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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Chapter 24 Problem 14. For the system of capacitors shown in Fig. 24.24, nd the equivalent capacitance (a) between b and c, and (b) between a and c. a | === 15pF | b | +--+--+ |9.0pF| === === 11pF | | +--+--+ | c (a) The 9 and 11 pF capacitors are in parallel, so the equivalent capacitance between b and c is Cbc = CL + CR = (9.0 + 11) pF = 20 pF (1)

(b) The 15 pF capacitor is in series with the equivalent capacitance Cbc , so the equivalent capacitance between a and c is Cac = 1 1 + CT Cbc

1

1 1 + 15 20

pF =

4 3 + 12 12

5 pF =

60 pF = 8.6 pF 7

(2)

Problem 18. In Fig. 24.26, C1 = 6.00 F, C2 = 3.00 F, and C3 = 5.00 F. The capacitor network is connected to an applied potential Vab . After the charges on the capacitors have reached their nal values, the charge on C2 is 40.0 C. (a) What are the charges on capacitors C1 and C3 ? (b) What is the applied voltage Vab ? 1 +-||-+ | | a--+ +-+ | 2 | | +-||-+ | d 3 | b----||---+ (a) Because C1 and C2 are in parallel, they must have the same voltage dierences. Using this and the denition of capacitance Q = CV , we have Q1 Q2 = V1 = V2 = C1 C2 C1 6.00 Q1 = Q2 = 40.0 C = 80.0 C . C2 3.00 (3) (4)

Since the wire d was initially uncharged, all the charge on C1 and C2 had to come from C3 . Assuming Va > Vb (if Vb > Va , just ip all the charge signs in the following solution), the left hand sides of C1 and C2 will be at a higher potential than the right, so 0 < Q1L = Q1 = Q1R and 0 < Q2L = Q2 = Q2R . Balancing the charge on the wire d 0 = Q1R + Q2R + Q3R Q3R = Q1R Q2R = Q1 + Q2 = 120 C > 0 Q3L = Q3R = 120 C < 0 . (5) (6) (7)

(b) Vab = Vad + Vdb (8) We can nd Vdb easily enough from Q3 = C3 V3 . Because C1 and C2 are in parallel, V1 = V2 = Vad (as we pointed out in (a)), so Q2 120 C 40.0 C Q3 + = + = 24.0 V + 13.3 V = 37.3 V (9) Vab = C3 C2 5.00 F 3.00 F Problem 32. For the capacitor network shown in Fig. 24.28, the potential dierence across ab is 36 V. Find (a) the total charge stored in this network; (b) the charge on each capacitor; (c) the total energy stored in the network; (d) the energy stored in each capacitor; (e) the potential dierences across each capacitor. a--||--||--b 150 120 nF nF (a) The equivalent capacitance is Cab = The total charge on the capacitors is then Q = CV = 66.7 nF 36 V = 2.40 C . (11) 1 1 + 150 120

1

nF = 66.7 nF .

(10)

(b) Each capacitor must also have Q = 2.40 C, since the wire connecting the capacitors must remain uncharged as a whole. (c) The total capacitative energy is EC = 1 1 CV 2 = 66.7 nF (36 V)2 = 43.2 J 2 2 (12)

(d) We dont know the voltage of each capacitor seperately, but we could nd it using Q = CV , since we know Q and C. We could also just plug the formula in directly for V in our energy formula EC = The energy stored in each capacitor is then ECL = ERL 1 Q2 1 (2.40 C)2 L = 19.2 J = 2 CL 2 150 nF 1 Q2 1 (2.40 C)2 R = = = 24.0 J . 2 CR 2 120 nF (14) (15) 1 1 CV 2 = C 2 2 Q C

2

1 Q2 2 C

(13)

Note that ECL + ECR = 43.2 J = EC , as it should be, since the equivalent capacitor situation is equivalent (i.e. interchangable) with the two-capacitor situation. (e) Here we nd the potential dierences the way we mentioned in (d). QL 2.40 C = = 16.0 V CL 150 nF QR 2.40 C VR = = = 20.0 V . CR 120 nF VL = Note that VL + VR = 36.0 V = Vab . Problem 52. Cell membranes (the walled enclosure around a cell) are typically about 7.5 nm thick. They are partially permeable to allow charged material to pass in and out, as needed. Equal but opposite charge densities build up on the inside and outside faces of such a membrane,and these charges prevent additional charges from passing throughthe cell wall. We can model a cell membrane as a parallel-plate capacitor, with the membrane itself containing proteins embedded in an organic material to give the membrane a dielectric constant of about 10. (See Fig. 24.30.) (a) What is the capacitance per square centimeter of such a cell wall? (b) In its normal resting state, a cell has a potential dierence of 85 mV across its membrane. What is the electric eld inside this membrane? (16) (17)

Outside axon ++++++++++++++++++++++++ ________________________ Axon membrane |- 7.5nm ________________________ -----------------------Inside Axon (a) For parallel-plate capacitors (from Gauss law) C= So the capacitance per square centimeter will be k 10 8.85 1012 F/m C = = = 1.2 102 F/m2 A d 7.5 109 m 1m 100 cm

2

A A Q = = k0 . V d d

(18)

= 1.2 F/cm2

(19)

(b) Since the electric eld generated by parallel plates is constant and perpendicular to the plates, we can easily integrate across the membrane from the bottom to the top

t t

V =

b

E dx = E

b

dx = E d .

(20)

Notice that for a perpendicular path (cutting straight across the membrane), E and d are in the same direction, so V = E d = Ed. Flipping this around to give E, we have E= V 85 mV = = 11 MV/m d 7.5 nm (21)

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