What Is Microteaching?

Why microteach?
Microteaching is organized practice teaching. The goal is to give instructors confidence, support, and feedback by letting them try out among friends and colleagues a short slice of what they plan to do with their students. Ideally, microteaching sessions take place before the first day of class, and are videotaped for review individually with an experienced teaching consultant. Microteaching is a quick, efficient, proven, and fun way to help teachers get off to a strong start. Online document: TFs talk about microteaching.

How to microteach.
As many as six teachers from the same or similar courses can participate in a single microteaching session. Course heads, a few experienced instructors, and a Bok Center staff member are usually invited to serve as facilitators. While one person takes his or her turn as teacher, everyone else plays the roles of students. It is the job of these pretend pupils to ask and answer questions realistically. It is the job of the pretend teacher to involve his or her "class" actively in this way. Such a scenario typically runs for five to ten minutes. When finished, the person conducting the class has a moment or two to react to his or her own teaching. Then everyone else joins in to discuss what they saw that they especially liked. Finally, the group may mention just a few things that the practice teacher might try doing differently in the future. Like all Bok Center tapes, videos of these sessions are for the benefit of those taped and will not be seen by anyone else without the explicit permission of the practice teacher. Session tapes can even be erased immediately if the practice teacher wishes. Nearly everyone, however, finds it extremely helpful to make an appointment to view and discuss their tape together with a Bok Center consultant.

What to prepare.
Most course heads provide microteachers with scenarios to prepare in advance. If not, think of a few minutes of material that you especially would like to make sure your students understand by the end of your next class. As always, you should not only plan out how to treat the subject matter, but also give some thought to how you are going to present yourself, manage the class, and involve the students. There are, of course, many different ways of teaching a given lesson well. That is why participants find that, along with what they learn from their own experience practice teaching, they can also pick up many helpful ideas from observing fellow microteachers.

1963) What is a teaching skill ? Definition of teaching skill might be one of the following : * A teaching skill is that behaviour of the teacher which facilitates pupils’ learning directly or indirectly.F." (B. that teaching act varies from person to person and from situation to situation. 1965) "Teaching is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement under which students learn.INTRODUCTION TO MICRO-TEACHING Introduction You know that the economic prosperity and good quality of any nation depends upon the development of human resources of that nation.L. 1968) "Teaching as an act of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the ways in which other persons can or will behave. Teaching : Definition "Teaching means many different things. " (Bar. 1. for this purpose we need highly competent teachers for imparting these competencies. Closure 4. Fluency in questioning 7. Probing questioning . Teacher silence and non-verbal cues 5. Gage. they need to acquire requisite competencies themselves. Therefore. Skinner. *A teaching skill is that art of the teacher which makes communication between the teacher and pupils sufficiently. but teachers arrange special contingencies which expedite learning and hastening the appearance of behaviour which would otherwise be acquired slowly or making scene of the appearance of behaviour which might otherwise never occur. For this. * A teaching skill includes all arts and behaviour of the teacher which maximizes pupils’ learning. The significant fact in the development of manpower resource refers to the competencies and the level on which these competencies are imparted. Stimulus Variation 2. In the present Unit we will attempt to understand as to what competencies are essential for becoming better teacher and how these competencies can be imparted. They learn without teaching in their natural environment.A.S. Allen and Ryan listed the following teaching skills at Stanford University in the U. particularly those activities which are concerned with the guidance or direction of learning of others. You also know that it largely depends on those who develop these competencies." (Ryan. Attempts have been made to list teaching skills. It is essential that teachers imparting these competencies should have the capability to perform their task efficiently. Set induction 3." (N. 1961) "The behaviour or activities of persons as they go about doing whatever is required of teachers. Reinforcing pupil participation 6.

Fluency in questioning 4.8. Micro-teaching Approach” : 1. Reinforcement 10. Planned repetition 14. Using black board 12. Probing questioning 5. Explaining 6. Increasing pupil participation 11. Passi has given the following list of Teaching Skills in his book “Becoming Better Teacher. Illustrating with examples 7. Recognizing and attending behaviour 11. Silence and non-verbal cues 9. Lecturing 13. Use of higher questions 9. Achieving Closure 13. Completeness of communication B.K. Stimulus variation 8. Illustrating and use of examples 12. Recognizing attending behavior NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) in its publication Core Teaching Skills (1982) has laid stress on the following teaching skills… • writing instructional objectives • Organizing the content • Creating set for introducing the lesson • introducing a lesson • Structuring classroom questions • Question delivery and its distribution • Response management • explaining • illustrating with examples • Using teaching aids • Stimulus variation • Pacing of the lesson • Promoting pupil participation • Use of blackboard • Achieving closure of the lesson • Giving assignments • Evaluating the pupil’s progress • Diagnosing pupil learning difficulties and taking remedial measures • Management of the class . Divergent questions 10. Writing instructional objectives 2. Introducing a lesson 3.

using a specified teaching skill 3. redirection. It requires the teacher trainee 1. increasing critical awareness. relevance to content using beginning and concluding statements. keep pupils in Eye Span. Classroom Management Components : Call pupils bynames. repeating and rephrasing. writing pupils’ answer on the black board. use of pleasant and approving gestures and expressions. Use of blackboard Components : Legible. Stimulus variation Components : Body movements. Concept of Micro-teaching Micro-teaching is a teacher training technique which helps the teacher trainee to master the teaching skills. 6. The set of these skills are known as CORE TEACHING SKILLS Core Teaching Skills are: 1. oral-visual switching. relevant and interesting examples appropriate media. Skill of Introducing a lesson Core Teaching Skills and their Components 1. Skill of Illustrating With Examples 4. pausing. use of inducts. Therefore a set of teaching skills which cuts across the subject areas has been identified. for a short time 4. gestures. attending behaviour reinforced. continuity. Skill of Probing Questions 2. Skill of Stimulus Variation 5. 5. Reinforcement Components : Use of praise words and statements.Core Teaching Skills It is not possible to train all the pupil teachers in all these skills in any training programme because of the constraints of time and funds. 3. 2. covering essential points. Skill of Classroom Management 7. extra vertical cues. deductive approach. Makenorms of classroom behaviour. neat and adequate with reference to content covered. to teach a single concept of content 2. to a very small member of pupils . change in speech pattern. change in interaction style. They have been found very useful for every teacher. clarity of direction. check inappropriate behaviour immediately. focusing. accepting and using pupils’ idea. check non-attending behaviour. Skill of Using Blackboard 8. Explaining Components : Clarity. Probing Questions Components : Prompting. Skill of Explaining 3. 4. Skill of Reinforcement 6. focusing. seeking further information. 7. Illustrating with examples Components : Simple.

W.W. Definition • “Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and time . • To enable teacher trainees to gain confidence in teaching.L. tape recorded/CCTV • Microteaching advocates the choice and practice of one skill at a time Steps of Micro-teaching The Micro-teaching programme involves the following steps: . Allen & A.W. observable. measurable and controllable form with repeated cycles till he attains mastery in the use of skill. Singh (1977) Objectives of Microteaching • To enable teacher trainees to learn and assimilate new teaching skills under controlled conditions.D. fixing and motivating learning • The student are providing immediate feedback in terms of peer group feedback. • To enable teacher trainees to master a number of teaching skills.Eve (1968) • “Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in which a teacher teaches a small unit to a group of five pupils for a small period of 5 to 20 minutes” . Meaning and Definition of Micro-Teaching Meaning Micro teaching is a procedure in which a student teacher practices teaching with a reduce number of pupils in a reduced period of time with emphasis on a narrow and specific teaching skill.Allen(1966) • “Microteaching is defined as a system of controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on specified teaching behaviour and to practice teaching under controlled conditions.” .D.In this way the teacher trainee practices the teaching skill in terms of definable. Characteristic of Microteaching • Microteaching is a highly individualized training device • Microteaching is an experiment in the field of teacher education which has been incorporated in the practice teaching schedule • It is a student teaching skill training technique and not a teaching technique or method • Microteaching is micro in the sense that it scale down the complexities of real teaching • Practicing one skill at a time • Reducing the class size to 5 – 10 pupil • Reducing the duration of lesson to 5 – 10 minutes • Limiting the content to a single concept • immediate feedback helps in improving.C.

Step II The teacher trainer gives the demonstration of the skill in Micro-teaching in simulated conditions to the teacher trainees. Step III The teacher trainee plans a short lesson plan on the basis of the demonstrated skill for his/her practice. The supervisor reinforces the instances of effective use of the skill and draws attention of the teacher trainee to the points where he could not do well. the teacher trainee replans the lesson plan in order to use the skill in more effective manner in the second trial. The activities are planned in such a logical sequence where maximum application of the components of a skill is possible. Teach : This involves the attempts of the teacher trainee to use the components of the skill in . His lesson is supervised by the supervisor and peers. The topic is analyzed into different activities of the teacher and the pupils.Step I Particular skill to be practiced is explained to the teacher trainees in terms of the purpose and components of the skill with suitable examples. Micro-teaching Cycle The six steps generally involved in micro-teaching cycle are Plan . Step IX The ‘teach – re-teach’ cycle may be repeated several times till adequate mastery level is achieved. Step VIII The supervisor observes the re-teach lesson and gives re-feed back to the teacher trainee with convincing arguments and reasons. Teach . the supervisor gives feedback to the teacher trainee. There can be variations as per requirement of the objective of practice session. These steps are diagrammatically represented in the following figure : Diagramatic representation of a Micro-teaching Cycle Plan : This involves the selection of the topic and related content of such a nature in which the use of components of the skill under practice may be made easily and conveniently. Refeedback. Step IV The teacher trainee teaches the lesson to a small group of pupils. Step VI In the light of the feed-back given by the supervisor. Feedback Replan . Reteach . Step VII The revised lesson is taught to another comparable group of pupils. Step V On the basis of the observation of a lesson.

He should have the courage and confidence to handle the situation arising in the class effectively. Ø Observe the demonstration of teaching skill. Re-feedback : This is the most important component of Micro-teaching for behaviour modification of teacher trainee in the desired direction in each and every skill practice. Ø Planning and preparation of micro lesson for a skill. . They are : 1. This is done to remove boredom or monotony of the pupil. Skill Acquisition Phase (Inter-active Phase) It includes the activities such as. Time duration for the microteaching is. Transfer Phase of Micro-teaching. 2. o Feedback : 6 Minutes. 1. Re-teach : This involves teaching to the same group of pupils if the topic is changed or to a different group of pupils if the topic is the same. Ø Evaluation of the practiced skill (Feedback). Ø Practicing the skill. This helps the teacher trainee to improve upon his/her performance in the desired direction. Feedback : This term refers to giving information to the teacher trainee about his performance. o Re-Teach : 6 Minutes. Knowledge Acquisition Phase. o Re-Feedback : 6 Minutes. Skill Acquisition Phase. Knowledge Acquisition Phase (Pre-Active Phase) It includes the activities such as.suitable situations coming up in the process of teaching-learning as per his/her planning of activitieó. The teacher trainee teaches the class with renewed courage and confidence to perform better than the previous attempt. The information includes the points of strength as well as weakness relating to his/her performance. If the situation is different and not as visualized(in the planning of tTe activities. Ø Provide knowledge about teaching skills. the teacher should modify his/her behaviour ás per the demand of the situation in the Wlass. o Re-Plan :12 Minutes. Phases of Micro-teaching There are three phases of the Micro-teaching procedure which you have studied in the previous section of this Unit. 3. 2. Ø Analyze and discuss the demonstration of the teaching skill. Re-plan : The teacher trainee replans his lesson incorporating the points of strength and removing the points not skillfully handled during teaching in the previous attempt either on the same topic or on another topic suiting to the teacher trainee for improvement. o Teach : 6 Minutes.

• It is very time consuming technique. • It covers only a few specific skills. • It helps to get deeper knowledge regarding the art of teaching. • It may raise administrative problem while arranging micro lessons Microteaching Vs Traditional Classroom teaching Microteaching teaching Traditional Class room · Teaching is Relatively Simple * Teaching is Complex Activity . • It is an individualized training technique.the teacher trainee is allowed to teach the skills together. Re-teach and re-feedback till the desired level of skill is achieved. • It requires special classroom setting. Content not emphasized. • It caters the need of individual differences in the teacher training. Integration in parts 3 or 4 teaching skills are integrated and transferred them into a lesson of 15-20 minutes duration. Integration as a whole Student teacher integrates all the individual teaching skills by taking them as a whole and transferred them into a real teaching situation. And again 3 or 4 skills are integrated and are transferred all the skills to one lesson. 3. • It deviates from normal classroom teaching. Transfer Phase (Post –Active Phase) Ø Giving opportunity to use the mastered skill in normal class room teaching. Limitations of Microteaching • It is skill oriented. Ø Integrate the different skill practiced Link Practice (Integration of Teaching Skills) When mastery has been attained in various skills . • A large number of trainees cannot be given the opportunity for re-teaching and re-planning.Ø Re-plan . • It employs real teaching situation for developing skills. • It reduces the complexity of teaching process as it is a scaled down teaching. Merits of Microteaching • It helps to develop and master important teaching skills. ü It helps to bridge the gap between training in isolated teaching skills and the real teaching situation faced by a student teacher. ü Desirable Number of Skills :3-4 Skills • Link practice or integration of skills can be done in two ways. • It is more effective in modifying teacher behaviour. ü Desirable Number of Pupils :15-20 ü Preferable Duration :20minutes. This separate training programme to integrate various isolated skills is known as ‘Link Practice’ ü It helps the trainee to transfer effectively all the skills learnt in the micro teaching sessions. • It helps to accomplish specific teacher competencies.

At this juncture Keath Acheson. In India. R. Becoming Better Teachers. Microteaching in India • The department of Teacher education in the NCERT designed a project to study the effectiveness of Microteaching in 1975 in collaboration with the Centre of Advanced Study in Education (CASE) Baroda. et. D. 1969. Micro-teaching – A Description. P. University of Baroda.al. . 1979. et.. “A Comparative Study of the Effects of Standard MT With Varied Set of Skills Upon General Teaching Competence and Attitudes of Pre-service Secondary School Teachers. Differential Effectiveness of MT Components. Stanford University Press.W. K.: Addison Wesley. M.A. PASSI. Since then this technique of teacher training has been widely used in almost all Colleges and Universities of Europe and Asia. it is being used with great emphasis in all the teacher training programmes of developing teaching skills and competencies among teacher trainees. SINGH.C. 1969. New Delhi. 5. Thus the name of micro-teaching was coined for this method of developing teaching skills in 1963.W . 1976. REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS 1. Micro-teaching – Theory and Practice.” In R. NCERT. Baroda : Centre for Advanced Study in Education.S. ALLEN. RYAN. GREWAL. J. 1987. All the steps of micro-teaching technique : Teach → Feedback → Replan → Reteach → Refeedback were formulated. S. The team of experts was assigned the development of testing and evaluation tools to measure the attainment of teaching skills. L. • Research and training programmes for teacher educators were also initiated in collaboration with the department of Education. DAS..al. This project was aided by Ford Foundation and Kettering Foundation. Allen. when an Experimental Project on the identification of teaching skills was in progress under the guidance and supervision of the faculty members (Bush.· Carried out in controlled situation * Carried out in uncontrolled Situation · The Class Consist of a small of * Classroom consist of less than Students group of students 35 to 40 students · takes up one skill at a time * Teacher practices several skill at a time · Teaching time is 5 to 10 mts. ALLEN. SINGH. This lead to the development of a systematic and accurate method of giving feedback to the teacher trainee. D. 3.al. Singh and Jangira developed instructional materials which were used to train teacher educators. University of Indore. 2. McDonald Acheson and many others). a research worker was investigating the utility of video tape recorder in the development of technical teaching skills. C.K. et. 4. Agra : Psychological Corporation. * Teaching time is 40 to 50 mts · Student teacher provided immediate feedback * No immediate feedback · Provision for reteaching * No provision for reteaching · Students gains confidence in teaching * Students usually tensed and before actual scared Origin and Development of Micro-teaching The idea of micro-teaching originated for the first time at Stanford University in USA. Micro-teaching Reading Mass. • Passi. B. This instrument could be used for recording the class interaction and the behaviours of the trainee vividly and accurately.

Micro-teaching : An Experiment in Teacher Training. Furthermore. Yet. Micro-teaching – Without Television. N. N. attend lectures and take courses on didactics.. Technical Teacher. Introduction Why microteaching? Medical teachers most often do not receive a special training in pedagogic techniques.... Mmmmmmmmmmmmm. as it is usually not considered necessary for their recruitment or for an efficient continued performance.. in theory everything seems much simpler than in practice.. VAIDYA. Veronika Strittmatter 1. 1984... teachers must not only have a good knowledge of the subject in hand.... 1970.. L. The complexity of a teaching situation can be overwhelming... Thorsten Steiner... 8.. Their ability to teach therefore largely depends on self training. Nutan Shikshan..... . lead a discussion and pose questions.. Michael Kirschfink.. Chandigarh. G.. One may earnestly try to prepare him or herself: read books about teaching methods.. 7... This perception is sometimes quite different from the teacher's self-image...6. and a constructive feedback . SHARMA. who may or may not be helpful examples.... 1970.mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm.. supervise.. It is difficult to self assess one’s own abilities and we benefit from colleagues’ feed back to recognize our strength and identify areas for possible improvement. Getting in front of students is a trying experience for a budding teacher... either by trial and error while teaching or by observation of colleagues. To deal effectively with it... a teacher should be aware of how students perceive him or her.mmmmmmm Microteaching Tanja Gavrilović. B.. Evaluation of teaching by students is becoming a common practice. Agra... The Polytechnic Teacher.. Micro-teaching : Integration of Teahing Skills in Sahitya Paricharya. Maja Ostojić. but also some communication skills such as ability to observe.... SHAH... Technical Training Institute. Vinod Pustak Mandir.... Dario Sambunjak.

A very similar model called Instructional Skills Workshop (ISW) was developed in Canada during the early 1970's as a training support program for college and institute faculty. review and reflect. but later it was introduced to language teaching. re-teach) approach using actual students as an authentic audience. Microteaching gives instructors an opportunity to safely put themselves “under the microscope” of a small group audience. some of whom may be inattentive or even hostile. Both models were designed to enhance teaching and promote open collegial discussion about teaching performance. Planning a Microteaching Session The duration of a Microteaching session depends on the number of participants. because it eliminates pressure resulting from the length of the lecture. to experience a range of lecturing/tutoring styles and to learn and practice giving constructive feedback. through assuming the student role. teachers can try out a short piece of what they usually do with their students. and the need to face large numbers of students. Another advantage of microteaching is that it provides skilled supervisors who can give support. A microteaching session is much more comfortable than real classroom situations. A microteaching session is a chance to adopt new teaching and learning strategies and. the scope and content of the matter to be conveyed. when Dwight Allen and his colleagues from the Stanford University developed a training program aimed to improve verbal and nonverbal aspects of teacher's speech and general performance. microteaching as a professional development tool is increasingly spreading in the field of medical education. In the last few years.could be an effective way to improve one's rating as a teacher. lead the session in a proper direction and share some insights from the pedagogic sciences. It is helpful to organize professional videotaping. In a protected environment of friends and colleagues. Historic context The history of microteaching goes back to the early and mid 1960's. but also to observe and comment on other people's performances. It is a good time to learn from others and enrich one's own repertoire of teaching methods. Microteaching should take place in two separate classrooms where the second room is required for videotape viewing. although this can also be done (taken over) by the participants upon instruction. What is microteaching? Microteaching is an excellent way to build up skills and confidence. The model was first applied to teaching science. Even the experienced educators may sometimes reflect about strengths and weaknesses of their teaching style. . As a tool for teacher preparation. The Stanford model consisted of a three-step (teach. and receive a well-intended collegial feedback. to get an insight into students' needs and expectations. microteaching trains teaching behaviors and skills in small group settings aided by video-recordings. 2.

voice and body language. objective and procedures should be clear to generate useful discussions. use of media. flipchart. This may include pace. II. Each lesson is videotaped. Preparation Each participant of the session prepares a teaching segment. Then he/she again joins the supervisory team. pin board. Presentation and Observation Each participant presents his/her 10-minute teaching segment. He/she is allowed to use the media available. In the meantime the supervisory team discussed and made conclusions about the teacher’s lecturing.Equipment for Microteaching session: • • • • • TV/Computer set video recorder/camcorder camera tapes for camera black.. clarity of explanation. Steps in Microteaching and Rotating Peer Supervision I.or whiteboard. markers with different colors One-day plan for Microteaching (an example): • • • 09:00-09:30 Introduction to microteaching given by a professional supervisor 09:30-10:00 Preparation of the micro lessons 10:00-. Although the lesson is short. During the presentation. The presenter gives a brief statement of the general objectives of his/her presentation to be addressed. other participants serve as members of a supervisory team and take notes for the group feedback.. level of group interaction. He/she also makes a list of strengths and suggestions for personal improvement. Microteaching session (each segment about 20-30 min) 3. III. Special assessment forms (Tables 1 and 2) may be helpful in standardizing the observation and feedback process. . The group may be asked to focus their attention to particular elements of the lesson or of the teaching style. Videotape Viewing The presenter watches the tape of his/her presentation and decides whether or not the objectives were accomplished.

after you showed us the diagram”. Only those patterns are selected which seem possible to alter and those which through emphasis or omission would greatly improve the teacher’s presentation. Patterns of teaching with evidence to support them are presented. Giving feedback When you are giving feedback. to relax yourself. Be descriptive and specific. rather than evaluative. and that will help to lower the pitch of your voice as well”. For example: you would avoid starting the sentences with “you”.IV. so you can say: “I understood the model. Feedback should be honest and direct.1. if the person’s voice had a squeaky quality because he/she was nervous. A few patterns are chosen for further discussions with the presenter. Discussion and Analysis While the presenter goes to another room to view the videotape. Making a comment on the vocal quality of someone whose voice is naturally high-pitched is only likely to discourage him/her. the presenter is first asked to present a self feed back of his mini lesson. The way in which feedback is given and received contributes to the learning process. Suggestions for improvement and alternative methods for presenting the lesson are formulated. Objectives of the lesson plan are also examined to determine if they were met. It is understood that flexible teaching sometimes includes the modification and omission of objectives. Finally. list the specific things that he/she did well. and describe why you had trouble understanding him/her. the supervisory team discusses and analyses the presentation. Giving and receiving feedback Under the guidance of the professional supervisor. The discussion should focus on the identification of recurrent behaviors of the presenter in the act of teaching. For example: rather than saying “You weren’t clear in your explanations”. the supervisory team member who volunteered to be the speaker summarizes the comments generated during the analysis session. focusing on the ways the presenter can improve. instead of saying: “I thought you did an excellent job!”. The presenter is encouraged to interact freely with the team so that all comments are clarified to his/her satisfaction. . tell the presenter where he/she was vague. Similarly. With this new information taken into account. it is better to start with “I”. try to: • • • Be specific rather than general. 3. and containing personal observations. However. a member of the supervisory team volunteers to be the speaker in giving the collected group feedback. V. constructive. you might say: “You might want to breath more deeply. The following is a series of suggestions on how to give and receive feedback in a microteaching workshop. This part of the session is intended to provide positive reinforcement and constructive criticism. Describe something the person can act upon.

you can say “Varying your rate and volume of speaking would give you a more animated style”. which will come later. Appendices Characteristic Duration of presentation Aim Approx. 10 minutes Observed Start time.. When giving feedback.. Ask other people if they agree with the person’s critique. but as we have pointed out. and you might discover that the comments that seemed to be the harshest were actually the most useful. Total . Receiving feedback When you are receiving feedback. you might feel hurt in response to criticism. who is giving it.• • • Choose one or two things the person can concentrate on. Take notes. open toward other’s ideas and opinions in the microteaching workshop and in your classes as well. For example: rather than saying: “You don’t seem very enthusiastic about the lesson”. If you can. try: • • • • • Not to respond to each point... it is an important part of the learning process. Being told that you need to improve yourself is not always easy. Avoid conclusions about motives or feelings.......2. 4. rather listen quietly. the person receiving the feedback might not even hear the positive part. You do not have to agree with every comment. hearing what other’s experiences were during their review. try not to let those feelings dissuade you from using the feedback to your best advantage. Ask for specific examples if you need to. asking only for clarification. Than you will have a record to refer to. Be open to what you are hearing. 3. Finish time. Begin and end with strengths of the presentation. tactful. The only time to interfere with what is being said is if you need to state that you are overloaded with too much feedback. take notes as you are hearing the other people’s comment.. If the people are overwhelmed with too many suggestions.. if possible. constructive critical. In total. Although. If you start off with negative criticism. If the critique you are receiving is vague or unfocused. ask the person to give you several specific examples of the point he/she is trying to make Judge the feedback by the person. be practical. they are likely to become frustrated.. call attention to those areas that need the most improvement.

. The density of information seems to demand too little of the learner. The following forms of visualization have been used: • • • • • Visualization slides handouts for the participants pin board flipchart white/black board The visual elements assist the understanding. Density of information Density of information should be high. - Further observations - Table 2. Density of information is rather low.... Comprehensibility should be improved. (Tick Yes or No when assessing) Is the presentation .. Density of information is rather high. The density of information seems to demand too much of the learner. it must not overtax the learner... Characteristics of a good quality presentation. The visual elements should be improved.duration. comprehensible.minutes Comprehensibility The presentation should The presentation is be given in sufficiently comprehensible language. However. The presentation should be accompanied by selected elements of visualization....

use of examples yes yes yes no no no yes no yes yes no no Is the presentation stimulating? .visualization is clear and yes well-structured yes no no no yes no no .eye contact .presented with commitment .conciseness .speaks freely .presentation is wellstructured .speaker varies his position yes yes no no .short sentences .terminology is comprehensible .participants are yes encouraged to contribute .use of humor to create a yes relaxed atmosphere .friendly/respectful behavior Is the visualization helpful? .comprehensible? .

colors help to focus on the important aspects .includes graphic elements and optical stimuli ..comprehensible visualization .easily legible writing .affectionate layout yes no yes yes no no yes no yes no .

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