PA 507

18 August 2007 Session 1

1

Dimensions of SocialNational culture

2

Specific to individuals Specific to a group Universal

Personality Culture Human Nature

Inherited and Learned Learned Inherited

3

Culture
It is the collective programing of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others.

4

Equality Future Orientation Culture Group vs Individual

Ambiguity

Masculinity vs Femininity

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Equality
All societies have some form of inequality. Power distance (PD) is how we deal with that inequality.

6

Power distance
the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally

7

Country
Malaysia Arab Countries* Iran Pakistan United States New Zealand Austria

Score
104 80 58 55 40 22 11

Ranking
1 12-14 43-44 48 57-59 71 74

* Arab countries include: Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates

8

PD and Family
Small PDi Large PDi
Parent treat children Parents teach children as equals obedience Children play no role Children are a source in old-age security of of old-age security to parents parents Children treat elders Respect for elders is a as equals virtue

9

PD and School
Small PDi
Students treat teachers as equals

Large PDi
Students give teachers respect

Teachers are experts Teachers should take who transfer all initiative in class impersonal truths Learning depends on Teachers are gurus 2- way communication who provide wisdom

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PD and Work
Small PDi Large PDi
Managers and workers Managers and workers consider each other consider each other equal unequal Status symbols are suspect Managers are entitled to privileges

Orgs. have ways to Contact with workers deal with power abuse initiated by manager

11

Predictors of the PDi
1. Geographic Latitude (Higher latitudes are associated with lower PDi) 2. Population Size (Larger size is associated with higher PDi) 3. Its wealth (Richer countries associated with lower PDi)

12

Individualism vs Collectivism
Individualistic societies are societies in which the ties between individuals are loose, everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and their immediate family.

13

Individualism vs Collectivism
Collectivist societies are societies in which people from birth onward are integrated into strong cohesive in-groups which protect them in exchange for loyalty.

14

The individualism Index (IDv)
The tension between the will of the individual ad the will of the group.

15 Sunday, August 19, 2007

Country
United States New Zealand Iran Arab Countries* Malaysia Pakistan Guatemala

Score
91 79 41 38 26 14 6

Ranking
1 7 36 39-40 52 68-69 74

* Arab countries include: Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates

16

IDv and Family
Collectivist Individualist
Children learn to Children learn to think in terms of “we” think in terms of “I” Friendships are predetermined Resources should be shared with relatives Friendships are voluntary and should be fostered Individual ownership of resources

17

IDv and School
Collectivist Individualist
Students only speak Students are expected with group permission to speak up in class Purpose of education is learning how to do Diplomas provide higher status purpose of education is about learning to learn Diplomas economic worth

18

IDv and Work
Collectivist Individualist
Occupational mobility Occupational mobility is lower is higher Hiring and promotion Hiring and promotion take into account “in- based on skills and group” rules only Managers manage groups Managers manage people

19

IDv and Ideas
Collectivist Individualist
Group predetermines Everyone is expected opinions to have own opinion Laws and rights differ by group Lower human rights rating Laws and right are supposed to be the same for all High human rights rating

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Predictors of IDv
1. Its wealth (Richer countries associated with lower IDv) 2. Geographic Latitude (Lower latitudes are associated with higher IDv)

21

Masculinity vs Femininity
This dimension is labeled masculinity versus femininity because it is the only one with consistent gender dimension

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Masculinity vs Femininity
Masculine societies are societies in when gender roles are clearly distinct: Men are supposed to be aggressive and tough, where as women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with quality of life

23

Masculinity vs Femininity
Feminine societies are societies in which the emotional gender roles overlap. Both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with quality of life.

24

Country
Slovakia United States New Zealand Arab Countries* Pakistan Iran Sweden

Score
110 62 58 54 50 43 5

Ranking
1 19 22-24 31-32 34-36 47-50 74

* Arab countries include: Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates

25

Sunday, August 19, 2007

MAS and Family
Masculine
Challenge, earnings, recognition important

Feminine
Relationships and quality of life

Men should be Both men and women assertive, ambitious, should be modest and tough Women take care of Both men and women relationships can be tender

26

MAS and School
Masculine
Best student is the norm

Feminine
The average student is the norm

Competition in class, Jealousy of those who trying to excel try to excel Failing in school is a disaster Failing in school is a minor incident

27

MAS and Work
Masculine Feminine
Management: decisive Management: intuition and aggressive and consensus Resolve conflict by strength Rewards are based on equity Conflicts resolved by compromise and negotiation Rewards based on equality

28

MAS and Sex
Masculine
Taboo on explicit discussion of sex Homosexuality is a threat

Feminine
Explicit discussion of sex Homosexuality is a fact of life

Sexual harassment is a Sexual harassment is a minor issue major issue

29

Predictors of MAS
1. Its wealth (Richer countries associated with lower IDv) 2. Geographic Latitude (Lower latitudes are associated with higher IDv)

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Intolerance of Ambiguity
Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations.

31

Country
Greece Pakistan Arab Countries* Iran New Zealand United States Singapore

Score
112 70 68 59 49 46 8

Ranking
1 35-58 40-41 48-49 58-59 62 74

* Arab countries include: Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates

32

UAI and Family
Weak Uncertainty Strong Uncertainty
Low stress and low anxiety Aggression and emotions should not be shown Comfortable with unfamiliar risks High Stress and high anxiety Aggression and emotion may be ventilated Fear of unfamiliar risks

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UAI and School
Weak Uncertainty Strong Uncertainty
Open ended learning Teacher say “I don’t know” Results attributed to person’s ability There is a correct answer Teachers have all the answers Results attributed to luck

34

UAI and Work
Weak Uncertainty Strong Uncertainty
More changes of employers No more rules than necessary Hard-working only when needed Longer service Emotional need for rules - even if they don’t work Busy, hard working

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Intolerance of Ambiguity
Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations.

36

Country
China India Netherlands Sweden New Zealand United States Pakistan

Score
118 61 44 33 30 29 0

Ranking
1 8 13-14 23 28-30 31 39

37

LTO and Family
Short Term
Marriage is moral arrangement

Long Term
Marriage is pragmatic arrangement

Living with in-laws is a Living with in-laws is source of trouble normal Children get gifts for fun and love Children get gifts for education and dev.

38

LTO and School
Short Term
Students attribute success/failure to luck Talented for theoretical, abstract sciences Math and formal problems hard

Long Term
Attribute success/ failure to effort Talent for applied, concrete sciences Good a math and formal problems

39

LTO and Work
Short Term
Leisure time is important Focus on bottom line

Long Term
Leisure is not important Focus on market position Results 10 years from now.

This years results

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LTO and Thinking
Short Term
Concerned with truth Guidelines about good and evil Analytical thinking

Long Term
Concerned with virtue Good and evil dependent on circumstances Synthetic thinking

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Applying it

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1. 2.

Get into groups of five or six. Give Afghanistan a score of 1 to 10 for each dimension. The dimensions are: Power distance Individualism vs communalism Masculinity vs Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long vs Short term orientation For each dimension, provide an example for family, school, and work that supports your score.

3.

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Dimension Power Individualism Masculinity Uncertainty Long Term

Grp 1 ? ? ? ? ?

Grp 2 8 8 8 7 7

Grp 3 Grp 4 Grp 5 8 6.5 8 8 9 7 7 4 6

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Sunday, August 19, 2007