You are on page 1of 22

NOOSPHERE BRAZIL TESLA OZONE CENTER

1. THERAPEUTIC SPACE 2. RESEARCH LABORATORY 3. PRODUCTION SPACE

BORIS PETROVIC THE SERBIAN TESLA SOCIETY 2011

1) THERAPEUTIC SPACE

State of Goiás, Brazil

Salto Itiquira

The Salto Itiquira is a waterfall in Brazil. They are located 34 kilometers north of Formosa in the state of Goiás and 115 kilometers from Brasília on a paved road. The falls have a height of 168 meters, making them possibly the highest accessible waterfall in Brazil and the second highest overall. The falls are formed by the drop of the Itiquira River from the higher central plateau north of Formosa into the deep Paranã River valley. The waters are unpolluted and a bottling plant name Indaiá is located on the river above the falls. The center is located 100km north of capital of Brazil, Brasília, with coordinates 15 deg 23 South, 27 deg 28 West.

In ancient textbooks on yoga, that venerable mystic discipline of the East, it's suggested that a student wishing to perfect his body and mind through breathing exercises should practice near a waterfall, in a cave or (best of all) in a cave under a waterfall. While it's obvious that pure air is better than polluted air, the proposition that there's more energy in one kind of pure air than in another, would to many people, seem specious, if not superstitious. But Science over the past 20 years has proved that some air does give us more energy than other air. PLACE OR CONDITION IONS PER cm3 • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hermetically sealed steel-structure office building with central air conditioning and heating. 0-250 Inside and airplane 20-250 Smoky indoor air 0-250 Normal indoor air 250-500 Urban air in average industrial city 250-750 Country air 1000-2000 Mountain air 1000-5000 Ocean-surf air 2,500-1,000 Inside caves 5000-20,000 Waterfalls 25,000-100,000 IONS PER cm3 EFFECT 50,000+ Pure air; very stimulating and relaxing; germs cannot live in this air. 5000 Exceptionally fresh, clean and invigorating air. 1000-5000 Generally the range found for "country fresh air" The minimum level one should sleep, work and live in. 500-1000 Normal air found indoors where pollution is low and the building has open windows and few synthetics. 0-100 Dead Air, oppressive, difficulty of concentration; viruses and germs can flourish counter-productive when working for any length of time.

• •

WATER MOLECULE GEODESIC DOME TESLA OZONE qaBRAZIL

THERAPEUTIC SPACE AND RESEARCH LABORATORY

THERAPEUTIC SPACE

CITATES RETREAT CENTER

What is Ozone Therapy?
Unlike healthy human cells that love oxygen, the disease causing viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites - including HIV & cancer virons, arthritis microbes, and others - like most primitive lower life forms, are almost all anaerobic. That means these microbes cannot live in oxygen. Therefore, what would happen to these anaerobic viruses and bacteria if they were to be completely surrounded with a very energetic form of pure oxygen for a long time? What if enough of this special form of oxygen/ozone was to be slowly and harmlessly introduced into the body daily, over the course of a few months, by bypassing the lungs, and yet eventually saturating all the bodily fluids and every cell with it? The disease causing microbes that can't live in oxygen would cease to exist. All 30 or so oxygen therapies, including ozone, work because they flood the body with Nature's single oxygen atoms. Singlet oxygen and its by-products are very energetic oxidizers - they "burn up" waste products, pollution, and microbes. They can’t protect themselves because they are either inert, or lower life forms. Normal body cells protect themselves from the oxidizing effects of oxygen by naturally producing their own protective antioxidant coatings. Humans are 66% water. Most European and many American cities purify their municipal drinking water by bubbling ozone through it to kill all the bacteria and viruses, etc. See Inactivation Kinetics of Viruses and Bacteria by use of Ozone, by E. Katzenelson, et. al., American Water Works Society, 1974. Most bottled water in the U.S. goes through the same ozone purification methods. Since your body is two-thirds water (we are internally permeated with fluids), the same purification principals would directly apply to us. Ozone is simply infused through body liquids to sterilize and purify them. This method has been successfully applied to the human body by knowledgeable doctors treating diseased persons for over 100 years. It's

simple. Our natural intake of oxygen from food, air and water is the way Nature intended us to keep healthy and clean by naturally oxidizing away the microbes and toxins. Because we are all oxygen deficient, our bodies can no longer take out (oxidize) the trash. Even the ozone layer above us that protects us from ultraviolet rays is born when the rainforests make the oxygen that eventually turns into ozone. The removal of our planet's oxygen generating forests, and atomic bomb testing rendering the natural oxygen isotopic and unable to turn into ozone, is directly relating to the "mysterious" holes in the ozone layer.

50+ years of Ozone application methods
Extracorporeal recirculatory autohemo perfusion – Blood out of one arm, ozonated, sterilized and filtered outside the body, and pumped continuaously back into the other arm. The best. Slow injections of the O3 gas - no air, just pure medical grade oxygen turned into medical grade ozone – into prone patients. 27 mcg/ml3 concentration. Air bubbles? No nitrogen, no nitrogen (air) embolisms. Autohemotherapy - withdrawing 600 ml of blood and re-infusing it Into the body after putting ozone into it. Ozone bagging - every body part except the head in a bag full of O3 for up to two hours. Ozone rectal insufflation - average 1 1/2 liters of 27mcg/ml O3 gas into colon. Ozone vaginal insufflation - average 5 minutes of insufflating body cavity. Ozone ear insufflation - average 5 minutes of letting O3 fall into ear cavities. Ozone air purification - low levels of ozone sterilize and rejuvenate the room air. O3 in LOW doses cleans the lungs and blood. Ozone charged drinking water – Bubble O3 into water which must be imbibed immediately while the O3 is still in the glass. There are over 3,000 medical references in the German literature showing ozone's use in over 50 years of application to humans by way of millions of dosages. The International Ozone Association and the ozone machine manufacturers report over 7,000 M.D.'s in Europe using medical ozone safely and effectively, some for more than 40 years.

2) RESEARCH LABORATORY

DEMONSTRATION FOR THE STATE ELECTRICAL COMPANY – BELGRADE, SERBIA (OCTOBER 2010)

TESLA RESEARCH LABORATORY – BELGRADE, SERBIA

TESLA RESEARCH LABORATORY – BELGRADE, SERBIA

Nikola Tesla – Apparatus for producing Ozone Nikola Tesla stated that oxygen is the only gas that will pick up and carry electrical energy. In doing so, it becomes tremendously active and seeks to combine with all other substances. The list of substances that are inert to ozone is a very short list, and includes glass, Teflon, Kynar, Viton, Lexan and silicone. Therefore any ozone generator and auxiliary equipment must be composed of these substances only. There are several different techniques used to produce medical grade ozone, where freedom from contamination is critical. One type of generator uses an ultraviolet lamp as its source. It produces a very small amount of ozone with a narrow frequency bandwidth of ultraviolet light. This method is suited to air purification, because in that bandwidth, UV only reacts with oxygen, but it is too weak for medical purposes. Also, the UV lamp degrades over time and eventually burns out. The second method of ozone production is corona discharge, where a tube with a hot or cold cathode is surrounded by a metal anode. Sometimes it is called cold corona or silent discharge. The best ones are called dual dielectric, because they have a layer of glass separating each component from the gas stream. This prevents contamination of the ozone, but due to the current draw

to the metal, they are prone to electrical arcing and burnout. This produces generators that have short lives. If any water enters the tube, it immediately burns out. In addition, corona discharge generators make a lot of heat and must have large cooling fans to prevent them from overheating. You can always tell a corona discharge generator by the large cooling fan. Lack of durability has always beset corona discharge ozone generators, and was a major reason for doctors mostly abandoning ozone therapy in the US during the Forties, in the face of increasing pressure from the FDA and the AMA. The manufacturers of these generators show that they know of their limitations by offering only three-year warranties. Fortunately, there is a third method of producing clean, medical grade ozone. That method is called cold plasma. It uses glass rods filled with noble gases, excited by high voltage. The voltage jumps between the rods, forming an electrostatic plasma field which turns the oxygen into ozone. Since there is no appreciable current, there is no arcing or burnout. Thus the generator will last a very long time, limited only by the quality of the transformer. The original cold plasma generators were invented by Nikola Tesla in the 1920s and they still work 80 years later. Many companies claim to have cold plasma generators, but examination always shows they use a metal anode, which makes them corona discharge, dependent on current, and prone to failure. COLD PLASMA OZONE GENERATION Nikola Tesla was the greatest inventor the world has ever seen. His fertile brain produced the original designs for all of the electrical apparatus now used to transmit AC power, for motors, generators, lighting, radio, radar, etc. The information about Tesla's genius has finally been spreading in the last two decades, after decades of suppression. Less well known is Tesla's involvement with ozone. In 1896, Tesla was issued a patent for a corona discharge ozone generator using charged metal plates to act on ambient air. He formed the Tesla Ozone Co. in 1900 and went into production of these units. His customers were naturopaths and allopaths who welcomed this powerful therapy into their practices. Breathing of ozone bubbled through olive oil and other oils was widely practiced at this time, and the Sears catalog of 1904 offered a unit for this purpose using eucalyptus, pine and spearmint oils. Tesla produced a gel made by bubbling ozone through olive oil until it solidified, and sold it to doctors. One hundred years later, we are doing the same thing, with Nature's Gift ozonated olive oil. After a while, Tesla began to get complaints from some doctors that his ozone generators were burnt out. Tesla was upset by this, so he put on his thinking cap to invent a method of generating ozone that would be immune to failure. He realized that it was current flow to a hot spot on the metal anode that caused

the short and the subsequent burnout, and reasoned that the way to achieve long life was to eliminate the current by eliminating the metal. That left him with an electrostatic approach, which he was fully conversant with, featuring high voltage jumping a gap, with almost no current draw. To carry the electrostatic charge, he used inert gases in glass rods. This produced a cold plasma field which energized oxygen into ozone, and resulted in a generator that proved impervious to burnout. The unit used ambient air, and produced a small amount of ozone as it was waved over a recumbent patient, who breathed it in. Tesla farmed out production of these generators to a Canadian company. There are still some of these units from the 1920s which have been kept in use and are still working as air purifiers today, 80 years later. Tesla felt that this invention was of such importance to human health that he did not patent it; instead he donated it freely to all of mankind. Unfortunately, this meant that eventually the idea was lost, because there was no recorded patent to look up. THE PLASMAFIRE GLASS TUBE The Tesla ozone generator from the 1920s, operated on air, using pure oxygen as the source, producing the highest quality medical ozone generator available. Since then, over 3000 of these all-glass Plasmafire tubes have been sold, and none has ever failed. The advantage of this system is its inherent longevity and the absolute purity of the O2/O3 output stream. There are no metallics of any kind, therefore there is no possibility of contamination, or of the tubes shorting out. The tubes can run continuously without fan cooling, even when run 24 hours per day, which we do as we make ozonated olive oil. Many competitors claim to have all glass generators, but we are the only manufacturer of medical ozone generators with true cold plasma tubes. This technology tolerates an accidental entry of water into the tube without burning out. If this happens, simply run oxygen through the tube until it dries out. The cold plasma technique has its own idiosyncrasies, one of which is its maximum concentration (about 70 ug/cc). It is interesting to note that the strongest response by the immune system (the production of interleukin-2 and gamma interferon) occurs with ozone concentrations of 30 - 55 ug/cc (The Use of Ozone in Medicine - Rilling and Viebahn, 1987). Tesla's instinct about cold plasma being the best method of ozone production for medical use has now been verified in modern times.

Ozone generator is the most effective solution for water purification and food sterilization. Ozone generator products are being used with great success for breaking down contaminations in water, removing harmful pesticides, bacteria, and chemicals found on most fruits and vegetable as well as removing residual antibiotic and hormone in meats. Ozone often forms in nature under conditions where O2 will not react. Ozone used in industry is measured in g/Nm³ or weight percent. The regime of applied concentrations ranges from 1 to 5 weight percent in air and from 6 to 13 weight percent in oxygen. Corona discharge method This is the most popular type of ozone generator for most industrial and personal uses. While variations of the "hot spark" coronal discharge method of ozone production exist, including medical grade and industrial grade ozone generators, these units usually work by means of a corona discharge tube. This kind of ozone generators are typically very cost-effective, and do not require an oxygen source other than the ambient air. However, they also produce nitrogen oxides as a by-product. Use of an air dryer can reduce or eliminate nitric acid formation by removing water vapor and increase ozone production. Use of an oxygen concentrator can further increase the ozone production and further reduce the risk of nitric acid formation due to removing not only the water vapor, but also the bulk of the nitrogen. Ultraviolet light UV ozone generators employ a light source that generates the same narrow-band ultraviolet light that is responsible for the sustenance of the ozone layer in the stratosphere of the Earth. While standard UV ozone generators tend to be less expensive, they usually produce ozone with a concentration of about 2% or lower. Another disadvantage of this method is that it requires the air to be exposed to the UV source for a longer amount of time, and any air that is not exposed to the UV source will not be treated. This makes UV generators impractical for use in situations that deal with rapidly moving air or water streams (in-duct air sterilization, for example). Cold plasma In the cold plasma method, pure oxygen gas is exposed to a plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge. The diatomic oxygen is split into single atoms, which then recombine in triplets to form ozone. Cold plasma machines utilize pure oxygen as the input source, and produce a maximum concentration of about 5% ozone. They produce far greater quantities of ozone in a given space of time compared to ultraviolet production. However, because cold plasma ozone generators are very expensive, and still require occasional maintenance, they are found less frequently than the previous two types. The discharges manifest as filamentary transfer of electrons (micro discharges) in a gap between two electrodes. In order to evenly distribute the micro discharges, a dielectric insulator must be used to separate the metallic electrodes and to prevent arcing. Some cold plasma units also have the capability of producing short-lived allotropes of oxygen which include O4, O5, O6, O7, etc. These anions are even more reactive than ordinary O3.

What is a dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD)?
Dielectric-barrier discharges (DBD’s) comprise a specific class of high-voltage, ac, gaseous discharges that typically operate in the near-atmospheric pressure range. Their defining feature is the presence of dielectric layers that make it impossible for charges generated in the gas to reach the conducting electrode surfaces. With each half-cycle of the driving oscillation, the voltage applied across the gas exceeds that required for breakdown, and the formation of narrow discharge filaments initiates the conduction of electrons toward the more positive electrode. As charge accumulates on the dielectric layer(s) at the end(s) of each filament, the voltage drop across the filament is reduced until it falls below the discharge-sustaining level, whereupon the discharge is extinguished. The low charge mobility on the dielectric not only contributes to this self-arresting of filaments but also limits the lateral region over which the gap voltage is diminished, thereby allowing parallel filaments to form in close proximity to one another. Thus, the entire gas-filled space between parallel electrodes can become, on average, uniformly covered by transient discharge filaments, each roughly 0.1 mm in diameter and lasting only about 10 ns.

Combination of 100 parallel DBD units

Ozonized Water Generator

Features of ozone generation in surface dielectric barrier discharge
The electrosynthesis of ozone has been investigated in a mixture of a oxygen and air flowing through a discharge chamber with a new electrodes structure to maintain barrier discharge of co-planar geometry. The setup implements the unique technological opportunities employed for manufacturing the flat color AC current plasma displays. Comparative study has been also conducted on efficiency of ozone generation in the co-planar barrier discharge and usually used volume and surface barrier discharges. The analysis of ozone generation efficiency in experimental set-ups employing various circuits of a barrier discharge organization is provided on a basis of experimental investigation of UI and U-Q characteristics (including drawing of Lissajous figures) and theoretical (including computer modeling) studies of electrical fields along the discharge gap. The increased efficiency of ozone generation in co-planar dielectric barrier discharge has been demonstrated.

3) PRODUCTION OF OZONE
USES FOR OZONE IN TREATING AIR
Air exists everywhere on our planet Earth. It is present outdoors in natural environments, as well as indoors. It is man's responsibility to ensure that air that becomes contaminated is cleaned so that it may be reused by the organization or next person needing it. Ambient outdoor air can become fouled with odorants, contaminants discharged from industrial plants, exhausts from power plants, automobiles, buses, trucks, trains, aircraft, tractors, etc. Indoor air in homes can be contaminated by normal household activities such as cooking, washing laundry, cleaning, burning wood in fireplaces, painting, and the like. However, indoor air also can become contaminated by smoking odors, mold and mildew, and volatile organic compounds that slowly evaporate from modern plastics and glues used in building and furniture making materials. Many food processing facilities and areas of wholesale and retail grocery stores and supermarkets face control of odors and bacteria throughout their establishments constantly. Air in hospitals, medical laboratories and nursing homes can be contaminated by all of the above-mentioned contaminants, as well as by volatile medicinal compounds. Air conditioning ducting and mechanical systems need to be kept free of microorganisms. Casinos, night clubs, bars, etc., where smoking is allowed, have a need to cope with smoke odors and volatile organic compounds. ROLES FOR OZONE IN AIR TREATMENT Ozone is both a strong oxidizing agent as well as a strong disinfectant. Because of this, both benefits (oxidation and disinfection) can be achieved during the single step of ozonation. When considering oxidation, however, one must also recognize that not all oxidizable substances can be totally destroyed even by ozone, the strongest oxidant and disinfectant commercially available, e.g., mineralized in the case of organic substances, to produce carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxidation reactions proceed through intermediate stages, arriving at CO 2 and water only when the pollutant is provided with a sufficient concentration of ozone for a sufficient period of time to allow complete oxidation (mineralization). Therefore, when considering ozone for treating contaminated air, one also should consider the partial oxidation products from ozonation of` organic contaminants. This situation is not unique to ozone. All oxidants do their work through multiple intermediate stages, thus forming byproducts. Ozone however, consisting of nothing but oxygen, forms intermediates by the mechanisms of increasing incorporation of oxygen atoms into the intermediate structures. Usually, this results in decreasing toxicological effects compared to those of the starting compound. It is not healthful to breathe ozone, in any concentration. Thus treatment of air with ozone is never recommended when humans or pets are present to breathe the air during treatment.

USES FOR OZONE IN TREATING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND FOODS
Microorganisms are present everywhere food is present and handled, from the fields in which agricultural crops are planted and raised to harvest, animal breeding and rearing houses to the facilities that process crops and animals, to packaging and food storage plants. Control of microorganisms, particularly pathogenic microorganisms (those that cause diseases in humans and animals), is important at all stages. Strong measures are necessary for microorganism control. Classical chemical control methods based on chlorine or bromine compounds are effective for controlling microorganisms, but their use can result in halogenated byproducts being formed and these subsequently can be incorporated into the food product itself. Ozone, consisting only of oxygen atoms, is one of the strongest disinfectants available, and does not form halogenated byproducts. Additionally, ozone can be applied in the gas as well as aqueous phases, providing additional processing benefits. Uniquely, combining ozone with other materials (hydrogen peroxide or ultraviolet radiation) produces the very reactive intermediate, hydroxyl free radical, which is a stronger oxidizing agent than is ozone itself. Ozone is both a strong oxidizing agent as well as a strong disinfectant. Because of this, both benefits (oxidation and disinfection) can be achieved during the single step of ozonation. When considering oxidation, however, one also must recognize that not all oxidizable substances can be totally destroyed even by ozone, the strongest oxidant and disinfectant commercially available. In most cases, oxidation reactions proceed through intermediate stages, arriving at CO 2 and water only when the pollutant is provided with a sufficient concentration of ozone for a sufficient period of time to allow complete oxidation (mineralization). This point is very important in treating foods, which are organic in nature, with ozone. The indiscriminate over-use of ozone to control microorganisms can easily partially oxidize surface organic materials on the food being treated, and can change the nature of that food surface. The key to successful application of ozone for contacting foods is to add sufficient ozone to allow it to accomplish its intended purpose, but not enough to cause damage to the food itself. This requires testing and development of ozonation conditions to apply to specific food products. Water is an essential processing agent in agriculture and food processing. It can be used in many instances to carry the ozone. Since water contacts foods, it is critical that it be as clean as possible. Due to the ever-rising costs of treating potable water, increasing economic pressure is being placed on reuse of processing water in food and agriculture applications. Ozone has a long and proven history of application in treating water and wastewater, and thus has many potential applications in agriculture and food processing facilities. Water containing ozone is being used in many food processing plants currently to spray or wash food products, and to wash processing and storage equipment. Many agricultural products are stored after harvest, prior to packaging and sale.

Gas phase ozone, applied properly with attention to concentration, relative humidity, and exposure times, can maintain low microorganism and insect levels in/on the product(s) during such storage, thus increasing storage life while maintaining high product quality - resulting in less product loss during storage. A recent agricultural development in Switzerland involves the close to simultaneous application to crops of high voltage, pulsed negatively charged water, then an aqueous spray containing ozone, then high energy UV radiation (Steffen, 2005a,b; Rice and Steffen, 2005). This approach stimulates a reaction in growing plants termed "Systemic Acquired Resistance". The result is that the growing plants do not need to be sprayed with pesticidal chemicals. Periodic application of this new Phyto3 Tech technology maintains plant cleanliness, free of pathogens, without the necessity of chemical sprays. This means no chemical residuals on the harvested products, and no chemicals washed into the soils. Applications for ozone in food processing abound As reported in the July 2005 edition of Water Technology magazine, industry experts say the potential use of ozone in food-processing industries is likely to grow over time as food processors become more familiar with the technology and its capabilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has identified the following as some of the emerging applications: 1. Eggs. Sanitize whole shell eggs to eliminate potentially pathogenic bacteria. 2. Fruits and vegetables. Treat pre-process wash water for fruits and vegetables. 3. Poultry. Sanitize poultry chiller water to reduce potential pathogenic bacteria, and recondition overflow water for recycling and reuse (within US Department of Agriculture guidelines). 4. Wineries. Sanitize cold water, replacing traditional hot water and harsh chemical sanitation methods. 5. Grain. Using ozone as a substitute for chlorinated water to control bacteria and mold in grain processing. 6. Fish. Treatment of water in aquaculture tanks greatly reduces foaming even without purifying the water. 7. Seafood. Using ozone for seafood processing applications, including shellfish depuration, fish pumps, fillet-line spray bars and surimi mixing tanks.

Dr. Masaru Emoto Born in Yokohama, Japan in 1943. He was successful in capturing the ice water crystals on film. He published a photograph collection, The Message from Water, in June 1999. and hence published numerous books such as The Hidden Messages in Water, which was listed in the New York Times Bestseller List. His books have been translated into 45 languages and published in 70 countries. He continues to conduct seminars throughout the world to share the importance, understanding and appreciation of water. On May 26, 2005, he spoke as a keynote speaker at a conference held in the United Nations Headquarters, Conference Room 1, Organized by the Spiritual Dimensions of Science and Consciousness Subcommittee of the NGO Committee on Spirituality, Values and Global Concerns. There he introduced the idea for Emoto Peace Project. Emoto's water crystal experiments consist of exposing water in glasses to different words, pictures, or music, and then freezing and examining the aesthetics of the resulting crystals with microscopic photography. Emoto claims that there are "many differences in the crystalline structure of the water" depending on the type of water source, which were taken from all over the world. For example, a water sample from a "pristine mountain" stream would purportedly show a "geometric" design that is "beautifully" shaped when frozen. On the other hand, "polluted water" sources will supposedly show a "definite distortion" and will be "randomly formed". 「愛・感謝」という文字を見せた水の結晶 WATER CRYSTAL EXPOSED TO THE WORD "LOVE AND GRATITUDE"

Boris Petrovic. Whole Earth System Scientist and Noospheric Philosopher. engineer of teleautomation systems, a researcher into Tesla's "World system", Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and magnetic reconnection. Boris is an associate of The Serbian "Nikola Tesla" Society in Belgrade, the Tesla Science Foundation in Philadelphia and founding member of the Noosphere Forum. He worked in a number of embedded tech and automation systems start-ups as a software engineer and architect. As a founding member of the Google Lunar X Prize Team Synergy Moon, he is involved in private space exploration, focusing on outer-space settlement. Through cooperation with the International Scientific Research Institute for Cosmic AnthropoEcology in Novosibirsk and the Foundation of the Law of Time in Oregon he works on the study of cosmic consciousness, access to intensified consciousness and altered states, including nonlinear time and telepathy. Research of Tesla’s wireless energy transfer, in his Belgrade laboratory, uncovers the potential energy field of “instantaneous locality” that underlies our reality, and facilitates communication with Earth’s cosmic neighborhood. Currently, he is involved in ecological and cultural projects in biosphere design and self-sustainable communities, promoting the integrated model of self-sustainable habitat in Portugal – the Tamera Solar Village and working in Brasilia through the Brazilian Ecovillage Movement focusing on new models of living systems and long-term survival of the human species and civilization.