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Models of Organization Change

PA 507 20 August 2007

Introduction

Our understanding of organization change has evolved since the 1940’s when the initial model was developed.These slides take you through some of the prevalent models of organizational change.The models are presented in chronological order.

Lewin [1951]

Basic Assumptions

Focused on individuals

What is occurring at any stage is a result of opposing forces.The status quo - what is happening right now - is the result of forces pushing in opposite directions.

Change is a process which entails moving from one equilibrium point to another.

Stage 1: Unfreezing

Unfreezing: Creating motivation and readiness to change through:

Disconfirmation (creates pain or discomfort)

Creation of guilt or anxiety

Provision of psychological safety

Stage 2: Moving

Changing through cognitive restructuring:

Helping the client to see things, judge things, feel things, and react to things, differently based on a new point of view obtained through:

Identifying with a new role model, mentor, etc.

Scanning the environment for new info.

Stage 3: Refreezing

Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into:

The total personality and self-concept

Significant relationships

Lippitt,Watson, and Westly [1958]

Basic Assumptions

Focused on change process

Expanded Lewin’s 1951 model into seven stages

Road map for consulting relationship

Seven stages

1. Developing need for change [unfreezing] 2. Establishing a change relationship

Seven stages

3. Clarifying or diagnosing the clients system’s problems

4. Examining alternative routes and goals; establishing goals and intentions of actions.

5. Transforming intentions into actual change efforts.

[stages 3, 4, 5, correspond to Lewin’s moving phase]

Seven stages

6. Generalizing and stabilizing change. [Corresponds to Lewin’s refreezing phase.]

7. Achieving a terminal relationship, that is, ending the client-consultant relationship.

Kilmann’s Beyond the Quick Fix [1989]

Basic Assumptions

Focused on change process and critical leverage points

An attempt at total system change

That change will take 1 to 5 years

Killmann [1989]

The process has five sequential stages:

1. Initiating the program

2. diagnosing the problems

3. scheduling the “tracks”

4. implementing the “tracks”

5. evaluating the results

Killmann [1989]

Tracks are five critical leverage points, that, when functioning properly, cause an organization to be successful.They include:

1. culture

2. management skills

3. team-building

4. strategy and structure

5. rewards

Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change

[2002]

Basic Assumptions

Demonstrates how to create first-order and second order change.

Differentiates between organizational climate and organizational culture

Burke-Litwin Model

Organizational climate is defined as people’s perception and attitudes about the organization -- whether it is a good or bad place to work, friendly or unfriendly, hard working or easy- going and so forth.These perceptions are easy to change because they are reactions to the current managerial and organizational practices.

Burke-Litwin Model

Organizational culture is defined deep-seated assumptions, values, and beliefs that are enduring, often unconscious, and difficult to change. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate.

Burke-Litwin Model

First-order change goes by many different labels, including: transactional, evolutionary, adaptive, incremental, or continuous change.

In first-order change some of the feature of the organization change, but the fundamental nature of the organization remains the same.

Burke-Litwin Model

Second-order change is also known as, including: transformational, revolutionary, radical, incremental, or discontinuous change.

In second-order change the nature of the organization is fundamentally and substantially altered--the organization is transformed.

Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change:

Factors involved in First-Order Change

Management Practices Systems Structure (policies and procedures) Work Unit Climate Motivation Task requirements
Management
Practices
Systems
Structure
(policies and
procedures)
Work Unit
Climate
Motivation
Task
requirements
skills / abilities
Individual and
organizational
performance
Individual
Needs and
Values

Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change:

Factors involved in Second-Order Change

External Environment Leadership Mission and Strategy Organizational Culture Individual and organizational
External
Environment
Leadership
Mission and
Strategy
Organizational
Culture
Individual and
organizational
performance

Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change

External Environment Mission and Strategy Leadership Organizational Culture Management Practices Structure
External
Environment
Mission and
Strategy
Leadership
Organizational
Culture
Management
Practices
Structure
Systems
(policies and
procedures)
Work Unit
Climate
Task
requirements
Motivation
Individual
Needs and
skills /
abilities
Values
Individual and
organizational
performance

Porras-Robertson Model of Organizational Change [1992]

Basic Assumptions

Altering feature in the work setting causes changes in individual behavior, which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvements.

The work setting plays a critical role, and consists of four factors, including: (a) organizing arrangements, (b) social factors, (c) physical setting, (d) technology.

Porras-Robetson Model of Organizational Change

Environment
Environment

Vision

Physical Setting
Physical Setting
of Organizational Change Environment Vision Physical Setting 1. Space configuration 2. Physical ambiance 3.
of Organizational Change Environment Vision Physical Setting 1. Space configuration 2. Physical ambiance 3.

1.

Space configuration

2. Physical ambiance

3.

Interior design

4.Architectural design

Social Factors

Interior design 4.Architectural design Social Factors 1. Culture 2. Management Style 3. Interaction

1. Culture

2. Management Style

3. Interaction process

4. Informal Patterns

and networks

5.

Individual attributes

Organizing

Arrangments

5. Individual attributes Organizing Arrangments 1. Goals   2. Strategies 3. Structures
5. Individual attributes Organizing Arrangments 1. Goals   2. Strategies 3. Structures

1. Goals

 

2.

Strategies

3. Structures

4.Administrative

policies and procedures

5.Administrative

Systems

 

6. Reward systems

7. Ownership

Systems   6. Reward systems 7. Ownership Technology 1.Tools, equipment, and machinery 2.

Technology

  6. Reward systems 7. Ownership Technology 1.Tools, equipment, and machinery 2. Information

1.Tools, equipment, and machinery

2.

Information

technology

 

3.

Job design

4.Work flow design 6.Technical procedures 7.Technical systems

Porras-Robetson Model of Organizational Change

Environment
Environment
Porras-Robetson Model of Organizational Change Environment Vision Organizing Arrangments Technology Individual development

Vision

Organizing

Arrangments

Technology

Individual

development

Organizing Arrangments Technology Individual development W o r k S e t t i n
W o r k S e t t i n g M e m b

W

o

r

k

S

e

t

t

i

n

g

W o r k S e t t i n g M e m b e

M

e

m

b

e

r

s

Physical Setting Social Factors Individual Cognitions On the job behaviors
Physical Setting
Social Factors
Individual
Cognitions
On the job behaviors

Organization

Organization Organization

Organization

performance

Setting Social Factors Individual Cognitions On the job behaviors Organization Organization performance 2 9