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4, JULY 1983


[ I ] J.T. Ramfrez, C. M. Shchez, R. Neri, and J . A. Tovar, Corona noise on high voltage transmission lines and its influence on the PLC CommunicationChannels, i Proc. Seventh Int. Conf. Cas Disn charges and their Appl., London, Aug. 31Sept. 3, 1982. [2] J.D. Kraus and K. R. Carver, Elecfromagnetics. New York McGraw Hill, 1973. [3] F. D. Pullen, The calculated electromagnetic fields surrounding carrier-bearing power line conductors, IEEE Trans.Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-92, no. 2, pp. 53CL.538,Mar.-Apr. 1975.


Fig. 1. Microstrip antennaconfiguration.

The Finite Ground PlaneEffect on the Microstrip Antenna Radiation Patterns

Absrrart-The uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) is employed for calculating edge diffracted fields the from the finite ground plane of a microstrip antenna. The source field from the radiating patch is calculated by two different methods: the slot theory and the modal expansion theory. Many numerical and measured results are presented to demonstrate the accuracyof the calcnlations andthe finite ground plane edge effect.

I. INTRODUCTION A microstrip patch antenna is a thin conducting strip radiator separated from its ground plane by a layer of dielectric substrate as described in Fig. 1. This communication presents the approach Fig. 2. Slot model configuration of a microstrip patch. of combining the slot theory [l] , [2] and the method of uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) [3] t o account for the 11. RADIATION PATTERN FORMULATIONS finite ground plane edge diffractions. Indoing so; the radiation in the backlobe and wide angle regions can be accurately predicted A . Slot Theory and GTD while the other theories fail to do so. Even though the slot theory The slot theory is presented here because its combination with can only be employed for rectangular patch and copolar calculathe GTD is much easier to be understood by the readers. The tion, the GTD, however, can be combined with other theories, slot theory considers that the radiation from a rectangular microsuch as themodalexpansiontheory[4],tocomputethepatstrip patch is equivalent to that from two parallel slots adjacent terns (include cross-polar information) for many different shapedmicrostrip radiators. A discussion of the modal expansion theory to the metallic patch as shown in Fig. 2. The width (W) of each is also includedinthiscommunication.Theauthor wishes to slot is approximated by the thickness of the substrate, and the point out that the method described here should not be applied length (I) is equal to the length of the patch ( A ) plus the substrate thickness [5] (due to fringing effect). The E-plane pattern without modifications when the product of the substrate thickness (in wave length) and dielectric constant is much greater than can be calculated by summing three rays from each of the two geometrical optics 0.1 ; otherwise accuracy degrades. This is due to the fact that the slots as illustrated in Fig. 3(a). The direct (GO) field from each slot is given by [ 2 ] surface wave effect of the dielectric substrate and the dielectric wedge diffraction have not been taken into consideration. Since + sin ( T W ~ C O S e-jkS EGO=I.1 GTD is a high frequency technique, the rule of thumb is that the (1) nw&cos I.1 fl distance between the ground planeedge and the edge of radiating patch should not be less than a quarter wavelength. Fortunately, where W is the slot width in terms of wave length, er is relative most of the applications that have been encountered to date are dielectric constant of substrate, and S is the distance from slot in the valid region of the formulations to be described in the fol- center to the observation point. The singly diffracted GTD field lowing section. from each edge generated from the same slot is given by
Manuscript received September 16, 1982; revised March 1, 1983. T i hs work was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The author is with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109.

0018-926X/83/0700-0649$01.OO 0 1983 IEEE





Fig. 4. Equivalent magnetic line current for the H-plane pattern calculation

Fig. 4 : )


s x I , 0') dy ' S

e- j k S

Fig. 3.

(a)E-planeradiationanddiffraction mechanisms. (b) H-phne radiation and diffraction mechanisms.

where S, with 8 being its unit vector, is the distance between instantaneousdiffractionpoint y' andtheobservationpoint. h is the length of E-plane edge and I m ( y ' )is the equivalent magnetic line currentgiven by

where Dh is thehard-boundarydiffractioncoefficientwithout the dielectric effect and has been given in [3]. In addition to the GO field and the singly diffracted fields, the doubly diffracted fields need to be included if a continuous pattern is required in the regions of the two shadow boundaries (p = 0" and 180"). TheH-planepattern in theforward region can also be calculated by summing threerays as illustrated in Fig. 3(b). The direct GO field from the slot is given by [2]
T cos p I fi Because the electricfield on the surfaceofa conductor wedge vanishes for polarization of the grazing incident wave being parallel to the surface (soft boundary condition), the first-orderdiffracted field fromeach edge is zero. However,a second-order diffracted field derived from the Maxwell's equations is nonzero and can be viewed as a result of the rapid change of GO field. This diffracted field, knownas slope diffraction [6] , is given by EGO =X

with H'(y') being theincident field at y ' , Dh thediffraction coefficient for hard-boundary condition, and Yo the free space admittance. To summarize, the H-plane field is the vectorial summation of the GO field (EGO), the slope diffracted field (Esiope) and the integratedequivalent current field ( E e q ) .

B. Modal Expansion Technique

The modal expansion technique, in the past, has been extensively applied to copolar pattern and input impedance calculations [4] for the microstrip radiatorson an infinite ground plane. It is employed here, in conjunction with the GTD, not only for the copolar prediction but also to have a closer look at thecrosspolar behavior on a finiteground plane. Thefieldsunder the patch can be determined by modeling thepatchas a cavity

sin ( T I cos p )

sin p -.



bounded by perfect magnetic wls [4]. Once the fields within al

the cavity region are known, the induced magnetic current in the magnetic wall at the perimeter can be determined and in turn the radiated field can be calculated by integrating this magnetic current.Thisradiated field canthen be used as theincident field to calculate the finite ground plane edge diffracted fields in the same fashion as that shown in (2): (4), and (5). For a rectangular microstrip as shown in Fig. 1, the z-directed electrical field in the cavity (underneath the patch) can be separated into different modes and can be written [4] as

where D,, is the slope diffraction coefficient and has been given in [3]. In the backlobe region of the H-plane pattern, one needs to include the contributions from the E-plane edge diffractions simply because theE-plane edge diffractionhas a much larger magnitude than that of the H-plane edge slope diffraction. This E-plane edge contribution can best be calculated by an equivalent current technique [7] as described by the following equation (see

m = o n=0

m m








(a) c) b Fig. 5. Periqeter fields of a square microstrip patch for (a) El,-, mode and (b) E02 mode. Theheavy dot indicates t h e feed probe location.

where C , are *e coefficients that depend on m , n , A , and B dimensions of the patch, dielectric constant, and feed size. Their details have been shown previously [4]and need not be repeated here. n e modal function Qmn is composed of two cosine functions andis shown in the following equation:




= cos (mlrxlA) cos (n.rrYlB),


where (x, y ) is an arbitrary point under the patch, and (x',y') is the feed location. It is found that the series in (7) only needs to be summed to the fourth term and preserve tne accuracy. For still linear polarization and fundamental mode operation, the dominant term, Emn = E,,, generates the copolar field, while the term EO2 generates the cross-polar field. The other terms contribute to either copolar or cross-polar fields with less significant effect. As an example, the perimeterfields of E , and Eoz modes are illustrated in Fig. 5 where EO2mode has a smaller magnitude than the E,, mode. The vertical arrows in the E l o mode indicate the copolar edge field, and the horizontal arrows in the EO* mode indicate the cross-polar edge field. The sinusoidally varied edge fields in both modes contribute very little in the far field because its net effect cancelsitself. Notice that the cross-polar arrows in Fig. 5(b) are pointed in opposite directions. This is why that the cross-polar field of a rectangular or square patch always yields a null at thebroadside direction.




Both the E- and H-plane patterns of a single microstrip patch have been calculated and compared with the measured results as (Fig. shown in Fig. 6 . The antenna dimensions in inches are 1):


Fig. 6. (a) Microstrip E-plane. (b) Microstrip H-plane. Radiation patterns of a rectangularmicrostripantenna. Antennadimensionsare (see Fig.: 1 ) A = 2.126 in, B = 1.488 in e = 10.5 in,h = 14.0 in, substrate thickness = 0.125 in, E,.= 2.55, frequency = 2.295 GHz.

= 2.126

e = 10.5

B = 1.488

h = 14.0


substrate thickness = 0.125. The relative dielectric constant of substrate is 2.55,andthe operatingfrequency is 2.295 GHz. For practical purpose,the overall comparison between the measurement and the prediction is quitegood.Theeffect of finiteground plane anddifferent edge diffractions are demonstrated in Figs. 7 and 8. The double diffraction has been included in all the E-plane pattern calculations. Fig. 7 illustrates the differencebetween theE-planepatterns when the patch radiation is calculated on an infinite ground

plane and on atwo-wavelength ground plane. Thiscomparison shows that the amount of error can be introduced when the pattern is calculated for an infinite ground plane while the measurement is performed on a finite ground plane. Fig. 8 shows the difference of the H-plane patterns when the radiation is calculated without the slope diffraction and without the E-plane edge equivalent current contribution. The importance of the edge diffracThe calculation in tions is again clearly demonstrated here. Figs. 6-8 are based on the slot theory which does not yield any cross-polar information. In order to demonstrate the accuracy in predicting both the copolar and cross-polar fields by the modal expansion theory, a microstrip antenna is constructed and meas-



dB -20








GROUND PLANE PLANE Fig. 7. Comparison of the E-plane calculated patterns when the patch is o n a two-wavelength g o u n d plane (see (9)) and that on an infiite ground plane.


-2 X



10 8

Fig. 9. E- and H-plane patterns of a square microstrip antenna. Calculatheory and GTD. Antenna dime* tion is done by model expansion sion are (see Fig. 1): A = B = 1.8 in, e = h = 38.7 in, substrate thickness= 0.125 in, er = 2.17 and frequency= 2.115 GHz.

The slot theory and the modal expansion theory augmented by the uniform GTD diffraction solution for the prediction of microstrip antenna radiation have been presented. The GTDedge diffractions are included for the finite ground plane effect in both E- andH-plane calculations. In theE-plane, single anddouble edge diffractions plus the direct GO field contribute to the total field. In the H-plane, the total field consists of the direct GO field, the slope diffracted field and the E-plane edge equivalent current field. The measured results indicate that the theoretical predictionsforboth large ground plane (7h X 7h) and small of ground plane (2X X 2.7k) are quite good despite the exclusion the dielectric effect in thediffraction calculations. Numerical examples demonstrates that the finiteedge calculation is essential if accurate pattern levels at wide angles and backlobe information are required. The pattern cuts other than at the principal planes, such as diagonal cuts, can be predictedbyGTDwithits wellGTDs creeping wave established comer diffraction solution. solution can also be employed to calculate microstrip radiation on a curved surface. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to thank Mr. H. Marlin for performing the measurements, and Dr. K. Woo and Dr. Y. Rahmat-Samii for their comments and suggestions.


- -- G.O. ........ G.O.





Fig. 8 H-planecalculatedpatterns of differentedgecontributions.The . ground planesizes are shown in (9).

ured withresults comparedwithcalculationsasshown in Fig. 9. The dimensions of the antenna (see Fig. 1 ) areA = B = 1.8 in, h = e = 38.7 in, substrate thickness = 0.125 in, E? = 2.17, and frequency = 2.1 15 GHz. Excellent agreements are observedin both the copolar and the cross-polar patterns. The ripples in the copolar of the E-plane pattern and in the cross polar of the Hplane pattern are due to ground plane edge diffractions.These diffractions, especially in the forward region, are very well predicted by the GTD technique. In the backlobe region, however, theprediction is not quite as well as thatpredicted in Fig. 6. This is due to the fact that a larger ground plane (7h X 7k) is being used here. This larger ground plane in turnrequires a larger back mounting structure which has a pronounced scattering effect to thefield in the back.lobe direction.

A. G . Derneryd, Linearly polarized microstrip antennas, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-24, no. 6, pp. 8 W 5 0 , Nov. 1976. [2]A. G . Derneryd and A. G . Lind, Extended analysis of rectangular microstrip resonator antennas, IEEE Trans. Anfennas Propagat., vol. AP-27, no. 6 , pp. 846-849, NOV. 1979. [3] R. G . Kouyoumjian and P. H. Pathak. A uniform geometrical theory of diffraction for an edge in a perfectly conducting surface, Proc. IEEE, vol. 62, pp. 1448-1461, Nov. 1974.



AP-31, NO. 4, JULY 1983


[4] W . F. Richards, Y. T. Lo, and D. D. Harrison, A n improved theory for microstrip antennas and applications, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagar., vol. AP-29, no. 1, pp. 38-46, Jan. 1981. [5] P. Hammer, D. Van Bouchaute, D. Vershraeven, and A. Van DeCapelle, A Model for Calculating the Radiation FieldMicrostrio of Antennas, lEEE Trans. Antennas propagat., vol. AP-27, no. 2 , pi. 267-270, Mx. 1979. [6] C. A. Mentzer, L. Peters, and R . C. Rudduck, Slope diffraction and its application to horns, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP23, pp. 153-159, Mar. 1979. [7] C. E. Ryan and L. Peters, Evaluation of edge-diffraction fields including equivalentcurrentsforthecaustic regions, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat.,vol. AP-27, pp. 292-299, May 1969.

The Singularities of a Fourier-Type Integral a i n Multicylindrical Layer Problem

Abstract-The singularities of the integrand of a Fourier-type integral obtained in solving the multicylindrical layer boundary value problem are discussed. The integrand is a function of the radial wavenumber k i p of all the cylindricallayers, and the radial wavenumber in the ith layer i s related to the axial wavenumber by k;, = where k; i the s wavenumber of the ith layer, and k, is the axial wavenumber of all the layers which have to the same by phase matching. On the complex k, be plane, there seemingly are branch points of logarithmic type and algebraic type for k, = k; for all the layers. However, by invoking uniqueness principle in the solution of this boundary value problem, one can show that the only singularities the complex k, - plane are the branch-point on singularity associatedwith the outermost medium which extends radially to infinity, and pole singularities which correspond to discrete guided modes in the multicylindrical medium.

4 -

branch-pointsingularity,which can be associated withthe a particularmedium or regionof the layers. It has beenproved for the planar multilayer medium that a branch-point singularity for a medium exists only when thelayer is unbounded [3] (since all the layers in the stratified medium are unbounded in the direction parallel to the boundaries, unbounded here implies that the medium is unbounded in the direction normal to theboundaries).Theprooffor a wave propagating ina borehole in a homogeneous medium, i.e., consisting of one cylinder only, has been provided in [ 7 ] . The proof previously has relied on algebraic manipulation of theintegrandto show thatthe integrand isregular about the points where the branch-points do not exist. The underlying principle for the absence of branch points atthese points were not discussed. For the case of cylindrical mediumtheproofby algebraic manipulation is more laborious due to the complicated Hankel and Bessel functions involved. Furthermore,thebranch-point singularities are of logarithmictype as well as algebraic type, giving rise to multivalued functionsratherthan double-valued functions as in the case of planar geometry. The object of this communication is to provide a proof for the absence the branchcut singularities thatcorrespondstolayered regions that are bounded.Theproof is relativelysimple. Thestructure of the proof is general enough that it may be applied to planar layered medium, elliptically layered medium or to hybrid waves (coupled transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves) and elastic waves where shear and compressional waves coexist. The motivation for writing this communication is that a simple proof relating to theunderlyinguniqueness principle does not seem to exist in the literature, and the author hasreviewed a manuscript where this point is overlooked.

The study of waves in layered media has been of interest t o scientists and geophysicists alike [l]- [ 8 ] .The earth is inherently composed of stratified media. Integrated circuits, microwave integated circuits, optical fibers, boreholes for well-logging and some guidance or filtering structures are made UP of planar or cylindrical layered media. A continuously changing profile, forexample,dopedprofdes in semiconductors,opticalfibers, the invasion zone of theboreholeorthe geological formation of theearth, can beapproximated very well withmultilayer mediawhenthe wavelength of thepropagating wave in the media is large compared to the thickness the layers. of The radiation field due to asourceina multilayer medium can usually beobtainedby using sometransformtechniques fieldin a cersuch as the Fourier, or Hankel transforming the tain a i or planeof symmetry. Fourier-type transform technixs ques allow the ease in the separation of variable. The fiial form of the solution t o such a boundary value problem is a Fourier inversionintegral where the integrand is defined and the inversion path of the integral lies on a complex plane. There usually exist singularities on the complex plane where the Fourier inversion path lies. The singularities correspond to modes or lateral waves guided by the layers.A lateral wave is usually due to a
Manuscript received September 2,1982; revised February 15,1983. The author is with Schlumberger-Doll Research, P 0. . Box 307, Ridgefield. CT 06877.


Without the loss of generality for the proof, we can consider a scalar wave problem with a ring source of radius a located at the innermost cylinder of the multicylindrical medium. The wave equation to be satisfied by a field Qi(p, z ) in the ith layer in cylindrical coordinates for the nth harmonic is

where i = 0, 1, 2, N and ki is the wavenumberof the ith region. S(p - a) and 6ijare Dirac and Kronecker delta functions, respectively. Hence,the source term onthe rightsideof (1) exists only in region 0 (see Fig. 1). Equation (1) is best solved by Fourier transforming it in the z variable. By Fourier transforming (1) we obtain


0018-926X/83/0700-0653$01 0 1983 IEEE .OO