A VERNACULAR STUDY: HAVERI DISTRICT, KARNATAKA

A PRESENTATION BY AKHILA RAMESH

AGENDA

The Need for Rural Housing in India

Page 3

Features of Rural Housing in India

Page 5

Haveri District

Page 8

The Villages

Page 11

Methodology of Study

Page 13

Field Observations

Page 15

Conclusions & Path forward

Page 39

THE NEED FOR RURAL HOUSING IN INDIA

According to Indian Government 2007 census & WB 2005:
• Our Country lacks 25-30 Million units of rural housing • 42% of India’s population lives on US$1.25 a day • The rural area is home to 71% of the population • 1 in 5 rural dwellers live in kuccha houses • Poverty is concentrated in rural areas

THE NEED FOR RURAL HOUSING IN INDIA OUSING

FEATURES OF RURAL HOUSING IN INDIA

Community Financed • No public/Private Housing Finance Agencies until recently • No Master-plan to regulate development & No bye-laws to regulate construction • No trained professionals. Self Managed. finance.Features of Rural Housing in India • Self Built. technology & services determine quality FEATURES OF RURAL HOUSING IN INDIA Features Courtesy: Ar Kirtee Shah’s presentation at CAPART’s National Workshop on Rural Housing at New Delhi 18-19 Oct 2002 .Architects/Engineers • No Real estate developers & contractors operate in rural areas • House Builder in control of production process: household’s access to land. skills.

wood. construction methods & technology • Gradual Disappearance of traditional know-how on materials & methods • Exodus of skilled labour to cities • Under-Developed Credit system FEATURES OF RURAL HOUSING IN INDIA Features Courtesy: Ar Kirtee Shah’s presentation at CAPART’s National Workshop on Rural Housing at New Delhi 18-19 Oct 2002 .Features of Rural Housing in India • Participatory Social Production Process: A “People’s process” • Declining Access to bio-mass materials like thatch. bamboo. cow dung • Limited Exposure and Access to new building materials.

HAVERI DISTRICT .

Pulses.30 lakhs • Has annual rain fall of 590-700mm • Major soil types are red sandy soil. sugar cane.According to Indian Government Ground Water Report July 2008 : • The Haveri district is located between north latitudes 14d 17’ 02” to 15d 15’ 01” and east longitudes 75d 0’35” to 75d 49’23” • Haveri has an area of nearly 5000 Sq km with nearly 700 villages • Population as per 2001 census is 14. Bajra. Oil seeds. Jowar. Red loamy and Lateritic soil • Principal crops are Ragi. Medium & Deep black soil. Maize. cotton HAVERI DISTRICT . spices. Wheat.

heavy rainfall though not flooding hazard • Major part of the terrain is gently undulating with hilly terrain on western most parts • Ground water range is 90-200m • Major drainages are Tungabhadra. Varada.According to Indian Government Ground Water Report July 2008 : • Sub tropical climate with temperatures ranging between 18 d to 40 d C • The rainfall varies in the district from over 903 mm in West (Hangal) to less than 592 mm in East (Ranebennur) • October is the wettest month with normal monthly rainfall in excess of 100mm. Kumudavati and Dharma • It lies in low seismic zone HAVERI DISTRICT .

THE VILLAGES .

Km. No Village Houses Population Area in Sq. Amount earned per family per year in INR Kachcha Houses Pakka Houses 1 2 3 Kakola Chandapura Shrabala 600 320 117 12513 2358 630 1099 0004 0440 13000 18000 15500 525 290 107 75 30 10 9% to 12% of houses are Pakka houses compared to a national average of 20% .A Survey THE VILLAGES S.

METHODOLOGY OF STUDY .

space usage.The Village study was conducted over 3 days with the help of NEEDS Detailed Questionnaire with focus on METHODOLOGY OF STUDY Socio-Economic-Space Usage-Needs • Focused Group Discussions with a diverse sample of village representatives • • • Individual Interviews with Beneficiaries Informal talks with local contractors Documentation of materials. practices etc using photographs .

FIELD OBSERVATIONS .

FIELD OBSERVATIONS Kakoli Chandapura Shrabala .

Socio Economic Commonalities • Main Occupation is Agriculture • All children are sent to school • Most cant afford higher education • Joint family system • All own their houses • Men marry between ages 22-30 • Women marry between ages18-20 • Most of them own cattle and a few goats • Very few graduates from any of the villages FIELD OBSERVATIONS .

Infrastructural Commonalities • All internal roads are kuchha roads • Exposed street drain in front of houses • Public taps through bore-wells as source of drinking water • No plumbing within the houses • Villages are electrified • Only few hours of electricity per day • Only a few toilets: Kakola Chandapura Shrabala 020 out of 600 houses 100 out of 320 houses 0 out of 117 houses FIELD OBSERVATIONS .

Infrastructural Commonalities: Kuccha roads FIELD OBSERVATIONS Shrabala Kakola .

Infrastructural Commonalities: Exposed drains FIELD OBSERVATIONS Kakola Chandapura .

Infrastructural Commonalities: Common drinking water source FIELD OBSERVATIONS Kakola .

storage of grains. sleeping. especially in rainy seasons • Kitchens are the only spaces that are relatively free of storage clutter. and that should be inside the house • All of them prefer separate kitchens inside the house. chatting. almost of them use firewood and all eat inside the kitchen • All houses are in dearth of storage spaces. they are used for dining • All of them prefer the bath room to be accessed from inside the house FIELD OBSERVATIONS .Space Usage Commonalities • All live in houses away from their fields. All believe in Vaastu/ “Aaya” • All of them want a ‘katte’ or verandah outside the house for activities like sitting. entertaining guests. drying clothes etc • All of them prefer to have a puja room.

Space Usage Commonalities • All prefer toilet access from outside the house • All of them don’t prefer to have a courtyard inside their houses. This is because they revere a courtyard as integral part of temples • They prefer cattle shed to be at the side of houses. This will ensure protection from mosquitoes yet easy access to feed the cattle FIELD OBSERVATIONS .

the better! .Space Usage Commonalities FIELD OBSERVATIONS Kakoli Chandapura Shrabala Katte is an essential feature of all houses. The deeper.

Space Usage Commonalities FIELD OBSERVATIONS Kakoli Chandapura Shrabala A screened and separate puja room however small the house .

Space Usage Commonalities FIELD OBSERVATIONS Paucity of Storage spaces .

Space Usage Commonalities FIELD OBSERVATIONS Paucity of Storage spaces .

Lots of built in storage and shelves. Area lit from roof! .Space Usage Commonalities FIELD OBSERVATIONS All kitchens designed for fire wood cooking.

Around 6’0” lintel.Commonalities FIELD OBSERVATIONS Ornate Main doorways.one has to bow low while entering! .

Commonalities FIELD OBSERVATIONS Narrow windows preferred to ward off cold wind. glass is definite no-no! .

flat (in Kakola only) Shoe racks in kattes! Stone ledge in bath Submerged grinding stone! Peg for baskets in the katte! Innovative Nuances! .Space Usage Commonalities FIELD OBSERVATIONS Grinding stone .

Ground or G+1 structures Prefer flat roof.Where they differ FIELD OBSERVATIONS S. they want an external staircase to the roof Ok if wall is shared and entry from outside Only for storage Are more dispersed. high ceilings up to 15’ Ok if wall is shared and entry from outside Are open to using loft for sleeping 2 Roof 3 Toilets 4 Loft . low roofs @ 8’610’. mostly single-storied structures Prefer tiled roof. only single-storied Prefer tiled roof. No Description Kakola Chandapura Shrabala 1 Houses Very densely spaced. high ceiling up to 15’ Strictly segregated from rest of house Are open to using loft for sleeping Are more dispersed.

low roofs . mix of G and G+1 structures.Houses in Kakola FIELD OBSERVATIONS High density.

Single storied.Houses in Chandapura FIELD OBSERVATIONS Low density. High ceiling. more ‘run down’ houses .

Houses in Shrabala FIELD OBSERVATIONS Low density. run down houses . mix of G and G+1 structures. High ceiling.

mud & bamboos. stone/mud Plinth 3 Flooring 4 Slate. shutters and even columns inside the houses. Wood used sparsely Mango and Neem wood for frames and shutters Wood used sparsely Mango and Neem wood for frames and shutters . All walls internal and external are thick Low plinth. IPS Slate/mud Wood 5 Wood used in large quantitiesMango and Neem wood for reapers. No Description Kakola Chandapura Shrabala Roofs 1 Wood.Materials FIELD OBSERVATIONS S. All walls internal and external are thick Low or no plinth!( But people prefer to have plinth) Slate Mud/burnt bricks for walls. Red oxide.Where they differ . All walls internal and external are thick High plinth. stone Tiles for roofs Tiles for roofs Walls 2 Mud/burnt bricks for walls. RCC used for roofs Laterite /stone/mud/burnt bricks for walls. frames. slate.

& burnt country bricks for walls Slate for lintels and flooring Random stones or mud for plinth . un-burnt.Construction Materials in Chandapura & Shrabala FIELD OBSERVATIONS Mud.

beams.Construction Materials in Kakola FIELD OBSERVATIONS Slate stone for roof with 3” Rcc on top Laterite for walls Stone rubble for walls Mango or Neem for rafters. columns .

CONCLUSIONS & PATH FORWARD .

according to individual requirements. wiring etc • Build for future expansion. and eating) and service areas (a basic kitchen and a basic latrine and washing place).Build a Aim at localized or in-situ services to PATH FORWARD CORE HOUSE. Then. Courtesy: Wisdom from Laurie baker! .a simple basic plan including living area (sleeping. additions can be made later. sitting.A holistic approach to construction Cost Reduction Methods: Site • avoid extensive piping.

Cost Reduction Methods Foundation • usually as deep as its width (usually 45cm) • fill • in this case. deep excavations and infilling with sand or gravel etc can be replaced with a surface beam. For traditional deep foundations as The dug out soil is to be used as inFoundation need not be too deep. PATH FORWARD Courtesy: Wisdom from Laurie baker! .

4.Cost Reduction Methods Walls • The C.5" walls are stable and strong if corrugated or buttressed. 9" walls are usually capable of being load bearing up to three storey height • 25% of bricks. Small stones are laid into a mould and packed in with a weak concrete to form a block • Also. bricks are plentiful in this area.I (Central Building Research Institute) Brick Block is useful for interior walls to save space.R. This can also usually be safely used up to 3 storeys in height and is equally load bearing PATH FORWARD Courtesy: Wisdom from Laurie baker! .B. cost etc can be saved by using the Rat trap Bond. mortar.

bats.Cost Reduction Methods PATH FORWARD Windows • Large glass windows to be avoided. • up to TEN times the cost of the wall it replaces! A square meter of window costs Courtesy: Wisdom from Laurie baker! . mosquitoes.In rural areas one works in the sun and enters a house to be away from heat and glare. Larger windows don’t effectively shut out insects.

Their patterns are endless and pleasing. stone. cane etc. Jalis can be made from brick. Simple Jalis cost less than the wall they replace. laterite. tile.Cost Reduction Methods PATH FORWARD Windows • a glass window. A Jali wall is a better substitute for Courtesy: Wisdom from Laurie baker! .

Use as as possible. In many instances frameless doors windows are acceptable and reduce Courtesy: Wisdom from Laurie baker! .Cost Reduction Methods PATH FORWARD Doors • little Wood is scarce and costly. labour and costs • Board and batten type shutters are less costly. use less labour and less timber than paneled shutters. • and both quantity of timber.

• Alternative slab in-situ systems include filler slabs (void formers) which reduce materials and cost by about 30%. etc. but shuttering is costly. • Both systems have advantages and ‘evil’ disadvantages. labour. Courtesy: Wisdom from Laurie baker! PATH FORWARD . These including labour and transport cost and other problems have to be studied locally before the better choice is made.I etc have a variety of systems-L-panels.C slabs use energy-intensive steel and cement. double funicular shells.Cost Reduction Methods Roofs • Tile roofs are OK but call for a lot of timber support (purloins. rafters. In practice the latter often has leak problems. local balancing and comparing of overall costs. Again.B. • Regarding Concrete roofs: C. • Both use steel and cement and have to be ‘over designed’ to cope with handling and transport. transport. have to be made before a choice is made and it will vary from place to place. battens etc) • On the other hand prefabricated and various R.R. and energy used etc.

5 67.5 PATH FORWARD Collectors ECOSAN SAVING 50% Toilet Pan TOTAL . Dried & Composted ADVANTAGES • Reduces Water Usage • Reduces load on sewage system • Recycles phosphate and nitrogen contained in human waste • Simplifies treatment of grey water Before & After Ecosan: CONSUMPTION LTRS of WATER/DAY DRINKING COOKING BATHING CLOTHES UTENSILS GARDEN FLUSHING 3 4 15 23 25 25 40 135 3 4 15 20 25 0 0.A holistic approach to construction Waste Management ECOLOGICAL SANITATION PROCESS (ECOSAN) • Separation of Human Waste. Solid & Liquid.

A holistic approach to construction Rain Water Harvesting PATH FORWARD Courtesy: Wisdom from Chitra Vishwanath! .

Conclusions • Given the huge amount of similarities between these villages. there is a possibility for some ‘modular’ solutions for house plans that can be tweaked to suit the local cultural preferences and differences in materials. • Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks (CSEBs) seem a viable and cost effective option with their clear advantages over mud/burnt bricks • Design options must be prepared incorporating the points mentioned in the study. PATH FORWARD Aesthetic Cost Effective Culturally Sensitive . • Part 2 of the study can dwell into probable design solutions.

A NIVASA PRESENTATION THANK YOU .

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