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C O N T E S T G A N I Z A T I O
E S S E N C E
INDEX “I LUNDOJI PINTO DA SILVA declare that I am the sole author of this assignment and the work is a result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. All references have been duly cited”
PART I: LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE KEY THEORIES IN NATURE AND OBJECTIVE ABOUT LEADERSHIP
Leadership in analysis………………………………………………………………….....4 Leadership Vs management……………………………………………………….......4 Development of leadership studies Leadership……………………………….........5 Leadership behaviour approach…………………………………………………....6, 7 Contingency approach………………………………………………………………7- 9 Recent developments ……………………………………………………………………9 Leader-member exchange theory………………………………………………...…10 Transformational Leadership……………………………………………………....10, 11 Substitutes for leadership theory………………………………………………………11 Servant leader………………………………………………………………………..11, 12 Historical leadership……………………………………………………………........12, 13 Modern Leadership…………………………………………………………………13 - 15
PART II: EVALUATION OF THE BEHAVIOUR OF SELECTED LEADERS FROM
SPECIFIC ORGANIZATIONS, IN CONNECTION WITH THE TEORIES STUDIED Leader A………………………………………………………………………16-18 Leader B………………………………………………………………………18, 19
PART III: EVALUATION OF HOW THE TWO LEADERS PERCEIVE THEIR ROLE
AND WHAT HAS HELPED THEM TO DEVELOP AS LEADERS Leader A……………………………………………………………………….…20 Leader B………………………………………………………………………20, 21 2
...22 Modelling my path towards becoming a better leader…………………23 PART V: CONCLUDING THE LEADERSHIP DILEMMA: Private/Government organizations and leadership in Africa………….24 Geo-political factors and leadership………………………………………..24 3 ..PART IV: SUMMARY OF LEARNING OF THIS ASSIGMENT FOR MY PRACTICE AND DEVELOPMENT: Lessons to learn…………………………………………………………………..
Managers have formal authority by virtue of his or her position in the office. journals. Many. Manager normally very involved in the implementation of all the above. 2.PART I 1. and performance is still uncertain. directing. 3. organizing. said that "it [leadership] does remain pretty much of a 'black box' or unexplainable concept. staffing. studies of leadership focus on the nature of leadership in the workplace. A leader's ability to influence others may be based on 4 . The voluntary nature of compliance separates leadership from other types of influence based on formal authority. Management involves planning. A manager may or may not be an effective leader. Leadership is a social influence process. commitment. Despite this. Leadership cannot exist without a leader and one or more followers. Leadership deals with influence. LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE KEY THEORIES IN NATURE AND OBJECTIVE ABOUT LEADERSHIP LEADERSHIP IN ANALISYS Leadership is one of the most frequent studied topics in the organizational sciences. in his book Or7ganizational Behaviour (2005). the nature of leadership and its relationship to key criterion variables such as: subordinate satisfaction." So many well-known scientists have made clear that Leadership can be defined as a process by which one individual influences others toward the attainment of group or organizational goals. Three points about the definition of leadership should be emphasized: 1. business-oriented publications. to the point where Fred Lufthansa. Leadership results in followers' behaviour that is purposeful and goaldirected in some sort of organized setting. A considerable number of leadership studies have been published and millions of pages on leadership have been written in academic books. and general-interest publications. and controlling. Leadership elicits voluntary action on the part of followers. LEADERSHIP VS MANAGEMENT Leadership should be distinguished from management. although not all.
thus the name sometimes applied to early versions of this idea. In an important review of the leadership literature published in 1948. many of the trait studies relied on samples of teenagers or lower-level managers. in other words they are mostly motivated by principles that are latter translated into great results. different studies were likely to use different measures to assess the same construct. The basic premise behind trait theory was that effective leaders are born. measurement theory at the time was not highly sophisticated. These included the trait approach (1930s and 1940s). Little was known about the psychometric properties of the measures used to operationalize traits. First. the behavioural approach (1940s and 1950s). Normally leaders are unique in the way they do things. offering no explanations for the proposed relationship between individual characteristics and leadership. Physical traits such as height. mental traits such as intelligence. mental. TRAIT APPROACH The scientific study of leadership began with a focus on the traits of effective leaders. The initial conclusion from studies of leader traits was that there were no universal traits that consistently separated effective leaders from other individuals.a variety of factors other than his or her formal authority or position. not made. Table 1 (page 24) summarizes leadership theories from the time of introduction. and social characteristics of individuals. 5 . Many leadership studies based on this theoretical framework were conducted in the 1930s. Early trait research was largely a theoretical. and 1950s. 1940s. these studies simply looked for significant associations between individual traits and measures of leadership effectiveness. Ralph Stogdill concluded that the existing research had not demonstrated the utility of the trait approach. the "great man" theory. Several problems with early trait research might explain the perceived lack of significant findings. As a result. and the contingency or situational approach (1960s and 1970s). and social traits such as personality attributes were all subjects of empirical research. DEVELOPMENT OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES AND KEY LEADERSHIP THEORIES Three main theoretical frameworks have dominated leadership research at different points in time. Leader trait research examined the physical. which made it very difficult to replicate findings. In addition. In general.
consistently appeared. Consideration involves showing concern for subordinates. early trait research did not consider the impact of situational variables that might moderate the relationship between leader traits and measures of leader effectiveness. The conclusion was that there were two distinct aspects of leadership that describe how leaders carry out their role. The Ohio State studies utilized the Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). The premise of this stream of research was that the behaviours exhibited by leaders are more important than their physical. and student leaders. Answers to the questionnaire were factor-analyzed to determine if common leader behaviours emerged across samples. The conclusion of the Michigan studies was that an employee orientation and general instead of close supervision yielded better results. Leaders with an employee orientation showed genuine concern for interpersonal relations. involves planning. the focus of leadership research shifted away from leader traits to leader behaviors. The Michigan leadership studies took place at about the same time as those at Ohio State. Likert eventually developed four "systems" of management based on these studies. the focus of the Michigan studies was to determine the principles and methods of leadership that led to productivity and job satisfaction. These studies sparked hundreds of other leadership studies and are still widely cited. The two most famous behavioural leadership studies took place at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan in the late 1940s and 1950s. and coordinating the work of subordinates. or emotional traits. being supportive. administering it to samples of individuals in the military. The studies resulted in two general leadership behaviours or orientations: an employee orientation and a production orientation. termed consideration and initiating structure. he advocated System 4 (the participative6 . college administrators. LEADER BEHAVIOR APPROACH Partially as a result of the disenchantment with the trait approach to leadership that occurred by the beginning of the 1950s. Two factors. recognizing subordinates' accomplishments. organizing. empirical studies of leader traits were largely abandoned in the 1950s. Under the general direction of Rensis Likert. manufacturing companies. As a result of the lack of consistent findings linking individual traits to leadership effectiveness. Those with a production orientation focused on the task or technical aspects of the job. Initiating structure.Finally. sometimes called task-oriented behaviour. mental. and providing for subordinates' welfare.
Fiedler's contingency theory was the first to specify how situational factors interact with leader traits and behaviour to influence leadership effectiveness. A person who tried to balance concern for production and concern for people was termed a "middle-of-the-road" manager. Introduced in 1967. Conversely. CONTINGENCY APPROACH Contingency or situational theories of leadership propose that the organizational or work group context affects the extent to which given leader traits and behaviours will be effective. pathgoal theory. The theory suggests that the 7 .group system. The Managerial Grid became a major consulting tool and was the basis for a considerable amount of leadership training in the corporate world. The assumption of the leader behaviour approach was that there were certain behaviours that would be universally effective for leaders. Contingency theories gained prominence in the late 1960s and 1970s." According to the prescriptions of the grid. One concept based largely on the behavioural approach to leadership effectiveness was the Managerial (or Leadership) Grid. If a person emphasized concern for people and placed little emphasis on production. developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. Unfortunately. Finally. a person who emphasized a concern for production but paid little attention to the concerns of subordinates was a "task" manager. team management was the best leadership approach. leader behaviour research did not consider situational influences that might moderate the relationship between leader behaviours and leader effectiveness. Four of the more wellknown contingency theories are Fiedler's contingency theory. Like trait research. which was the most participatory set of leader behaviours) as resulting in the most positive outcomes. and the situational leadership theory. he was terms a "country-club" manager. the Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision-making model of leadership. An individual who emphasized neither production was practicing "impoverished management" according to the grid. Each of these approaches to leadership is briefly described in the paragraphs that follow. an individual who was able to simultaneously exhibit a high concern for production and a high concern for people was practicing "team management. The grid combines "concern for production" with "concern for people" and presents five alternative behavioural styles of leadership. empirical research has not demonstrated consistent relationships between task-oriented or person-oriented leader behaviours and leader effectiveness.
and the nature of the work group. According to the theory. strengthen subordinates' expectancies that improved performance will lead to valued rewards. but that person-oriented leaders were more effective in the moderately favourable or unfavourable situations. the formal authority system. expectancy theory. Fiedler's research indicated that task-oriented leaders were more effective when the situation was either highly favourable or highly unfavourable. and provide coaching to make the path to payoffs easier for subordinates. leader behaviour should reduce barriers to subordinates' goal attainment. supportive leadership.and person-oriented leader behaviour. Path-goal theory has been criticized because it does not consider interactions among the contingency factors and also because of the complexity of its underlying theoretical model. ability. and achievement-oriented leadership. and the need for affiliation. and (3) the control the leader has over subordinates' rewards."favourability" of the situation determines the effectiveness of task. Important environmental characteristics named by the theory are the nature of the task. work experience. However. 8 . Pathgoal theory suggests that the leader behaviour that will accomplish these tasks depends upon the subordinate and environmental contingency factors. Favourability is determined by (1) the respect and trust that followers have for the leader. Fiedler's contingency theory has been criticized on both conceptual and methodological grounds. Key characteristics of subordinates identified by the theory are locus of control. (2) the extent to which subordinates' responsibilities can be structured and performance measured. The theory did not necessarily propose that leaders could adapt their leadership styles to different situations. and it remains an important contribution to the understanding of leadership effectiveness. which include directive leadership. Path-goal theory was first presented in a 1971 Administrative Science Quarterly article by Robert House. The theory includes four different leader behaviours. participative leadership. but that leaders with different leadership styles would be more effective when placed in situations that matched their preferred style. and the leader has control over rewards and punishments. Path-goal theory proposes that subordinates' characteristics and characteristics of the work environment determine which leader behaviours will be more effective. The situation is most favourable when followers respect and trust the leader. empirical research has supported many of the specific propositions of the theory. the task is highly structured.
The theory focuses primarily on the degree of subordinate participation that is appropriate in different situations. CII. The Vroom-Yetton-Jago model has been criticized for its complexity. and for ignoring the skills needed to arrive at group decisions to difficult problems. the structure of the problem. primarily as they relate to directive and supportive leader behaviours. The situational leadership theory was initially introduced in 1969 and revised in 1977 by Hersey and Blanchard. it remains one of the betterknown contingency theories of leadership and offers important insights into the interaction between subordinate ability and leadership style. and contingency approaches have each contributed to the understanding of leadership. behavioural. There are five types of leader decision-making styles. and G. Subordinate maturity is defined in terms of the ability of subordinates to accept responsibility for their own task-related behaviour. and the importance of subordinate commitment to the decision. The theory suggests that the key contingency factor affecting leaders' choice of leadership style is the task-related maturity of the subordinates. These styles range from strongly autocratic (AI).Empirical research has provided some support for the theory's propositions. However. The Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision-making model was introduced by Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton in 1973 and revised by Vroom and Jago in 1988. none of the 9 . The theory classifies leader behaviours into the two broad classes of task-oriented and relationship-oriented behaviours. which are labelled AI. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Although trait. AII. for its assumption that the decision makers' goals are consistent with organizational goals. to strongly democratic (G). The major proposition of situational leadership theory is that the effectiveness of task and relationshiporiented leadership depends upon the maturity of a leader's subordinates. whether subordinates have enough information to make a quality decision. Situational leadership theory has been criticized on both theoretical and methodological grounds. which relate to such contingency factors as the importance of decision quality. According to the theory. CI. Thus. it emphasizes the decision-making style of the leader. Empirical research has supported some of the prescriptions of the theory. the appropriate style is determined by answers to up to eight diagnostic questions.
According to LMX theory. Included within this class of theories are House's theory of charismatic leadership. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES Beginning in the 1970s. LMX theory suggests that high-quality relationships between a leadersubordinate dyad will lead to positive outcomes such as better performance. oneon-one) relationships between leaders and individual subordinates. LMX theory emphasizes the dyadic (i. These theories have much in common.. and organizational commitment. instead of the traits or behaviours of leaders or situational characteristics. The theory's focus is determining the type of leader-subordinate relationships that promote effective outcomes and the factors that determine whether leaders and subordinates will be able to develop high-quality relationships. job satisfaction. They all focus on attempting to explain how leaders can accomplish extraordinary things against the 10 . the substitutes for leadership approach. and Conger and Kanungo's charismatic leadership theory. Empirical research supports many of the proposed relationships (Steers et al. several alternative theoretical frameworks for the study of leadership have been advanced.e. 1996). and the philosophy of servant leadership. a number of leadership theories emerged that focused on the importance of a leader's charisma to leadership effectiveness. Since the 1970s. The theory was introduced by George Graen and various colleagues in the 1970s and has been revised and refined in the years since. but establish close relationships with some (the in-group) while remaining aloof from others (the out-group). Among the more important of these are leadermember exchange theory..approaches have provided a completely satisfactory explanation of leadership and leadership effectiveness. transformational leadership theory. Conversely. leaders do not treat all subordinates in the same manner. those in the out-group are excluded from important activities and decisions. They tend to be involved in important activities and decisions. Those in the in-group enjoy relationships with the leader that is marked by trust and mutual respect. LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory was initially called the vertical dyad linkage theory. lower turnover. Bass's transformational leadership theory.
the task. inflexible rules. intellectual stimulation. experience. according to the theory. The theories also emphasize the importance of leaders' inspiring subordinates' admiration. The theory's focus is concerned with providing an explanation for the lack of stronger empirical support for a relationship between leader traits or leader behaviours and subordinates' satisfaction and performance. Transformational leadership theory differentiates between the transactional and the transformational leader. and setting goals that go beyond the short-term needs of the work group. thus weakening observed relationships between leader behaviours and important organizational outcomes. some of its theoretical 11 . training. and unquestioned loyalty through articulating a clear and compelling vision. fostering the leadership abilities of others. and job-related knowledge. group cohesiveness. Characteristics of the organization that may substitute for leadership include formalization. Bass's transformational leadership theory identifies four aspects of effective leadership. which include charisma. and organizational rewards not under the control of the leader. inspiration. SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP THEORY Kerr and Jermier introduced the substitutes for leadership theory in 1978. Substitutes for leadership make leader behaviours such as taskoriented or relationship-oriented unnecessary. Characteristics of subordinates that may substitute for leadership include ability. Empirical research has supported many of the theory's propositions. A leader who exhibits these qualities will inspire subordinates to be high achievers and put the long-term interest of the organization ahead of their own short-term interest. Transactional leadership focuses on role and task requirements and utilizes rewards contingent on performance. and subordinates may substitute for or negate the effects of leadership. By contrast. The substitutes for leadership theory suggest that characteristics of the organization. Characteristics of the task that may substitute for leadership include routine and repetitive tasks or tasks that are satisfying.odds. founding a successful company. transformational leadership focuses on developing mutual trust. However. The substitutes for leadership theory have generated a considerable amount of interest because it offers an intuitively appealing explanation for why leader behaviour impacts subordinates in some situations but not in others. dedication. or achieving great military success against incredible odds. such as turning around a failing company. and consideration.
Greek.propositions have not been adequately tested. and commitment to the personal. but sometimes had to become theocratic in order to receive counselling from other governors and representatives of the kingdom. 12 . SERVANT LEADER This approach to leadership reflects a philosophy that leaders should be servants first. Characteristics of servant leaders include empathy. Orders came from “above” no man had the right to make decisions unless given by the emperor/king or by his trusted men. HISTORICAL LEADERSHIP Ancient leadership styles and behaviours have influenced what we see today in any organization. Is there any relationship between yearly leadership style and new ones? History has proven that yearly Egyptian Emperors/kings did use the chain of command and the pyramid of control in order to lead their followers in order to build cities. It suggests that leaders must place the needs of subordinates. know. and spiritual growth of their subordinates. Servant leadership has not been subjected to extensive empirical testing but has generated considerable interest among both leadership scholars and practitioners. and go to war and establish their kingdom. temples. fearful. stewardship.ledged. and the community ahead of their own interests in order to be effective. professional. The emperor was a dictator. many avenues of research still remain to be explored as we enter the twenty-first century. god sent. and illuminated. Since the times of the Great Egyptian. Med-Persian and Roman Empire. Each man had a position and specific duty to fulfil in order to accomplish the goals of the Emperor. The theory continues to generate empirical research. Leadership continues to be one of the most written about topics in the social sciences. customers. Although much has been learned about leadership since the 1930s. immortal and divine human being. the figure of the Emperor/leader was described as a strong. Any men that did follow the emperor orders could face death.
true evidence of his unique qualities” Today organizations do have a chain of command.: Activist and pastor. and people. the centre piece of the table is “Customer sovereignty”. 13 . Raymond Ackerman: Founder of the Pick’n Pay Food Retail business well known for its “Four legs of the table” leadership principle. the table is your business. After thirty years still most companies do see how important it is to retain customer satisfaction at optimum level. The downfall of apartheid was crucial for the establishment of democracy in Africa.Yearly leadership theories did see the true leader as a: “born leader. For Raymond A. Today organizations do have a code of ethics in order to keep the balance between “right and wrong doing” if members fail certainly they will be punished. strategies and aim of the organization. promotions/social responsibility. lead the fight against racism and fundamental human rights in the United States of America. MODERN LEADERSHIP Modern leaders have become more involved with their internal affairs and much less divinely seem by their followers. The top level managers are responsible for setting up the goals. Information and technology closed the gap of “the very well informed and uninformed” today it’s almost impossible to cement a legacy without proven facts. his philosophy was crucial for the establishment of one the most successful superstore retail franchise in Africa: “Pick’s Pay”. lower level members would simply execute pre-planned duties. then four legs: Administration. because followers are more reluctant to follow just any one. Middle managers are responsible for implementing goals and objectives of the organization. a pyramid of control with duties and responsibilities for each member. coming from a genetic blood line. 2. Martin Luther king Jr. merchandise. Below we mention some of what we call “world changers”: 1. certainly not with death but they will loose their job. Nelson Mandela: Main figure beyond the apartheid regime liberation fight and establishment of sovereign democracy in South Africa. 3.
Profit is the blood stream of the business. not the head. Today Microsoft is one the largest I. Was one the few presidents trying pass a bill in order prevent the FED to control money creation and supply. As described by Warren Buffet the word Leadership represents the qualities that good managers and leaders should have: o o o o o o o o o o L for loyalty E for enthusiasm A for attitude D for discipline E for example R for respect S for scholarness H for honesty I integrity P for pride Warren Buffet’s definition of organizational success is directly linked to the way we treat people in and out of the organization in order to achieve goals. Warren Buffet: C. a man know for his honesty and integrity of character. Bill Gates: founder and ex-CEO of Microsoft. Problem is that when we cut costs with human capital we are definitely cutting important members of the organization.E. Under his administration important bills were passed that helped to strength the economy.4. when he visualised that a large majority of people would be using a Personal computer and therefore a Operational System to run it. feet. Question is: will the goals work for the people you employ? Or will the people work in order to accomplish organizational goals? 6. he is the real master of investment in the world. arms or the heart of the business. 14 . 5. Abraham Lincom: one the greatest presidents of America. and that is not bad at all. Just 3 years before the current economic/financial crisis he warned the Fed and Investors about the threat of sub-mortgages. Most organizations spend considerable amounts of money to make sure that goals are achieved. Known for his unique investment style.T companies in the world with a market cap of over 200 Billion and more than 10 years of sustainable growth.O of the Berkshire Waltaway investment group owns 83 businesses. is well know for brilliant idea about 20 years ago.
it’s about peoples with very high I. Bill Gates engineered an organizational structure that looks like a “University campus”. because the mountain is there. “Sit and think. but as he is well aware that competition will never be happy about its style and strategies that have driven some companies out of business. The foundation of his leadership style relies in 10 secrets: Be in the right place at the right time: its difficult to translate all success for Microsoft if it wasn’t for the contract with IBM Have passion for what you do: feel in love with what you do (technology) Do not make prisoners: Think as a winner. His unique capacity relies in the fact that he inspires his team to visualize the future of the IT Industry. it’s a group of people that it’s always striving to increase its capacity to create the future” Do not wait for compliments: For Gates his leadership style has proven results. act like a winner. Learn to survive: In order to keep a head with competition. Bill Gates inspires his team to understand that technology will not be same in the years to come and that Microsoft is there to change it. Not very often companies would value “knowledge” so much like Microsoft. be fierce with competition All always employee bright people: Being bright it’s not about experience. and passion. I communicate in a language that my software engineers understand” 15 . we pay our staff to sit and think about the future of IT” “Speak the right language.Q. His leadership style is unique and simple in principle. The concept of a “Learning Organization” It’s based on the works of Chris Argyris Harvard’s Business School and Peter Senge from Sloan School of Business at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) “In principle a learning organization. Assume a Visionary position: if people had to ask me: why do I need to climb that mountain? I would reply.As a leader.
Cover the whole field: Diversify your product line. Microsoft could very well become outdated in the 90’s since it failed to recognize the power of the internet and its users on time.“Well succeed companies are those that consider their products outdated before any one does” “It’s worth later than never. 2) What is your leadership behaviour? Combination of both tasks/peoples oriented 16 . ever take you’re yeis from the ball: Over time software’s become outdated. IN CONNECTION WITH THE TEORIES STUDIED: *Information was collected through series of live interviews Leader (A) Name: Tommie Barkhuizen Position: Parts Manager Company: BMW – Hatfield. our best strategy is to innovate the next software. EVALUATION OF THE BEHAVIOUR OF SELECTED LEADERS FROM SPECIFIC ORGANIZATIONS. The best software comes from a small group of software developers. When we launch new products some will fail. Build small business units like bytes: Create a culture of small teams. by allowing some degree of participation. Never. but the combined result will be positive. Luckily Microsoft had enough resources to for a serious recovery. PART II 2. Pretoria dealership 1) What is your Leadership style? I motivate my team by implementing a couch approach.
so that the team is able to perform their jobs. 9) How the fact that you become a leader did affect your life? . Being able to motivate different people. Became more responsible for my decisions 17 . He also provides non monetary rewards to employees 8) What is your biggest challenge? Working with different people and motivating unhappy people. 7) How do you respond to current financial challenges? Look for new businesses when they are losing customers. Encourages positive attitudes They provide incentive structures in terms of monetary value. 5) What’s your team role? Co-cordinator “I enjoy Co-ordination.Participative leadership 3) Personal qualities? Honest and accurate he sticks to the company process. I normally stick to objectives. I tray to remain calm and controlled during crisis. 4) Specific Traits as a Leader: He sets the example for the team. I am able to be positive when the team is down” 6) What is difference between a leader and a manager? Leader sets a good example and does the right thing Manager informs the employees what needs to be done and the employees carry out the instruction. the employees need to follow the leader. from different cultures . He welcomes new suggestions.
takes constructive criticism and uses it in a positive way. Become aware that I was responsible for a team that had to be looked after. Personal qualities? Honest and consistent with the dealership vision 4. 1a) what is your leadership behaviour? Task oriented behaviour. What is your Leadership style? He uses a participative and commanding leadership style by setting goal and objectives with the team and them expects them to perform. Become more confident about the future of this organization. Took responsibility for tasks that didn’t match my personality . disruptive (can use strong facts to get attention). since my contribution was very positive Leader (B) Name: Nico Gobbler Position: Dealer Principal Company: FIAT/ALFA – Pretoria dealership 1. . He listens to customer complaints. impatient (intolerant towards failure of the team) 18 . Traits and skills: Possesses strong decisiveness and intellectual capacity to multitask 3. He is the type of leader that is hands on the job. What is your team role? Shaper/Monitor He is Very aggressive (towards goals). since increase in sales comes first Autocratic leadership 2..
. barriers. can now better identify problems and set a specific course of action when there is crisis. 6. Became more organized as a person. Communicate goals constantly . How did your leadership role affect your life? “In my previous job at the Defence Force I lead a team of 20 people. Which strategies do you use in order to motivate your team? Clear all communication. . “Communication is extremely important and the information is cascaded to the team member through regular meetings” 5. easy process setting. For me this job was no different from the previous.He ensures that the team members (sales) are taken through the training process in order to achieve goals. Use internet as a powerful tool to boost sales. and effective reward system to motivate my team: . Leading this team gave me an extra bust and experience to take this organization to the next level. . Leading this team enable me to develop my communication skills and better interact with different peoples. Keep CPI (Customer service index) at 92% . The whole process of coaching consists of showing them where their shortfalls are. the only difference was that auto-motor industry is surrounded by fierce competition. . Keep excellent after sales service. 19 .
but if goals are not achieve we need to come back to table to correct mistakes.PART III 3. His role as co-cordinator is to communicate the process and help the team understand and achieve goals set by BMW. I was able to increase my ability to manage pressure and delegate effectively without compromising the job. Pretoria dealership For Tommie it was crucial to implement uncomplicated processes. “I believe that good leaders should live by example. I need to tell and show my team how to do things properly by setting the example.” Leader (B) Name: Nico Gobbler Position: Dealer Principal Company: FIAT/ALFA – Pretoria dealership Nico Gobbler on the other hand sees his role more as a Shaper/Monitor. “I have to allow certain degree of participation. I could not be a good leader if did have the passion and motivation to lead this team. The BMW headquarters sets high standards which at the end of the day need to be implemented by our team. If my team member can not perform them I have to let him go” His previous job at Defence Force (10 years) enabled him to understand how to effectively manage teams and communicate 20 . I live by example. EVALUATION OF HOW THE TWO LEADERS PERCEIVE THEIR ROLE AND WHAT HAS HELPED THEM TO DEVELOP AS LEADERS? Leader (A) Name: Tommie Barkhuizen Position: Parts Manager Company: BMW – Hatfield. As team leader.
Implement fair reward systems that work . being branded as poorly managed. Since he was appointed as dealer principal at FIAT/ALFA Hatfield dealership. For him none of this would be possible if not for team work and discipline. FIAT is ripping the rewards. Increase customer satisfaction . Factory recalls and small defects blundered profits driving the company to a bad reputation.goals. The recently launched entry level FIAT 500 and the light commercial FIAT DUCATO are the best sellers. to become more independent and implement a new strategy: . increase dealership Customer Service Index (CPI) by 92%. . He enforced that FIAT/ALFA had some difficult times. For him the Auto-Motor industry is a new challenge since competition is fierce and sales are essential to keep doors open. FIAT UNO which was one the best sellers in Europe become South Africans worse nightmare. encourage feedback and value performance. reinforce rewards. he was able to increase sales by 22%. On the late 90’s FIAT become well know for its assembly plant in South Africa. Eventually FIAT broke out from Nissan South Africa. Build and assemble high quality vehicles (Strictly complying standards of FIAT Europe). 21 . provide regular training. Measure after sales service regularly (CPI) Only after few years of hard work.
Normally leaders display unique skills such: attention to detail. 22 . responsibility and endurance. vitality and loyalty. political affiliations or religious organizations. SUMMARY OF LEARNING OF THIS ASSIGMENT FOR MY PRACTICE AND DEVELOPMENT: We all have a calling to lead or to be leaded either in organization. Lessons to learn: It’s of great importance to understand the core of leadership so that it can be exercised properly. Leaders do not have a specific list of personal qualities. Not all leaders where successful when leading organizations. Any individual can become a leader provided that he or she has a considerable influence over a number of followers and a defined objective. We might say that we all have a leader within us requiring some degree of intelligence to influence others and fulfil certain tasks. but most tend to have some degree of: honesty. decisiveness. The best leader is that combines effectively two leadership behaviours: task and peoples oriented. It’s crucial for leader to influence teams in order to achieve goals.PART IV 4. Small mistakes bear great costs. Few important considerations: Leaders need followers to exercise power Followers can choose to follow or not follow leaders. intelligence. without then (team) tasks will not be accomplished.
Modelling my path towards becoming a better leader: Need to Inspire a Shared Vision Need to become an inspirational raw model Need to Challenge the Process Need to Enable Others to Act Need to Encourage the Heart A Personal Inventory is crucial Need to Create an Action Plan Need to set Leadership Goals Will encourage growth into others Will encourage mutual respect Will Influencing others perspectives 23 .
proficiency. religion. 24 . inflating All news papers wrote good things about the same leader everyday. Late in 80’s to 90’s Angola’s public TV network had to resume/end broadcast after playing both national hymn and the ruling party’s hymn every day. Every weekend there would be propaganda to venerate our leader a political speech. The state had a piece of peoples mind. followers were forced to obey fearing the worse could happen to their lives.PART V CONCLUDING THE LEADERSHIP DILEMMA: Geo-political factors and leadership: Geo-political and financial systems sometimes narrow the opportunity to reveal great leaders. race. The country was leaded by one leader. enabling it to manipulate dream. fate to induce fear and mediocrity. many countries still leave under dictatorship regimes where there is no freedom of speech. Private/Government organizations and leadership in Africa Sometimes organization decision makers fail to identify great leaders among teams simple because of bias either by tradition. association. believes. creativity and religion. Poor decision making leading to an increase in corruption has put the country’s top leadership at the test. All associations were forbidden especially those that promoted entrepreneurship initiatives. culture or any other reason. Particularly in Africa. As a result many inexperienced leaders were selected just to fill empty posts. For instance: South African companies are now forced by law to implement BEE (Black Economic Empowerment) a racist approach to the unemployment deficit facing this country.
TABLE 1: Summary of Leadership Theories 25 .
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