# In electronics, an adder or summer is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers.

In many computers and other kinds of processors, adders are used not only in the arithmetic logic unit(s), but also in other parts of the processor, where they are used to calculate addresses, table indices, and similar. Although adders can be constructed for many numerical representations, such as Binary-coded decimal or excess-3, the most common adders operate on binary numbers. In cases where two's complement or one's complement is being used to represent negative numbers, it is trivial to modify an adder into an adder-subtractor. Other signed number representations require a more complex adder.

Half adder

Example half adder logic diagram

A half adder adds two one-bit binary numbers A and B. It has two outputs, S and C (the value theoretically carried on to the next addition); the final sum is2C + S. The simplest half-adder design, pictured on the right, incorporates an XOR gate for S and an AND gate for C. Half adders cannot be used compositely, given their incapacity for a carry-in bit.

Full adder

Schematic symbol for a 1-bit full adder with Cin and Cout drawn on sides of block to emphasize their use in a multi-bit adder

A full adder adds binary numbers and accounts for values carried in as well as out. A one-bit full adder adds three one-bit numbers, often

. The one-bit full adder's truth table is: Inputs Outputs A B Cin Cout S 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 Example full adder logic diagram. A and B are the operands. One example implementation is with and . The circuit produces a twobit output sum typically represented by the signals Cout and S.written as A. and Cin is a bit carried in (in theory from a past addition). where . and Cin. the ANDand OR gates can be replaced with NAND gates for the same results A full adder can be implemented in many different ways such as with a custom transistor-level circuit or composed of other gates. B.

The gate delay can easily be calculated by inspection of the full adder circuit. Carry look-ahead adders Main article: Carry look-ahead adder . Using only two types of gates is convenient if the circuit is being implemented using simple IC chips which contain only one gate type per chip. Each full adder requires three levels of logic. and Ci. which is the Cout of the previous adder. B. so the critical path (worst case) delay is 31 * 2(for carry propagation) + 3(for sum) = 65 gate delays. connecting the sum from that to an input to the second adder. In a 32-bit [ripple carry] adder. connecting Ci to the other input and OR the two carry outputs. Ripple carry adder 4-bit adder with logic gates shown It is possible to create a logical circuit using multiple full adders to add N-bit numbers. which allows for fast design time. Each full adder inputs a Cin. Cout can be implemented as . In this light. since each full adder must wait for the carry bit to be calculated from the previous full adder. and Co could be made the threebit majority function of A. the ripple carry adder is relatively slow. B. S could be made the three-bit XOR of A. The layout of a ripple carry adder is simple. A full adder can be constructed from two half adders by connecting A and B to the input of one half adder. This kind of adder is a ripple carry adder. there are 32 full adders. since each carry bit "ripples" to the next full adder. however.In this implementation. Equivalently. and Ci. Note that the first (and only the first) full adder may be replaced by a half adder. the final OR gate before the carry-out output may be replaced by an XOR gate without altering the resulting logic.

Look-ahead carry unit Main article: Lookahead Carry Unit A 64-bit adder By combining multiple carry look-ahead adders even larger adders can be created. and carry complete adder. based on if a carry is propagated through from a less significant bit position (at least one input is a '1'). and the carry select adder which pre-generates sum and carry values for either possible carry input to the block. They work by creating two signals (P and G) for each bit position. P is simply the sum output of a half-adder and G is the carry output of the same adder. Some other multi-bit adder architectures break the adder into blocks. the following adder is a 64-bit adder that . This can be used at multiple levels to make even larger adders. and the Kogge-Stone adder. a carry is generated in that bit position (both inputs are '1'). Other adder designs include the conditional sum adder. Some advanced carry look ahead architectures are the Manchester carry chain. These block based adders include the carry bypass adder which will determine P and G values for each block rather than each bit. or if a carry is killed in that bit position (both inputs are '0'). carry skip adder. After P and G are generated the carries for every bit position are created. In most cases. For example. engineers devised faster ways to add two binary numbers by using carry lookahead adders.4-bit adder with Carry Look Ahead To reduce the computation time. Brent-Kung adder. It is possible to vary the length of these blocks based on the propagation delay of the circuits to optimize computation time.

.uses four 16-bit CLAs with two levels of LCUs.

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