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Caldeira

Caldeira

Procedência: Inglaterra
Época: Início do século XX
Doação: Governo do Estado de São Paulo
Ano: 1973
Utilização: Caldeira movida a lenha,
usada para gerar vapor e alimentar
equipamentos. Esta peça foi utilizada
acoplada a mesa de

voltar

CALDEIRAS DE RECUPERAÇÃO DE CALOR


PARA
USINAS DE COGERAÇÃO DE ENERGIA (TERMOELÉTRICAS)
E MOTOGERADORES
Caldeira de recuperação para gerar 70 toneladas de vapor p/hora, pressão de
trabalho de 45 kg/cm2, acoplada a uma turbina a gás natural de 30 MW.

Caldeiras modulares de recuperação de calor para usinas de cogeração


de energia.

Caldeiras recuperadoras de calor para acoplar em


motogeradores e outras aplicações, desde uma
capacidade de 300 até 8000 kg de vapor/hora
Boilers
The high-pressure steam for a steam engine comes from a boiler. The boiler's job is to apply heat to water to
create steam. There are two approaches: fire tube and water tube.
A fire-tube boiler was more common in the 1800s. It consists of a tank of water perforated with pipes. The hot
gases from a coal or wood fire run through the pipes to heat the water in the tank, as shown here:

In a fire-tube boiler, the entire tank is under pressure, so if the tank bursts it creates a major explosion.
More common today are water-tube boilers, in which water runs through a rack of tubes that are positioned
in the hot gases from the fire. The following simplified diagram shows you a typical layout for a water-tube
boiler:

In a real boiler, things would be much more complicated because the goal of the boiler is to extract every
possible bit of heat from the burning fuel to improve efficiency.
For more information on steam engines and all sorts of other engines, check out the links on the next page.
FLAMATUBULAR
PRODUÇÃO DE ENERGIA TERMOELÉTRICA
Production of electricity basically involves heating water to make steam. The steam spins a turbine that drives a
generator to produce electricity. This cycle is the same whether a plant gets heat from nuclear energy, or by burning
gas, oil or coal.

CALDEIRA A LENHA
Our tour begins at the storage site. Coal is transported to the power plant by truck or by rail. It is then stockpiled or
put in silos.

A coal handling system moves the coal from the storage area into the plant.

COAL PULVERIZERS
The coal is taken from the conveyors and then
crushed in pulverizers into the consistency of
powder
THE BOILER

Numerous burners are located inside the boiler. The pulverized coal is
blown into the boiler where it ignites spontaneously at temperatures of
up to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The purpose of the boiler is to turn
water into steam.

Air is drawn into the plant by huge force-draft fans. As the air enters the
plant it passes through a heat exchanger that transfers heat from
outgoing exhaust gases to the incoming air.

Approximately half of the heated air is channeled through the coal


pulverizers to dry and blow the coal into the boiler. The other half goes
directly to the boiler for combustion.

The hot gases resulting from combustion are drawn through the boiler
and the heat exchanger (where incoming air is warmed). The exhaust
gases then travel to the scrubber.
THE SCRUBBER

In the scrubber, the exhaust gases from the boiler are


sprayed with absorbents such as limestone or lime-water to
remove sulfur dioxide to comply with environmental
regulations

THE BAG HOUSE

The exhaust gases then move from the scrubber to the fabric filter baghouse. The
filter process, which operates on the same principle as a vacuum cleaner,
removes 99.9 percent of the ash and other particulates. The baghouse in this
schematic contains more than 8,000 bags that are 35 feet tall and one foot in
diameter

THE STACK

Induced-draft fans, located near the stack, pull the exhaust


gases through the environmental equipment and send it up
the stack. On cold days, the white plume from the stack of
this type of plant is actually just water vapor condensing. On
hot days, even though the plant is operating, stack emissions
are clear.
PARTES DA CALDEIRA

VISOR DE NIVEL

MANOMETRO
PERSONALIDADES QUE MARCARAM A HISTÓRIA PELA SUA MÁ INFLUÊNCIA

Sadan Hussen - 28 de abril de 1937, em Tikrit (160 km de Bagdá). Ditador Iraquiano, segundo consta, torturou e
matou muitas pessoas por serem opostas ao seu regime.

George Walker Bush - July 6, 1946 - responsável pela invasão do iraque, por motivos questionáveis, com
a conseqüênte morte de milhares de pessoas. “Os Americanos podem ter domínio sobre as bombas
nucleares; o resto do mundo, não”

Osama Bin Laden -1957 : Deu e dá ordens para o assassinato de milhares de pessoas.

Adolf Hitler - 20 April 1889 in "Braunau am Inn", Austria. – Ativou o preconceito anti semita no povo
alemão e ordenou a prisão, seqüestro de bens e morte de milhões de pessoas judias.
Foi um exemplo catastrófico dos horrores que se podem criar por causa de preconceito, que hoje continua
sendo uma das mais perversas chagas produzidas pelo egoísmo, doença que cria conceitos completamente
imorais como os vistos abaixo:

-Minha religião é a única correta.


-Meu jeito de viver é o melhor.
-Se eu erro, é por culpa de outro, assim jamais mereço castigo. Se eu acerto, é mérito somente meu e para
mim deve-se dar toda a glória.
Se outro erra, é culpa somente sua e sobre ele deve recair todo o castigo. Se o outro acerta, com certeza foi
por obra do destino, e ele não deve receber nenhum prêmio.
-Tudo de bom deve ser revertido para mim e para aqueles que eu escolho.

PERSONALIDADES QUE MARCARAM A HISTÓRIA PELA SUA BOA INFLUÊNCIA

Sadan Hussen - 28 de abril de 1937, em Tikrit (160 km de Bagdá). Ditador Iraquiano, segundo consta, torturou e
matou muitas pessoas por serem opostas ao seu regime.

George Walker Bush - July 6, 1946 - responsável pela invasão do iraque, por motivos questionáveis, com
a conseqüênte morte de milhares de pessoas. “Os Americanos podem ter domínio sobre as bombas
nucleares; o resto do mundo, não”

Osama Bin Laden -1957 : Deu e dá ordens para o assassinato de milhares de pessoas.
Single Source Responsibility:

1. Osage packaged firebox boiler-burner units are covered by Superior's warranty 18 months from
shipment or 12 months from startup. See warranty for complete details.
2. Tubes Roller Expanded - All boiler tubes are secured by roller expanding and flaring for tight seal.
3. Front smokebox and access cover are lined with modern spaceage ceramic fiber blanket for light
weight. Cover provides access to the tubes without disconnecting any fuel or electrical connections
or disturbing the firing equipment.
4. Forced draft burner design for efficient operation and ease of maintenance. Standard burners are
specifically matched with the firebox volume and size to provide complete / efficient combustion.
forced draft firing requires only a stub stack to the outside.
5. All steel / welded construction to ASME code Section IV for low pressure heating boilers.
6. Structural steel base provides even distribution of weight and allows for ventilation under the
boiler.
7. Combustion chamber floor is poured with high temperature castable refractory securely anchored
to the base plate.
8. Large firebox volume insures complete combustion with clean firing, smooth starts and quiet
operation.
9. Two-inch -8lb. density mineral fiber insulation provides for minimal jacket heat loss and jacket
rigidity.
10. Large steam disengaging area and storage volume insures stady water level with a dry steam
supply.
11. Rear smokebox with vertical vent connection and tube access cover.
12. Factory installed 22 gauge phosphate coated steel jacket. Finish coated with a hard enamel paint.
13. Heavy steel lifting eyes for ease of handling.
Single source responsibility:

1. Superior Boiler Works, Inc. Seminole Boiler/Burner units are covered by Superior's warranty of 18
monthsfrom date of shipment or 1 year from date of start up.
2. Davited front doiors allow for total access to the return tubes without interference of baffles or inner doors.
3. front and rear doors are closed using studs with lugs and brass nuts for ease of opening and closing.
4. Customer choice of burner manufacturers for efficient operation and ease of maintenance. Burners are
specifically matched with the furnace diameter and lenght for complete/efficient combustion. Burners are
available in gas or light or heavy oil and combination with air or pressure atomization of the oil.
5. Air louver, linkage and setting is visuable for ease of monitoring, adjustment and cleaning.
6. Contorl panel - burner or boiler mounted for ease of operation and maintenace.
7. Control circuit junction box with terminal strips to permit checking individual control operations.
8. Factory mounted and wired gas train complete with main gas pressure regulator. Standard gtas trains
comply with UL requirments. IRI or FM and other code requirements available upon requiest.
9. Structural steel skid type base supports and protects burner.
10. Large diameter furnace provides for complete combustiona d maximum heat transfer. Furnances for Section
I(high pressure boilers) 24" diameter and larger are of the Morison corrugated design.
11. Wetback turnaround eliminates the need for refractory lining, bafles, gaskets and provides additional
primary heating surface for incrased efficiency.
12. Split/hinged rear doors provide access to the rear tuvesheet and third pass tubes.
13. Round rear smoke outlet requires only a stuv stack for proper draft.
14. Heavy steel lifting eyes for ease of handling.
15. Two inch -8 lb. density mineral fiber insulation reduces heat loss through the jacket and provides jacket
support.
16. Hard enamel paint finish is applied to the 22 gauge phosphate galvanized caoted steel jacket.
17. 3 Pass design for optimum efficiency and economical operation.
18. Front smokebox and doors lined with spece-age ceramic fiber blanket.
BOMBAS

CENTRÍFUGA
ROTOR/IMPELIDOR
LÓBULO
ENGRENAGEM INTERNA

GERAL

GAS ASFALTO
ENGRENAGEM EXTERNA