Train the Trainers Resources & Materials - National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 UNDERSTANDING THE BASE - Learning

............................................................................. 3 More about Communication ...................................................................................................... 7 Body Language ..................................................................................................................7 You can't not communicate.................................................................................................8 Listening skills ...................................................................................................................8 Feedback............................................................................................................................9 The Role of a Trainer ................................................................................................................ 11 Different Ways to Bring the Message ....................................................................................... 16 Selecting Instructional Techniques ............................................................................................ 21 More on methods…..............................................................................................................21 Some more tips…..................................................................................................................22 Moderation ............................................................................................................................... 23 How to Design a Session .......................................................................................................... 27 Use of Tools .............................................................................................................................. 29 Visualisation .............................................................................................................................. 31 How to handle difficult delegates ............................................................................................. 38 Tips & Tricks ............................................................................................................................. 43 Training & Team Building Bibliography .................................................................................. 44 Icebreakers ............................................................................................................................... 47 - National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 UNDERSTANDING THE BASE - Learning The foundation on which the GLP has been developed When you join AIESEC you want to know what you will get out of it. What is in it for me? Learning tracking system through Insight XP and Communities are ways to visualise this. These ideas allows us to track the learning and development of our members so that they by the end of their AIESEC career will have a CV stating what knowledge and experience they have acquired. This is also something that will allow AIESEC to visualise the achievements of the members in their Local Committee. This visualisation will be particularly useful for the organisations we work with, a clear demonstration that we DO develop individuals. To do this, we need to ask ourselves: 1. How do we define learning? Only when we understand this, can we visualise and measure it. 2. How can we stimulate and track learning in our activities? And find a natural incentive for our members to focus on activities, and thereby increase our results. 3. How can this be done at a national level? How does a “system” like that work? 4. Q1) How we define learning? According to CELEMI… - National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 If this is how we define learning, then we must base all learning on activity. Only when we have tried to actually do something can we say that we have learned it. You can understand every intricate detail of how to sell a traineeship, but only when you have done it you can really say that you have learned how it's done! The Global Learning Process is based on that very principle – increase the expertise of our members, through learning processes built into their roles and responsibilities. Based on this definition of what learning is, we have come to the conclusion that activity is a crucial part of learning. Without it, no real learning will take place. A focus on activity is necessary if we are going to increase both the quantity and the quality of our exchanges. - National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 PROCESS Together with prior knowledge until we arrive at... ATTENTION Makes us receptive to... INFORMATION Which we... CONCLUSIONS And understanding which we then... APPLY And... EVALUATE And test for confirmation. ⊕ ⊗

ℑ ℵ ℜ ℘ LEARNING CYCLE With that in mind, it is only natural to start looking at the activities, when trying to define what learning processes we work with. It is not cost effective to train our members for the sake of training them… So what training do they need? To identify that we need to look at the exchange process and identify what a certain member's role and responsibilities are. Create a job description. Based on these responsibilities (as mapped in the Core Work Process) we need to look at what kind of competence the member needs, in order to perform a job effectively. Let's look at a very simple example…  Attention/motivation: Interest and curiosity: prepare you mentally and make you receptive. You need to be motivated in one way or another if you are going to bother at all. E.g: At the opening plenary, somebody makes a very nice roll call that makes you interested. Information: New data and information (that fit the motivation) are added. E.g: You ask him about the steps of the roll call and he teaches you the dance. Processing: The brain is searching for new patterns and associations. (Connection to past experiences) E.g: You try to learn it by taking part in his actions, while recalling similar dances you've learnt. Conclusion: AHA! A new gestalt is formed. E.g: AHA! Four steps to the right, four steps to the left… Application: You act according to your understanding. The learning is reinforced. E.g: At the party you are able to dance it and even teach others the steps. Evaluation: Was the learning worth the time and energy spent? E.g: Then you think: “Am I a good dancer?”, “Did I do it right?” Literature 1 Argyris, Chris : Reasoning, Learning and Action: Individual and Organizational. San - National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Francisco u. a. 1982. 2 Bandura, Albert : Sozial-kognitive Lerntheorie. Stuttgart 1979. 3 Dastoor, Barbara : The Psychology of Learning: Speaking Their Language. In: Training & Development Journal. Juni 1993, S. 17ff. 4 Donaldson, Les; Scannell, Edward E. : Human Resource Development, The New Trainer’s Guide. London u. a. 1978. 5 Goleman, Daniel : Emotional Intelligence 6 Hergenhahn, Baldwin R. : An Introduction to Theories of Learning. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. (1982). 7 Herzberg, Frederick : One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? In: Harvard Business Review. 1968, S. 53-62. 8 Kolb, David A. : Experiential Learning: Experiences As the Source of Learning And Development. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 1984. 9 Lefrancois, Guy R. : Psychologie des Lernens. Berlin u. a. 1986. 10 Mandl, Heinz; Reinmann-Rothmeier, Gaby : Auf die Umgebung kommt es an. In: Management & Seminar Jahrbuch 1997, S. 8-10. 11 Megginson, David; Joy-Matthews, Jennifer; Banfield, Paul : Human Resource Development. London 1993. 12 Pawlow, Ivan P. : Die bedingten Reflexe. München 1972. 13 Senge, Peter M. : Die fünfte Disziplin. Stuttgart 1996. 14 Skinner, Burrhus F. : The Behavior of Organisms. New York 1938. 15 Staehle, Wolfgang H. : Management: Eine verhaltenswissenschaftliche Perspektive. München 1994. 16 Steinmann, Horst; Schreyögg, Georg : Management: Grundlagen der Unternehmensführung. Wiesbaden 1991. 17 Thorndike, Edward L. : The Psychology of Learning, Vol. II. New York 1913. 18 Torrence, David R. : Motivating Trainees To Learn. In: Training & Development Journal. März 1993, S. 55-58. 19Vroom, Victor H. : Work and Motivation. New York u. a. 1964.  - National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 More about Communication Body Language Body language is key to the success of your role as a facilitator. There are largely four aspects to body language, which are posture, gestures, movement and eye contact. As well as ensuring

that you use the right body language you need to be able to read the body language of other people. Posture There is no formal rule as to whether you should stand or sit when facilitating although experience demonstrates that standing will give you the authority that you may need together with the ability to take control as appropriate and it also demonstrates a clear confidence in yourself. Sitting down may not demonstrate this authority and level of confidence. You may wish to try a combination of the two. For example, standing when you need to be in control and sitting when you are looking to encourage discussion and debate. The main merit of sitting for debate is that people may engage each other more quickly in conversation rather than trying to maintain eye contact with you as they are prone to if you are standing. The advice is to do what is most comfortable for you but to ensure that you are constantly aware of the impact that your position and posture is having on the workshop participants. In general, your posture will be interpreted as what you think about yourself and the participants. You need to be seen to 'walk tall', which means avoiding averted eyes, hunched shoulders and restless hands. You need to feel comfortable with yourself but at the same time give out an air of authority to the group. Gestures We all have our own gestures, which are just a part of the way that we are. However when we are nervous there is a tendency for such gestures to become exaggerated. Positive gestures are fine and probably the most important of these are to look enthusiastic which is often demonstrated through smiling. Also the use of unexaggerated arm movements to make a point or to draw people can also work very effectively. Movement - National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Movement in a facilitator is key and can be used effectively to draw people in to the discussion and, as appropriate, shut out others. However, do not move the whole time as people may get dizzy simply watching you! Eye contact 'When the eyes say one thing and the tongue another, a practiced man relies on the language of the first'. (Emerson, 1860) Eye contact is a key tool for a facilitator. You can use it to draw people in and shut people out. You can also use it to retake control of the situation by ceasing eye contact with anyone and moving to the front. You can't not communicate Research has shown that when someone gives a spoken message, the listener's understanding and judgement of that message come from: 7% WORDS Words are only labels and listeners put their own interpretation on speakers' words. 38% PARALINGUISTICS The way in which something is said (i.e. accent, tone, inflection, etc.) is very important to a listener's understanding. 55% FACIAL EXPRESSIONS What a speaker looks like while delivering a message affects the listener's understanding most Research source - Albert Mehrabian Listening skills One of the key skills that you need to be an effective facilitator is that of active listening. This will enable you to assimilate what is being said and to summarise and move the discussion on. If you need to work on your listening skills consider asking someone from your department who attends meetings with you to give honest feedback - make it a two way process. - National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Poor Listener Effective Listener Tends to "wool-gather" with slow speakers Thinks and mentally summarizes, weighs the evidence, listens between the lines to tones of voice and evidence Subject is dry so tunes out speaker Finds what's in it for me Distracted easily Fights distractions, sees past bad communication habits, knows how to concentrate Takes intensive notes, but the more notes taken, the less value; has only one way to take notes Has 2-3 ways to take notes and organize important information Is over stimulated, tends to seek and enter into arguments

But why do trainers have to be such "wonder persons? We as trainers have to contribute our part so that the delegates enjoy the seminar. I listen.  Use „I„ statements.eulogy: all good results should be underlined.  Focus feedback on observations rather than inferences/interpretations/conclusions. People usually appreciate the opportunity to assess themselves first.Doesn't judge until comprehension is complete Inexperienced in listening to difficult material. I avoid letting my emotions either prevent me from hearing or distort what I am hearing.patience: especially weaker delegates need it to be integrated into the group . has usually sought light. Some fundamental attitudes are: .self discipline: give a good example. I ask about the impact of my behaviour. .National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 The Role of a Trainer 1. Describe the impact this observable behaviour has on you. . because the trainer is responsible for the fact that the delegates learn something. explaining or justifying. Refer to what a person does rather than comment on what we imagine he is.  I thank other people for giving me feedback. recreational materials Uses "heavier" materials to regularly exercise the mind Lets deaf spots or blind words catch his or her attention Interpret colour words. This list can be carried on eternally. Leave the person free to decide for himself whether he wants to change or out Judges content.  If possible ask people for their assessment before providing yours.  Focus feedback on the value it may have to the recipient.  I acknowledge my emotions.and group-processes  keeps the run. especially his delegates  keeps an overview over the learn.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007  Focus feedback on description rather than judgement. etc.friendliness.  I avoid being defensive. thus only some more points:  flexibility  well organised  humorous  integrates everyone  excellent special knowledge  does not keep people at a distance  motivates  has social competence  enthusiastic in his task  open minded  directs himself to everybody. Receiving Feedback  I look on feedback as an opportunity to learn and improve. 1. and are often more critical of themselves. What is a good trainer? A good trainer should possess a whole list of good attributes that qualify him for his mission. this can also be done by body language. not on the value or „release„ that it provides the person giving the feedback.  Confirm that people have understood and encourage them to respond. and doesn't get hung up on them Shows no energy output Holds eye contact and helps speaker along by showing an active body state Judges delivery -. it signals a positive attitude towards the topic and the participants . The actual impact of my behaviour may be different from my intent.fairness: all are treated equally . The role of a trainer . the trainer should not allow himself moods .  If not clear. then ask questions and paraphrase to check my understanding. skips over delivery errors Listens for facts Listens for central ideas Feedback Giving Feedback  Focus feedback on behaviour rather than on the person.  Focus feedback on the sharing of ideas and information rather than on giving advice.

The delegates have to be challenged in their . As a trainer you must bear in mind that all reactions and uttering are observed thoroughly and are judged upon. Other important points are the structure of his training. Do not let yourself lose the run!  technical failures Either refrain from using the device or make a break in order to find a solution. Only through continuous self-control the trainer can stay up to date. e. what gives me satisfaction? 2. What do I as a trainer see as a success. If nothing else helps. 2.  Blackout/ lost the run: You should always have your notes at hand. in every training there will be situations you would like to avoid. If they do not react to this.g. The group processes under way can only be solved by the delegates themselves. i. That means that the trainer has to be well prepared. etc. so that the whole group may suffer from it.e. when. How do I get those experiences of success. If it does not work after all.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Every trainer should always keep in mind that he has the function of a role model for the partcipants. stay calm and relax! It is best to make a break. his behaviour should be reliable and transparent. their expectations are not fulfilled. Conflict situations (What happens. What are the advantages of my behaviour in relation to the delegates? 4. Herewith it is important for the delegates that they can orientate themselves at the trainer. like the basic idea of the discuttion is not clear. the setting of priorities. The trainer must not get involved into conflicts between delegates. because the delegates automatically adjust themselves at him/her. organised and structured. A positive behaviour of a trainer shows in the knowledge he has about theories and the practicing by certain methods.) In our trainings there are not only angels. also to see where you are. that are often perfectioned through the experience of success. Of course every trainer wishes to act. about the inner attitude. the realistic evaluation of situations. Therefore you should seek eye contact with the participants first. as they have seen you with their own eyes!! The own style also has to correspond with the learning experiences and expectations of the different groups of delegates. We have a variety of kinds of trainers and that is good. how the connections are. maybe you have to talk to someone who has experienced you or you ask yourself with what kind of trainer you do not get along well or which kind you liked very much! Therefore. the trainer can only give his support. Many things can be studied in theory.  Silence Can have different causes. This is especially true for his weaknesses. how he motivates.. The experiences you make there should be centre of a self critical reflection from time to time. repeat the mispronounced word. They expect that he sets a clear frame. react or respond in the right way.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 "force".. but also for his strengths. make a pause and ask if you can participate in the conversation. how interactive.  The delegates are talking among themselves: This can be a signal that the delegates are not challenged enough or that someone does not dare to speak out loud his feelings and thoughts. how he reacts to questions or interruptions. That are the points that determine the quality of a trainer. Thus. e. he is expected to integrate everybody and to direct himself to everyone. whether he has enough time. honesty towards the delegates will help!  Errors in words/wrong pronunciation Keep on talking in a relaxed way. thrilling it is.g. What may be the disadvantages? . feedback of the delegates should be taken very seriously. because not everybody can work with everyone. so that new risks and conflicts can arise.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Surely those questions are not easy to answer. As he is the formal leader of the group. You should not have too many illusions about this. Every trainer has his strengths and weaknesses he should always be conscious of. There are also interruptions that can be caused by single delegates. but only experiences in practice let you get more routine. Here are four questions that every trainer should ask himself about his personal preferences: 1. The delegates are afraid of exposing themselves in front of the group. what behaviour and strategies are important there? 3.. But this resistance will only grow stronger if you try to break it with . It often helps to repeat or to summarize the last point. especially at the weader delegates of his group. Thus the trainer should be flexible and adjust himself to the situation. the delegates are not challenged enough.

do not exagerate . can be a sign that someone does not like to be confronted with others. they can formulate their disgut in a constructive way. For the group this behavior is little satisfying.g.objective. The person who gives the feedback does not give tips in how far the receiver should change. One person systematically presents information. Too much talking. you should direct your words dirctly to him/her so that he/she will get into contact with the group again. It is strongly influenced by the personality of the speaker.thank the person for it . e. Here the concrete behaviour of the receiver is addressed and criticised. Only by this feelings and demands can be made explicit without hurting the other. He is not only the leader of the seminar. as he feels attacked personally. 1. Consequently his word weighs double. then you should inhibit after a while and point out that others want to be able to talk as not comment .accept it . This method uses one person’s point of view. It is important for the group that the delegates have a well developed feedback system in order to treat each other effectively. The person feels save in his position in the center of interest as he can now control what is going on. but become inquiet. Processes that illustrate techniques and skills can be visually presented. one channel of communication.g. by a check of expectations in order to understand the attitude of the delegate. diverse materials and ideas can be arranged in an orderly system. not forget positive things . If there are no reasonable feedback rules. the easier it is to have feedback. 2. but several times. e.g. The trainer should try to find out the reasons. This is especially true for the trainer.make clear: personal opinion . do not become personal . The Debate 1. and not only once. The trainer should in any case treat the topic. In feedback we generally distinguish into three forms:  Evaluative feedback contains an evaluation of the other open and honest . It only causes a contra reaction in the receiver and demands a clarification by the sender. Demonstrations 1. etc.  Constructive feedback is the most effective of all in the I-form . The sender also defines clearly his own resulting feelings. Feedback oder criticism from the trainer? . the scale is the weakest part of the chain.  Being bored The delegates are unhappy in any form that they do not want to express. and no group participation. but is often attributed special knowledge.directly afterwards. If the delegates know how to use them. they have to inform themselves about what kind of behaviour is expected from each participant. you are lazy. through a spontaneous feedback round. they do not talk problems within the group but complain outside! The more advanced the delegates are. In this context the feedback rules that have been established are important. Mostly they express their anger later.  Talk too much If someone holds a monologue. What you should take into consideration: sender of feedback receiver of feedback . This technique provides for limited participation by group members. like silence. A process is performed before an audience. If a single participant is silent. and results of particular procedures can be shown.  Expressive feedback only expresses the personal feelings.seminar. do not wait hours .make an analysis of yourself . ready for it . Maximum information is presented in a limited time. They do not develop a "we-feeling". with reproach in front of someone else. This usually causes a reaction of defence in the concerned person. e. 3.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 If the delegates of a group want to work with each other effectively. Two sides of an issue are presented by speakers under the direction of a .National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Different Ways to Bring the Message Information Receiving The Lecture 1.

which adds interest and emotional appeal and encourages discussion. Many needs of group members can be met with this method. 3. This technique can produce excellent audience involvement and it encourages creativity. 2. several people discuss an issue in front of an audience. A question-and-answer session can easily become threatening. and a large group can be divided into small groups for the activity. and involvement. Symposium 1. Groups identify as many ideas related to a problem or topic as possible without evaluating quality or practicality of the ideas. expands their . and coordinate. too formal. An opportunity is provided for a maximum discussion in a limited time. The discussion may be shallow. experiences and opinions. Listening Team 1. clarify. 3. Two people informally discuss a topic before an audience. Group Discussions 1. Discussion Question-and-Answer Sessions Responses are solicited by inquiries. thereby promoting involvement and enthusiasm. The audience becomes involved. which can be highly interesting to the participants.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Buzz Groups 1. A skilful moderator is needed to keep the panel on the topic and to keep any of the members from monopolizing the discussion. or too informal. Dialog 1. this method can be helpful when the content is difficult. and the quality depends on the team members. Clarification can be provided to answer specific needs. 2. and capable leadership. This method. . two or more people share knowledge. frequently after all members of the panel have made their initial presentations. Information finding A Field Trip or Tour 1. A visit to a place of interest is arranged for direct observation and study.moderator. 2. interest. To reach an agreement or gain a better understanding. 3. Several people with different points of view make presentations. A dialog needs careful planning to keep it from becoming disorganized or dominated by the personalities of the participants.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 2. 2. Brainstorming 1. Under the direction of a moderator. nor are they usually helpful when the group is large. . Information is provided in an informal setting. 1. embarrassing. 2. patience. 2. this technique needs speakers with equal ability and a skilful moderator. it can be done quickly. 3. a full-panel discussion is held. This method presents several viewpoints on a topic. Large groups are divided into smaller groups (frequently containing five to ten members) to discuss a particular topic and report back to the large group. 3. they require time. The different viewpoints stimulate thinking. and this method is easily combined with other techniques. often the presentations are followed by a question-and-answer session directed by a moderator. disorganized. Panel 1. 3. or dominated by one or two people. Issue can be sharpened. 2. . because it provides a high degree of interaction. which can come either from a leader to a member of the audience or from a member of the audience to either a leader of another member of the audience. To work effectively. Debates can easily become too emotional and a good moderator should be present to mediate differences. and interest can reach a high level. This technique can be time consuming.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 3. 3. 2. build on ideas. 2. Group discussions may not provide authoritative information. helping the resource person to meet the needs of the group. evaluate. questions can be clarified. dull. A team from the audience reacts to a presentation by a resource person in order to raise questions or clarify and summarize the presentation. Creative thinking may be inhibited (and the method fail) unless participants adhere strictly to the guidelines and refrain from making evaluative comments.

A case study may be difficult to develop. This method is entertaining. This method is time consuming and requires a great deal of organization. These games provide a safe environment for practicing new behaviour. 2. equipment and/or materials necessary to use the techniques readily available? More on methods…   LECTURE Structured talk. values. Effective skits require advance preparation and adequate processing. role-playing can become merely entertaining or too artificial. 2. How many participants will there be? What are the characteristics of these participants? What expectations do they have in terms of the techniques to be used – and ate they capable of learning through those techniques? Characteristics of the teaching techniques themselves. Are the costs. Unless carefully handled. Case Study 1. enhancing thinking skills. Are the space. usually the roleplay is followed by analysis and evaluation. This technique requires participants to use higher learning processes and helps them to apply principles. Are the instructors capable of using the techniques. or it can be interspersed to emphasize certain elements of a training session. This technique can provide first-hand information and practical experience. and do they feel comfortable in doing so? Content. equipment and materials. and they may be expensive to develop. flipchart & slides  Suitable for large audiences where participation is not required  Allows content & timing to be planned in detail in advance  Lively presentation style is needed  Regular change of pace of media . if any.understanding and broadens their interest. Is the content abstract or concrete? What is the level of complexity and comprehensiveness of the material? Participants. and participants are given instructions about dealing with the situation or finding a solution. and participants spontaneously act out a situation. it involves every member of a group. Group Project 1. 3. What can be realistically be done with the techniques? Time. 3. What time period is available? Cost. Roles are assigned. 3. Unless sufficient time is allowed for discussing the process. Games may encourage a false sense of confidence in handling a real-life situation. Dramatization Role Playing 1. it can be used to introduce a topic. and it can provide insights on teamwork 3. A description of a situation or an event is supplied. and/or feelings? Instructors. 2. Games are fashioned from actual situations in order to explore concepts and to practice behaviour.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 2. Is the focus of the objectives acquiring new knowledge. the project tends to become an end in itself. supported by visual aids: OHP foils. and usually rehearsed performance to convey a message or to pretend or interpret a situation. it can provide interest. at least to a degree. . . planned. 3. or changing attitudes. This method provides opportunities to “feel” human relations situations and to experiment with possible solutions or interactions. often supported by a handout. they encourage active learning.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Selecting Instructional Techniques There are eight major factors that should be taken into consideration when choosing instructional techniques: Learning objectives. Group members cooperatively work on a project. and it is time consuming for groups to work through the case study and report their discussions. and they can be fun and challenging. Simulation Games 1. developing psychomotor skills. Skits 1. without adequate discussion prior to and following the visit. associated with the techniques chosen realistic? Space. The skit is a short. especially if adequate data are not available. 2. the learning may be limited.

which encourage learning by analyzing the case. A controlled discussion follows the prepared agenda of the leader/trainer. exNCVPX.  Can help promote group development or cohesion  Allows for the expressions of ideas and the development or adjustment of opinions  Can be very time consuming CASE STUDY Written examination/description of a situation.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 range of emotions  Enable rapid trainer and/or co-trainer and/or participant feedback/coaching  Opportunity to try again embarassment for participants COACHING A process where a ‘coach’ through discussion helps a couchee to learn to solve a problem or complete a task  Task-oriented approach  Used to develop both individuals  Coaching demands high level of interpersonal skills  Results usually take time to be achieved DISCUSSION Free exchange of opinions and information that can be open or controlled.„ (Jochen Mez.. .. about his workshop on WeastCo ’96 in Bayreuth) What is moderation. so I concentrated on moderating. 1. often based on real life. An open discussion follows the member’s priority. step CLOSING . Low level of interaction & feedback  Difficult to assess what has been communicated ROLE-PLAY The enacting of roles in a ‘safe’ training environment  Face-to-face situations  Allow participants to experience a full  Needs a lot of planning to be realistic  If not managed properly. the moderation cycle.? When we talk about moderation we generally mean the method of moderation. defining the problem(s) & proposing solution(s)  Opportunities of analysis & individual or group discussion on key points of case and problem solving  Difficult in large group  May oversimplify the true complexity of a situation ROLE-REVERSAL Enactment of reversed roles by the learners in a simulation so that they can appreciate the other person’s situation and/or feelings  Usually face-to-face where it enables people to appreciate the other persons position  The same as role plays Some more tips… Nobody has learnt how to swim reading guidelines “How to swim effectively” in his/her bed..National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Moderation „I did not know any more what was going on in my workshop. This is a special kind of organising working in groups.step INTRODUCTIO N 6.. it can lead to . having the following characteristics: • a special behavior of the leader (moderator) • procedure according to certain rules (methods) • using certain tools (materials) A moderation according to this definition is oriented in a certain scheme.

step PLAN ACTIONS 3. according to the situation • several-points-questioning ⇒At the end of step 2: collect topics ⇒At the beginning of step 3: select topic • topic memory ⇒At the end of step 2: collect topics ⇒At the beginning of step 3: select topic • mind-mapping ⇒step 4: work on topic • peonza ⇒step 4: work on topic • plan of actions ⇒step 5: plan actions • mood barometer ⇒can be used at all times . finding the solutions to its questions and problems and solving them itself.2. but asks questions. He dos not say what is right or wrong. Thus the moderator does not appear as a person who makes statements and gives answers. The methods of moderation The central method of moderation is the question. how could it be different. Questions make it possible to: • integrate all participants • make moods transparent • make the knowledge of the participants evident • achieve consensus in the group • coordinate steps of work The most important kinds of questions are: • open question • closed question • alternative question • rhetoric question • contra-question • reciprocting question Besides the question there are. depends largely on the preparation. A thorough procedure includes the following points: • prepartion for the target group • thoughts about the aims • planning of the methodology • prepartion of the visualization • organizational preparation This summary is based on Seifert/Pattay: Visualisieren-Präsentieren-Moderieren. which can be agregated to the phases of moderation: • matrix of getting-to-know ⇒step 1: introduction/orientation • personal description ⇒step 1: introduction/orientation • expectaion check ⇒step 1: introduction/orientation • brainstorming ⇒step 2: collect topics or ⇒step 4: work on topic • questioning with cards ⇒step 2: collect topics or accoding to the situation in every other step.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 The moderator of a group is characterised by a very specific attitude. The quality of the result is the responsibility of the group itself. his methodology and his behavior in or towards the group. of course. Literature . step COLLECT TOPICS 5. Especially three components influence the interdependence between aparition and work of the moderator: His personality. • questioning through ⇒step 2: collect topics or according to the situation in every . what has to be done or has to be avoided. • flipchart and paper • pinwall and paper • markers • tape • cards (different formats) • scissors • needles • point stickers Preparation of a moderation The success of a moderation.. • one-point-questioning ⇒can be used in every step. step WORK ON TOPIC The role of the moderator . step SELECT TOPIC 4.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Tools/material for a moderation The following selection of material is vast. He is assistant and companion of the group. more methods. i.e. The moderator has the resposability that the group reaches a result. He helps the group to work responsibly. but as we all know you can compensate a lot by improvisation.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 acclamation other step..

Role-Play g. 2 Sperling. Beamer c. When? d. Who? b. Use the tool called Outline of the session 6. Structure of session a. 7% of what they hear and 41% of what they feel/experience. How long? Etc… 2. a. SEX – find out a. Use logistic – Visuals a. so that they can apply when they are preparing and giving presentations.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 High learning in subgroup ◊ watch-outs very time consuming almost no control ◊ applications different aspects of same subject 2.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 b. 1.. 3 Neuland. Simulations e. Silvia : Visualisieren-Präsentieren-Moderieren. . Personal reflection i. 1996. Fair. Key messages 4. Josef W. Experiments show that delegates recall 52% of what they saw. process feedback Sub-group discussions ◊ Strengths everybody has contribution . Fish Bowl h. Flipchart .1 Seifert.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 How to Design a Session BIG STEPS in the designing process: 1. Brain Storming c. Karin u. How? e. Where? c. Each of us has a preferred channel of remembering data. Eichenzell 1995 4 Klebert. Techniques that you can use a. : Führungsaufgabe Moderation. So it is extremely important to use the three aspects in your presentation. Pattay. Show f. Approach: Intro – Body – Ending b. Jan B. Objectives of the session 3. Michele : Neuland-Moderation. The human brain stores information. Visual Hand-outs ◊ Strengths high volume of correct knowledge ◊ Watch-outs hand out before or after the presentation ◊ application as reference . taste or smell. etc…) 5.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Use of Tools Of course the aim of each training is that the delegates remember more easily what was said. Hamburg 1987. Others…. : Moderationsmethode. Speyer 1993. Verbal Brainstorming ◊ Strengths builds on diversity wealth of ideas ◊ watch-outs evaluations of ideas time consuming ◊ applications collecting new ideas Full group discussions ◊ strengths Builds on diversity interactive ◊ watch-outs might end without conclusion time-control strained relations ◊ Applications Develop ideas. Overhead Projector . (Museum. Working Groups d. Presentation b.

but don’t forget to explain them  never talk when writing on the flipchart  do not cover the chart with your body when writing → practice writing  important note that you may not forget can be put on the back of the flipchart  KISS Keep it simple stupid : maximum 6 lines of text maximum 6 words Because we perceive pictures with our eyes. thus only a few remarks: flipchart: popular in AIESEC events because of its easy handling. PowerPoint ◊ Strengths clarity ◊ watch-outs keep them simple sleepy while dark software compatibility you need dark room ◊ applications presentations for larger audience Visualisation Why visualization?: Herewith I aim at the specialisation of both parts of the brain. Thus the right part of the brain „thinks in pictures and remembers especially emotions. emotions and experiences. verbal communication and thus the memory for words and languages. controlled. readable at 6 feet keep it simple limit the number and put numbers on each slide .National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Some Flip-tips :  if you need to build up a very complicated picture you can draw before on the flipchart in pencil. nobody will notice this  whenever possible prepare the flipcharts in advance (especially when you have a bad handwriting)  put tab sections (post-it) with heading for easy references or cut corners of the flipcharts you need quick access to  leave blank sheets of paper if you want people to listen to something you are going to tell  tape important flipcharts around the room where they can be easily seen and used as a reference  use abbreviations. logics. 6 words. visual perception stimulates mostly the right part of the brain. on the other hand. While the left part is specialised in digital thinking. .flipchart ◊ Strengths by build up: interactive. mathematics. hiding writing record input literally changing papers is sometimes difficult ◊ applications training and presentation in not too big groups overhead ◊ Strengths catches attention long retention time clarity ◊ watch-outs 6 lines. we have to stimulate both parts of the brain => visualization How do I use media correctly?: Well known topic. use recommended for groups of maximally 15 persons advantages: • transportable • Possibility to prepare charts • Development can be seen step by step • by putting the paper on the wall the result is kept visible disadvantages> • Trainer shows back while writing • changing the paper is difficult (practise before. prepared: correct and organized ◊ watch-outs location. like how to cut the paper) • result cannot be given directly to the delegates to take them home • correcting is difficult and often looks ugly . This side is mainly responsible for our creativity. language.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 ◊ applications training and presentation slides (dia). The right part. specialises in analogical and visual thinking. If we want to reach our delegates on an analytical level as well as on an emotional level to enable them to have a holistic learning experience.

All cards are put up. otherwise you can see shivering hands (otherwise use cocktail sticks as pointer) • read from the slide and not from the wall • Overlay-technic • use more than one color • do not put more than 3 pieces of information on one slide (better use a larger font instead) . With the groups you should not work according the principle: less groups are better.k. advantages: • direction of you view is the group. In this case it is easily possible that you get the same words several times. only clarifying words by the person who has written the respective card. it does not fit in and cannot be talked into it. put a pen on top. often used for the agenda check. because within AIESEC the technique is often used in an incorrect way.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 - . In a short time you can collect the ideas of the group and structure them. most of the time you cannot rely on having an OHP.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Pin board with metaplancards: is sufficient for groups up to 10 persons. except for the case that it is a big group. you will loose your credibility for the delegates. i. only scarcly at disposition in AIESEC meetings. When you use illogical reasons why a card should be put just at that place. you never lose visual contact with the group • possibility of preparing beautiful slides (greetings from PPT) • by overlaying you can illustrate developments • can be copied=> result can be given fast to the group as a handout • if using non-permanent markers you can correct the writing • slides can be re-used disadvantages: • it has to be possible to dim the light in the room • too much information on one page • own size of writing is hard to calculate • a lot of technic. After giving the topic it should be clear to everybody that every card is used for one argument only with maximally 3-4 words. It is important to make clear how the technique is to be used.e. clarify with the OC whether you will have one. that the words that appear double or more times are not put up. a lot of blackouts how to use: • the standard position of the projector is „OFF“  • do not use bright colors • when pointing in the slide. advantages: • very interactive media • integration of all participants is easily possible • relatively anonymous in a brainstorming disadvantages: • when carried out correctly it needs a lot of time how to use: • keep a reserve of cards for participants who want to write a lot • if short in time use harsh timelimit (nevertheless a form of brainstorming) • make clear to every delegate how important the writing is. group work and brainstorming. all cards are read out loud and clustered at the pin board. using the explanation that the pin board will be hard to overlook with so many cards. use well readable handwriting in printed letters only! After collecting the cards. As last step you search headings for the clusters to make the result easier to overlook. The writer also decides where the card should be put.• good handwriting is vital how to use: • do speak into the direction of the audience. No criticism (form of brainstorming). if you really want to use it. never speak and write at the same time • do not cover chart with your body (practice writing and the side of your body) • prepare tape at the chart for hanging up the paper • if necessary you can put notes and hints at the back of the flipchart . especially in large . If something does not fit in.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 groups • reading and clustering should be done by a member of the group OHP: can be used up to the sice of an auditorium. But you should ask the group whether it is o.

Colors should be varied. • flow: The flow of a presentation will be treated extensively in the context of the planning of a training. graphics: • to emphasize e. Even if you know the OC. slide or poster. not more than 4 colors per flipchart. Having worked through the material you know what you want to use from that yourself. open to the trainer. an expressive slide at the beginning) a surprising statistic an unknown statistic a promise a short introduction of the main argument or the aim of the session. what . writing: • It is a point of discussion whether or not to use only capital letters. e. Opening/ Main part/ closing/ follow-up of a presentation: Although these parts are mentioned individually. main part and closing. To make an alinement of the whole training towards this aim possible. but the flight itself should be better done by the autopilot. • opening: Some possibilities for an opening might be e. making it clear with colours or underlining. • preparation: get used to the room. excellent knowledge trasfer or motivation of the delegates. is not the problem. i. let them develop their own ideas and do only interfer if the plane seems to be crashing. Make sure that every delegate can see. Diagrams are hardly used by AIESECtrainers and symbols are used automatically by most people. Still there should be so much flexibility that you can react to the needs of your delegates spontaneously.g. in your folders. • If you tend to „fall“ with your writing when writing from the side of the flipchart. a slideshow. . . etc. On the basis of this you should collect information in the respective areas. so that the delegates can see each other and thus can discuss better with each other. I want them to be seen as a unity. use headings and sub-points. although mostly standardised symbols.g. i. most of the time.g.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 is actually the aim of the training.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 The sense of the opening is to relax the situation and build up curiosity. better check you material. because the trainers usually have a high knowledge in thier speciality and thus know much about their topic. Build up the flipchart or the pinboard or whatever you might need or have. writing • to make „dry“ topics more „digestible“ • e. Aims can be e. Put the chairs as you want them to be. etc.g. a story at the beginning (functions as an icebreaker at the same time) a visual tool (a video. manuals from the NC or other countries. He should prepare the start and landing very well (e. with notes). in the folders of the LC. • topic: the topic. That means for us: let the delegate work themselves. but do not kill the delegates with too many colors. calling the NC. mark lines on the paper with a pencil or use the paper with the printed lines. because this part seems to be less interesting for a normal AIESEC-training.g. Moreover.e. according to my point of view.g. They often confuse it with the contents. Do not make it too long. Here you should focus on opening. • content: To get the content it is useful to ask youself questions like what would have helped me at the beginning of my time as a member of the EB. You can compare it to a pilot. In AIESEC you mostly use a semicircle. This means you should think in advance whether the flow of your agenda has sense and is understandable for everyone. frames and clouds diagrams: • are very useful when you want to illustrate the relation of two variables • developments can be shown with line-diagrams • illustrating amounts you can use „diagramas de barras“ How do I put the visualization into the correct order? It is important to treat symmetry and order because that is like the usual flow in AIESEC.e. he has to be clear about his aims first. but it should be printed letters. it shall be made clear that developments from the left bottom corner to the right top cormer are seen as positive and a development from the left top corner to the right bottom corner as negative (think about business administration).How do I use elements of visualization correctly? Best only make a short presentation of this topic. • The writing should be structured. • main part: The main part should be characterized by a logical structure. How do I prepare myself? • aim: it is not completely clear to most trainers.

 If you know that this particular person will act like that during training.  If he is smarter then you on some topic. It's a type of a person which likes to over fuck training.  The totally last possible option is to ask him to shut up!!! .National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Gripper Gripper What is he doing? What is he doing?  Has attitude like: „we can't do this.  Stop him by asking him very hard question.  Tell you agree with him and go on if it's possible. if they like his behavior . You can feel aggression in him.g. this will give him something to do and can make him quiet. The loss of information is smaller when you introduce your fresh impressions into you concept directly after the meeting and not with a huge time distance. it's impossible” .only negative have to be bright and fast.• closing: Some possibilities for a closing might be.  Use him in some role play or case in front of everybody. this will give him something to do and can make him quiet.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 How to handle difficult delegates Heckler Heckler What is he doing? What is he doing?  Asks questions: Why? How? Etc. How to deal with him? How to deal with him?  Never show him that you're sad or mad at him. talk to him before you start a training. a summary (within AIESEC often useful for a repeated representation of the topic) treating the main point again an extract or a poem (but be careful.  Send him to bring you a cup of coffee or coffee break for the group.  Gets satisfaction from being pain in the neck. How to deal with him? How to deal with him?  Don't let him put you out of your nerves! Avoid direct confrontation! You have to feel the situation. As feedback in AIESEC meetings is often not given as extremely as it should be. but not to hard. maybe he can share his knowledge with us?”.  Ask him to write on a flipchart.  Try to find ripostes for his texts .  Have strong eye contact with him. e.  Will try to make you "kozioł ofiarny". you should learn to read between the lines and visualize again in which situations you think of your own performance as good or bad. otherwise it is ridiculous) an appeal. thank him and go back to the topic. just to make trainer some troubles.. e. it's very hard to stop him. . e.not to get answer. for activity (often used within AIESEC.  Ask him for facts.  Try to figure out if he feels comfortable in the group. use his knowledge.  Is aggressive and likes to argue.  Wait for something concrete and ask group about it. pay big attention to him but not too much. it should only be used when it really fits the situation.  Is very annoying.  Tell to the group: „Ooh! As you can see we have an expert here.  Interrupt him and ask group to comment it.  Is well informed and likes to show this.  Ask him to write on a flipchart.  If you feel you can make laugh of him.  Play ping-pong with him or the group with his questions.  Ask him to wait for you after training for a little conversation.  Probably doesn't feel comfortable.  Is asexual exhibitionist – likes to be in the center of attention.  Give him your respect (approbation).National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Talker / Know All Talker / Know All What is he doing? What is he doing?  Loves to talk. in a case or role-play. as it also has a motivational effect) a visual tool (see above) follow-up: Part of the responsible follow-up for an AIESEC-trainer should be to treat the feedback with responsibility. . How to deal with him? How to deal with him?  Wait when he takes a breath. ask questions.if yes.  If it occurs he knows something.  Show his incompetence and lack of knowledge.g.g. or give him your . put them on sides like in school. ask him to lead the group. do it. .

How to deal with him? How to deal with him?  Ask him simple questions. Go to toilet before 6.otherwise he will get closed. sometimes critical. yawns .  Stop talking.  Is bored.  If this person makes bored positions .  Make him tell to all participants what he wants to change to make situation better.  If they are more.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Silent One Silent One Silent One . 2.  Be careful and do not pay all your attention to him . Blow your nose before 7. let him feel that if he says something it will give benefit to all the group.  When you're talking about something. talks.  Avoid asking group to tell their opinion one after another. you can add reasons why we met on this training.  Listen to what he says.  Ask him to share his opinion and thoughts with the group.. so he's looking for a pair. .play role-play solve case (usually people like him have a lot of energy). If there is more than one trainer.  Try to involve him into training .ask him for attention and tell his behavior interrupts you in training.”. You have to take into consideration the level of understanding of the audience 3. Include buffer time in your sessions 4.  Create pleasant atmosphere in group – beer.attention before training.  Talk to him using his name.ask him to share his experience with us. How to deal with him? How to deal with him?  Smile on with the group about something not connected with the topic.  Before's easier to integrate them and make some people open.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Whisperer Whisperer What is he doing? What is he doing?  Doesn't understand what is going on but tries to explain and make it more clear to the others.. not to many colors and strange combinations of colors. put them on sides (whisperer and his pair). say the name of this person.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Tips & Tricks 1. Be in all the plenary (opening and close) .  Is shy.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Training & Team Building Bibliography .lies down. he may be right sometimes. There is always one of them but has to talk to someone. have pre-meeting 5. Last but not least have decent cloths.  Doesn't believe in himself.  Use his statements to make group laugh. . In Working Groups address delegates by names (they all have badges) 9.person which is Lost What is he doing? What is he doing?  Doesn't feel safe. wait if he notices it and non-verbally ask for permission to continue the training.  Make interactions in small groups .give him an ultimatum: "You will calm down or leave the room!!!". as he was just a part of your statement  Say: "I'm very sorry for interrupting but we're having training here.  Use step by step influencing on him (from small manipulation to bigger).  Last possible case: if he is really not interested.  Has inputs and tell stories and makes jokes of your training. Silent One . try to engage him. ask him to leave the room .person which is Bored What is he doing? What is he doing?  Is always bored and not active at all – you can see he doesn't give even 1/16 of what he could. Take care what you eat/drink and in what quantities 8. some people don't like this.  Show him that one of the conditions of this session is having constructive and positive attitude. Interact with delegates during the conferences 10. How to deal with him? How to deal with him?  Use light-house technique – have eye contact with all the participants of the group including himself.  Use him as a help with exercises.  Make him feel comfortable.  Raise his ego.  Ask him difficult concrete questions. Clothes to be comfortable. "break ice" first . nervous. . put legs on chairs.  Talk to him using his name as to a person which knows a lot .  He's over fucking trainer. safe.

The McGraw-Hill Companies. and self-management.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 38 creative games and activities for small. Dubuque. 1995. Ken. relationships. Carmine M. team building. surfacing problems. Learn to juggle. 1997. teaching .. Learning Unlimited Corporation. Houston. Then build it into your training. communication. 1998. 1995. Shortz. New York. The Encyclopedia of Games for Trainers. New York. mid-course energizers. 1993. Newstrom. and large groups. New York. McGraw-Hill. New York. IA. and process improvement. Organizational Design and Development. 1992. efficiency. CA. John & Rimbeaux. Cassidy. direction.. 1991. evaluation. Inc. New York. Rohnke. Categories include creativity. Lakewood Books. resource management. Gardner. Matti K. Jones.). Publishing Company. medium. Puzzles and exercises that make people think. perception. people skills. Duluth. McGraw-Hill. New Games for the Whole Family. and communication. TX. Mel. opening up creativity. 50 one-hour designs for leadership training. decision making. MN. B. Learning Unlimited Corporation. 1978. 35 creative games and activities that address issues including trust. & P. and relaxing into stillness. geometry.Arch. and organizational problems. Brain Twisters from The First World Puzzle Championships. Klutz Press.. MA. Consalvo. Good for team building. Quicksilver. Martin. Aha. presentation boosters. and personal exercises (communication. New York.C. Includes games for openers. 1998. Imaginative Events for Training. 1992. Workplay. Belknap. HRD Press. trust. Ken. Gulf Publishing Company. and more. OK. Inc. facilitator/presentation skills.. procedural and word aha’s. Mind Body Magic: Creative Activities for Any Audience. Tricks for Trainers. and more. 1988.. Advanced Games for Trainers. 1993. Silberman. 18 structured activities in a wide range of learning themes. Kirby. Short and long activities in lots of areas: creativity. MN. Dennis. Putnam Publishing. Jones. 1998.. Feeding the Zircon Gorilla and Other Team Building Activities. Andy. King of Prussia. ed. number. 101 Ways to Make Training Active. Robert. Resources for Organizations. San Diego. John & Scannell. Adventure games. problem solving. Minneapolis. Categories include stretching mind and body. managing change. team building. OK. Detailed instructions for interventions for solving team. Palo Alto. 100 Training Games. Includes tips for active training and activities for getting participation. 1997. Handbook of Leadership Training Activities. Karl & Butler. initiative problems. learning. PA. Will. Whole Person Associates. Amherst. 1988. Tulsa. The book for every library on how to make training creative in a gazillion ways. Edward. New York. New York. B. The Big Books of Business Games. 57 magic tricks to build into your presentation. Inc.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Categories include icebreakers. group. trust activities. Pike. McGraw-Hill. Kendall/Hunt Publishing. Sikes. Martha.. Categories include combinatorial. Executive Marbles. leadership. communication. Kinlaw.. 1995. Kroehnert. Dave. Naper. Sam. Sikes. exercises. Inc. Gary. A sourcebook of games. Juggling for the Complete Klutz. McGraw-Hill. Dale N. Active and cooperative games you can adapt for small and large groups at work. etc. activating energy.. Icebreakers. Lefevre. icebreakers. 1990. 1993. creative problem solving. Tulsa. Scientific American. and simulations. and a guide to effective leadership. 1997. motivators. Steve. . Creative Training Techniques Handbook. Puzzles to get people thinking differently. Sam. conflict. communication. leadership. Rodney & Gershenfeld. logic. . Pfeiffer & Company.

(2) To promote feedback and self-disclosure among participants regarding initial perceptions. to say your first name and what you want to bring. 1994. MA. I am going on a world trip and I am taking Tomatoes with me. Steve. My name is Tom. "None of us knows any other's name. Detailed instructions for using and modifying the "group grope" game – a small group activity that can be played in 30 minutes. (2) A copy of the Labeling Category List for each participant. 101 Great Games & Activities. Each participant must copy each category on a separate blank nametag. Amherst. and motivation. action planning. San Francisco. Procedure: The group leader distributes a copy of the Labeling Category List to each participant along with blank name tags. 1994. Instructions and examples of games using cold. celebration. change management. . application planning. (See below). 1994. problem solving. The teacher enters the group and introduces the game by saying. McGrawHill. Amherst.. You have to bring the right thing. Snow. communication. 1998.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 . MA. ed. Inc. Cash Games. Labeling Category List: Warm Intelligent Shy Happy Fun loving Friendly Sexy Sincere Mysterious . Games That Teach: Experiential Activities for Reinforcing Training. Wakeling. The first letter of our first name must be the first letter of the thing you bring. . MA. San Francisco. leadership. Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer. Thiagarajan. Thiagarajan. 1998. Lewis Carroll’s Games and Puzzles. and closing. diversity. Sivasailam. Triangles. These are some of the puzzles he used in his teaching. Arthur. Stick label onto clothing of the person you select and engage in a one-minute conversation (20 minutes). Time: Approx. New York. evaluation. Solem. HRD Press. reviewing information. Lewis Carroll taught mathematics at Oxford University. Materials: (1) 12 blank sticky labels or strips of masking tape for each participant. 50 Creative Training Closers. San Francisco. Categories include career development. 1997. HRD Press. and values. Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer. VanGundy. Dover Publications. goal setting. Bob. The group leader forms groups of 5-7 members. Sivasailam. (3) Pencils or felt-tipped markers.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 WORLD TRIP Aims: To find out the names of other members in the group To provide low risk activity To stimulate logical thought Description A game to help group members learn each other's names Approach The group could be sitting on the floor. energizers. Amherst.information. Each group must discuss their reactions to being categorized and labeled (or not labeled) by others' first impressions (15 minutes). negotiation. Activities from the world of adventure based team building and ropes courses.35-40 minutes. Lynn & Pike. New York. Sugar. Let's play a game that will help us find them out. Harrison. Detailed instructions for using triangles (also known as tangrams) to explore group interactions. Thiagarajan. Group Grope. Activities for reviewing content. hard cash. HRD Press.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Icebreakers GETTING AQUATINTED Aim: (1) To provide opportunities to become acquainted with other members of the group. team building. The game proceeds until everyone can come. Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer. 1992. Participants mill around and choose a person who best fits each category. Sivasailam. Edward. 1997.. creativity. If you want to come with me you have. interviewing. 26 frame games and a detailed explanation of how to implement games. Indoor/Outdoor Team Building Games for Trainers.

such as a blue felt pen and a red felt pen. speed up. saying: 'This is a tick'.(optional) Aims: Memory training.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Materials: Famous names on strips of card or paper. three rows of three chairs each. 'This is a tick'. One person is given a ball. building groups. start another pen to the left. Start over. or hides. fun Procedure: At one end of the room. When this has been practiced a few times. start over. good for closing exercise Procedure: Members mill around. The ball is passed around the circle and each person who receives the ball says their name very clearly (usually just the first name). who says: 'A what?' to the leader. Player 2 says: 'A what?' to player 1.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 HUMAN TIC-TAC-TOE Materials: 9 chairs. he pins the paper on his front and . warm-up. Aims: Breaking the ice. Runner must sit before Leader counts to 5 slowly. Variations: Add consequences for the loser CHINESE WHISPERS Materials: None Aims: Positive feedback. . fictional (Superman). Player 1 says: 'A what?' Leader repeats: 'A tick'. Do with bits of paper being delivered. Aims: Introduction. and one more person. Procedure: Group is seated. Variations: Do as graffiti on large paper on walls. Leader continues to call them alternately until one team wins (same rules as paper Noughts and Crosses). Let the group try. to return both objects to the leader without losing the flow or concentration. Leader calls 'crosses'. slow motion. passes it to his right. they must ask and repeat the name before proceeding with the activity. If a person cannot remember the name of the person who has thrown the ball to him. If he does he wins (a small sweet. running space Aims: Active participation. Keep score (optional). One person. A goes out. Do at a run. send them a message via someone else: e. Group size is usually about sixteen. and at the same time. When he knows who he is.g.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Materials: One ball for every group of about 15 -16. The game continues until everyone can remember the names of the people within their group. Team 2 is 'Crosses'. Confusion is encouraged and acceptable. FAMOUS PEOPLE . call losing team first. ice-breaking Procedure: As people enter. first cross runs and sits with arms crossed on chest.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 This activity would be best used at the initial meeting of the group. When you see someone you'd like to communicate with. memorizing names Procedure: New group sits in a circle of not more than sixteen. before the pen is passed. Aims: Mixing. if you wish to give prizes). B. etc. starting conversation. When everyone has been named and the ball is back to the beginning. changing places. saying: 'This is a tock' etc. scattered around the room. Each one must walk around and try to find out who he is by asking yes-orno questions of everyone else. 'Tell Joan I said thank you for helping me yesterday. A returns and has 30 seconds to guess who's missing. concentration Procedure: Leader has pen (or other object). THE NAME OF THE GAME . etc. The ball is then thrown to someone else who must say the next thrower's name. Teams: Team 1 is 'Noughts'. and the 'A tick' must pass all the way back.1eaves by the other door. WHO'S MISSING Materials: Small prizes. The group moves around. the first naught runs to a chair and sits with arms circled above head. That person must say the thrower's name. such as sweets. 1 then passes it on saying.At the end of the game the teacher asks each student two questions. they line up In corners of the room facing the chairs. concentration. fun. "How many names can you remember?" "Which are they?" Time Could take one session Background .' Continue until messages run out. leader pins a name on each person's back. When the leader calls 'noughts'. the person holding the ball throws it to any person. TICK TOCK Materials: Two small different objects. if he doesn't B wins. Could be real people (Joan of Arc). Each time the 'What?' must pass all the way to the leader. straight pins. four feet apart. as long as desired.

However. Now. and (C) settle into the new spot. ability to communicate. allowing time for individuals to (A) concentrate on each spot. The second person puts their hand on their head too.' Leader continues to give similar instructions. Materials A roll of toilet paper per group When and Where On arrival to an O'Camp or State Conference site where the to use group will be placed in a situation where they may need toilet paper for the next certain period of time. relax with each other Leaders Hints:Observe who is enthusiastic.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 the end has all the different actions. movement. moving along floor without using hands using only two out of four legs Variations Have group invent more instructions. the leader explains that we do actually have toilet paper and that what each member of the group must do is tell the group one thing about themselves for each piece of paper that they have. and no questions allowed. Now look at and concentrate on a fixed spot on the floor. Each group member is to then take as much toilet paper as they feel necessary to last them that amount of time.8 people is most effective. The group stands in a circle and tells the story of Mrs O'Grady and accompanies with actions: First person: "Did you hear what happened to Mrs O'Grady?" Second person: " No. says the same speech to the third per son and adds another action. imaginative with suggestions Observe who seems confident. MOVE TO THE SPOT Aims Introductory Movement Awareness Relaxation Materials Large. Variations: Try it non-verbally. warm-u for Drama P Procedure Leader says: 'Find a place to stand by yourself. somewhere across the room. but do not have access to go and buy any. Try insisting that everyone must make statements (e. empty room or space Learning to follow simple instructions. MRS O'GRADY Who: Small Group Where:Inside or outside in roomy area Aids/Equipment None Objectives: To assess social skills. Conclusion This is a silly game intended to relax the group and begin group bonding. What happened?" First person: "She died. Once each member of the group has their toilet paper. who becomes competitive. Procedure Sit down with designated group and explain to them that in all the rush. so the person at ." Second person: "How did she die?" First person: "She died with her hand on her head" (places hand on head) 2. Instructions for (B) could include moving to the new spot: backwards in as few steps as possible in as many steps as possible travelling in circles . we were not aware that the site does not supply toilet paper. but slightly smaller or slightly larger would also work.continues to help others. TOILET PAPER GAME Group Size 6 . Instructions: 1.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 travelling in squares using as few jumps as possible with hands on knees.g. toes etc. shows group spirit. move to that spot in a straight line pacing yourself so as not to have to stop. MAKING THE LONGEST CHAIN Group Size 2 teams (or more) of at least 4 Materials None . willingness to participate To encourage group bonding. (B) move at their own pace. while avoiding bumping into anyone. 'I am alive'). each group has one role of toilet paper until tomorrow when we go to the shop.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Where and When A fun break in between activities with a group who are familiar with .

Procedure Tell each group that the aim of this game is to make the longest chain. Then the person who has been caught in the middle must think up a sentence that will cause others to change chairs. This can vary and have any degree of difficulty." "All those with blue eyes. everyone must change chairs. Your aim is to occupy one of the vacant places before someone else. The leaders need to decide the criterion for coming to the party.each other. but you can come in suspenders” (!) When the criterion has been guessed. SCRAMBLED EGGS Group Size 6 and up Materials Chairs for everyone but one person Where and When A good game to get to know people or in between sessions when working with a small to middle sized group. . but make sure that there is one less chair then the number of people on the group. Procedure 1. invite one of the group to be the “party host”.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 . Use the criterion agreed upon. as a getting to know you activity.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Who: Small groups (separated into pairs) Where:Enough room for the group to form a large circle Objectives: To learn from observation To communicate non-verbally To motivate and energise the group Leaders' Hints: Observe how participants react to the cues Do those who don’t understand become frustrated.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 BE IT Group Size Any size Materials None Time 5 minutes Where and When Use to break the workload. and each time they should try to shape their bodies into the form of that object." "All those who had breakfast this morning. Explain that you are going to call out a sentence and anyone to whom the sentence applies must get up and change chairs." When "scrambled eggs" is called out. You can give hints. Invite them to ask if they can come to the party. Examples of sentences that can be called out . so that he/she can get to a chair first. ask them to make a noise as well as an action. You may invite: Those who are wearing clothing ending with a consonant Those who have their feet crossed when they are to be invited Those who ask when you have your feet crossed Those who ask you addressing you by name Sit participants in a circle and explain that you are going to hold a party to which they may or may not be able to come. determined or “give up”? Instructions: 1. Conclusion: This is another activity involving learning through observation. Then explain that you are going to name a series of objects. Ask the participants to spread out around the room so that they have plenty of space to swing their arms about Explain that the activity they are about to do is called "Be It" and is involves a bit of imagination and letting go of your inhibitions. to use up excess energy. Variations For a group that is more comfortable with each other. Suggested Ideas Banana Tree Snail Bulldozer Elephant Telephone Vacuum Cleaner Paper Weight Food Vending Machine CAN I COME TO THE PARTY? . It is not possible to move to the chair on either side of their present position. By . The chains must be made of only the clothing currently being worn by the people in the group. A bonus in some instances as no close physical contact is involved."All those wearing watches. such as “No you can’t come wearing a bra. The team with the longest chain of clothing wins. so that you are no longer the person in the middle. Procedure Seat your group in a circle. start the game. You stand in the middle of the circle to begin the activity. The aim is that people have to strip down as far as possible to make the longest chain.

colour of spoon Conclusion Non-threatening team game for new members .National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 THE WORLD Who: Small groups.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Where:A room large enough for each team to be able to sit in a circle. 1 point for each capital (accuracy is up to the judges) Conclusion A good game for breaking a large group up into small teams. Aids A blanket A number of objects (eg a book. TEAM HOPSCOTCH Who: Small groups Where:Outside on a cement (or other hard) surface Aids Chalk. Process is repeated until person has travelled up and back. then hops back to square they landed in and throws stone into next square. but not the names of the countries or the capitals See how many countries and capitals each group can identify in a given time period (say 10 minutes) Award 1 point for each country.3 etc. a spoon. we become better at learning from those cues that people give us. Particularly useful for AIESEC. since at the end of the exercise you can identify which of the countries are AIESEC Member Countries. Each team must do several laps or several games.exercising these skills.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 123 4 5 6 8 7 9 Leaders Hints Appoint your most vocal people as stations and crossings . Player turns and hops back to square one to retrieve stone. a phone etc) Pen / Paper / Score Sheet Objectives Simple memory test Leaders Hints Nil Instructions Place 10-15 objects under the blanket Everybody has 5 seconds to look at them Then people individually write down what they saw Next collectively write down the objects (within each team) Remove blanket and check that all items were identified If time remaining replace blanket and ask each team to draw a map of objects as laid out under than blanket. or player hops into square containing stone of if player touches the ground with hand of foot they must start again. no real limit on the total number Where:A room Aids Large sheets of paper An atlas (for the judges) Pens for each group Score Sheet Objectives To informally test people’s general knowledge of world geography Leaders Hints Nil Instructions Draw a map of the world. Conclusion Good team game. Each player uses a flat stone.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Objectives To have fun Leaders Hints Be careful to explain the rules carefully Instructions The whole team must travel up and down the hopscotch “board”. depending on the time allowed. TRAIN GAME Who: Large groups (approx 20) Where:Inside or Outside Aids Nil Objectives To get people to mix To have the person in the centre of the circle try to catch the train . MEMORY GAME Who: Small teams of people (say 3-5 in each) . Stones . Each team member takes a turn. Variation If too easy. If stone does not land in appropriate square. then hops over it as far as he/she can ie into square 2. showing the borders of each country and the location of the capital. player tosses the stone into square one. ask for more details eg title of book. may be used in mini-olympics.

Conclusion Good for strangers or friends. he may accuse that person of being the murderer. and turkey. so if a person feels a squeeze of the hand on the left side. by pointing at the accused & saying. dog.10. keeping their eyes closed all the time. If a person spots another person winking at someone.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 TEAM BUILDING BOMB SHELTER Materials: None Aims: Role-playing. Each group member adopts a specific role.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Conclusion A good game for a group of strangers. The number of animals you use is up to you. bending forward etc and the others in the group have to copy the movements. just give inform each person of their animal verbally. If an accuser and a supporter are both wrong.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 . Variations For large groups. goat. . waving arms. or even friends! WHO’S CHANGING THE MOVEMENT Who: Groups of people (approx 20) Where:Enough room to sit in a circle. You choose a murderer (unknown to others) by tapping them on the head Everyone uncovers their eyes and starts to walk around so that they frequently pass each other. horse. Everyone has to close their eyes (or be blindfolded) and by making the noise of their animal. That person is now dead and cannot participate in the rest of the game. owl. The suspect does not have to comment. “I think X is the murderer”. A murderer is caught if he/she is accused correctly by tow people. horses etc. If a person receives a wink he/she must wait for 5 seconds and then fall to the ground (shouting “aaagh!” on the way down). they must squeeze the hand of the person on their right side Appoint a few people around the circle to be crossings (these people shout “ding-aling” as the train passes through them) and stations (these people shout “Toot” as the train passes through. The person comes back into the room and stands in the middle.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Instructions Each person is given a piece of paper with the name of an animal on it eg cow. find the other cows. but you want to use each animal at least 4 or 5 times. After the accusation has been made. and a new game starts. The murderer may kill anyone by winking at him or her. Conclusion A good game for groups of people who know each other well enough to feel comfortable holding hands. the accuser must have someone else back up his or her claim. usually . If not. group decision-making. Conclusion Sit back and laugh WINK MURDER Who: A group of people (preferably 15 – 25) Where:Inside a room big enough for everyone to walk around Objectives To learn from observation Instructions Everyone sits in a circle and covers their eyes. one person per group leaves the room. group interaction. inside or outside Aids Nil Objectives To test people’s powers of observation Leaders Hints Nil Instructions Groups sit in a circle facing inwards. elephant. or for groups who are beginning to be bonded (eg new directors at a national conference) ANIMAL NOISES Who: The more the merrier (at least 20) Where: In a large room or outside Aids Animal names on slips of paper Blindfolds if you have them Objectives To communicate with others without using normal everyday words Leaders Hints Nil . the accuser must withdraw from the game. The leader makes a series of movements eg scratching head. The others decide who will be the leader.Instructions Group stands in circle with hands joined One person stands in the middle of the circle The train moves by a squeeze of the hand. by carefully watching the change of the movements has to guess whom the leader is. lifting leg up and down. they must both withdraw from the game. The person in the middle. . Procedure: Divide in groups of 8 . and they also have the power to change the direction the train is travelling) The person in the middle catches the train by pointing at a person who has received the train on one side but has not passed it on to the other side of them.

A group decision must be reached as to who goes and stays: no suicides or murder allowed. to move slowly and to be gentle.walk. in queue form. Variations: Vary speed and control of lift. therefore they must get rid of several members. an athlete. First person leads chain through itself. It is often a good idea to have the groups raise and lower in unison. Every person needs recognition. Tell groups they are in an air-raid shelter after an atom bomb has fallen. etc. housewife. leader setting the pace by going first. Have the person involved give instructions to the group. Note: This can only be successful if the circular shape is maintained throughout and it is helpful if the group leans slightly towards the center as they are trying to settle down. SPEAKEASY Materials: One chair Aims: Self-validation. warm-up Procedure: Whole group links hands into a human chain.. Each group member must argue as to why he should be allowed to survive. and Humor M. big enough and with enough air and food for only six people. etc. After five minutes ask the class to come back together again as one large group (preferably in a circle). One person then untangles the group.) TANGLE Materials: None Aims: Group development. a teacher. I'll throw the darts and you say `Wonderful. mother. Variations After secure sitting position is achieved 1 Everyone leans inwards slightly and raises left leg 2 Try alternate stepping with right and left feet. concentration. you can end the discussion by asking the group to talk about what it was like to talk to the other person and what it was like to be talked about in the group. Mother. SITTING CIRCLE Materials: Circle of over 25 people Aims: Trust. Dale Baughman BODY LIFT Aims: Trust. Instruct the students to carry on a normal conversation for five minutes. between legs. Each person has a chance to sit on the chair and talk to the group. Variations: Instead of an air-raid shelter. (very difficult. The person is held there for a specific period. and then lowered carefully to the floor. whether each person played an active or passive role. Set a time limit for the decision. rituals.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 e) If successful (rare first time) the whole group is self supported. group development Procedure: Group chooses each member in turn and elevates them to a horizontal position above the heads of the group. with right shoulders towards the center of the circle. It is expressed cogently by the lad who says. ONE SPECIAL THING This exercise is a good one to use early in the semester because it helps to build a sense of group rapport through the establishment of an environment for self-disclosure. . The elevated person must relax and close eyes. Then ask each student to introduce his partner by stating his partner's name and the one special thing that impressed him as most important about that person.g. let's play darts. have a life raft or desert island or space ship. over and under arms. how satisfied each was with his role. trust. Later discuss how the group interacted making the decision. Tangle ends when group is too tightly packed to move. a doctor. Quotes. each person sitting on the knee of the person behind. e. Ask the students to pick those things about themselves that they think are important to share. . etc. . Add incidents. movie-star. b) Circle closes so that everyone is touching the person in front and behind them. giving them directions without touching them.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 If you like. each person telling the other as much as possible about himself. It is often better to start out with descriptions of themselves .an occupation. Combine with Backward fall & catch. accidents. group development Procedure: A chair is placed in front of the group. rock. ceremonies. Extra care must be taken not to break the chain. They can develop any subject of their choice. fun Procedure: a) Group stands in a close circle. (These can be written out and picked from a hat). Divide the class into pairs. This often avoids confusion and helps concentration.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 This is very important activity which can become a permanent feature of each drama lesson. c) Participants hold the waist of the person in front d Everyone bends their knees until they feel themselves supported on the knee of the person behind. .' " Educator Handbook of Stories. funerals.

Explain that when they walk outside. BODY ENGLISH Who: Small Group (with presentation to the whole camp) Where: Individual groups then in large area or hall Aids/Equipment None Objectives: To assess emotional expression and adaptability To motivate and energise students To provide a variety of activity and have the groups working together spontaneously Leaders Hints: Observe who dominates the group. shopping TRUST WALK Who: Large Group Where:Walking outside Aids/Equipment: Blindfolds Objectives: To develop group and individual trust To communicate without words Leaders Hints: Who is willing to trust the person in front of them? (step confidently) Who communicates with the people behind? Instructions: 1.mud wallowing sleek and darting .1etter writing. who stands away or doesn't contribute Observe who is willing to participate. Each person puts on a blindfold. Positive developments can result in group discussion and ways of resolving problems. 3. who comes up with ideas. the person in front will tap their left leg.Frenchman pompous person .small (nervous and introvert) floating . argue. . give views. and if they need to step down. CONCENTRATION POINTS Materials: None Aims: Improvisation. They must do the same to the people behind them and pass the message along. The leader leads the line outside and around the grounds.weak industrious . who keeps everyone involved Observe who is shy in front of the main group or is unwilling to be involved Instructions: 1. if they need to step up the person in front will tap their right leg. Each person puts their hands on the shoulders of the one ahead of them.lazy taciturn person . Each group is given a proverb/expression and ten minutes to prepare.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 serious person .slow and ponderous slow witted .chatterbox Englishman . movement Procedure: Work in pairs or teams: use mime or short improvisations Compare silence with noise. running with slow motion (really slow.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Conclusion This activity can be used after contemplative reflection (Sunday morning) or towards the end of the camp. people might be involved in conversation. where the phrase is spelt or acted out.devil motorist .short people big (expansive and extrovert) . The skit is to be quick and similar to charades. Variations: Speak on controversial subjects.quick people Variations: Development into improvisations: dealing with various situations. when people are more familiar with each other.friendly person . Everyone lines up in a single row behind the leader. The . running and leaping with slow motion.quick witted stiff person . do values continuum.loose person rich .young people tall I people . exuberance with sorrow old people .criminal angel .silly person school teacher . etc. 4.pedestrian slow people . then discuss.(Group leaders should be spaced every couple of students to ensure they remain safe) 2. almost imperceptible).especially if a drama lesson is over 60 minutes child policeman .poor strong .

National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 - . so keep this in mind. as a group. Use before. Conclusion: A simple team building game ideal for groups of strangers. there is more variety and tests the general knowledge of the group.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Conclusion This activity can be used in place of the usual "skit".National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 KNOTS Group Size 7 . Variation For a group larger than 12: Form a circle and hold hands.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Leaders' Hints: Observe who talks the most. Each person grasps one hand of someone close and one hand of someone further away. Hand grips are allowed to be changed but not broken. Now. especially with a group who are unfamiliar with each other. STRAW GAME Who: Small Groups of 5-7 Where:Enough room for each group to have plenty of room around them Aids/Equipment: Lots of drinking straws Objectives: To get new participants working as a team To introduce participants to each other in a non-threatening way . Variations on this game include giving them teams each 30 rolled up newspapers and seeing which group can make the tallest construction. One person acts out a repetitive motion or sound of a machine part. split up into smaller groups. to develop group identity. When the knot is complete.12 (For Larger groups. Not everyone feels comfortable doing this sort of thing. 2. Aids: Nil Objectives: To use your imagination To get to know each other Leaders' Hint: This game rewards the people who are the most imaginative Instructions: Participants are to become parts of a large imaginary machine. By giving each group a different expression. Procedure Group meets together in a tight circle with arms outstretched in front and eyes closed. or outside (but not with lots of people standing around watching. or use the variation below) Materials None When and Where This is an activity which requires people to make close physical contact. An example would be an engine with people playing the roles of: Starter A wheel Pistons Moving Handle etc . attempt to unknot the circle. While on exchange.main group has to guess the proverb/expression. during or after a session of work. who is quiet. Break the circle at one point and ask one of the end persons to tie the rest of the group into a knot. Hand grips cannot be changed or broken. students are often ask or required to do things which are "silly" cr in front of others. THE MACHINE Who: A single group of 5 – 20 people. the person at the other end tries to untangle the knot. spoil the broth" "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" . One by one other arts are added to the machine until the whole groups is involved. This activity provides some initial experience and tests the willingness of the students to do things that think make them appear foolish. twice shy" "A stitch in time save nine" "Let sleeping dogs lie" "Good things come in small bundles" "Too many cook. . Leaders can give an example in front of the group before the others begin. The “workers” are instructed to work as a team & use the straws to make a big beautiful design on the floor. as participants may get a bit embarrassed). Make sure that no two people are holding both of each other's hands. Suggestions: "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush" "A rolling stone gathers no moss" "Once bitten. who just does what they are told Instructions: “Workers sit together on the floor with a pile of straws in the centre. Each hand should be linked with only one other hand. Where:A room large enough to hold the entire group.

one for next person in line). one group becomes a machine and the other group has to guess what sort of a machine it is. Stand Example Course . Conclusion: This exercise requires a fair amount of imagination. 1 Spoon / box of matches / apple per team Other obstacles (eg bins) Objective To win by trusting each other Instructions Draw course on the ground (including circles for pick up / put down points). Conclusion A good fun team game. No Sit. Put down Yes. 1 Chair per team. PASSENGER BALLOON Who: Groups of 5 – 6 Where:Inside or outside Objectives To learn to make an argument about the importance of oneself To learn to negotiate with other people Leaders Hints Look for those who try to intimidate others Instructions Groups sit in a fairly small circle.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Chair Sit Down Pick up Object Put Down Object Obstacle s . Award one point for each letter used. with a bonus of 5 points for using all the tablets in the group.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 2 Give everyone a letter. Shout out words and have people find other letters and line up as the word as soon as possible. Right Forward. Navigate obstacles and pick up / put down objects (judge to return object to pick up point after it is put down) Repeat with other team members Fastest Team wins Commands Stop. Each person has to pick an occupation for himself or herself eg plumber. . They must not look at the tablet. They must stick it to their forehead immediately. The team must create as many words as possible in the time given. allowing him or her to see it. then vice-versa. Variation 1 Make it harder by increasing the minimum number of letters per word. .National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 BLINDFOLD NAVIGATION Who: Small teams (say 4-5 people) Aids 2 blindfolds per team (one for walker. Everyone has to put forward their reasons why they shouldn’t have to jump out and why someone else should. A judge needs to write down each word as the team forms it. Go Left. Make sure that people have chosen their occupation before you explain the scenario to them. since this would allow people to find out their letter too easily. Up Pick up. but can also be a lot of fun if the people really get into the acting. The words must be at least 3 letters. SCRAMBLED Who: Teams of up at least 3 people Where: Indoors Aids Scrabble Tablets Score sheet – pen Blu-Tack Objectives To learn to work as a team using non-verbal communication Leaders Hints Observe those who assume the role of team leader Instructions Each team member chooses one scrabble table. It is quite useful since the people don’t need to know each other to be able to play it. No team member is allowed to inform another team member of what that person’s letter is. doctor etc. lawyer. although there may be more people in each group. Everyone must agree on who has to jump within 5 mins or everyone will perish Conclusion This game is a bit like bomb-shelter. The words created must never be said aloud. Chalk. The balloon is slowly losing altitude and in order for some of the people to survive. one person has to jump out. One team member is blindfolded Navigate course with instructions from other team members. Back Down. which represents the basket of the passenger balloon. Make it a competition by eliminating people who don’t become part of a word.Variation: Breaking the group up.

It is not advisable to use this activity on groups who are unfamiliar with each other as it can be threatening. . NOTE: Don't let this activity drag on .National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 PASSED OVER Who: Groups of 30-40 people. and see if they can find ways that may have made it easier eg tapping their numbers on each other’s back. Procedure The leader calls a part of the body and a colour that can e found in the room. Change the roles around so that the person being picked up is then the one who picks up the partner and so on. one pair behind the other With the help of two strong people at the front and back if needed. giving people just enough time to get into one position before you call out the next. They must stay on their blankets at all times. Cavalier". Where:Inside a very large room or outside. finding a partner roughly the same size. Excellent in playfairs. you can also increase the number of people you pass along so that everyone who feels comfortable can have a should be short or people will get sick of it and drop out.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 PLAYFAIR COLOURS Group Size Any Size Materials None Where and When A good game to play when the group's concentration is fading. However. so good for people who at least have met before . but they must close their eyes and not talk. Aids Nil Objectives To build people’s trust in each other To work together as a large team Leaders' Hints Spread the strong people evenly amongst the two groups Instructions Form lines of about 30-40 people Line up in pairs. . Knight: One person kneels on one knee with their partner sitting on their other knee. life a person up an pass them along the top of the line lying flat and supported by the hands of the people underneath. Procedure Divide the participants into 5 equal sized groups. SANDWICH GAME Group Size 10 and up Materials None When and Where Great for breaks in between sessions and for use in playfairs. the other person stands over them. LINKING UP 1 – 10 Who: Groups of up between 7 – 12 people Leaders' Hints Look for the innovators who can solve this problem Instructions Give each group member a number from 1 – 7 (or 10. Explain that this activity is called "Knight. NOTE: be careful not to let this drag on too long or it will become a de-energiser FLYING CARPETS Group size: Approx ten Materials: 1 Blanket for each group Procedure: Each group has to stand on their blanket and race down to the other end of the room. Everyone must stay in that position until another colour has been called. They then have to line up in numerical order. close physical contact is involved and may be intimidating for groups who are unfamiliar with one another. Everybody must then rush and place that part of their body on that colour eg noses on red. 2. or 12 etc) Make sure that no-one else knows what their number is. and you can then lead into another session or carry on where you left off. The first group to reach the end is the winner. preferably over a carpet or grass surface.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Procedure Ask the group members to pair off. gets people's bodies moving. CAVALIER Materials Large open space When and Where Use to release energy and for lots of fun. Mount: One person gets down on their hands and knees. Mount.Conclusion Bit of trust involved. KNIGHT. Make it Competitive: Anyone doing the wrong position is out. life a person. Nominate each group with a . It is quick. There are three positions that they need to know. Cavalier: One partner picks up the other person (Demonstrate these positions) Proceed to call out the different instructions in a random order. MOUNT. Variations 1. After an appropriate amount of time. Conclusion A good trust. stop the game. Discuss how they felt about not being able to do it.

This person becomes the Master of the other two people in the group who are now Slaves. Bring in the next girl. leaving the two males in a slightly sexual position. On completion there should be a pile of five people making the sandwich. MASTER/SLAVE Group size: Any size . Bring in a male. scissors. Count to three. where they lie down next to the last person. Blindfold them. The aim is to then make the sandwiches. The person at one end then proceeds to roll over the top of the others to reach the other end. Swap the roles to give every member of the group the chance to be Master STEAMROLLER Group Size Any Size Materials None Where and When A trust building. but get him to swap with the girl. Easy. Do the same. the eggs continue to be eggs. but on two pour water into the funnel. STATUES (MAKE THEM FRIENDLIER) Group Size 7 people (4 boys and 3 girls). Procedure Get three people up the front. physical boundary breaking activity which can be great fun for a group who are comfortable with physical contact. Procedure Have the group lie diagonally across the room on their backs. 1 group allocated meat. Put the funnel in the front of their pants and the spoon in their mouth. a piece of ham (the next person lies on top of the first). The winner of this game evolves to the next stage. chicken and bird left and the rest of the players are supermen (or superpeople to be politically correct) WET PANTS Group Size 3 volunteers (but any number of people can watch) Materials 3 funnels 3 spoons 3 blind folds 3 jugs of water 1 packet of jaffas When and Where Use on a hot day where people have the opportunity to change their clothes. After he has finished. The idea is that participants evolve through the four phases. On the last male do the same. Tell them that they will now be blindfolded and will have to do it again. 1 group . Participants pair up and have a game of paper. The Master then has one minute to command the slaves to do anything they say ( within reason of course). the lettuce and ham and then finally the last piece of bread on the top of the pile. There needs to be a piece of bread on the bottom (one person lies down). rock. Put the jaffa on the spoon. Game works most effectively with people who know each other as there is an element of honesty involved. get him to swap places with the male. Chicken. Those who win evolve to the next stage where as those who loose remain where they are. There must be 2 groups allocated bread. count to three and get them to drop it in the funnel. and tell him take the two people inside and "make them friendlier". When they arrive the next person does the same.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Materials: None Procedure: Divide the group into three groups and form a group of three with one person from each group. .National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 allocated tomato and 1 group allocated lettuce. . plus as many spectators as you want Materials None Procedure Take 5 people (3 boys and 2 girls) outside and keep 2 inside. Bird and Superman. The game continues with the birds flapping their arms and supermen soaring around with both arms in the air. EVOLUTION GAME Group Size 10 and up Materials None Where and When A good game to begin a session or just generally wake a group up. Nominate one person as the leader on the group. When the game works correctly there should be one egg. the looser stays an egg. flapping their arms and squarking.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Everyone begins walking around the room banging their fists on their foreheads chanting "egg egg egg egg egg". rock. as close to one another as possible. Procedure There are four stages to this game: Egg. The game continues and the participants who evolved walk around like a chicken. and swap with the girl. The chickens pair up with chickens and the eggs pair up with eggs to once again play paper. NOTE: This will work most effectively if demonstrated first by people who are familiar with both the leader and the game. Also with people who will not kill the demonstrator. scissors. but may be awkward with groups who find physical contact more difficult.part of the sandwich.

NOTE: This can be made competitive by having two teams going at once. the inner circle at the same time works in an anti clockwise direction. lighthouse etc HUMAN OBSTACLE RACE Group size: Approximately six or size to suit Materials-None Procedure: The teams line up and the race begins. Do the same in threes. Sitting on No. The aim is to pass the 20 cent piece from one person to another without touching it with anyone's hands or dropping it on the floor. facing the same direction each person about an arms length behind each other. Group lies on their backs on the floor. Bridge. NOTE: It is necessary to have someone.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 BALLOON GAME . The leader then gives an example of a particular structure which the groups construct by linking themselves together Examples.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 2. Use your imagination ARM LINKS Group size: Any size Materials: None Procedure: In pairs sit back to back and link arms. The race begins the first person moving under the tunnel and not breaking the linking hands and the tunnel moves under itself until all the group has gone through the tunnel hands always linked. fives etc until you can do it with the entire group. MUSICAL PARTNERS . The list above is only an example of tasks for each number. start off with lighter people and gradually build up group confidence in tackling the heavier members. Place a 20 cent piece on the first persons chest. Also. When the music stops the circles must re-pair and kneel with their hands upon each others shoulders. One member of the group lies down along the top of the outstretched arms and is passed along the top of the arms to the other end. Then try to stand up. No.1 then joins the line and No. Modern building. . . at both ends to start each person off carefully and catch the head of each person as they finish. Blowing in No. Plane / Helicopter. preferably the leader at first. Going through No. When the music starts the outside circle stands and begins to move clockwise. The pairs then kneel facing each other with their hands on each others shoulders. then two and one person on the top. They spread their legs apart and join hands. HUMAN TUNNEL BALL Group size: Three or four groups depending on the size of the group. The pyramid classically consists of 4 people on the bottom level.4. fours. Car / truck/ Bus. This variation requires each person to roll only onto the next person and then back to their original position. HUMAN PYRAMID Group size: Approx 10 Materials: None Procedure: Each group must form a human pyramid and walk the pyramid forward towards the other end of the room. three on the next. Everyone then stretches their hands above their heads. Tree.2 goes down the line carrying out the tasks in the same order.3's legs. The last pair to do so is OUT. Crane.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 No.6's ear.1 moves down the line: Patting No. The winning team has the 20 cent piece arrive at the other end of the chain first. The 20 cent piece should make it to the other end of the chain. forming an inner and outer circle. . Close everyone up so that their heads 'interlock'. The game continues until only one pair remains STRUCTURES Group size: Groups of between 2 and 8 Materials: None Procedure: The group is split into smaller groups of between 2 and 8 people. Linking arms and spinning twice with No.5's right knee. and so on.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Group size: Any Materials: Music (that can be stopped and started) Procedure: The group forms into pairs. Ship. the right hand going under their legs joining with the persons left hand behind them.2 on the head.Variations 1. Materials: None Procedure: The groups line up one behind the other. with every person lying in the opposite direction to the person next to them. The first group to reach the end wins.

Group size: Approx ten Materials: 1 Balloon per Person String Scissors Procedure: Distribute 1 balloon and a piece of string to each person. Real sensations to notice heartbeat pulse breathing indigestion digestion perspiration. Instruct each person to blow up their balloon and tie it to their ankle. they will also giggle and your chain reaction has started. but noone is allowed to laugh or giggle. awareness. with the others passing over the top of them. lungs exchanging oxygen for carbon dioxide (good air for used air). and the snake unpeels by the rest of the line slowly walking backwards. between 10 and 20. Sit down when your balloon has been burst. still joined. Group closes eyes. eyes closed. self-validation. This should take about 5 minutes. Once all balloons are in place. Pseudo sensations (to imagine entirely) hair growing nails growing air in the blood . Objectives To watch a human chain reaction To test people’s ability not to laugh (in the variation) Instructions Instruct each group to lie down so that each person’s head is resting on the stomach of the person before them. still holding hands. over the top of that person who has lay down. and they will giggle. Procedure: Whole group lies on backs. One by one each person lies down. etc. stomachs digesting food. Bending over. and slowly crawls into the centre. Bodies are described as containing blood vessels with blood pulsing through. GROUP SLIME Who: A group of people. When the person with their head on that person’s stomach feels them giggle.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT INSIDE OUT Materials: None Aims: Developing imagination. The group who are all lying down first win. and then each subsequent person cough. arms on the floor. . The last person in the line lies down. etc. without feeling for signs with their hands. CHUCKLE BELLY Who: Large groups of people (say at least 30 in each) Where: Inside a large room or outside. PEELING THE SNAKE Who: Large groups of people (up to 50 in each group) . Where:Inside a large room Objectives To coordinate your progress with others Instructions Participants lie in a circle on the floor as far from the centre of the room as possible with all heads toward the centre. then each person crosses to the other side of the room. forming a pile.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Where: Inside a large room or outside Instructions : Form single file lines for each group Each person faces the back of the person on his or her right. Variation Have the first person cough. Group is asked to concentrate on one particular function of the body and the leader asks the group to be aware (even synthetically) of the existence of the activity. Leader talks smoothly and steadily and asks the group to focus their senses within their bodies. tell the group to burst as many balloons belonging to other people as possible. legs separate. body control. sensory awareness. Tell the person at the head of the each line a joke. Activity is best if no one is wearing shoes. Conclusion A fun activity for people who know each other relatively well. each person places their right hand back between their legs and reaches their left hand to grab the right hand of the person in front of them.

person B is their Director Tin soldiers can only move under directions from B.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 - .) . the air rushing down your throat. Concentration upon the feeling (in rhythm with the beats) of this expansion and contraction. How will they be achieved? What has made the good spots? Variations 1 Extend and project the map into the future.expelled into next chamber and then back into vein or artery.e. passing to muscles acids attacking the teeth. and the general direction of their present course.) Also barriers. After a few minutes. . person A is a tin soldier. chairs & other tin soldiers. TIN SOLDIER Who: Pairs of people Where:Inside a large room. ROAD MAP Materials Large sheet of paper per person and pencil or felt tip Aims Self-validation Procedure Each person is asked to make a road map of their life so far. Aids Obstacles eg chairs and tables Objectives To learn to trust your partner . hospital (road works etc.). (conjecture or daydream) 2 Construct lists of positive and negative problems and events.) or the bad places (bumpy spots. Now have B’s wind up their tin soldiers & begin giving directions. etc. B’s job is to guide his/her tin soldier to the other side of the room. tables. entering your blood and kicking the old air out. detours. Conclusion A good fun game for friends or strangers. + and -. Each map should somehow show the good places (either scenic or open road. etc. Blood sucked into one chamber . Decide on points systems. filling your lungs. Tin soldiers walk slowly with stiff legs & arm joints. Compare life's past course with your imagined future. i. Take a deep breath. 3 Role-play passing detours. etc. It may have an interesting effect on people who like to be in control. They have no power to think or make decisions.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 Concentration through heartbeat. i. and evaluate your life. by giving directions to avoid hitting walls. Beginning with birth and extending to the present. Variations 1 Concentration through breathing..e. Imagine your ribs expanding. (continue with exhaling. etc. stop and reverse roles. etc.National Trainers Team Belgium 2006-2007 To feel what it is like to have no power over your own actions Leaders Hints Nil Instructions In each pair.

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