A Paper On

4G TECHNOLOGY

Authors:
1.C.Surendranatha reddy II nd B.TECH,IT 2.R.Sudheer kumar reddy II nd B.TECH,CSE G.Pulla Reddy Engineering College,Kurnool Email:surendra78910@gmail.com Ph.no:7893097525

ABSTRACT:

4G Technology and its predecessors 3G, 2G and 1G are all from the same family of cellular communication standards, which are verified by the ITU. The ITU i.e. International Telecommunications Union is established by the United Nation, which administers all the telecommunications matters all over the world. Theearlier technologys like 2g ang 3g didn’t able to cope up with the current technologies 3G and the latest 4G. The earlier telephone systems, which were the original ones, are now called 1G. In the year 1991, 2G started to replace the old 1G and was first launched in Finland. The network system of 2G was way more than the 1G, had better radio communication and 2G networks were digital. INTRODUCTION
3G

in late 2000, while ITU agreed to the 3G standards in 1999. The Third Generation technology now can easily be found all over the world on nearly all standard radio technologies such as CDMA and the GSM. The first cellular network provider that set up the 3G grid in the year 2003, is Verizon. 3G technology provides up to 2 mpbs data transfer rate at fixed spots (when user is stationary) and minimum 384 kbps when the user is moving. Today almost all the wellknown carriers of US provide 3G service and now there are lots of gadgets available in the market with 3G capability. 4G 4G technology, the Fourth Generation Technology, is the very latest and ultra fast technology and it is getting more attention day by day even though this technology is still at its initial stages. 4G technology aims to provide fastest speed to all the users, to the users of mobile or smartphones it intends to provide data transfer rate up to 100 mbps while for its stationary users, it aims to the highest speed of 1 Gbps.

After 2G, came the more efficient technology 3G, it established its roots

WiMAX and LTE

These are two 4G cellular broadband networks. The WiMAX provides speed up to 128mbps of downloading and for uploading it provides 56mbps, whereas LTE showed in an early implementation speed up to 100mbps downloading and 50 mbps uploading. ITU considers the LTE (Long-Term Evolution) as a standard technology because LTE aims to exceed the specifications of ITU. While WiMAX on the other hand is an IEEE standard, also ITU doesn’t considered WiMAX a true 4G

technology because it is not upto the specifications that ITU putforth. A descendant to 2G and 3G aiming to provide the very high data transfer rates. This technology can provide very speedy wireless internet access to not only stationary users but also to the mobile users. This technology is expected to trounce the deficiencies of 3G technology in terms of speed and quality. 4G can be best described in one word “MAGIC”, which stands for Mobile multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global mobility support, integrated wireless and personalized services.

4G - > Difference between 3G and 4G:

Major requirement driving architecture

3G (Including 2.5G, Sub3G) Predominantly voice driven; data was always add on Wide area cell-based

4G Converged data and voice over IP Hybrid: Integration of wireless LAN (WiFi, Bluetooth) and wide area 20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode Higher frequency bands (28 GHz) 100 MHz (or more) All digital with packetized voice OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA)

Network Architecture

Speeds Frequency Band Bandwidth Switching Design Basis Access Technologies

384 Kbps to 2 Mbps Dependent on country or continent (1800‐2400 MHz) 5-20 MHz Circuit and Packet W-CDMA, 1xRTT, Edge

Forward Error Correction Component Design

Convolutional rate 1/2, 1/3 Optimized antenna design, multi-band adapters

Concatenated coding scheme Smarter Antennas, software multiband and wideband radios All IP (IPv6)

IP

A number of air link protocols, including IP 5.0

3G After 2G, came the more efficient technology 3G, it established its roots in late 2000, while ITU agreed to the 3G standards in 1999. The Third Generation technology now can easily be found all over the world on nearly all standard radio technologies such as CDMA and the GSM. The first cellular network provider that set up the 3G grid in the year 2003, is Verizon. 3G technology provides up to 2 mpbs data transfer rate at fixed spots (when user is stationary) and minimum 384 kbps when the user is moving. Today almost all the well-known carriers of US provide 3G service and now there are lots of gadgets available in the market with 3G capability. 4G4G technology, the Fourth Generation Technology, is the very latest and ultra fast technology and it is getting more attention day by day even though this technology is still at its initial stages. 4G

technology aims to provide fastest speed to all the users, to the users of mobile or smartphones it intends to provide data transfer rate up to 100 mbps while for its stationary users, it aims to the highest speed of 1 Gbps. Truth about 4G technologies: In 2007 4G technology was given its first major break by NTT Docomo, a Japanese company. Since the 3G technology was launched in 2001, it was designed with limited features. But it is considered that 4G technology is about to introduce a new dimension to data transmission along with transmitting rate of 5 gigabytes per second. Performance Delivered: Talking about the performance, both technologies offer contradictory networks for transferring of data. In comparison with 4G, the 3G provides 14 Mbit/second of download speed and 5.8 Mbit/second for uploading. However, in case of 4g the speed scales up to 100Mbit/ second, which is fairly high.

Salient Features: Since 4G technology is considered to be extension of 3G technology and hence, they are technically more specified as 3.9G technology. The main feature of 3.9G is that it depends on spatial multiplexing, which is basically an antenna system, used by

International Telecommunication Union (ITU), deployed for transmitting and receiving of data. Earlier in 3G there was smart antenna used, but 4G uses number of these antennas for speeding and facilitation of the data transfer process.

Though, the differences between both the technologies are quite evident, but still ITU is taking time in designing the standards for 4G. The reasons are not yet brought into limelight, but it is presumed that they are certain other technical barrier that are acting as a challenge and are giving a tough fight to the entire telecom sector. 3G vs 4G SPEEDS: A 3G network is built for voice and Internet whereas a 4G network is built solely for Internet access. A 4G network allows you to perform Internet-related tasks like Web surfing and downloading music much more quickly. According to a June 2011 article on the Huffington Post website, a 4G network enables data speeds up to 10 times faster than a 3G network. However, even when a 4G networks are available,voice calls are though routed through 3G network. COST As 4G networks become the standard, customers are likely to see

an increase in their bills. Similar to voice minutes, most cellphone plans that include data capabilities offer a set number of gigabytes. When customers go over their data plan allowance, they are charged extra just as they would if they go over their voice minutes. A 4G network may lead to greater data consumption, leading customers to purchase more expensive plans with more gigabytes or to pay overage charges. WHAT IS SRPINT 4G? Cellular towers provide Sprint 4G network access in many areas across the U.S. Sprint 4G is the company's use of the fourth-generation of technology for mobile broadband communication. As the successor to 3G, it is the data network that is used for cellular phone and mobile Internet traffic by Sprint customers. Sprint's 4G network uses Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, or WiMAX technology and supports a verity of devices.

1.4G standard developed by the International Telecommunications Union that is governed by the United Nations. This standard ensures the same compatibility and uniformity that preceded it with 1G, 2G and 3G technology The fourth generation of mobile communication specifications, 4G, is the worldwide. Each generation of standards has offered increased speed and overall capability of the electronic divices that utilize these net works world wide. SPRINT: Sprint uses the IP-based WiMax technology as the basis for its 4G network. Its purpose is to provide WiFi data transmission with the coverage of cellular networks. A single, fixed WiMax station can provide coverage for up to 30 miles. As of April 2011, Sprint has expanded its 4G network into many major metropolitan areas, allowing access to 40 million consumers. Additional expansion is on the horizon as devices that support the thechnology become common place.

Devices:

Cellular phones are the main type of electronics associated with 4G technology. With the expanding smartphone market, Sprint's 4G network allows for data transmission at speeds that dwarf that of their 3G counterparts. The first smartphone compatible with Sprint's 4G network was the HTC Evo 4G, released in June 2010. Other devices that run on Sprint's 4G network include tablets, notebookPCs,wireless routed and mobile hotspots. Internet: While 3G mobile Internet is offered, the speeds have always paled in comparison to free public Wi-Fi. With Sprint's 4G network, users are capable of receiving average download speeds of 3 to 6 Mbps, with peak speeds of 10 Mbps or more. On the other hand, 3G networks average download speeds of 600 Kbps to 1.4 Mbps. Customers can purchase a 4G wireless adapter that allows them to take

their computer on the go and still retain access to their Sprint service. Where 4G access is unattainable, the older 3G technology will be used as an alternative. While many cell phone companies and other wireless Internet service providers impose limits on data transmission, Sprint's 4G Internet service allows for unlimited 4G data transfer. Advantages: *higher band width *better respond time *Better repsonstime. 10 times better then 3G *Works at 2.6GHz frequency wich means better coverage even though it uses the same tower where the receiver and transmitter for 3G is. *Less time to buid 4G because it use the same tower and fibercables as 3Gs

- they only have to upgrade the towers with 4G components. Does 4G Internet Have Any Disadvantages? In short, the answer to this question is, "No!". 4G technology is faster, smarter, and more accessible than 3G technology. Just as the second generation networks advanced the technology by turning from analog to digital signals and the 3G networks advanced the speed and usability of second generation technology by as much, 4G Internet and communication technology is a huge, fundamental leap forward. But wait, there might be a disadvantage for some who wish to use 4G Internet as part of their everyday lives. It isn't yet available just anywhere. Just as 3G

technology started in major cities and to creep out into the suburbs and countryside slowly, 4G technology is currently found mainly in highly populated areas. If you're interested in this technology and want to use it for traveling, you might find that you can't take it as many places as you would like, as of yet. You'll simply run out of signal before you get where you are going. This, though, isn't an insurmountable problem. Various companies that offer 4G technology upgrades also offer solutions to this problem. Some of them simply put right up front that their technology won't be able to travel everywhere with you yet if you know that only you can get the connectivity on the go in your hometown, then you won't be quite so upset when your wireless internet doesn’t work on the road. However, for some mobile Internet users, not having a connection on the road is simply not an option. Are these users to give up on 4G

technology for a few more years until it is widespred?not necessarily. Actually, many companies are using the fact that 3G technology is very easy to come by these days to their advantage. Basically, when you sign up for a 4G plan from one of these companies, you'll actually get both 4G and 3G. Your connection will stay on the faster network with more bandwidth until you get out of range of the signal ,when that happen it will automatically switch over 3G network. Your Internet connection on the older network won't be as powerful or as fast, but it will certainly allow you to travel further and still have a connection. Before you purchase 4G wireless Internet, see if this type of technology is available. It might just save you from having to find a Wi-Fi spot every time you travel outside of your home. Clear 4G Wimax provides simple and affordable plans for home internet, mobile internet and ViOP. 4G goes wherever you want.

Conclusion: *High Speed, Capacity, low cost per bit . *Single worldwide cellular network.

4G Technology: References
 

Long Term Evolution (LTE) Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB)

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