based on sampling. Where it was not possible to inspect every item, a sample was tested for quality. The theory of SQC was based on the notion that a variation in the production process leads to variation in the end product. If the variation in the process could be removed this would lead to a higher level of quality in the end product. After World War Two, the industrial manufacturers in Japan produced poor quality items. In a response to this, the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers invited Dr. Deming to train engineers in quality processes. By the 1950’s quality control was an integral part of Japanese manufacturing and was adopted by all levels of workers within an organization. By the 1970’s the notion of total quality was being discussed. This was seen as company-wide quality control that involves all employees from top management to the workers, in quality control. In the next decade more non-Japanese companies were introducing quality management procedures that based on the results seen in Japan. The new wave of quality control became known as Total Quality Management, which was used to describe the many quality-focused strategies and techniques that became the center of focus for the quality movement. Principles of TQM TQM can be defined as the management of initiatives and procedures that are aimed at achieving the delivery of quality products and services. A number of key principles can be identified in defining TQM, including:
Executive Management – Top management should act as the main driver for TQM and create an environment that ensures its success. Training – Employees should receive regular training on the methods and concepts of quality. Customer Focus – Improvements in quality should improve customer satisfaction. Decision Making – Quality decisions should be made based on measurements. Methodology and Tools – Use of appropriate methodology and tools ensures that nonconformances are identified, measured and responded to consistently. Continuous Improvement – Companies should continuously work towards improving manufacturing and quality procedures. Company Culture – The culture of the company should aim at developing employees ability to work together to improve quality. Employee Involvement – Employees should be encouraged to be pro-active in identifying and addressing quality related problems.
The Cost Of TQM Many companies believe that the costs of the introduction of TQM are far greater than the benefits it will produce. However research across a number of industries has costs involved in doing nothing, i.e. the direct and indirect costs of quality problems, are far greater than the costs of implementing TQM.
The American quality expert, Phil Crosby, wrote that many companies chose to pay for the poor quality in what he referred to as the “Price of Nonconformance”. The costs are identified in the Prevention, Appraisal, Failure (PAF) Model. Prevention costs are associated with the design, implementation and maintenance of the TQM system. They are planned and incurred before actual operation, and can include:
Product Requirements – The setting specifications for incoming materials, processes, finished products/services. Quality Planning – Creation of plans for quality, reliability, operational, production and inspections. Quality Assurance – The creation and maintenance of the quality system. Training – The development, preparation and maintenance of processes.
Appraisal costs are associated with the vendors and customers evaluation of purchased materials and services to ensure they are within specification. They can include:
Verification – Inspection of incoming material against agreed upon specifications. Quality Audits – Check that the quality system is functioning correctly. Vendor Evaluation – Assessment and approval of vendors.
Failure costs can be split into those resulting from internal and external failure. Internal failure costs occur when results fail to reach quality standards and are detected before they are shipped to the customer. These can include:
Waste – Unnecessary work or holding stocks as a result of errors, poor organization or communication. Scrap – Defective product or material that cannot be repaired, used or sold. Rework – Correction of defective material or errors. Failure Analysis – This is required to establish the causes of internal product failure.
External failure costs occur when the products or services fail to reach quality standards, but are not detected until after the customer receives the item. These can include:
Repairs – Servicing of returned products or at the customer site. Warranty Claims – Items are replaced or services re-performed under warranty. Complaints – All work and costs associated with dealing with customer’s complaints. Returns – Transportation, investigation and handling of returned items.
METHODOLOGY This research attempts to answer three questions: 1) Is implementation, in practice, related to performance in small- to medium-sized firms, 2) Does Hackman and Wageman's definition hold up under empirical testing, and 3) Does industry sector have an impact on the outcome of quality management initiatives. The answers to these three questions will serve as a basis to discuss if TQM is best deployed as a contingent process. Data used to answer the research questions were collected from a random sample of 210 small- to medium-sized manufacturing firms (SMMs) located in the Southeastern United States. We elected to investigate these firms since they are key contributors to the economy, providing most of the opportunity for employment (Gunasekaran, Forker, & Kobu, 2000). In fact, data from the latest available U.S. Census report show that firms with = 999 employees hire fully 80% of all those working in the manufacturing sector. In addition, SMMs account for 73.8% of total manufacturing payroll (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2001). There are many notions as to what constitutes a small business (Yusof & Aspinwall, 2000). For example, Gunasekaran, et al. (2000) studied firms in the U.K. with 500 or less employees. Tseng, Tansuhaj, and Rose
38 or greater. food products. a heterogeneous sample is needed. which supports construct validity (Terziovski & Samson. Table 3 summarizes the factor analysis and describes each of the quality management dimensions. the plastics. (1996) and Douglas & Judge (2001) included measures of customer focus. 1999). and these scores were standardized to remove scaling differences. UNDERLYING QUALITY MANAGEMENT CONSTRUCTS To address research question 1. RESEARCH APPROACH The first step in the analysis was to factor analyze the survey variables that formed the eight quality elements in an effort to identify underlying quality management constructs. as suggested in the literature review. cluster profiling was deployed to determine the practices of higher performing groups. while the conformance measures are those used by Ellington et al. These analyses resulted in a total of 29 factors. This broad mix of firms augurs well for generalizability of the results to the population of smallmedium sized manufacturers. the training variables used in this research are linked to Ahire (1996). which shows how the items are related to each other. DEMOGRAPHICS A key goal of the research is to test for interaction between industry type and the outcome of TQM programs.(2004) sampled firms with as many as 1. For example.63% to a high of 76. Chi-Square analysis was then used to determine if the mean group performance varied by industry. 1995). Hierarchy membership (independent variable) and performance (dependent variable) were tested using ANOVA routines. managerial role.74 to . the 210 firms in the study were clustered into groups. 2004) and the five core features of TQM proposed by Hackman and Wageman (1995). The internal consistency of the elements was checked using reliability analysis. Finally. The elements and underlying survey variables center on fundamental concepts identified in the previous empirical work. Firms were then clustered into groups on the basis of those factors. Table 2 presents a summary of industries represented in the survey. the eight elements map directly to quality management precepts embodied in both the Malcolm Baldrige Award (National Institute of Standards and Technology. Anderson. QUALITY MANAGEMENT EXECUTION Factor scores were computed for each of the 29 factors.87. breadth of quality definition. consistent with Moini (1991). In addition. The Cronbach's Alphas for those elements range from . metals. Thus. & Black. and if these practices could be mapped to Hackman and Wageman's definition of TQM (1995).500 workers. Tatham. suggest is satisfactory for this type of study (1995). A total of eight quality management elements were evaluated in the study. The resulting groups formed a hierarchy of quality management implementation or execution. principal components analysis was conducted separately on each of the eight quality management elements using the latent root criterion (mineigen = 1) to determine significant factors (Hair. we take the midpoint and define SMMs as those with less than 1. Finally. The quality management elements are presented in Table 1. The table shows that each of the factors features a logical theme and maps to one of the eight quality management elements. For the purposes of this study. The total variance accounted for by the factor solutions ranged from a low of 53.28%. 1978). Each item making up the respective orthogonal factor had a loading of 0. Using these standardized factor scores. a result satisfactory for this type of analysis (Nunnally. . The respondent percentages by industry feature a broad cross-section of manufacturing industries. both Ellington et al. noting that this approach was consistent with certain maximums of the US Small Business Administration. continuous improvement.000 employees on site. and wood industries discussed in the contingency literature are included in the sample. and process capability/quantitative measurement systems. (1996). and for our ability to test whether TQM is a process contingent on industry type. a result Hair et al. In addition. and minimum significant difference tests were conducted to determine differences in group performance.
manuals and standards are TQM tools as well.. Each of which can be examined and used to enhance the effectiveness. Thus. Table 4 details the results of the analysis. group 1 scores are generally very low on all factors. specific information in a specific manner. TQM tools illustrate and aid in the assimilation of complicated information such as: identification of your target audience positive and negative forces affecting business assessment of customer needs competition analysis market analysis brainstorming ideas productivity changes various statistics staff duties and work flow analysis statement of purpose financial analysis model creation business structure logistics analysis The list goes on. Finally. cause and effect concerns and other issues relevant to their organizations. products or work environment. but higher than group 2. albeit at a lower level than. Group 3 scores are somewhat lower than group 4. ideas. et al. analyze and assess qualitative and quantitative data that is relevant to their business. It should be noted that tools should be used in conjunction with other tools to understand the full scope of the issue being analyzed or illustrated. as they give direction and best practice guidelines to you and/or your staff.. 2004). In a different vein. (ReVelle. Total Quality Management (TQM) Tools Total quality management (TQM) tools help organizations to identify. though essentially TQM tools can be used in any situation. Each is used for. and identifies. for any number of reasons. in accordance with ISO 9000 standards (SQ. (1996). Simply using one tool . diagrams and other analysis tools. According to Quality America. standardization and overall quality of procedures. 2003) the number of TQM tools is close to 100 and come in various forms. a four-group solution was found. we describe group 4 firms as holistic quality management implementers. efficiency. Group 4 scores are generally very high across all 29 quality management execution factors. Group 3 firms show a relatively high level of quality management implementation. TQM Tools The following are some of the most common TQM tools in use today. Inc. and can be extremely effective if used properly. such as brainstorming. check lists. statistics.Consistent with Ellington. These tools can identify procedures. focus groups. charts and graphs.
shifts and patterns. Run Chart Follows a process over a specific period of time. survey. Histograms To illustrate and examine various data element in order to make decisions regarding them. such as budgets. to track high and low points in its run. or may close you off to further possibilities. Fi Pareto Charts / Analysis (designed by Vilfredo Pareto) Rates issues according to importance and frequency by prioritizing specific problems or causes in a manner that facilitates problem solving. or questionnaire results. vault space available. extent of fonds. and ultimately identify trends. Effective when comparing statistical.may inhibit your understanding of the data provided. Pie Charts and Bar Graphs Used to identify and compare data units as they relate to one issue or the whole. such as accrual rates. . etc.
They can also be created in retrospect. and ultimate effects (outputs). An alternative would be a tree diagram. 2004). cause and effect concerns and other issues relevant to their organizations. of problems or issues that may arise in the course of business. identifying the driving and restraining forces of catering predominantly to genealogists. ideas. Force Field Analysis To identify driving and restraining forces occurring in a chosen process in order to understand why that particular process functions as it does. products or work environment.Identify groupings of qualitative data. For example. statistics. Each of which can be examined and used to enhance the effectiveness. in order to function at a higher level of efficiency. According to Quality America. Total Quality Management (TQM) Tools Total quality management (TQM) tools help organizations to identify. Cause and Effect. These tools can identify procedures. To identify restraining forces that need to be eradicated. 2003) the number of TQM tools is close to 100 and come in . analyze and assess qualitative and quantitative data that is relevant to their business. May be confusing if too many inputs and outputs are identified. Inc. most commonly purchased preservation aid. efficiency. as a before and after analysis of a process change. such as most frequent complaint. which is much easier to follow. etc. standardization and overall quality of procedures. in accordance with ISO 9000 standards (SQ. or driving forces that need to be improved. Can be scheduled over select periods of time to track changes. in order to measure which have priority. Ishikawa or Fishbone Diagrams (designed by Kauro Ishikawa) Illustrates multiple levels of potential causes (inputs). (ReVelle.
2 Pareto Charts / Analysis (designed by Vilfredo Pareto) Rates issues according to importance and frequency by prioritizing specific problems or causes in a manner that facilitates problem solving. Each is used for. diagrams and other analysis tools. as they give direction and best practice guidelines to you and/or your staff. In a different vein. It should be noted that tools should be used in conjunction with other tools to understand the full scope of the issue being analyzed or illustrated. survey. check lists. etc. TQM tools illustrate and aid in the assimilation of complicated information such as: identification of your target audience positive and negative forces affecting business assessment of customer needs competition analysis market analysis brainstorming ideas productivity changes various statistics staff duties and work flow analysis statement of purpose financial analysis model creation business structure logistics analysis The list goes on. extent of fonds. Histograms To illustrate and examine various data element in order to make decisions regarding them. Fig. such as budgets. vault space available.various forms. specific information in a specific manner. . Fig. and identifies. and ultimately identify trends. though essentially TQM tools can be used in any situation. such as brainstorming. such as accrual rates. Simply using one tool may inhibit your understanding of the data provided. Effective when comparing statistical. and can be extremely effective if used properly. manuals and standards are TQM tools as well. Pie Charts and Bar Graphs Used to identify and compare data units as they relate to one issue or the whole. for any number of reasons. to track high and low points in its run. TQM Tools The following are some of the most common TQM tools in use today. shifts and patterns.1 Run Chart Follows a process over a specific period of time. focus groups. or may close you off to further possibilities. or questionnaire results. charts and graphs.
etc. Can be scheduled over select periods of time to track changes. and the full scope of. in order to measure which have priority. 5 Flowcharts and Modelling Diagrams Assist in the definition and analysis of each step in a process by illustrating it in a clear and comprehensive manner. May be confusing if too many inputs and outputs are identified. They can also be created in retrospect. and ultimate effects (outputs). and where workflow is fluid. An alternative would be a tree diagram. identifying the driving and restraining forces of catering predominantly to genealogists. or diverted. Cause and Effect. Ishikawa or Fishbone Diagrams (designed by Kauro Ishikawa) Illustrates multiple levels of potential causes (inputs). etc. most commonly purchased preservation aid. business structure. such as most frequent complaint. procedure. which can be created using anything from enabling software to post-it notes organized on a wall. or priorities. in order to function at a higher level of efficiency. Brainstorming and Affinity Diagrams Teams using creative thinking to identify various aspects surrounding an issue. Fig. a project. Fig. of problems or issues that may arise in the course of business. 3 Force Field Analysis To identify driving and restraining forces occurring in a chosen process in order to understand why that particular process functions as it does. as a before and after analysis of a process change. process. providing impartial feedback to help you determine whether your product needs improvement or if it should be introduced onto the market. Tree Diagram To identify the various tasks involved in. . For example. Identify where steps need to be added or removed to improve efficiency and create standardized workflow. An affinity diagram. Consist of various people from the general public who use and discuss your product. or driving forces that need to be improved. 4 Focus Groups Useful for marketing or advertising organizations to test products on the general public. To identify inputs and outputs of a project. To identify restraining forces that need to be eradicated. Identify areas where workflow may be blocked. is a tool to organize brainstorming ideas.Identify groupings of qualitative data. whether of personnel. Fig. To identify hierarchies. which is much easier to follow.
examined for efficiency and effectiveness. Trotter. Retrieved September 16. from http://www.edu/~rpollock/tqm. J. The application of TQM tools in a strategic business plan. 2004. from http://www. Proper integration and use of these tools will ultimately assist in processing data such as identifying collecting policies.utexas. References Gunther.. R. and for various other data analysis needs. ensuring client satisfaction by surveying their needs and analyzing them accordingly. etc. Hawkins. as well as bonds and correlations. 2003). Making TQM work: Quality tools for human service organizations. This is a cyclical style to be iterated until the process is perfected. so as to understand their importance in the overall organizational view. events.gslis. Online Resources About: Quality Management & Performance Excellence.htm . Retrieved September 16. 2003) or by simply mapping them out on paper.Fig.org/cqmjournal.html Bibliographic resource site for TQM. organizational newsletters. from http://cqmextra. J. issues. (2003). 2004. (1999). between two variables To chart the positive and negative direction of relationships Fig. it is then tested. (October 23. New York: Springer Publishing Company. TQM tools & tool kits.. Retrieved September 16. F. 7 Relations Diagram To understand the relationships between various factors. E. 2004. 8 (3).com/knowledgecente/articles/revelletqmtools. and then acted upon if anything in the process needs to be altered. PDCA The Plan-Do-Check-Act style of management where each project or procedure is planned according to needs and outcome. ISO 9000 and related organizations available on the Internet.cqm. enhancing work flow such as mapping acquisition procedures. and creating an overall high level of quality in all areas of your organization. Center for Quality of Management Journal. They can also be easily integrated into team meetings.nsf/reprints/rp10700 *Pollock. tools.qualityamerica. marketing reports. (1999). All of these TQM tools can be easily created and examined by using various types of computer software (Pollock. T. Narasimhan. ReVelle. 6 Scatter Diagram To illustrate and validate hunches To discover cause and effect relationships.
3 Systma. from http://www. with descriptions and examples of each.nhtsa. Reduce Variation 9.sytsma. Use Structured Methodology for Process Improvement 8. 2004. 2004. Retrieved September 17. (June 9.gif Fig. *SkyMark.asp Fig. Concentrate on Prevention.*Simply Quality (2004). Retrieved September 16. 5 Yeadon Energy Systems. (2004).asp Encyclopaedic reference site for various quality control charts and TQM tools. Retrieved September 15.com/resources/tools/management_tools. 6 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2004.com/diagram. from http://www. describing use and creation of the specific tool. from http://www. Pursue a Continuous Improvement Strategy 7. (2004). Classic Tools.at/select_newspaper/measurement/telenor_fig4.skymark. from http://www. The Quality Tools Cookbook.dot. 1999). from http://www. Retrieved September 16.isoeasy.iscn. Retrieved September 16. 2004 from http://www.gif Fig. from http://www. 2 SkyMark (2004). (1999). Retrieved September 16. 2004. Know your Customers 3. Apply to All Functions .html Encyclopaedic reference site for commonly used TQM tools.org/ Easy navigation and understanding of the ISO 9000 and 9001 standards on Total Quality Management. S.com/resources/tools/run_charts. Manley. Set True Customer Requirements 4. K. Retrieved September 16. 2004.yeadoninc. (2004). 2004 from http://www. Retrieved September 16.gif Fig. 1 SkyMark. Reduce Chronic Waste 6.sytsma.com/tqmtools/pareto2. Figure References Fig. Not Correction 5.asp Fig. *Sytsma.gov/people/perform/trafrecords/pages/codes/flowchart. (2004).jpg Prepared by: Cara Payne September 2004 Ten Steps to TQM are as follows: 1. (2004). (2004). What are ISO 9000 and ISO 9001? Retrieve September 17.com/resources/tools/histograms. Pursue New Strategic Thinking 2.skymark. from http://www. Use a Balanced Approach 10. 2004. 2004. from http://www.. S. 7 Quality Assurance Project.org/images/scatterdiagram.qaproject. 4 International Software Consulting Network.com/tqmtools/tqmtoolmenu.jpg Fig.skymark. 2004. Retrieved September 16.
10. . 6. Processes. Quality can and must be managed. 8. Life cycle costs. Everyone has a customer and is a supplier. 12. 11. 7. produce and support our products. not front end costs. not people are the problem. Problems must be prevented. Plan and organize for quality improvement. 4. Quality must be measured. [Back to Index] Processes must be Managed and Improved Processes must be managed and improved! This involves: Defining the process Measuring process performance (metrics) Reviewing process performance Identifying process shortcomings Analyzing process problems Making a process change Measuring the effects of the process change Communicating both ways between supervisor and user [Back to Index] Key to Quality The key to improving quality is to improve processes that define.[Back to Index] Principles of TQM The Principles of TQM are as follows: 1. Management must be involved and lead. Quality improvements must be continuous. 3. 2. 9. The quality standard is defect free. not negotiated. All people work in processes. not just fixed. 5. Every employee is responsible for quality. Goals are based on requirements.
has been killed and resurrected on a number of occasions. though simple seem to be creeping back into existence by "bits and pieces" through the evolution of the ISO9001 Management Quality System standard. Quality = Conformance to Requirements (Meeting Customer Requirements). TQM is the concept that quality can be managed and that it is a process. Companies who have implemented TQM include Ford Motor Company. a philosophy of perpetual improvement in everything we do. it must be a continuous way of life. Phillips Semiconductor. TQM = A process for managing quality. The following information is provided to give an understanding of the key elements of this process. a buzzword phrase of the 1980's. [Back to Index] Total Quality Management (TQM) Total = Quality involves everyone and all activities in the company. Motorola and Toyota Motor Company. [Back to Index] . Management = Quality can and must be managed. The latest changes coming up for the ISO 9001:2000 standard’s "Process Model" seem to complete the embodiment. SGL Carbon.People Get processes "in control" Work with other employees and managers to identify process problems and eliminate them Managers and/or Supervisors Work on Processes Provide training and tool resources Measure and review process performance (metrics) Improve process performance with the help of those who use the process [Back to Index] Introduction Total Quality Management (TQM). The concept and principles.
The ISO Quality Standard sets in place a system to deploy policy and verifiable objectives. An ISO implementation is a basis for a Total Quality Management implementation. Fishbone. about 75 percent of the steps are in place for TQM. TQM is a philosophy of perpetual improvement. Ishikawa Diagram Histogram or Bar Graph Check Lists Check Sheets .TQM Compared to ISO 9001 ISO 9000 is a Quality System Management Standard. [Back to Index] TQM as a Foundation TQM is the foundation for activities which include. Another aspect relating to the ISO Standard is that the proposed changes for the next revision (1999) will contain customer satisfaction and measurement requirements. The requirements for TQM can be considered ISO plus. implementing TQM is being proactive concerning quality rather than reactive. Meeting Customer Requirements Reducing Development Cycle Times Just In Time/Demand Flow Manufacturing Improvement Teams Reducing Product and Service Costs Improving Administrative Systems Training [Back to Index] TQM Tools Here follows a brief description of the basic set of Total Quality Management tools. They are: Pareto Principle Scatter Plots Control Charts Flow Charts Cause and Effect . In short. Where there is an ISO system.
Return to TQM Tools index Scatter Plots A scatter plot is effectively a line graph with no line . General use. 80% of the wealth is owned by 20% of the people etc. The Y axis is conventionally used for the characteristic whose behaviour we would like to predict.The Pareto principle suggests that most effects come from relatively few causes. to decide where to apply initial effort for maximum effect. Therefore effort aimed at the right 20% can solve 80% of the problems.).e. Double (back to back) Pareto charts can be used to compare 'before and after' situations. operators etc.i. raw materials. Use. . In quantitative terms: 80% of the problems come from 20% of the causes (machines. the point intersections between the two data sets are plotted but no attempt is made to physically draw a line. Warning: There may appear to be a relationship on the plot when in reality there is none. to define the area of relationship between two variables. or both variables actually relate independently to a third variable.
which would lead to many rejects. They enable the control of distribution of variation rather than attempting to control each individual variation. The plotted line corresponds to the stability/trend of the process. Upper and lower control and tolerance limits are calculated for a process and sampled measures are regularly plotted about a central line between the two sets of limits.Control Charts Control charts are a method of Statistical Process Control. This prevents over-correction/compensation for random variation. SPC. . (Control system for production processes). Action can be taken based on trend rather than on individual variation.
The diagram's purpose is to relate causes and effects. so communication to a different audience may require considerable time and explanation Cause and Effect . Enables modelling of processes. Effect = problem to be resolved. Develops a common understanding of a process by those involved. Can become very complex. Helps organise and relate factors. result to be achieved. symbols or text coupled with lines. Can be difficult to identify or demonstrate interrelationships . Process classification and cause enumeration. Fishbone.Flow Charts Pictures. problems/opportunities and decision points etc. Three basic types: Dispersion analysis. Deals with time direction but not quantity. opportunity to be grasped. arrows on lines show direction of flow. Excellent for capturing team brainstorming output and for filling in from the 'wide picture'. No particular standardisation of symbology. providing a sequential view. Ishikawa Diagram The cause-and-effect diagram is a method for analysing process dispersion.
Used for the collection of quantitative or qualitative repetitive data. Their primary purpose is for guiding operations. A histogram is a graph in which the continuous variable is clustered into categories and the value of each cluster is plotted to give a series of bars as above. Return to TQM Tools index Check Lists A Checklist contains items that are important or relevant to a specific issue or situation. Can be analysed to draw conclusions about the data set. It needs to be designed for the specific data it is to gather. estimation. 100% Commitment . Without using some form of graphic this kind of problem can be difficult to analyse. Checklists are used under operational conditions to ensure that all important steps or actions have been taken. recognise or identify. not for collecting data. Generally used to check that all aspects of a situation have been taken into account before action or decision making. interaction. Adaptable to different data gathering situations. Easy and quick to use. Minimal interpretation of results required. perception. No control for various forms of bias . Simple. It enables us to see patterns that are difficult to see in a simple table of numbers. operational. non-response. effective. Return to TQM Tools index 10 Principals of TQM Methodology 1. The above example reveals the skewed distribution of a set of product measurements that remain nevertheless within specified limits. Check Sheets A Check Sheet is a data recording form that has been designed to readily interpret results from the form itself.exclusion.Histogram or Bar Graph A Histogram is a graphic summary of variation in a set of data.
get training first. Customer Driven 3. This includes the most top level person to all line managers. Continual Improvement 8. Detailed Process 4. 100% commitment means that all management receives training in Total Quality Management tools. Research TQM thoroughly. hard work. Top Management is responsible for removing fear from the organization’s employees. Management needs to realize that TQM is an investment. Measuring and Controlling 100% Commitment In order for TQM to work. Employees cannot be fearful of making decisions. Before making the decision to jump on the TQM bandwagon. Top management must understand and harness the principles of TQM. perhaps they are used to their own way. This may include a reorganization. Improvement Teams 5. Employees cannot be fearful of making mistakes. Long Term Thinking 6. Your company will need to outstandingly serve the customer. Creating custom surveys to capture your customer needs Constantly improving lead times Quickly responding to customer questions. all management must be 100% committed to the TQM methodology. Do not make an emotional call based on your organization current situation. Providing detail information on your website . and customer satisfaction.2. However the benefits are outstanding and long lasting. If top management cannot commit. management then trains all other employees. Is your company willing to put the right people in the right roles to move ahead with TQM? Customer Driven Selling quality products to customers is just a small part of TQM methodology. Employee Empowerment 10. a long term investment. teams. Management and Monitoring 7. The road to TQM requires hard. Top management must be willing to change. After training. continuous improvement. Frequent Auditing 9. This means many things depending on your customers such as Providing information as needed Holding the customer hand through installation. then TQM is not going to work.
recourses to complete their tasks? Do all employees partake in improvement projects? Have you surveyed the employees to find their needs? Detailed Process In a TQM environment. systems and problem projects. You assure that all employees follow the same process. There are two types of teams: 1) Functional teams are from one area or department. They focus on processes. Empower members of cross functional teams make changes. Empowered employees can improve processes to minimize rejects. You document the process details.Not only do you satisfy external customer needs but you satisfy internal customer needs too. This means that your employees must be happy and motivated. If employees receive unsatisfactory product they are empowered to reject the product. Every year the mission statement is reviewed and revised to strengthen the 5 year vision. you sweat the details. A company needs to have a 5 year vision to implement TQM. The projects will have significant and long term benefits to the company. You eliminate the waste or non value added steps. Include all employees in improvement projects. Do all employees have the tools. They focus on issues that are internal to that area only. Long Term Thinking TQM is a long term process. It can take up to 5 years to fully convert a company to TQM methodology. Train team members in the process improvement tools. 2) Cross functional teams are created from members from multiple departments or areas. Improvement doesn’t happen by itself or from one person ideas. The committee create projects. Improvement Teams A TQM company will have a steering committee made from top management. The processes produces product that satisfies the customer. . Every person contributes a unique and valuable point of view to the team. I discuss more about teams here. The internal customer is the person receiving the product. Revision of the mission occurs because customer needs changes from year to year. form project teams and monitor the teams improvement efforts. However the overarching TQM vision remains the same.
employee empowerment becomes one of the most difficult hurdles. They realize their contributions affects customer satisfaction. They realize that their systems caused the issues. The difficultly comes from not providing effective training. You train and retrain your employees in product knowledge. Frequent Auditing Auditing ensures that all employees are following documented processes. Measuring and Controlling Most of the TQM tools focus on measuring and controlling processes. When things go awry. An empowered employee greatly benefits the company. See here for more on auditing. Auditing is used to improve the processes. In order to empower employees. Employee Empowerment In the TQM methodology. Management monitors the improvement activities. management accepts the blame.Management and Monitoring TQM requires monitoring and management is responsible. Correct application of these tools greatly benefit your . They measure the momentum of the cultural change. they need thorough knowledge to make quick and sound decisions. Auditing is not used to denounce employees. All management ensures are employees are trained and involved in TQM activities. Continual Improvement See here for Continual Improvement discussion. An empowered employee always feels part of the team. Management evaluates the effectiveness and efficiency of the TQM efforts. the status of TQM and the processes. They understand that the systems can be fixed to correct the issues. Management does not blame individuals. TQM tools and your company’s systems.
com/TQMMethodology. In addition. With this knowledge empowered employees select the correct measuring tool.quality-assurance-solutions. Essentially. Here are some of the benefits to Total Quality Management: 1) Higher Quality Products: By stressing the importance of quality products. Controlled processes assures your customers receive the same outstanding product or service every time! To improve you must be able to measure the improvement. Having these focuses can benefit your business in several different ways. Any failures in the product are pinpointed and set apart. the quality of the products. so that they can be corrected. you will be able to look at how to redesign the product and be able to include less-expensive fixes at a later time. you achieve customer satisfaction. By examining statistics and specific failures. and the quality of life (both in the workplace and also at home). In addition. your company will be able to focus more on creating the highest level of quality possible. and it can help to determine if the product will fit the needs of the consumers.company. A TQM company trains all employees in the TQM tools. Total Quality Management is a great benefit this way. Total Quality Management refers to the total quality in fulfilling the needs of the customers. and you can also use statistical methods and distributions to help better understand different measurements and situations. This quality assurance testing process usually begins by taking a random sample off of the production line. Selecting the correct measurement tools is essential to TQM. the quality assurance product testing is one of the key parts of Total Quality Management. Read more: http://www. By applying the tools. because it helps you to constantly be aware of the quality level that is being produced by your products. the reasons for failures are also isolated and discussed. This is a great benefit .html#ixzz0kzJKDd4B HOW TQM CAN BENEFIT YOUR BUSINESS There are many advantages of Total Quality Management (TQM).
This customer satisfaction and high performance results can also possibly lead you to get high reviews in different publications and newspapers. because it not only continually improves the product you are making. This can cause employees to work harder to help achieve the goals of Total Quality Management and can boost morale within the workplace. there is often more attention placed on meeting the needs of the employees within the company. higher salary or wages are sometimes given to boost production level further. it is strongly recommended! Then your Total Quality Management will be able . to help add a further incentive to employees to upgrade their production.to your business. If your company can afford to give some kind of a raise. Often the customers that you will be most interested in pinpointing are the term end customers. Total Quality Management is found to be closely linked to the workplace and company environment. or the people who will finally end up with your product at the end of the customer line. Often. it also allows for the evaluation of the materials and designs of your products. You might want to consider giving your employees such a raise after training them about Total Quality Management and their responsibilities regarding this new style of management. the products that are produced by your company will constantly be meeting the requirements and needs of you clients and customers. but it also keeps you constantly aware of the quality level that your company is producing! Furthermore. Because of the quality assurance testing. because employees now will have an added understanding of Total Quality Management and can add this to their other skills. which will further increase your business! 3) Better production from your employees: Through Total Quality Management. which continually lead to the most economical option for you. This pay raise seems more than fair. and the highest quality option for your customers! 2) Better Reviews from Customers: Another benefit to Total Quality Management is that customers and clients become better satisfied with the results of your work.
it eats into your profit margin. from your term end customers and clients. to the employees who are right in the middle of the actual production process! HOW DOES TQM HELP MY BUSINESS? With all the different process improvement strategies out there. Be careful about buying in bulk too because there are times when the vendors may try to sell you cheaper or damaged products. When their prices go up. This means you need to find better suppliers for your raw materials and you need to work with your employees to improve the manufacturing process to identify and remove product defects. One of the process improvement strategies out there is Total Quality Management or TQM. Your wholesalers have a large impact upon your company. it is easy to get confused about which ones you should use to reduce wastes. the wholesaler has an expanded role because they are now in charge of maintaining a set number of raw materials that your company needs. if you don't have plans to use it immediately. the lower your cost will be. Everyone will end up being happy. However there is a downside to buying in bulk. TQM helps to eliminate waste and improve the production process through various standards. Take a look at your wholesalers and find some that can sell you products in bulk. Example # 2 .to work as effectively as possible. If you do not keep inventory. Typically the more you buy. it will become a waste to the company because it will be stored as inventory.Employee Involvement The second way TQM improves your business is to involve your . Here are some examples as to how TQM can help to improve your business: Example # 1 .Quality of products One of the main reasons to implement TQM is to improve your product quality.
Employees that are loyal to their employers are also more willing to work harder and apt to be honest with the company. Knowing your financial situation can help your company manage your raw material orders. As you are evaluating product designs. TQM not only tries to find ways to fix the problems within the company. you must know your financial situation because inventory ties up money that is used for your cash-flow. Since they deal with the products on a daily basis. TQM helps to improve the products. Use your customers as one of your Key performance indicators (KPI) when you are . This will help you avoid double-paying vendors and it can help you properly manage your cash flow. they may have suggestions as to how you can re-work the system to become more costeffective for everyone within the company. This helps them to feel more involved in the company it and promotes loyalty. Inventory is considered a wasteful practice because you are paying for raw goods without a guarantee that they will sell. it tries to find ways to get everyone involved. ask for your employees input.Financial Gain Another reason for implementing TQM is for the financial gain your company will receive. If you do carry any inventory. TQM also helps you control your finances by organizing them. Employee loyalty is a great way to reduce waste because you do not need to spend additional money on training. Example # 3 . leading to higher customer satisfaction levels. There are additional ways you can implement TQM into your manufacturing company to cut costs and save money. Use some additional process improvement strategies to help your company improve customer satisfaction and increase employee retention. When the employees are given increased roles and responsibilities it boosts their morale.employees. which increases your revenue stream. You also don't need to worry about slow production times while you are trying to find the new employee.
fear of the fact that it may be necessary to learn a better way of working and fear that their positions might be usurped frequently affect middle and higher management. People in different areas such as research. Point 2: Adopt the new philosophy. Points for better tqm Point 1: Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of the product and service so as to become competitive. Point 13: Institute a vigorous program of education. This implies. Improvement of quality will automatically improve productivity. whilst on the shop-floor. . Point 7: Institute modern methods of supervision.trying to calculate their satisfaction rate. mistake. sales. What an organization needs is not just good people. We no longer need live with commonly accepted levels of delay. require. Instead. Using a small section of your customer surveys can provide you with insight to your customers needs and help you find ways to meet their expectations. Point 3: Cease dependence on mass inspection. defective material and defective workmanship. stay in business and provide jobs. poor tools or fuzzy operational definitions. demanding zero defects and new levels of productivity without providing methods. The emphasis of production supervisors must be to help people to do a better job. We are in a new economic age. Implementing Kaizen: 7 Conditions Point 6: Institute modern methods of training and education for all. constantly improve the system of production and service. Point 12: Remove the barriers that rob hourly workers. lack of maintenance of machines. instead. along with price. of their right to pride of workmanship. abolition of the annual merit rating (appraisal of performance) and of management by objectives. and people in management. Point 8: Fear is a barrier to improvement so drive out fear by encouraging effective two-way communication and other mechanisms that will enable everybody to be part of change. Fear can often be found at all levels in an organization: fear of change. Point 10: Eliminate the use of slogans. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of a price alone. Modern methods of on-the-job training use control charts to determine whether a worker has been properly trained and is able to perform the job correctly. and to belong to it. There should be continual reduction of waste and continual improvement of quality in every activity so as to yield a continual rise in productivity and a decrease in costs. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships. posters and exhortations for the workforce. Management must prepare to take immediate action on response from supervisors concerning problems such as inherited defects. Point 9: Break down barriers between departments and staff areas. Point 5: Find the problems. design. Point 11: Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for people in management. and encourage self-improvement for everyone. Statistical methods must be used to discover when training is complete. Point 4: Improve the quality of incoming materials. statistical evidence that quality is built in. workers can also fear the effects of change on their jobs. administration and production must work in teams to tackle problems that may be encountered with products or service. depend on meaningful measures of quality. it needs people that are improving with education. Substitute aids and helpful leadership.
each element offers something different to the TQM concept. values. an organization must concentrate on the eight key elements: 1. 2. Integrity . For this. TQM requires the help of those eight key elements.Trust is a by-product of integrity and ethical conduct. It allows empowerment that encourages pride ownership and it encourages commitment. II.It includes: Communication. III. 3. The characteristic is what customers (internal or external) expect and deserve to receive.Integrity implies honesty.Ethics is the discipline concerned with good and bad in any situation. and adherence to the facts and sincerity. I.Point 14: Top management's permanent commitment to ever-improving quality and productivity must be clearly defined and a management structure created that will continuously take action to follow the preceding 13 points Eight elements are key in ensuring the success of TQM in an organization. To be successful implementing TQM. 5. 8. Without trust. Key Elements TQM has been coined to describe a philosophy that makes quality the driving force behind leadership. morals. TQM will not work in an atmosphere of duplicity. 6. Roof . integrity and trust. the framework of TQM cannot be built. attitude and organization of a company that strives to provide customers with products and services that satisfy their needs. The groups are: I. These three elements move together. 1. however. It is a two-faceted subject represented by organizational and individual ethics. Foundation TQM is built on a foundation of ethics.It includes: Recognition. Trust . Organizational ethics establish a business code of ethics that outlines guidelines that all employees are to adhere to in the performance of their work. Building Bricks . Total Quality Management is a management approach that originated in the 1950's and has steadily become more popular since the early 1980's. Integrity and Trust. Binding Mortar . Foundation . 4. Ethics Integrity Trust Training Teamwork Leadership Recognition Communication This paper is meant to describe the eight elements comprising TQM. fosters individual . It fosters openness. fairness and sincerity and allows involvement by everyone. design. with processes being done right the first time and defects and waste eradicated from operations. 3. IV. It allows decision making at appropriate levels in the organization. Individual ethics include personal rights or wrongs. and improvement initiatives.It includes: Training. 2. Ethics . This is the key to unlocking the ultimate potential of TQM. fairness. People see the opposite of integrity as duplicity. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company's operations. Trust fosters full participation of all members. Total Quality is a description of the culture. 7. planning. Teamwork and Leadership.It includes: Ethics. These elements can be divided into four groups according to their function.
job management performance analysis and improvement. Binding Mortar 7. In teams. clarity and direction. II. everything is bound by strong mortar of communication. the supervisor must be committed in leading his employees. There are different ways of communication such as: A. Upward communication . B. teamwork is also a key element of TQM. With the use of teams. values and goals are transmitted down through out the organization to provide focus.Training is very important for employees to be highly productive. ethics and integrity. As . the ability to function within teams. self-managing teams and quality circles. employees are trained so that they can become effective employees for the company. Supervisors must keep open airways where employees can send and receive information about the TQM process. Roof 8. It should be provided for both suggestions and achievements for teams as well as individuals. where supervisors keep open ears and listen to others. the business will receive quicker and better solutions to problems. These teams use concepts such as employee involvement teams. Communication . It appears everywhere in organization. decision making. people feel more comfortable bringing up problems that may occur. For communication to be credible the message must be clear and receiver must interpret in the way the sender intended. Teams also provide more permanent improvements in processes and operations. Sideways communication . III. They generally last from one week to three months.These are temporary teams with the purpose of dealing with specific problems that often re-occur. C. 5. So. A key point is that TQM has to be introduced and led by top management. By this the supervisors are able to make the employees clear about TQM. IV. Downward communication . C. trust builds the cooperative environment essential for TQM.By this the lower level of employees are able to provide suggestions to upper management of the affects of TQM. and teaching their employees the philosophies of TQM.This type of communication is important because it breaks down barriers between departments. It acts as a vital link between all elements of TQM. Natural Work Teams (NWTs) . Recognition . make strategic directions that are understood by all and to instill values that guide subordinates. These teams generally work for one to two hours a week. Communication coupled with the sharing of correct information is vital. Leadership . Training . believe in it and then demonstrate their belief and commitment through their daily practices of TQM. Presentations and discussions basically do it. Detecting and recognizing contributors is the most important job of a supervisor. Commitment and personal involvement is required from top management in creating and deploying clear quality values and goals consistent with the objectives of the company and in creating and deploying well defined systems. Quality Improvement Teams or Excellence Teams (QITS) .These teams consist of small groups of skilled workers who share tasks and responsibilities. During the creation and formation of TQM. The supervisor makes sure that strategies. Bricks Basing on the strong foundation of trust. bricks are placed to reach the roof of recognition. The success of TQM demands communication with and among all the organization members. This forms a level of trust between supervisors and employees. 6. Trust is essential to ensure customer satisfaction. Starting from foundation to roof of the TQM house. B. These teams are set up for period of three to twelve months. business economics and technical skills.It is possibly the most important element in TQM. suppliers and customers. This is also similar to empowering communication. philosophies. Communication means a common understanding of ideas between the sender and the receiver.These are temporary teams to solve certain problems and also to identify and overcome causes of problems.This is the dominant form of communication in an organization. Leadership in TQM requires the manager to provide an inspiring vision. Training that employees require are interpersonal skills. methods and performance measures for achieving those goals. and can get help from other workers to find a solution and put into place. As employees provide insight and constructive criticism. A supervisor must understand TQM. supervisors must listen effectively to correct the situation that comes about through the use of TQM. Problem Solving Teams (PSTs) . There are mainly three types of teams that TQM organizations adopt: A.risk-taking for continuous improvement and helps to ensure that measurements focus on improvement of process and are not used to contend people. For TQM to be successful in the business. Supervisors are solely responsible for implementing TQM within their departments. Employees strive to receive recognition for themselves and their teams. It also allows dealing with customers and suppliers in a more professional manner.To become successful in business. Teamwork . It includes: 4.It binds everything together.Recognition is the last and final element in the entire system. problem solving.
on "The Human Dimension Of TQM". Without these elements. Recognition comes in its best form when it is immediately following an action that an employee has performed. Hence. Last but not the least. It is very clear from the above discussion that TQM without involving integrity. in Industrial Relations And Personnel Management. places and time such as. TQM is based on the quest for progress and improvement. etc. and give credit where credit is due is the motto of a successful TQM organization. Customer includes both internal and external customers. Basic concepts of TQM: Top management commitment: top management should participate and completely involve in the total quality programmed. therefore a partnering relationship should be developed between the management and the suppliers. About The Author Nayantara Padhi is an HR Executive in an Indian Steel Industry. plaques. there can be huge changes in self-esteem.It can be by way of personal letter from top management. the business entities cannot be successful TQM implementers. Leadership and teamwork go hand in hand. TQM believes that there is always a better way of doing things. create an environment where there is no fear to share knowledge. ethics and trust would be a great remiss. recognition should be given to people who contributed to the overall completed task. TQM is based on the quest for progress and improvement. Treating suppliers as influence the company’s quality. Padhi has published numerous articles in different national and international journals. . train employees to provide a quality product. Ways . productivity. in fact it would be incomplete. Training is the key by which the organization creates a TQM environment. Lack of communication between departments. They should ensure their complete commitment to the approach through management meetings.Recognition can given at any time like in staff meeting. Statistical Process Control and other appropriate quality improvement skills so that they can effectively participate on quality teams. Time . on performance boards and also in front of top management. way to make better use of the company total quality resources. All persons must be trained in TQM. Recognition comes in different ways. Also by award banquets. lead by example. Mr.D. supervisors and employees create a burden on the whole TQM process. Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force: This concept is sometime referred as ‘principle of employee’s involvement or ‘respect for people’. Conclusion We can conclude that these eight elements are key in ensuring the success of TQM in an organization and that the supervisor is a huge part in developing these elements in the work place. So focus on the customer is the key for any TQM programmed. Also top management should make that everybody within the organization from top to bottom is communication about the TQM programmed. and is pursuing a Ph.G. and has completed a P. a way to be more productive. TQM is a team work.Good performers can be recognized in front of departments.people are recognized. company magazine or newsletter. quality and the amount of effort exhorted to the task at hand. annual award banquets. trophies etc. Places . Total quality recognizes that each person’s is responsible for the quality of his work and for the work of the group. Focus on the customer: Achieving customer satisfaction is the heart of TQM.
Top . which presently is Super Star Trading House. ceramics. over the years we have diversified into other manufacturing activities. e are the largest producers and exporters of processed foods and agro-commodities from India. e have pioneered the export of many food items from India. sterilised meat and bone meal. dealing in agricultural commodities. fruits . and paints. frozen fruit and vegetable products. We are a Super Star Trading House with Golden Status . hile the accent is still on agro-based products. by granting us the highest status given for exporting organisations. whole fish.the highest achievable status. setup according to highest international standards and specifications. It is with a sense of pride and achievement we claim that our efforts and value of exports have been consistently recognised by the Government of India. potatoes. vegetables. including vanaspati (hydrogenated vegetable oils). Today Allanasons Limited is the second largest net foreign exchange earner in the private sector of India. lamb carcasses. tea.from genuinely halal frozen meat. to leather. Ministry of Commerce. mutton cubes. and processed meat. foundry chemicals. frozen marine products. coffee. integrated meat processing complexes. such as onions. This family business has in the last 135 years grown into a large group of companies headed by Allanasons Limited which was incorporated in 1973 to consolidate and centralise the export activities of the Allana Group.ur parent firm was established in Bombay in 1865 as a trading company. eggs. incorporating the latest technology and automation in all stages of production . canned meat. spices. Our group companies own and operate Asia's most modern. We offer a wide range of quality products . n the following pages you will find details of our products and our achievements in the export sector of India.
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