Discuss the historical development of craft guilds and livery companies. Describe the origins and structure of the European apprenticeship process. Explain where the garde manger originated. Describe the structure of the classic kitchen brigade system. Explain the origin of the chef’s uniform. Describe the personal abilities required of the modern garde manger chef.

Discuss the job requirements of the modern garde manger chef. Discuss the professional development goals and activities for building a career in food service. Explain the need for increasing cultural awareness. Discuss the need to internationalize the menu and the methods one may employ.

Bread Street. granting the guild specific rights and jurisdiction. as do many countries in continental Europe. and the use of poor-quality products. crafts. A The livery companies—similar to the fraternities. and employees by checking for inferior work. it is also one of the most lucrative merchandising tools of the creative manager. active guild traditions. France. names such as Milk Street. when prohibited by the baker’s guild to sell .Chapter 1 Introduction to Garde Manger 3 Introduction to Garde Manger “The art of garde manger is a blend of the aesthetic and the practical. and competition. the organizations are generally based on trade and craft support. making informal arrangements amongst themselves for the regulation of sanitation and quality standards. This chapter will discuss the origins of the garde manger and will provide historical reference to the position of garde manger chef within the hierarchy of both the early and modern kitchens. In London. the United States and Canada have several fraternal and federated organizations. The development of guilds was not confined to London. and Poultry Street mark the sites where these guilds began. Many cities throughout Britain had craft guilds. and mysteries that flourished throughout Europe for many centuries—probably had their origins in England before the end of the eleventh century. Both Scotland and Ireland maintain strong. others were engaged in trades. The guilds protected their customers. particularly Switzerland. This chapter will identify the role of the modern chef and the professional skills and abilities required to be successful in the field of modern food service. People following the same craft tended to live and work near each other. In London. for while being one of the most artful presentations of the creative chef. they would often test the limits of their charters. or occupations.” —Henry Ogden Barbour lthough much of the origins are lost behind the curtains of antiquity. guilds. Although present-day functions vary considerably. Across the Atlantic. Entrepreneurial spirit gave momentum to product development. commerce. the tendency of workers and townsfolk to organize themselves into fraternities. Some of these organizations were religious. and Germany. and new goods were constantly developed for sale. underweight portions. For example. Each guild was to stay within the constraints of its charter when doing business. separate guilds were formed for each trade. But as businesses sought to expand their trade and services. Each guild was given its own charter. These early guilds greatly controlled the provision of services and the production and selling of foods. guilds. and mysteries is one of the great anthropological accomplishments of the Middle Ages. some of which still exist. Training with Craft Guilds There were two general classifications of food-related guilds: those that sold raw goods and those that sold prepared goods. employers. guilds were the forerunners of the modern unions and served to regulate occupations and preserve the craft. In general. but in smaller towns these groups tended to be federated guilds.

When ice was available from the frozen lakes or mountaintops. However. The first of the great Roman roads. Inland cities such as Rome. working hours. the Governor of Shu ordered the drilling of the world’s first brine wells in the Sichuan province of China. the conditions were poor and the hours long. the guild system became increasingly rigid. The German. and salt were in high demand. Italian. founded their own saltworks across the river in Ostia. while coastal cities such as Sfax. As Kurlansky (2002) writes: Most Italian cities were founded proximate to saltworks. Parents paid a fee to place a boy with a master craftsman to work and learn as an apprentice. the strict enforcement of the guild system was officially ended in 1791 during the French Revolution. and Salzburg were founded near salt mines. In England. where it was gathered and boiled in clay pots. starting with Rome in the hills behind the saltworks at the mouth of the Tiber.) After several years. seasonings used in food storage such as sugar. journeymen. and Genoa took their salt from the sea. which regulated the quality. the journeyman could submit a sample of his work to the guild’s masters. they developed the practical skills necessary to preserve their foodstuffs. the charcuterie guild created a new product by selling their pâtés in a terrine. Manor houses and castles each had these cold rooms known as the garde manger. in the nineteenth century.4 PART 1 | FOUNDATIONS IN GARDE MANGER pâté en croûte (liver paste encased in bread dough). salting. Trade routes to East Asia and Africa were established to secure spices. oils. The annual deposit of rich silt from the rivers ensured a steady harvest of grain. Merchant guilds. and conditions of their members. and Austrian guilds were abolished later. As our ancestors moved from a culture of hunters and gatherers to an agrarian society. The boy received food. it was covered with hay and used to preserve the meats. coupled with training in meat butchery and food preparation (Figure 1-1). were controlled by the Etruscans. They built a single. brining. and if his masterpiece was judged acceptable. along the northern bank. As time progressed. allowing them to raise feed for their livestock and make porridge for themselves. which controlled the trade within a town. was built to bring this salt not only to Rome but across the interior of the peninsula. natural brine pools had already existed in what is now Southern Poland as early as 3500 BC. the Romans. the initial lack of structure within the hotel and restaurant kitchens made it difficult for those with only specialized skills. and vegetables. meaning day. he could be called a master craftsman and have his own shop. In 640 BC. or charter membership. Often. Settling in the fertile valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers around 3500 BC. and masters. Those saltworks. The Sumerians became . Salt Road. the position was adopted to put a responsible person in charge of keeping food fit to eat. the Sumerians learned to domesticate animals and raise crops. indicating the journeyman was paid by the day for his work. and instruction in the craft. and smoking their stored goods. Ephesus. Over the centuries. after which time the apprentice became a journeyman. After that. the power of the guilds had withered by the seventeenth century. In France. Historically. food service workers were free to engage in any employment without restriction to training. After the foods were suitably preserved. (The term journeyman originates from the French word journée. not wanting to be dependent on Etruscan salt. Although this relaxation of the onceenforced charters opened up broader opportunities for all guild members. clothes. certification. the Via Salaria. and the Crown officially abolished their privileges in 1835. lodging. There were three levels of craftsmen: apprentices. they were stored in earthenware jars and kept in cool stone storage houses and cold cellars below ground. a French term meaning keeping to eat. The period of apprenticeship lasted two to seven years. spices. COURTESY OF FLEMISH SCHOOL/GETTY IMAGES 1-1 Craftsmen working in a medieval kitchen skilled in the science of food preservation by pickling. were separate from the craft guilds. In 252 BC. In the Larder: Keeping to Eat The garde manger is a hybrid position within the kitchen. ensuring a reliable food supply. This inflexibility led to the development of new trade and industry by the capitalists who readily adapted themselves to the needs of commerce. That meant a certain amount of understanding of sanitation and food preservation. shallow pond to hold seawater until the sun evaporated it into salt crystals. dry curing. fruits. Wieliczka. Athens. A trusted member of the household staff was given the responsibility of managing the garde manger and issuing foods upon demand.

they transferred those organizational skills to feed the multitude of guests who were part of the king’s court. Still other stories propose that the taller white hat originated as a practical means of identifying the chef-in-charge. Antonin Carême. and function. is also credited with bringing the cylinder-shaped toque into the kitchen. from across the expanse of the medieval kitchens. held on castle grounds. Numerous legends are attributed to the origin of the chef’s toque blanche—the tall. 1-2 Chef Georges-Auguste Escoffier Classic Kitchen Brigade System The larger kitchens of the nobility had for centuries been loosely divided into different sections responsible for the preparation of various foodstuffs. Traveling armies had to be fed. By the early nineteenth century. Escoffier devised an organized system to ensure against duplication of work and to further increase communication and efficiency among the staff. Further kitchen lore suggests that the number of pleats on the hat reputedly represented the number of ways in which a true chef could cook an egg. The military cooks who accompanied the knights to the tournaments. One version attributes it to the tubular black hats worn by Greek Orthodox priests. the sous chef is in training to become the executive chef. has its roots in European military organizations dating back to the fourteenth century. Sous Chef The under-chef is second in command and coordinates the responsibilities of the various station chefs. Following a French army career. responsibility. White eventually became the standard chef’s uniform color to emphasize cleanliness and good sanitation. pleated white hat characteristically worn by chefs.Chapter 1 Introduction to Garde Manger 5 The Chef’s Uniform The classic double-breasted chef’s jacket (styled after the Turkish army coat) originated when chefs were servants of the king and could. COURTESY OF HULTON ARCHIVE/GETTY IMAGES . The sous chef also acts as the aboyeur and expedites the orders during mealtimes. be called upon to serve in battle as well as in the noble households. The traditional order of modern kitchen structure. After the threat of persecution lessened. various rulers organized tournaments to keep their armies prepared for future conflicts. chefs were wearing uniforms reportedly based on those worn by soldiers in the Turkish army. similar to a commanding general. For maximum efficiency. During times of peace. It is believed that men from all walks of life fled to Greek Orthodox monasteries for protection at the time the Byzantine Empire was under siege by the Barbarians. the chefs wore white hats to differentiate themselves. the modern kitchen brigade system of chef de partie was devised and implemented by GeorgesAuguste Escoffier (Figure 1-2) in London’s Savoy Hotel in the late nineteenth century. However frenetic they were. known as the kitchen brigade system and led by the chef. among a sea of kitchen employees. ultimately became cooks to the kings and nobility. The following lists their order of rank and authority: Chef de Cuisine The executive chef is in charge of the whole kitchen operation. and their cooks were selected from among the ranks. The kitchens were sometimes chaotic and generally wasteful and inefficient. In charge during the executive chef’s absence. upon a moment’s notice. they functioned with little reorganization for several hundred years. Chef Escoffier organized the kitchen into a strict hierarchy of authority. Reasonably skilled in their abilities to nourish large armies of soldiers. The refugees adopted the same dress as the priests so as not to be recognized. As legend holds. it was inspired by a woman’s hat. Centuries later. The positions of the classic kitchen brigade system persist in many larger Western hotel and club kitchens (Figure 1-3). the eighteenth-century chef to Tallyrand and various Rothschilds.

Garde Manger A very skilled position—the garde manger is responsible for cold foods. including salads. modern kitchens are organized into a modified version of Georges-Auguste Escoffier’s classic kitchen brigade system (Figure 1-4). Tournant Generally a skilled person in all areas of the kitchen. The chef de partie usually oversees the work of several demi-chefs and commis assigned to the station. hors d’oeuvres. Legumier This position is responsible for all vegetables and starches. Grillardin This station is responsible for all grilled and broiled foods. The potager prepares all stocks and soups and assists the saucier. The invention and implementation of modern food preparation equipment has radically changed . Potager This lower skilled station is generally used as a starting point in one’s training. The tournant is generally in training for the sous chef position. the tournant helps out the various stations as needed. according to the standards of the station chef. Entremetier This is often a combined position of the legumier and potager. Modern Kitchen Brigade System Many large. cold meats. Apprentice The student chef is tasked with the most laborious work. The number of chefs de partie (otherwise known as station chefs) can vary but generally includes some the following areas: Saucier One of the most difficult stations—the saucier makes all of the sauces and stews and is responsible for all sautéed items. pâtes and terrines. and may be in charge of the station during the station chef’s absence. Demi-chef The assistant station chef prepares much of the food in the particular station. and buffet items. sausages. traditionally divided by the method of cooking or the ingredients used. decorative carvings. Friturier This station prepares all fried items done in vats. Poissonier This station is responsible for all fish and shellfish dishes.6 PART 1 | FOUNDATIONS IN GARDE MANGER Chef de Cuisine Sous Chef de Cuisine Tournant Patissier © CENGAGE LEARNING 2012 Saucier Garde Manger Entremetier Rotisseur Boulangere Poissoniere Boucher Chef du Chaud Potager Legumier Friturier Grillardin 1-3 Classic kitchen brigade Chef de Partie The station chef has production responsibility for a selected part of the menu. Rotisseur The rotisseur is responsible for all roasted and braised foods and prepared stuffing as needed for dressed meats. studying the art and science of the culinary trade while also being trained for the commis position. The garde manger sometimes oversees the butchery of meats and fish. Commis The attendant is given lower skilled work to perform in training to become an assistant station chef. Patissier The pastry chef is responsible for pastries and desserts and also is assisted by the baker for the production of breads and rolls.

Chapter 1 Introduction to Garde Manger 7 Executive Chef Sous Chef Banquet Chef Roast Cook Saucier Garde Manger Pastry Chef © CENGAGE LEARNING 2012 Assistants Assistants Assistants Assistants 1-4 Modern kitchen brigade how food is fabricated and prepared. at all times. then the position is referred to as a Working Chef. No other responsibility of the chef is greater than the safety and welfare of employees and customers. as well as other culinary department heads. . These instructors may include selected members of staff. including pamphlets. or county codes are revised. The garde manger and pastry chef are two such area chefs. demand that the staff abide by a strict code of safety and sanitation rules in the preparation. holding. videos. and establishing the professional standards of the establishment. because all food service operators are responsible for knowing the health department regulations for their city and state. often cumbersome. the national. They are often involved in the finished production of the area’s menu items. Line Cooks/Station Chefs Under the guidance and instruction of the area chefs. Sous Chef/Assistant Chef The sous chef. including directing the training and work of the staff. If the head chef spends more time cooking than with administrative duties. To achieve this objective. Therefore. Executive Chef The executive chef coordinates all kitchen activities. This efficiency in food production has resulted in the consolidation of employee responsibilities and even in staff reductions. local health department officials and inspectors. Preparation Cooks The prep cooks are responsible for doing the lowest skill level of food pre-preparation in an area. or sanitation educators from a local college or university. tasks. and presentation of food products. Occasionally. to complete a specified course in sanitation that covers state requirements for commercial food service operations. all staff should undergo proper and adequate instruction by qualified trainers. and all food service operations are required to be in compliance. and professional duty of providing nutritious food in a safe and clean environment. The Chef’s Responsibility Inherent in the position of garde manger is the moral. There are many audiovisual aids to assist in this training. the line cooks act as station chefs in assigned positions within an area. is also second in command of the modern kitchen. The primary responsibility of the sous chef is to oversee the preparation. Their work is often done to assist the line cooks with simple. state. or assistant chef. Area Chefs Most large hotels and clubs with multiple dining facilities have one or more area chefs who are responsible for a particular production area. it is vital to the chef and the food service operation that periodic sanitation training sessions are provided to the staff. ethical. and self-paced programs available on the Internet. and presentation of the menu items in accordance with the standards established by the executive chef. portioning. The garde manger chef must. The local or state department of environmental health often requires the garde manger chef. managing all related costs.

clearly. artistic.8 PART 1 | FOUNDATIONS IN GARDE MANGER Role of the Modern-Day Garde Manger Chef Tastes in food and presentation have evolved with the dining public over the decades. Organized departments only exist when the individual in charge is personally organized. cheeses. Additionally. The talents are more visible to the consumer and are dependent upon a fundamental understanding necessary for presenting a pleasing appearance. Every day. But. and demand for the products of the garde manger has never been stronger in modern times. food products. Disorganization can be the ruin of a business. charcuterie products. and seafood fabrication. The opportunities are endless for a talented garde manger.” Although he was speaking of societal needs. The role of the modern-day garde manger has changed little over the past century. and staff are balanced against time and budgetary constraints. time must be allocated away from production to allow for planning and communication. re to Plan Failu COURTESY OF ROBERT GARLOUGH © CENGAGE LEARNING 2006 e Em Lack of Time y Situatio rgenc ns Nonplanner’s Cycle © CENGAGE LEARNING 2012 Extra Work 1-5 Modern garde manger chef 1-6 Nonplanner’s cycle . game. Chapter 2. Additionally. while requiring a substantial foundation in science and taste. A competent garde manger chef must possess qualities that are both imaginative and logical. appetizers. and both retail and commercial food service operations seek the skills offered by these culinary artisans. to truly excel in the position. “Order is the first desideratum for the simple reason that chaos means nonexistence. The garde manger chef is also likely to be tasked with the creation of centerpiece displays made from sculpted ice. such attributes are not common among all artists and business-minded people. graphically describing the effect poor organizational leadership has on an operation. Measurements and Equipment. wherein the manager is constantly busy dealing with emergencies caused by lack of organizational forethought.” we tell the students. It is the role of the garde manger. The skills required of the chef de partie in the garde manger station are as technical as any position in the organization (Figure 1-5). and tallow. The deft garde manger must be able to plan and organize assets according to the needs of the operation and. The sensibilities of a skilled garde manger are often equated to those of a skilled pastry chef. ultimately. although technology has had an important impact on the processes used. Equipment. condiments. among other areas of responsibility. to add form to the function of the hospitality operation. and business. and buffet platters. plus carved fruits and vegetables. highlights most of the equipment now used in modern garde manger kitchens. the same holds true for business. ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP ABILITIES Christian theologian Reinhold Niebuhr once remarked. Failure to do so usually results in what is referred to as the nonplanner’s cycle (Figure 1-6). a person must have several such dissimilar gifts—organizational. There are many assets to organize and variables to consider when managing a garde manger department. Personal Characteristics The responsibilities of the modern garde manger demand skill sets in a variety of diverse areas. a capable garde manger is expected to safely convert salvaged scraps and lesser cuts into sufficient and profitable foodstuffs for the business. the garde manger chef is commonly involved in poultry. We have a colloquialism that we use in our supervisory management class to reinforce the notion of organizational responsibility. pastry margarine. “The body rots from the head down. of the customer. plate garnishes. technical. The modern garde manger is still responsible for the production and preservation of cold soups and salads. meat.

there are some specific fundamental skills that can be identified as crucial to the position of garde manger chef. salting roe with a fishmonger. To satisfy the operational expenses associated with running a food service company. With little exception. visiting a museum of art. is the ability to create pleasing food in a profitable manner (Figure 1-8).” The serious culinarian must commit to a lifetime of continuing education and professional development in order to fully develop the craft. but a priesthood. The challenge is to find the proper blend of the aesthetic and the practical (Figure 1-7). Fabrication Skills of the Garde Manger. the staff. . Having said that. Displayed Arts of the Garde Manger. drying herbs with a gardener. or reading books on design and architecture. and 1-8 Highly decorative food display Owners NAPA GRILLS MARKET PLATTER Supervisor Employees Customers 1-7 Attractive cold seafood plate 1-9 Trinity of business © CENGAGE LEARNING 2012 COURTESY OF JACKSON VEREEN/GETTY IMAGES nurtured and refined. the garde manger must learn to transcend the limiting walls of a kitchen. ARTISTIC ABILITIES Artistic ability is a gift to be constantly skills one must possess to be a garde manger. The dedicated culinary professional must create a long-term training plan that encompasses all major areas of technical responsibility. we know that greater knowledge is ever possible. these plans should include opportunities for international shortterm training and work experiences. These skills are discussed and demonstrated in Part IV.Chapter 1 Introduction to Garde Manger 9 TECHNICAL ABILITIES As chefs and the authors of this text. Useful knowledge can be gained from other media and other fields of art. Whether studying sculpture at the local community college. and there are always skills to master. The food service industry is in the business of providing food and service to its customers. As modern French artist and sculptor Jean Cocteau observed. BUSINESS MANAGEMENT ABILITIES Among the many we have seen the half-century mark of our lives. the garde manger chef must be a faithful steward of the company’s assets as well as an adroit manager of its staff. it is still inconceivable to us that we will ever possess all the technical abilities one might hold in this business. The skills are career changing. Furthermore. However. it is our recommendation to the serious culinarian to commit to a regimen of working alongside other professionals in areas beyond his or her expertise. The garde manger’s ability as a manager is challenged by the needs of top management. the benefits are broad and immeasurable. and certainly to be an executive chef. “Art is not a pastime. this must be done at a profit. This relationship is referred to as the trinity of business (Figure 1-9). If possible. These skills are discussed and demonstrated in detail in Part III. Forming rinds with a cheese maker. and curing salumi with a sausage maker are experiences not to be missed when seeking to develop broad skill sets. Having spent the better part of our professional careers in pursuit of technical skills and cognitive understanding.

there lies a labyrinth of halls and corridors leading to other departments of the food service operation. Each services many. The ability to order. The organizational chart reflects the chain of command within the operation. The modern garde manger must possess a clear conceptual understanding of the organization and of where the garde manger department fits within the plan. The skill lies in the ability to meet the expectations of each. This is usually accomplished by having a strong system of planning and controls. without sacrificing quality or ethical behavior. tying various positions and units together. several commis and assistant chefs report to the garde manger chef (Figure 1-10). This system of planning and controlling generally results in an efficient and well-trained staff producing food within budget. Business Organizational Structures Beyond the walls of the kitchen. Each has needs that often conflict financially. The principle of unity of command states that each employee reports to only one supervisor and that each job fits within a hierarchal order of the overall business. prepare. The garde manger chef de partie generally reports directly to the executive sous chef or the executive chef de cuisine. each is dependent on another. The garde manger chef can be particularly helpful to an operation when he or she approaches the craft with a business mentality for being accurate. Accuracy is principal to achieving plans and obtaining financial success. and price food in an accurate manner is crucial to the financial health of any food service business. known as the Siamese twins of management. Key: Responsibility and Authority Accountability Manager Food and Beverage Director Service Director Executive Chef Executive Steward Beverage Manager Captain Sommelier Sous Chef Assistant Beverage Manager © CENGAGE LEARNING 2012 Servers Entree Chef Saucier Garde Manger Banquet Chef Head Beverage Server Head Bartender 1-10 Hotel organizational chart .10 PART 1 | FOUNDATIONS IN GARDE MANGER the customer. Organizational structures are developed both vertically and horizontally. In return. Each activity must be well planned in advance and then evaluated upon completion to measure the success of the plan.

evaluation. Schedules and supervises cold kitchen staff. 1-11 Sample garde manger job description . dressings. responsible for their performance standards. etc. Notifies sous chef in advance of expected shortages 10. the demand on chefs to be creative and diverse in their preparations continues to grow. abilities. fish and poultry. Supervises pantry crew in the preparation of salads. as well as a summary of all of the job objectives inherent with the job. and sandwiches using club recipes and standards 4. experience. Professional garde mangers should. centerpieces and relishes in an attractive manner 3. Slices and proportions cold meat. Maintains neat professional appearance and observes personal cleanliness rules at all times 12.Chapter 1 Introduction to Garde Manger 11 Job Descriptions and Standards It is incumbent upon all well-run food service operations that job descriptions be written and revised regularly for all jobs within the business (Figure 1-11). Prepares cold sauces. Ensures that work area and equipment are clean and sanitary 13. performance standards are developed to identify to what extent each job requirement is to be met (Figure 1-12). Focusing on Professional Development The craft of the chef is global. and education required to hold the position. People holding positions at the property should be provided current job descriptions detailing their job objectives and requirements. These standards will become the foundation for training within the department as well as the standards by which the employee is to be evaluated by the supervisor. And. in turn. garnishes them in an appetizing and tasteful manner 2. as the dining public becomes more traveled and sophisticated in its tastes. Based on the actual job requirements. Additional Responsibilities: 1. dates and properly stores all leftover products that are reusable. To meet this Position: Garde Manger Essential Functions: Supervises cold kitchen and prepares products according to club recipes and standards. Assists with other duties as assigned by the sous chef Reports to: Sous Chef © CENGAGE LEARNING 2006 Supervises: Cold food personnel Key Objectives/Goals: Key objectives and goals are established with the Executive Chef and reviewed with the annual performance evaluation. 8. Maintains the highest sanitary standards 9. Prepares appetizer s. 5. The job descriptions should reflect management’s expectation of the skills. develop the performance standards for their own staff if the materials do not exist already. stuffing. hors d’oeuvres. Maintains security and safety in work area 11. 14. All employees should be given these materials upon hiring so that they are fully aware of management’s expectations for their positions. salad dressings. jellies. Covers. Every country prepares food items that fall under the realm of the garde manger. discipline and motivation 6. Requisitions food supplies necessary to produce the items on the menu 7. Adheres to local health and safety regulations.

2. to organize and supervise subordinates and staff. following standard specs set by the executive chef. Ability to understand and perform assigned tasks. pâtés. Handles personnel problems to the best of his knowledge. © CENGAGE LEARNING 2006 1-12 Sample garde manger performance standards . Attitude and willingness to perform other duties as assigned by management. 5. 21. General Responsibilities: 1. seafood. 3. catering director. 5. 14. Maintain and enhance photo specs and standard recipe card file. Make sure that all stations are clean. Comply with company policies regarding scheduling. 9. Check for proper utilization of leftover food and check on waste. hours of operation. etc. and all other facilities within the hotel. and any changes in menu or forecasts. 18. 4. Follow and implement all personal appearance and grooming standards. Follow and implement all company rules and regulations. 20. meats.12 PART 1 | FOUNDATIONS IN GARDE MANGER Garde Manger Performance Standards Position Purpose: To ensure that the garde manger department is run in an efficient manner. 12. Assist all other employees in their duties whenever required. Prepare daily prep list for production. 2. Conduct daily menu meeting to: review day-before discrepancies. next day’s production. 24. room. and place necessary orders with Bake Shop. chaudfroid and all other cold food items required by the hotel. Ability to control food and labor costs. Know all job descriptions of all employees reporting to you. 17. 2. To a large extent. Does not allow employees who are ill or suffer from infections to take part in the preparation or handling of food. training. 4. 6. show pieces. 22. your adherence to company policy and your relations with managers and staff members. Responsible for month-end inventory. 8. Practice safety standards and report all unsafe conditions. 13. Attitude to maintain high culinary standards and ability to get along with coworkers and superiors. Check stock food and other supplies daily and make required requisitions daily. Diligently follows the sanitary standards set by the health department. 11. Conduct yourself in a professional manner at all times as a “Goodwill Ambassador” of the hotel to ensure customer satisfaction. absenteeism and tardiness. 15. Perform any related duties as assigned by the executive chef or executive sous chef. food is properly stored and reach-in refrigerators are cleaned. Advises on and follows through with the set-up for every buffet table with the banquet supervisor. Ensure that food is prepared and presented in accordance with these approved cards at all times. 4. Responsible for employees’ proper uniform appearance and personal hygiene. organize and assist staff. canapes. dressings. Make daily assignments in the garde manger department and monitor payroll to assure the balance cost goals are being accomplished. Ensure a smooth running operation. 16. platter layout. uniforms. Major Responsibilities: As chef garde manger it is of the utmost importance that you set an example for all other employees through your behavior. function) information. 3. aspic. 23. Specific Responsibilities: 1. sculptures. Checks all refrigerators at different times during the day for cleanliness and proper rotation of food. Attend scheduled meetings as required. ice carving. train. Measurable Criteria: 1. cold soups. salads. Follow through with completion and execution of every item leaving garde manger department to ensure that each item is labeled with (time. 3. Ensure that no food leaves the kitchen without proper function order or transfer sheet. 10. 7. Supervise and train all garde manger staff according to hotel standards and policies. Responsible for preparation of all cold food products including sauces. cornucopia. high quality food and maximum production from all employees during shift. and that the finest quality food is served to our guests. Enforce “clean-as-you-go” policy. terrines. you will determine the personality of the garde manger department. anticipate advance production. to control food cost and labor cost in order to achieve and/or surpass budgeted goals and profits as well as establishing hotel cold food quality and artistry as the finest in the Midwest. 19. Ability to supervise. Know all food and beverage outlet locations.

Still. the garde manger must undertake the responsibility of researching new menu items. At the turn of the twentieth century. given way to modern preparation styles. product knowledge. the legendary “Galloping Gourmet” who stormed the airwaves in 1969 and inspired millions of viewers to joyfully experiment in the kitchen. and the Internet are only the beginning of the resources available to the serious culinarian. in any field. Graham Kerr. chef Fernand Point went further than Escoffier to bring about changes in cooking styles. Grateful and faithful consumers will reward proper sanitary procedures. coupled with an ongoing interest in nutrition. benefit greatly by having a foundation in classical food. There are several primary areas where the chef should focus energy. Georges-Auguste Escoffier embraced the styles of service à la Russe and service à la Carte. including: nutrition and sanitation awareness. (p. I tried to create dishes that were not pale reflections of their classic namesakes. and flavorful food. Roger Vergé. penned a cookbook entitled The Gathering Place after taking a world cruise in 1996. numerous products. means a commitment to lifelong learning. Most have existed in their local areas but never received the broader exposure on the world market. the modern chef must responsibly embrace change but maintain a respect for the art and science that is garde manger. and aromas that we already love in order to create new favorites. are being introduced annually into the world market. because inherent in leadership is a vision for the future. While making a mark in food service. and began to streamline menus. As the world turns at a feverish pace. modern systems of preservation and transportation have created a global market for foodstuffs. It is important for professional chefs to constantly seek out these foodstuffs. Communicating directly with the local fishmongers. as a means of providing innovative menus to their customers. With the demands of work and personal responsibilities always vying for the chef’s time. cheese makers. and growers can bring a wealth of knowledge to the interested chef. La Cuisine Classique. and Michel Guerard—known as the “Bande à Bocuse”—helped popularize Point’s concept of nouvelle cuisine. local cable shows. Additionally. and sugar. particularly in garde manger. Jean Troisgros. and cultural awareness. and produce. There are very few places in the culinary world where food is still prepared as it was 100 years ago. Product Knowledge The commitment to continuously seek new product knowledge is most important to a serious chef. Additionally. Enthused by the diversity of ingredients and foods available from across the globe. suppliers are always interested in what chefs are looking for in new products. 14) Modern garde manger chefs must always be mindful of the impact their food and practices have on the guest. The availability of ingredients. many in a user-friendlier manner . nutritional sensibility. cheese. attractive. To be a professional. but new recipes that pay homage to their history and branch out into the future. An effort to keep abreast of proper sanitation techniques. Kerr (1997) wrote: As I set about developing a book based on our journey. Chefs Paul Bocuse. further shaping and simplifying the modern menu.Chapter 1 Introduction to Garde Manger 13 ever-increasing demand for world food. Every occupation requires that its leaders continue training. countless trade magazines. to ignore the traditions and achievements of the past is to build a house upon sand. standardized recipes. Chefs. such as different varieties of fish. is time well spent when building a career and customer following. ranchers. Classics and Trends The spectrum is broad when it comes to food preparation and presentation. I was looking for new tastes from other lands that could marry with more familiar tastes. salt. he systematized techniques. The classics have. In many cases I took recipes for famous traditional dishes and springboarded them into formats using less fats. the garde manger must be selective and focused in order to maximize time. Over the decades. in which dishes were served individually instead of all at once. infinite numbers of seminars and hands-on cooking classes. being versed in the classics of food has immeasurable merit. laying the foundation for nouvelle cuisine. he and his wife Treena. “Classical French Cookery. and imaginative. In the mid-twentieth century. Escoffier created the French School of Culinary Arts. Although his style of service à la Française was somewhat based on the heavy and ostentatious banquets of the eighteenth century. The great chef and scholar Marie-Antoine Carême founded la grande cuisine. Television networks devoted solely to 24/7 food programming. decided to wed their personal philosophy of healthy eating and balanced lifestyles with the rich flavors and culinary heritage of many lands. classics and trends. Nutrition and Sanitation Awareness The professional garde manger chef must be an advocate for the health and well-being of the consumer. Whether it is the adherence to a disciplined style of food preparation and presentation or the historical reference. it serves as a mutually beneficial relationship.” in the early nineteenth century. all people must continuously stay abreast of the factors that will affect their abilities to live and work. over time. textures. whether from abroad or from within their own lands.

Products grown or manufactured on one continent are distributed and sold to inhabitants on other shores. Garde manger chefs should become aware of these change agents. developing countries will continue to seek opportunities in more prosperous nations. Germany. As Henry Barbour said. Visual presentation is important to both the garde manger and the consumer. Humility in the face of knowledge is the chef’s ally. On a buffet. and induction cooking). including North America and Europe. The demographics are changing from the world we knew. People from densely populated. but we believe. and trends that will be of interest to customers. chefs think they are so familiar with certain food items that they assume all methods of preparation have been exhausted. it certainly is changing.14 PART 1 | FOUNDATIONS IN GARDE MANGER (not processed. and presenting fish that we never knew of before. that preparation techniques are infinite. The older menus offered a narrow selection and rarely ventured into cultural diversity beyond Western Europe (Figure 1-13). Comparing the list of offerings from a menu printed 30 years ago to today’s typical bill of fare. per se. France. She writes: Immigration and birthrates continue to change the demographics throughout the world. and that change results in people being exposed to more countries. and Italy claimed to be the vanguard of world cuisine (ignoring the monumental culinary contributions of Preparation Techniques Too often. “At what cost?” Has freshness been supplanted by convenience? As in all matters in life. Some chefs. Patricia Heyman supports this view in her comprehensive text International Cooking: A Culinary Journey (2003. sushi is common fare. has eliminated some of the drudgery of pre-preparation that existed previously. but plucked and eviscerated). we often associate cooking styles with certain regions or countries. The remaining 13 percent will reside in other regions. of course. however. roasted in a dried corn husk. the profile of the consumer has also changed. A case in point: It was only within the last decade that we learned several methods of filleting. we were astonished by this revelation. Africa and Latin America by 2050. Because of this reality. but certainly in most other ways. the use of colloids has allowed chefs to alter the viscosity and appearance of certain foodstuffs. to the world that will be. hearth breads and pizzas made in wood-fired stone ovens. What happens in one country is discussed in. As first discussed in Chapter 3. Today’s consumer has a more worldly and adventuresome appetite. Skewered meats cooked over charcoals. So although the world is not shrinking. As a result. microwave cooking. smoked fish presented with its head and tail attached appears more fresh and exciting than merely a fillet. . Today. we are quickly realizing that we are citizens of one world. methods of cookery raise the interest of the consumers and heighten their dining experiences. Whether steamed in a bundled banana leaf. This idea may be justified in some cases. such as halogen heating. vii). another. portioned from its traditional round pan. As the United Kingdom. Some styles are merely fads. and often affects. and ladles of ingredients cooked in fiery woks remind us of certain flavors and nationalities.” Many customers have preconceived expectations for the appearance of traditional menu items. Not in the literal sense. Advancements in science and technology have allowed the inhabitants of this planet to learn more about each other. Whether through global telecommunications or transcontinental travel. appears much more authentic to the consumer. slicing. whereas others will take their rightful place on menus as trends with staying power. many immigrate to the more affluent countries. or baked inside a mound of damp salt. Paella. “The art of garde manger is a blend of the aesthetic and the practical. Today’s modern garde manger has the benefits of a world market and a dining public interested in global cuisine. It is important to the career of the chef and the reputation of the chef’s employer to constantly evaluate products. and more cuisines. For example. Increasing Cultural Awareness It is no revelation that our lives continue to evolve as the world continues to change. based on personal experiences. REGIONAL COOKING STYLES Although the known methods of cookery have not changed in centuries (with a few notable exceptions. Modern Techniques in Kitchen Chemistry. and having both lived on islands where we featured local and imported seafood in our restaurants. the ethnic and cultural influences are very noticeable. more cultures. However. even in the supermarkets of midwestern America. destined to fade quickly from the minds of the consumer. techniques. Presentation Styles Food must satisfy the eyes before it can enter the mouth. Predictions released from the United Nations estimate that about 87 percent of the world’s population will consist of people from Asia. the choice remains a question of cost versus benefit. would argue. it wasn’t too long ago that sushi was thought to appeal only to those of Japanese descent or to jet setters and the sophisticated city crowd. some chefs are making headlines by presenting foods in nontraditional ways and with the use of natural or manufactured chemicals. Having both been raised close to water.

To meet the demand for change. and if they are.Chapter 1 Introduction to Garde Manger 15 1-13 Older menu showing continental cuisine countries such as China and Turkey). In addition to a Western European persuasion. they have probably acquired a much broader taste through travel. Typical consumers are not solely from Western Europe and North America anymore. Latin America and the Caribbean. chefs must seek awareness of the differences in cultures and tastes. most American and continental menus reflected their cuisines for generations. Menus continue to move with the times. as does the consumer. Africa. COURTESY OF ROBERT GARLOUGH . Contemporary menus generally offer selections that have been strongly influenced by many divergent and distinct cultures (Figure 1-14). and the Middle East. menus generally feature dishes founded in the cuisines of Asia and the Far East.

COURTESY OF DANIEL WILSON 1-14 1-14 14 16 Modern menu showing contemporary cuisine .

he joined Edinburgh’s Telford College in 1990 as a lecturer in food studies. and school programs. it becomes attainable. In 1956. he attended the local Durham College to study with the City & Guilds of London Institute. He additionally acquired army qualifications B1 and B2. above all. including the Taste of Scotland and the Scottish Catering Training Board. Never accept second hand performances given to you. England. the highest honor life can bestow on you. and C&G 152. later rising to the position of executive chef for the corporation in 1970. your family. The courses were then the C&G 151.PROFESSIONAL PROFILE ROBERT WILLIAM KENDREW Place of Birth: West Hendon. and. but with passion and belief in one’s self. The respect of your peers and colleagues is. he fulfilled his military national service and was conscripted to serve in the Army Catering Corps. During his career. COURTESY OF ROBERT WILLIAM KENDREW Advice to a Journeyman Chef The standards expected of a chef engaged in the preparation of food are now so great that it takes a dedicated person to fulfill one’s ambition. He served in Aldershot. Malta. This may be a daunting task. as you will have to give your best at all times. where he attained the rank of cook sergeant. Scotvec. HND (Higher National Diploma). in Cyprus. Chef Kendrew was instrumental in the creation and development of numerous Scottish culinary heritage activities. . but to be a great chef all the time requires the support of friends. and the United States. teaching practical cookery and related theory to HNC (Higher National Certificate). During this time. colleagues. London Recipe Provided: Compote of Fruit with Elderflower Cream Culina Culinary Education and Training Highlights l Chef Kendrew started his culinary career as an apprentice in the bakery and confectionery department of London’s South East Durham Co-op in 1950. A crowning achievement in his career was being chosen to attend Queen Elizabeth’s (the Queen Mother’s) 100th birthday parade as one of 100 selected chefs from the United Kingdom. the professional qualification for chefs employed in the industry. a basic cookery qualification. and in Egypt. After 35 years with House of Fraser. then the top qualification attainable in the United Kingdom. in itself. At 18 years old. Chef Kendrew joined the prestigious House of Fraser as sous chef to one of their restaurants. which was the equivalent of the advanced City Guilds 153. He served as the governor and past national chairman of the United Kingdom’s Cookery and Food Association and as chairman of the judges for numerous international culinary competitions located in the United Kingdom. It is easy to be a great chef for a short time.

with the elderflower cream. dried (or 12 fresh heads) Double cream Compote Rhubarb Gooseberries Cherries Strawberries Apple or orange juice. and lemon zest in a large saucepan. Serve the compote. put the sugar and water in a pan. and then fold in the elderflower syrup.S. discarding the elderflowers. . Take off the heat. then boil rapidly until the liquid is reduced by half. Chill until ready to serve. and heat gently until the sugar has dissolved. warm or cold. and simmer gently for 3 to 5 minutes until the fruits are softened but still retain their shape. 2 ounces 1 cup 2 ounces 1 cup 1⁄2 pound 1⁄2 pound 1⁄2 pound 1⁄2 pound 1 pint 2 each 1⁄4 teaspoon To taste METRIC INGREDIENTS C Compote of Fruit with E Elderflower Cream Elderflower Cream 50 g 300 mL 50 g 300 mL 225 g 225 g 225 g 225 g 600 mL 2 each 1 mL To taste Sugar Water Elderflower heads. and submerge the elderflowers in the syrup. fruit juice. Put the fruit.18 PART 1 | FOUNDATIONS IN GARDE MANGER RECIPE 1-1 CHEF ROBERT WILLIAM KENDREW’S MEASUREMENTS U. Whip the cream until it is just beginning to hold its shape. then press the syrup through a sieve. unsweetened Cinnamon stick Lemon zest Clear honey 1 2 3 4 Preparation Steps: To make the elderflower cream. Leave to infuse for at least 2 hours. cinnamon.

2. . including: Organization name. 8. Critical Thinking Discuss the role of the modern garde manger with emphasis on the change in technology. lunch. and types of activities. Experiential Interview a garde manger chef in a local restaurant to establish what that chef considers to be his or her most important role within the kitchen brigade. Briefly describe the term keeping to eat.000 guests breakfast. 6. Explain the term sous chef. Explain the term commis. What is a saucier? INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITIES Web Based Research all of the professional chef organizations in your area. Explain the term craft guild. GROUP ACTIVITIES Laboratory Reproduce a classic recipe found in Escoffier’s Le Guide Culinaire that demonstrates a garde manger technique. 10. 4. contact information. 7. 9. Discuss the origin of the modern chef’s uniform. meeting calendar. Lecture Design a brigade system for a large hotel that feeds 1. afternoon tea. and dinner daily. Why was the brigade system so important to the success of the kitchen? Describe a chef de partie.Chapter 1 Introduction to Garde Manger 19 KEY WORDS AND chef de partie garde manger guilds job descriptions kitchen brigade system la grande cuisine CONCEPTS nonplanner’s cycle nouvelle cuisine performance standards Siamese twins of management trinity of business unity of command REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. membership requirements. 3. What is the garde manger section responsible for in the kitchen? Explain the term tournant. 5.


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