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June 22, 2009
NOTES ON UTILITY (STEAM) BY CHANDRAJIT KIRAD
Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad
Contact : 9270978070
Page 2 of 33
June 22, 2009
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Steam Enthalpy Diagram and Specific volume. Steam Tables Steam Quality and its industrial use. Process Energy Balance and Steam Quantity and pressure requirement. Utility Flow Diagram (Steam, Condensate and Fuel). Steam Pipe sizing Criterion. Pressure drop Calculation. Specifying Boiler Capacity and Pressure. Boiler Types. Types of Fuel and requirement. Chimney size Calculation. Flash Steam. Pressure Reducing Station Piping Consideration
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad
Contact : 9270978070
Page 3 of 33
June 22, 2009
When water is heated at constant pressure, the temperature increases and the water approaches its boiling condition, some molecules attain enough kinetic energy to reach velocities that allow them to momentarily escape from the liquid into the space above the surface, before falling back into the liquid. Further heating causes greater excitation and the number of molecules with enough energy to leave the liquid increases. As the water is heated to its boiling point, bubbles of steam form within it and rise to break through the surface. The density of steam is much less than that of water, because the steam molecules are further apart from one another. The space immediately above the water surface thus becomes filled with less dense steam molecules. When the number of molecules leaving the liquid surface is more than those re-entering, the water freely evaporates. At this point it has reached boiling point or its saturation temperature, as it is saturated with heat energy. If the pressure remains constant, adding more heat does not cause the temperature to rise any further but causes the water to form saturated steam. The temperature of the boiling water and saturated steam within the same system is the same, but the heat energy per unit mass is much greater in the steam. At atmospheric pressure the saturation temperature is 100°C. However, if the pressure is increased, this will allow the addition of more heat and an increase in temperature without a change of phase. Therefore, increasing the pressure effectively increases both the enthalpy of water, and the saturation temperature.
Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad
Contact : 9270978070
Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 .Page 4 of 33 June 22. It involves no change in the temperature of the steam/water mixture. This highlights that the greatest change in specific volume occurs at lower pressures. and all the energy is used to change the state from liquid (water) to vapour (saturated steam). the density of the steam will also increase. Figure shows the relationship of specific volume to pressure.(hg) or total heat of saturated steam This is the total energy in saturated steam. the specific volume will decrease with increasing pressure. Enthalpy Diagram and Specific volume. whereas at the higher end of the pressure scale there is much less change in specific volume. Enthalpy of evaporation or latent heat (hfg) This is the amount of heat required to change the state of water at its boiling temperature. hg=hf + hfg Where: hg = Total enthalpy of saturated steam (Total heat) (kJ/kg hf = Liquid enthalpy (Sensible heat) (kJ/kg) hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (Latent heat) (kJ/kg) The enthalpy (and other properties) of saturated steam can easily be referenced using the tabulated results of previous experiments. As the specific volume is inversely related to the density. and is simply the sum of the enthalpy of water and the enthalpy of evaporation. known as steam tables. Specific Volume of Steam It is the volume occupied by per kg of steam at constant temperature and pressure. Enthalpy of saturated steam. into steam. As the steam pressure increases. 2009 2.
272 m3/kg. at higher end of the pressure scale there is much less change in specific volume. Steam specific volume is 0. It is to be noted that. Calculation has to be done (given in below section). For superheated Steam Different tables have to be referred. Steam table: Steam Table indicates the enthalpy. 2009 Greatest change in specific volume occurs at lower pressures. the above parameters are for DRY SATURATED STEAM ONLY. Example : What is the 1200 Kg volume of Saturated Steam at 6 bar g pressure.= 326 m3.272 m3/kg. Hence Volume of Steam at 6 barg is 1200 x 0. and volume per mass for various saturation pressure and temperature. Refer Steam Table.Page 5 of 33 June 22. For Wet Steam. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . The generation of steam at higher pressures enables the steam distribution pipes to be kept to a reasonable size 3. Solution . Therefore steam is usually generated in the boiler at a pressure of at least 7 bar g.
its temperature will increase above the evaporating temperature. Steam produced in any shell-type boiler where the heat is supplied only to the water and where the steam remains in contact with the water surface. Superheat cannot be imparted to the steam whilst it is still in the presence of water. to produce 100% dry steam in an industrial boiler designed to produce saturated steam is rarely possible. This may be a second heat exchange stage in the Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . the steam space contains a mixture of water droplets and steam. Wet Steam : However. The steam is then described as superheated by the number of temperature degrees through which it has been heated above saturation temperature. Therefore: Because the specific volume of water is several orders of magnitude lower than that of steam. as any additional heat simply evaporates more water. then the steam is said to be 95% dry and has a dryness fraction of 0. If the water content of the steam is 5% by mass.Page 6 of 33 June 22. because of turbulence and splashing. The saturated steam must be passed through an additional heat exchanger. Dry Saturated Steam : Steam with a temperature equal to the boiling point at that pressure is known as dry saturated steam. may typically contain around 5% water by mass. Therefore the specific volume of wet steam will be less than dry steam: SUPERHEAT STEAM If the saturated steam produced in a boiler is exposed to a surface with a higher temperature. they add to the wet wall layer and reduce heat transfer in the plant and increase the amount of condensate to be returned so the dryer the steam the better. Moisture particles entrained in the steam carry no latent heat. Wet steam will have lower usable heat energy than dry saturated steam. 2009 4.95. In practice. the droplets of water in wet steam will occupy negligible space. The actual enthalpy of evaporation of wet steam is the product of the dryness fraction ( ) and the specific enthalpy (hfg) from the steam tables. and the steam will usually contain droplets of water. as bubbles of steam break through the water surface. Steam Quality and Its Industrial use.
Page 7 of 33 June 22. The primary heating medium may be either the hot flue gas from the boiler. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . or a separate superheater unit. 2009 boiler. or may be separately fired.
being the preferred energy source for turbines. whilst saturated steam changes phase. the temperature of superheated steam is not uniform. Superheated steam has to cool to give up heat. This small degree of superheat is removed readily in the first part of the heating surface. even if it means desuperheating the steam to do so. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . It is always preferable to use dry saturated steam. 2009 Dry Saturated Steam is used for heat transfer unit. this small amount of heat is quickly given up before it condenses. Greater amounts of superheat are more difficult and often uneconomic to deal with and (for heating purposes) are best avoided. superheated steam is sometimes used for process heating in many steam plants around the world. in most cases. The amount of heat given up by the superheated steam as it cools to saturation temperature is relatively small in comparison to its enthalpy of evaporation. HPIs often desuperheat steam to within about ten degrees of superheat. and the resulting high temperature of the tube wall may cause tube failure. Unlike saturated steam. if the steam has a large degree of superheat. especially in the HPIs (Hydrocarbon Processing Industries) which produce oils and petrochemicals. saturated steam should be used for heat transfer processes. Can superheated steam be used in process heat exchangers and other heating processes? Although not the ideal medium for transferring heat. close to the tube sheet. it may take a relatively long time to cool. This dry wall area can quickly become scaled or fouled. This is more likely to be because superheated steam is already available on site for power generation.Page 8 of 33 Industrial use of Steam : June 22. use of superheated steam can lead to the formation of a dry wall boiling zone. rather than because it has any advantage over saturated steam for heating purposes. as it transfer latent heat of Evaporation. If the steam has only a few degrees of superheat. There are quite a few reasons why superheated steam is not as suitable for process heating as saturated steam: Superheated steam has to cool to saturation temperature before it can condense to release its enthalpy of evaporation. during which time the steam is releasing very little energy. To be clear on this point. Latent heat of vaporization per unit mass is much more than the Specific heat of water and superheated steam. In a heat exchanger. This means that temperature gradients over the heat transfer surface may occur with superheated steam. but because of boiler operation problems. However. steam always contains some amount of moisture in it.
This will now be looked at in more detail. 'U' values might be as low as 50 to 100 W/m2°C for superheated steam but 1 200 W/m2)°C for saturated steam. . but generally. considering that the rate of heat transfer across a heating surface is directly proportional to the temperature difference across it. the 'U' values is as low as 20 W/m2)°C for superheated Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . and the heat transfer area 'A'. • Requires larger heat transfer areas. So. the same cannot be said of the 'U' value. and this is the major difference between saturated and superheated steam. If superheated steam has a higher temperature than saturated steam at the same pressure. It is true that the temperature difference will have an effect on the rate of heat transfer across the heat transfer surface. Typically. superheated steam is not as effective as saturated steam for heat transfer applications. However. the heat transfer area might be fixed. steam with a large degree of superheat is of little use because it: Gives up little heat until it has cooled to saturation temperature. for a horizontal steam coil surrounded with water. • Creates temperature gradients over the heat transfer surface as it cools to saturation temperature. surely superheated steam should be able to impart more heat? The answer to this is 'no'. 2009 This clearly shows that in heat transfer applications. This may seem strange. For steam to oil applications. The overall 'U' value for superheated steam will vary throughout the process. as clearly shown by Equation • Where: = Heat transferred per unit time (W) U = Overall thermal transmittance (heat transfer coefficient) (W/m2°C) A = Heat transfer area (m2) ∆T = Temperature difference between primary and secondary fluid (°C) Equation also shows that heat transfer will depend on the overall heat transfer coefficient 'U'. the lower the 'U' value.Page 9 of 33 June 22. but will always be much lower than that for saturated steam. the higher the degree of superheat. as these will depend upon many factors. It is difficult to predict 'U' values for superheated steam. For any single application. • Provides lower rates of heat transfer whilst the steam is superheated.
The rest of the coil will then be able to take advantage of the higher heat transfer ability of the saturated steam. The effect is that the overall 'U' value may not be much less than if saturated steam were supplied to the coil. it is not possible to maintain steam in its superheated state throughout the heating coil or heat exchanger. If this is so. The overall effect is that superheated steam is much less effective at transferring heat than saturated steam at the same pressure. 100 W/m2)°C for superheated steam and 500 W/m2)°C for saturated steam can be expected. Although the temperature of superheated steam is always higher than saturated steam at the same pressure. its ability to transfer heat is therefore much lower. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . 2009 In a shell and tube heat exchanger. superheated steam used for heat transfer purposes should not hold more than about 10°C of superheat. then any heating area using superheated steam would have to be larger than a saturated steam coil operating at the same pressure to deliver the same heat flowrate. this allows the steam to condense to produce higher heat transfer rates and result in a higher overall 'U' value for the whole coil. Using this guideline. it is relatively easy and practical to design a heat exchanger or a coil with a heating surface area based upon saturated steam at the same pressure. it cools towards saturation temperature.Page 10 of 33 steam and 150 W/m2)°C for saturated steam. Figure Less superheat allows the steam to condense in the major part of the coil thus increasing the overall 'U' value approaching that of saturated steam. If there is no choice but to use superheated steam. as superheated steam is less effective at transferring heat than saturated steam. June 22. The amount of heat above saturation is quite small compared with the large amount available as condensation occurs. Clearly. the first part of a coil will be used purely to reduce the temperature of superheated steam to its saturation point. by adding on a certain amount of surface area to allow for the superheat. since as it gives up some of its heat content to the secondary fluid. To help to enable this. The steam should reach saturation relatively soon in the process.
if the extra heating area needed for superheated steam is 1% per 2°C of superheat. Steam pressure will dependent on the process pressure and temperature. the saturated steam temp shall be 15 – 20 Deg C more than process temperature. This seems to work up to 10°C of superheat. The steam temperature shall be 140 Deg C. Steam required is 2559600 / 2133 = 1200 Kg/hr. for Distillation Column. the coil (or heat exchanger) will be large enough. The latent of vaporization at 3 bar g is 2133 KJ / kg. the saturated steam pressure will be 3 bar g. 2009 From practical experience.Page 11 of 33 June 22. If any equipment requires DIRECT Steam Injection. As above steam requirement for all the Steam consuming equipments shall be calculated. Solution: If the process temperature is 120 Deg C. Process Energy Balance and Steam Quantity and pressure requirement. Simultaneous Mass and Energy balance shall be done to find the quantity of Steam. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . 5. and the possibility of product spoilage by the high and uneven superheat temperatures. Considering 20 Deg C. Example: Find the steam requirement for the reboiler if the process temperature is 120 Deg C and Enthalpy requirement from Process Energy balance is 2559600 KJ/hr. the propensity for fouling by dirt. It is not recommended that superheated steam above 10°C of superheat be used for heating purposes due to the probable disproportionate and uneconomic size of the heating surface.
b) An additional column shall be made if intermittent steam requirement has to be specified.Page 12 of 33 After Calculations. Note that the highest steam pressure required is 7 bar g. Utility Flow Diagram (Steam. 6. c) Pressure reducing station. Fuel Storage and Feed water storage requirement shall be finalized based on fuel availability and Plant operation philosophy. No (Direct / equipment at equipment Indirect) 1 Reactor Indirect 7 bar g 170 Deg C Jacket 2 Dist Column Indirect 3 bar g 144 Deg C 1 3 Dist column Direct 2 bar g 134 Deg C 2 Total June 22. Equipment Heating Steam press at Steam temp. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . One the line pressure drop is calculated Boiler outlet pressure can be finalized. Condensate and Fuel). 2009 Steam qty at equipment 6000 Kg /hr 1200 Kg/hr 1000 Kg/hr 8200 Kg/hr Note : a)Column 3 indicates whether condensate can be recycled or goes as an effluent. h) Flue gas exhaust Unit (Chimney) The complete Mass Balance shall be shown for Fuel and water in the block diagram. Therefore Boiler pressure shall be more than 7 barg. d) Fuel Storage system e) Condensate recycle system f) Effluent (where condensate is not recycled) g) Feed water Storage and pumping station. summary shall be made as follows Sr. Prepare a block diagram showing a) All steam consumers as per above table b) Steam generating equipment.
No 1 2 3 Reactor Jacket Dist Column 3 bar g 1 Dist column 2 bar g 2 While producing steam at the correct pressure and quantity in the boiler house is important. Equipment Steam press at equipment 7 bar g Steam qty at equipment 6000 Kg /hr 1200 Kg/hr 1000 Kg/hr Steam sp.Page 13 of 33 June 22. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . then the increased steam velocity will cause noise and erosion and the excessive pressure drop may starve the equipment of steam.24 m3/kg 0. If pipework is too small.461 m3/kg 0. Steam Pipe sizing Criterion. While distribution pipework can not be too big. it is just as important that the designed steam properties are delivered efficiently at the plant maybe hundreds of metres away. volume 0. 2009 Dist Colmn 1 Dist Colmn 2 PRS Reactor Boiler Chimney Fuel Day Tank Feed water Cond pot tank Makeup water Fuel Storage tank Fuel 7.603 m3/kg Sr. the extra capital cost would not be acceptable.
5 • Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 .14 / Line Velocity) 0.40 30-40 < 50 < 25 35 .100 0.is common in powerhouse. 2009 Pipe line Velocity basis: The steam velocities or speeds below are commonly recommended as acceptable for steam distribution systems: Steam System Saturated Steam .low pressure .MP and LP Saturated Steam at peak load Steam and Water mix Superheated Steam Condensate Line .Page 14 of 33 June 22.is common for heating services and secondary process pipes. boiler and main process lines. • Saturated steam .Gravity Condensate pressure Velocity(m/s) 25 .5 1 Saturated steam . Line dia = (Steam Kg/hr x Sp volume x 4 / 3600 /3.high pressure .HP Saturated Steam . • Superheated steam is common in power generation and turbine plants.
The diagram is made for steam with pressure 7 bar.31 6 1. Pressure drop Calculation. The pressure drop calculation for steam is very complex and hence diagrams are used for finding the pressure drop. the location of the PRDS or PRS shall be finalized.55 5 1.9 1 3. The pipe size between the Boiler and the PRDS shall be calculated based on the available pressure drop.85 10 0.54 bar g pressure. 2009 8. Depending upon the layout. The pressure rated by Boiler vendors are the steam pressure for the lifting of the safety valve.67 2 2. Steam out from the boiler will always be less than the Safety valve set pressure.55 20 0.Page 15 of 33 June 22. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . Hence if a boiler is rated at 10.5 0.13 7 1 8.51 4 1.63 14 0.74 12 0. The boiler will be operated at pressure less than the Safety valve set pressure. It is always recommended to transport steam at higher pressure and reduce the pressure at the utility point.54 bar g. Boilers available in the market are with fixed pressure.39 Adding the line pressure drop to the required pressure at process will give the Boiler operating pressure or pressure at the outlet of the Pressure reducing station. it means the safety valve will blow up when the boiler pressure reaches to 10. For other pressures use correction factors: Pressure (bar) Factor 0 6.
because steam at an elevated pressure carries more heat energy than does steam at 100°C. This calls for additional enthalpy of saturation of water. needing even more enthalpy before the feed water is brought up to boiling temperature. Both these effects reduce the actual steam output of the boiler. 10 and 15 bar g. The graph in Figure 3. The boiler specs are defined as a) Steam mass flow rate at outlet of Boiler b) Stem quality required c) Steam pressure required at outlet of main steam stop valve.Page 16 of 33 June 22. Specifying Boiler Capacity and Pressure. for the same consumption of fuel.5. at atmospheric pressure.Boilers are design fro fixed heat output and pressure. (From and At 100 Deg C) : The 'from and at' rating is widely used as a datum by shell boiler manufacturers means the amount of steam in kg/h which the boiler can create 'from and at 100°C'. 2009 9. (From and At 100 Deg C) kW rating Rating in terms of Enthalpy of Evaporation. Boilers capacities are defined as following : • • Rating in terms of Enthalpy of Evaporation. Boiler Suppliers specifies the boiler capacity in terms of heat addition by the boiler. Feed water temperature has to be specified. Therefore the boiler output (Mass or pressure) will vary . Each Kg of steam will receive 540 kcal of heat from the boiler.1 shows feed water temperatures plotted against the percentage of the 'from and at' figure for operation at pressures of 0. As the boiler pressure rises. if the heat input (Feed water mass flow and temperature) changes. Therefore in order to size a boiler. the saturation temperature is increased. Consequently the boiler is required to supply enthalpy to bring the water up to boiling point. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . Most boilers operate at pressures higher than atmospheric. 5. Shell boilers are often operated with feedwater temperatures lower than 100°C.
Example :A boiler has a 'from and at' rating of 2 000 kg/h and operates at 15 bar g.9 = 1 800 kg/h Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . 2009 • Where: A = Specific enthalpy of evaporation at atmospheric pressure. Using the graph: The percentage 'from and at' rating ˜ 90% Therefore actual output = 2 000 kg/h x 90% = 1 800 kg/h Using Equation. The process steam requirement is divided to arrive at Boiler capacity. C = Specific enthalpy of water at feedwater temperature. The feedwater temperature is 68°C. if the process steam requirement is known. Note: These values are all from steam tables.Page 17 of 33 June 22. Evaporation factors are used to calculate the boiler capacity (at From and A). B = Specific enthalpy of steam at operating pressure. the evaporation factor can be calculated: Therefore: boiler evaporation rate = 2 000 kg/h x 0.
2009 The boiler quantity shall be decided on the Steam requirement of the Process If the process steam requirement is part. Then two boilers can be purchased instead of one. b) Steam latent heat of evaporation at 100 Deg = 540 Kcal /. Example : Steam demand Steam Demand 8 TPH 4 TPH 2 TPH Boiler Usage at 100 % 50 % 25 % Time 6 hrs 6 hrs 12 hrs Efficiency of 4 TPH 84 % 84 % 83 % Efficiency of 8TPH 84 % 83 % 81 % Note: a) The boiler capacities are specified at F& A at 100 Deg C. because at turndown. Kg Solution Fuel Consumption = 8000 540 / ( 540 x Boiler Eff) Steam Demand 8 TPH 8TPH Boiler capacity 8 TPH x1 for 6 hrs with 84 % eff 4 TPH x 1 @ 50 % turndown with 83 % eff Fuel consumption 3025 Tons 4TPH Boiler capacity 4 TPH x 2 for 6 hrs with 84 % eff 4 TPH x 1 @ 50 % turndown with 83 % eff 2 TPH x 1 @ 25 % turndown with 81 % eff Fuel consumption 3025 Tons 4 TPH 1531 Tons 1512 Tons 2 TPH 2 TPH x 1 @ 25 1568 Tons % turndown with 81 % eff 6124 TPD 1531 Tons Total Steam consumption 6068 TPD If Fuel cost is 15 Rs / Kg.Page 18 of 33 Boiler Quantity based on Steam Demand : June 22. Annual savings shall be calculated for 340 days of working Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . boiler efficiency reduces.
BOILER TYPES.000. and is used less frequently for heating applications. The body of the boiler is the pressure vessel and contains the fluid. The water is heated and steam is produced in the upper drum.000 btu/hr Easy to replace tubes Well suited for space heating and industrial process applications Disadvantages of Firetube Boilers include: • • Not suitable for high pressure applications 250 psig and above Limitation for high capacity steam generation What is a Watertube? A Watertube design is the exact opposite of a fire tube. Up to several million pounds per hour of steam. is channeled through tubes that are surrounded by the fluid to be heated. before it makes a turn. or hot flue gases from the burner. Every set of tubes that the flue gas travels through. Two types of Boilers are used in Industries viz Water Tube and Fire tube Boiler. These tubes are connected to a steam drum and a mud drum. Able to handle higher pressures up to 5. Watertube Boilers are: • • • Available in sizes that are far greater than the firetube design. Here the water flows through the tubes and are incased in a furnace in which the burner fires into. 2009 10. What is a Firetube Boiler? The name firetube is very descriptive.000 psig Recover faster than their firetube cousin Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . A 4-pass will have four sets and the stack outlet at the front. Large steam users are better suited for the Water tube design. So a three-pass boiler will have three sets of tubes with the stack outlet located on the rear of the boiler. The industrial watertube boiler typically produces steam or hot water primarily for industrial process applications. The fire. Firetube Boilers are: • • • • • • Relatively inexpensive Easy to clean Compact in size Available in sizes from 600.Page 19 of 33 June 22. is considered a "pass". In most cases this fluid is water that will be circulated for heating purposes or converted to steam for process use.000 btu/hr to 50.
2009 Disadvantages of the Watertube design include: • • • • High initial capital cost Cleaning is more difficult due to the design No commonality between tubes Physical size may be an issue Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 .Page 20 of 33 • Have the ability to reach very high temperatures June 22.
Stoking equipment . means that the boilers are bigger. This. However.Page 21 of 33 11. Ash .A number of different arrangements exist including stepper stokers. and hence more expensive in purchase cost. Anthracite. The common theme is that they all need substantial maintenance. Steam being generated to satisfy the demand.Ash is produced when coal is burned. each relating to the stages of coal formation and the amount of carbon content. 2009 Types of Fuel and requirement. The bituminous and anthracite types tend to be used as boiler fuel. There are a number of reasons for this including: • • o o o o Availability and cost Speed of response to changing loads . boilers designed for coal firing need to contain more water at saturation temperature to provide the reserve of energy to cover this time lag. in turn. usually involving manual intervention and a reduction in the amount of steam available whilst deashing takes place. which in itself may be costly. oil. there is a substantial time lag between: Demand for heat occurring. Ignition of the coal. Bituminous. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . Coal Coal is the generic term given to a family of solid fuels with a high carbon content. The ash may be awkward to remove. are coal.With lump coal. Stoking of coal into the boiler. along with electricity for electrode boilers. and occupy more valuable product manufacturing space. There are several types of coal within this family. To overcome this delay. sprinklers and chain-grate stokers. Semi bituminous. These stages are: • • • • • Peat. Nowaday the use of lump coal to fire shell boilers is in decline. and gas. industrial or commercial waste is also used in certain boilers. Lignite or brown coals. Fuel requirement = Heat out put of the Boiler / (Fuel GCV x Burner eff) The three most common types of fuel used in steam boilers. June 22. The ash must then be disposed of.
and overcoming the rate of response problem encountered when using lump coal. • The small particle size of pf means that its surface area-to-volume ratio is greatly increased. eliminating the stokers used with lump coal. Because of the large scale of these operations. For example. it is carried over into the atmosphere with the flue gases. is still used to fire many of the very large water-tube boilers found in power stations. which can condense in the flue causing corrosion if the correct flue temperatures are not maintained. 2009 Emissions . to control the temperature of the steam leaving the superheater. and usually abbreviated to 'pf'. The sulphurous material will be removed in a gas scrubber. and is introduced into the boiler furnace through burners.Coal contains an average of 1. each of which may be controlled independently to increase or decrease the heat in a particular area of the furnace. The ash produced by coal is light. it becomes economic to develop solutions to the problems mentioned above. into the stack and expelled as particulate matter to the environment. The final emission to the environment is of a high quality. but this level may be as high as 3% depending upon where the coal was mined. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . Coal. and a proportion will inevitably be carried over with the exhaust gases. and there may also be governmental pressure to use domestically produced fuels. causing: • • Damage to the fabric of buildings. however. making combustion very rapid. there may be 30+ pf burners around the walls and roof of the boiler.5% sulphur (S) by weight. During the combustion process: • • Sulphur will combine with oxygen (O2) from the air to form SO2 or SO3. The coal used in power stations is milled to a very fine powder. The small particle size also means that pf flows very easily. Distress and damage to plants and vegetation. With regard to the quality of the gases released into the atmosphere: • • • • • The boiler gases will be directed through an electrostatic precipitator where electrically charged plates attract ash and other particles. Hydrogen (H) from the fuel will combine with oxygen (O2) from the air to form water (H2O). This sulphuric acid is brought back to earth with rain. To further enhance the flexibility and turndown of the boiler.Page 22 of 33 June 22. generally referred to as 'pulverised fuel'. Alternatively. After the combustion process is completed. Approximately 8 kg of steam can be produced from burning 1 kg of coal. removing them from the gas stream. almost like a liquid. the SO3 will combine with the water (H2O) to produce sulphuric acid (H2SO4). for national security of electrical supply.
each being suitable for different boiler ratings. Oil contains only traces of ash.Page 23 of 33 June 22. Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) . gas is piped right into the boiler house. • • • • Approximately 15 kg of steam can be produced from 1 kg of oil. Fuel gases are available in two different forms: • Natural gas . The advantages of oil over coal include: • • A shorter response time between demand and the required amount of steam being generated. Gas Gas is a form of boiler fuel that is easy to burn. meaning that the amount of sulphuric acid in the flue gas is virtually zero. Class F . The boiler could therefore be smaller. diesel or gas oil.Medium fuel oil. virtually eliminating the problem of ash handling and disposal. 2009 Oil Oil for boiler fuel is created from the residue produced from crude petroleum after it has been distilled to produce lighter oils like gasoline. reducing maintenance workload. kerosene. The smaller size also meant that the boiler occupied less production space. paraffin. with a consequent improvement in efficiency. or 14 kg of steam from 1 litre of oil.This is gas that has been produced (naturally) underground.Light fuel oil. (except for the removal of impurities). with very little excess air. This meant that less energy had to be stored in the boiler water. storing and handling coal were eliminated. Contact : 9270978070 Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad .Heavy fuel oil. and contains a high proportion of methane. Class G . Various grades are available. The advantages of gas firing over oil firing include: • • Storage of fuel is not an issue. The difficulties encountered with receiving. The most common forms of LPG are propane and butane. Only a trace of sulphur is present in natural gas. radiating less heat to the environment. Class E . • In the late 1960s the availability of natural gas (such as from the North Sea) led to further developments in boilers. the grades are as follows: • • • • Class D .These are gases that are produced from petroleum refining and are then stored under pressure in a liquid state until used. Mechanical stokers were eliminated.Diesel or gas oil. It is used in its natural state.
Examples include the bark stripped from wood in paper plants. the overall economics of the scheme. and only some of the cost is recovered by using the heat generated to produce steam. it may be that proper and complete combustion of the waste material is difficult. A hospital would be a good example: In these circumstances. but the overall economics of the cost of waste disposal and generation of steam for other applications on site. which produces saturated steam for use on the plant.here.Page 24 of 33 June 22. with an overall operating efficiency of 80%. taking into consideration the cost of disposing of the waste by other means. o o The combustion process will again be fairly sophisticated. heat and pressure reduction of the gas. hot gases from a process. If there is no process demand for steam. Which fuel to use? The choice of fuel(s) is obviously very important. waste is burned to produce heat. control of air ratios and monitoring of emissions. such as a smelting furnace. may be attractive. Normally the gas is supplied at higher pressure the gas suppliers. The motives may include the safe and proper disposal of hazardous material. may be directed through a boiler with the objective of improving plant efficiency. The hot (typically 500°C) turbine exhaust gases are directed to a boiler. the steam may be superheated and then used for electrical generation. The cost of this disposal may be high. This type of technology is becoming popular in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants: o o A gas turbine drives an alternator to produce electricity. Very high efficiencies are available with this type of plant. which is used to generate steam. as it will have a significant impact on the costs and flexibility of the boiler plant. stalks (bagasse) in sugar cane plants and sometimes even litter from a chicken farm. However. 2009 Approximately 42 kg of steam can be produced from 1 Therm of gas (equivalent to 105. can make such schemes attractive. Other benefits may include either security of electrical supply on site. Factors that need consideration include: Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 .Here. or the ability to sell the electricity at a premium to the national electricity supplier. • Waste heat . Waste as the primary fuel There are two aspects to this: • Waste material . A gas pretreatment equipments may be required to filter. Systems of this type vary in their level of sophistication depending upon the demand for steam within the plant. especially particulate matter. Using waste as a fuel may involve the economic utilisation of the combustible waste from a process.5 MJ) for a 10 bar g boiler. requiring sophisticated burners.
Cost of firing equipment . Dyke wall Building. However. 2009 Cost of fuel -.The cost of the burner(s) and associated equipment to suit the fuel(s) selected. provided an interruptible supply can be accepted. How to measure the fuel usage rate accurately. How to safely store highly combustible materials. and where. The conatined area shll also have a unloading pump with flameproof motor. (when supplier are having surplus. Security of supply Gas.The minimum wall height shall be 600 mm. may be available at advantageous rates. and the likelihood of gas not being available may be small. the cost of plant downtime due to the non-availability of steam is usually significantly greater than the additional cost. A dyke wall shall be build areound the bulk storage tanks to contain the whole volume of tank if there is any leakage in the tank. except where a dual fuel system is used. and the emission standards which must be observed. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . Fuel shortage This is not an issue when using a mains gas supply. should demand for fuel approach the limits of supply. light oils. but have the facility to switch to oil firing when gas is not available. However. perhaps due to seasonal variation. The issues include: • • • • • • How much is to be stored. Allowance for storage losses. heavy oils and solid fuels are used. boiler users may elect to specify dual fuel burners which may be fired on gas when it is available at the lower tariff.Page 25 of 33 • • June 22. The dual fuel facility is obviously a more expensive capital option. How much it costs to maintain the temperature of heavy oils so that they are at a suitable viscosity for the equipment. then supply may be reduced As an alternative. However it becomes progressively more of an issue if bottled gas.
91 g/Kg o fuel burnt • SOX emissions will be 89.5 = 89.98 (S) _ _ _ _ as g/Kg of fuel burnt Where S.5 2 -5 8.98 (SD)_ _ _ _ as g/lit of fuel burnt Or = 19.Sulphur content in fuel oil in wt % D – Density of fuel oil in Kg/lit Example : Calculate the Chimney Height. The flue gas temperature is 250oC Solution : A boiler generates 13. Chimney design is based on the SO. and on the boiler capacity In India.91 x 630 = 56643 g/ hr = 56.3 Q = Emission rate of SO2 in Kg/hr For Boiler Sox emissions are given as = 19.86 m3/kg of fuel.5 % (by weight) Sulphur. • Height of Chimney = 14 (56.5 -21 5. CHIMNEY SIZE CALCULATION.64 Kg/hr. The fuel consumption is 630 Kg/hr.5 Nm3 of flue gas per kg of fuel burnt.64) 0. Minimum Stack height is found from following table fro Steam Generators or formula (which ever is maximum) Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Steam Genertors Capacity Coal consumption per – Tons /hr day – MT Less than 2 Less than 8.10 21-42 10 -15 42-64 15. • Sox emission is 19.Page 26 of 33 June 22. Which at 250 Deg C equals to 25. Considering the velocity at tip as 9m/s and at bottom as 7 m/s. The chimney diameters are 1200 mm and 800 mm Note : Wind speed and mechanical design shall be considered for Chimney design Height in m 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . • Fuel burnt is 630 Kg/hr. 2009 12.98 x 4. if the fuel contains 4. SOx emiisions permitted by the local authot\rity.20 64-104 20-25 104-105 25-30 105-126 More than 30 More than 126 Or Using the formula H = 14 (Q) 0.3 = 47 m.
2009 13. in terms of the water. How can steam be formed from water without adding heat? Flash steam occurs whenever water at high pressure (and a temperature higher than the saturation temperature of the low-pressure liquid) is allowed to drop to a lower pressure. it is usually the case that the upstream temperature is high enough to form flash steam. Therefore. This excess heat boils some of the condensate into what is known as flash steam and the boiling process is called flashing. which. and constitutes the principle of conservation of energy. water at 0 bar g is only able to contain 419 kJ of heat. The amount of flash steam produced at the final pressure (P2) can be determined P1 = Initial pressure P2 = Final pressure hf = Liquid enthalpy (kJ/kg) hfg = Enthalpy of evaporation (kJ/kg) Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . if the temperature of the high-pressure water is lower than the saturation temperature at the lower pressure. However. the amount of energy contained in the fluid on the lowpressure side of the steam trap must equal that on the HP side. the heat contained in one kg of low-pressure fluid is also 671 kJ. Flash steam formed because T1 > T2 Consider a kg of condensate at 5 bar g and a saturation temperature of 159°C passing through a steam trap to a lower pressure of 0 bar g. FLASH STEAM. could be considered as excess heat.419 = 252 kJ.Page 27 of 33 June 22. In accordance with the first law of thermodynamics. Consequently. The term 'flash steam' describes steam issuing from condensate receiver vents and open-ended condensate discharge lines from steam traps. In the case of condensate passing through a steam trap. subsequently there appears to be an imbalance of heat on the low-pressure side of 671 . the one kilogram of condensate which existed as one kilogram of liquid water on the high pressure side of the steam trap now partly exists as both water and steam on the LP side. The amount of energy in one kilogram of condensate at saturation temperature at 5 bar g is 671 kJ. Conversely. flash steam cannot be formed.
Consider a quantity of water at a pressure of 5 bar g. sub-cooled below the atmospheric saturation temperature of 100°C. the water could only exist at 100°C and contain 419 kJ/kg of heat energy. would then produce flash steam at atmospheric pressure. Consider the same conditions as in PREVIOUS Example . 2009 Example The case where the high pressure condensate temperature is higher than the low pressure saturation temperature. The principles of conservation of energy and mass between two process states The principles of the conservation of energy and mass allow the flash steam phenomenon to be thought of from a different direction. As this enthalpy is less than the enthalpy of one kilogram of saturated water at atmospheric pressure (419 kJ). If the pressure was then reduced down to atmospheric pressure (0 bar g). the sub-saturated water table will show that the liquid enthalpy of one kilogram of condensate at 5 bar g and 90°C is 377 kJ. The condensate simply passes through the trap and remains in a liquid state at the same temperature but lower pressure.419 = 252 kJ/kg of heat energy. Example The case where the high pressure condensate temperature is lower than the low pressure saturation temperature. Note: It is not usually practical for such a large drop in condensate temperature from its saturation temperature (in this case 159°C to 90°C). there is no excess heat available to produce flash steam. No flash steam formed because T 1 < T 2 The vapour pressure of water at 90°C is 0. Consider the conditions in Example Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . containing 671 kJ/kg of heat energy at its saturation temperature of 159°C. In this case. with the exception that the high-pressure condensate temperature is at 90°C. This difference of 671 . atmospheric pressure in this case. that is. Should the lower condensate pressure have been less than this. Fig.7 bar absolute. it is simply being used to illustrate the point about flash steam not being produced under such circumstances.Page 28 of 33 June 22. flash steam would have been produced. The proportion of flash steam produced can be thought of as the ratio of the excess energy to the enthalpy of evaporation at the final pressure.
Page 29 of 33 June 22. according to the steam tables. This can be illustrated schematically in Figure . thus proving the principle of conservation of energy.112 kg of flash steam at atmospheric pressure. at the lower pressure state of 0 bar g. The total mass of flash and condensate remains at 1 kg. the amount of heat in the flash steam and condensate must equal that in the initial condensate of 671 kJ. Fig. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . 2009 1 kg of condensate at 5 bar g and 159°C produces 0.888 kg x 419 kJ / kg = 372 kJ (A) Total enthalpy in the steam = 0. The principle of energy conservation between two process states The principle of energy conservation states that the total energy in the lower-pressure state must equal the total energy in the higher-pressure state. Steam tables give the following information: Total enthalpy of saturated water at atmospheric pressure (hf) = 419 kJ/kg Total enthalpy in saturated steam at atmospheric pressure (hg) = 2 675 kJ/kg Therefore.112 kg x 2 675 kJ / kg = 299 kJ (B) Total enthalpy in condensate and steam at the lower pressure = A + B = 671 kJ Therefore. Therefore. Total enthalpy in the water = 0. the enthalpy expected in the lower-pressure state is the same as that in the higher-pressure state.
while any greater pressure drop would produce superheated steam. depending on the amount of pressure drop. the state of the supply steam at any pressure will influence the state of the throttled steam. dry saturated steam at 60 bar g would have to be reduced to approximately 10. Any less of a pressure drop will produce wet steam. wet steam at a pressure of 10 bar g and 0. the temperature of the throttled steam will always be lower than that of the supply steam. Any less of a pressure drop would produce wet steam while any greater pressure drop would superheat the throttled steam. any drop in pressure will produce superheated steam after throttling. using a pressure reducing valve. the throttled steam might be superheated.5 bar g to produce dry saturated steam. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . For example. PRESSURE REDUCING STATION.Page 30 of 33 June 22.Determine the steam conditions after the PRV • valve. However. This is termed a throttling process with the lower pressure steam having the same enthalpy (apart from a small amount lost to friction in passing through the valve) as the upstream high pressure steam.95 is reduced from 6 bar g to 1 bar g. or even wet. Equally. The degree of superheat will depend on the amount of pressure reduction. For supply steam above 30 bar g in the dry saturated state. 2009 14. • The state of the supply steam. dry saturated. For example.135 bar g to produce dry saturated steam. For supply steam below 30 bar g in the dry saturated state. • The pressure drop across the valve orifice.95 dryness fraction would need to be reduced to 0. The effects of reducing steam pressure Superheat can also be imparted to steam by allowing it to expand to a lower pressure as it passes through the orifice of a pressure reducing valve. Example Increasing the dryness of wet steam with a control valve Steam with a dryness fraction ( ) of 0. The state of the throttled steam will depend upon: The pressure of the supply steam.
The creation of superheat by pressure reduction The degree of superheat can be determined by using superheated steam tables. As in the previous eg. Determine the degree of superheat after the valve.98 is reduced from 10 bar g down to 1 bar g using a pressure reducing valve (as shown in Figure 2. and this is used to raise the temperature of the steam from the saturation temperature of 120°C to 136°C. the sp enthalpy of dry sat steam (hg) at 1 bar g is 2 706. Example 2.3. 2009 This quantity of heat energy is retained by the steam as the pressure is reduced to 1 bar g.2 706. Since the total enthalpy after the pressure reducing valve is less than the total enthalpy of steam at 1 bar g. the steam is still wet.Page 31 of 33 June 22.3.7 kJ/kg.5 Superheat created by a control valve Steam with a dryness fraction of 0. but also has some degree of superheat.7 . Fig.7 = 35 kJ/kg. The actual total enthalpy of the steam is greater than the total enthalpy (hg) of dry saturated steam at 1 bar g. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 .4). As the actual enthalpy of the steam at 1 bar g is less than the enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 1 bar g. The steam is therefore not only 100% dry. then the steam is not superheated and still retains a proportion of moisture in its content. The excess energy = 2 741.
Why remove Condensate • Steam as it flows through the pipe. • On start-up. condenses due to heat loss. • Water hammer is a prime cause of steam leaks and damage of valve packing. but will also act as piston pushing air at remote end of each line. • Also steam with entrained water droplets will form a dense water film on heat transfer surfaces and interfere with heating.Page 32 of 33 June 22. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . • Another disadvantage is that when fast moving steam picks up slugs of accumulated condensate. water hammering occurs. 2009 15. • The steam piping layout should be such that the condensate formed is removed promptly. Piping Tips for condensate Removal • Provision of steam traps with good air venting facilities to remove air which is present in pipelines during startup. • Isolation valves (If provided) on the branch line shall preferably be provided on the horizontal run and outside the piperack. cold lines will be filled with air. • The header shall be sloped towards the drain pocket. shall be connected to the top of the pipe header. the lines shall be partially flooded which will increase the pressure drop in pipelines. • Steam issuing from the source will mix with some of this air. Why Place vents at remote points. • All branch lines shall be drainable. • If the condensate removal is improper. • When full line temperature is attained the vent valves will close automatically. Steam Piping in Rack • Steam header shall be located generally on the upper tier and at one end of the rack adjacent to columns. and calculated rate of heatings may not be met. except condensate collection points. • Branch lines from horizontal steam header. Removing air from steam lines • Air in steam lines lowers the temperature for the given pressure. PIPING CONSIDERATIONS. • Drain pocket shall be provided at every loop and every 30 M distance of steam header. • The most economic means of removing air from steam lines is automatically thru temperature-sensitive traps or traps fitted with temperature sensitive air venting devices placed at points remote from the steam supply.
• These superheated steam lines can operate with driplegs only.Page 33 of 33 June 22. • A superheated steam supply to an intermittently operated piece of equipment will require trapping directly before the controlling valve for the equipment. • Driplegs are made from pipe and fittings. • Drip legs and steam traps shall be provided at all low points and dead ends of steam header. the large bulk of metal in the piping will nearly always use up the degrees of superheat to produce a quantity of condensate. Notes prepared by Chandrajit Kirad Contact : 9270978070 . and are usually fitted with a blowdown line having two valves so that condensate can be manually released from the dripleg after startup. 2009 • All branches shall be taken from top of the header to avoid condensate going to the users. • Start-ups are infrequent and with more than a few degrees of superheat it is unnecessary to trap a system which is continuously operated. Driplegs to collect condensate • It is futile to provide a small dripleg or drain pocket on large lines as the condensate will not be collected efficiently. Piping Tips for Thermal Expansion Effects • Expansion loops are to be provided to take care of the expansions within units. Draining Superheated steam lines • Steam lines with more than a few degrees of superheat will not usually form condensate in operation. • During the warming-up period after starting a cold circuit. • Concentric reducers shall be avoided to prevent forming of water pockets. • All turbines on automatic control for start up shall be provided with a steam trap in the steam inlet line. as the temperature will drop at times allowing condensate to form.
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