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These work-along problems have been designed to prepare you for the 2008 PE Examination in Civil Engineering. The partial solutions are complemented by video demonstrations that explain each problem and fill in all of the blanks. The problem answers are found in the video demonstrations and at the end of these worksheets.

PE Review.net

2-1 A bridge construction project is defined by activities P through U as shown below. Each of the seven activities duration is shown in hours. The critical path for the construction of the bridge is given by: (A) (B) (C) (D) start P S end start P Q T end start P Q T U end start R U end

Solution This problem can be solved using the Critical Path Method (CPM). Although it could be solved rigorously, a simple listing of all paths will deliver the answer. PATH DURATION (hours)

The longest path is the critical path, which is Note: although path start P Q T U end has the most activities, the critical path depends on total duration.

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2-2 A bridge construction projects activities, predecessors, and durations are shown below: Immediate Duration Activity Predecessors (months) A Site clearance 2 B Foundations 1 C Walls & abutments B 2 D Dispose of topsoil C 1 E Prefabricate deck A, C 2 F Place deck E 2 The expected duration of the project in months, will be most nearly: (A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 7 (D) 10 Solution Draw an activity on node PERT/CPM network.

Identify paths, by inspection. All paths must pass through Path 1 Path 2 Duration = 2 + 2 + 2 = 6 months Duration = 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 7 months

The duration of the project is always the critical path, which is the longest. So, path B - C - E - F, duration 7 months is the answer. Answer: (A) relates to path appropriate path. Answer: (B) relates to Since activity D is not the last activity, it is not the which is non critical.

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A 3

D 4

Start

B 2

E 3

G 5

Finish

C 4

F 4

The latest start time for activity G, is most nearly: (A) 7 weeks (B) 5 weeks (C) 8 weeks (D) 13 weeks Solution The node notation for the project network is described by:

PE Review.net

LS: Latest start time LF: Latest finish time t: Duration We begin the analysis with a forward pass. Turning to Activity A, ES = EF = Activities B & C are assigned ES & EF:

A 0 3 3 Start B 0 2 2 C 0 4 4

Turning to activity D, ESD = EFA = ___ because activity A is its only precedent. And, EFD = ESD + tD =___________ The same procedures for activity F provides

A 0 3 3 Start B 0 2 2 C 0 4 4

D 3 7 4

F 4 8 4

Looking at activity E, we have two immediate precedents: activity A, activity B. In this case, we take the longest finish times from A and B to derive ESE. EFA = ES E = 3 EFB =

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A 0 3 3

D 3 7 4

Start

B 0 2 2

E 3 6 3

G 8 13 5

Finish

C 0 4 4

F 4 8 4

The earliest finish time of activity G, at 13 weeks, is also the project duration. Now, we begin the backward pass. Here LFG = EFG = and LSG = EFG tG = Similarly for activities D, E, and F we can compile the latest start and finish times as:

D 3 7 4 4 8 E 3 6 3 5 8 F 4 8 4 4 8

When we get to activity A, we have two downstream activities: D and E. We always select the largest of the latest start times for all downstream activities: LSD = 4 and LSE = 3 So we select LSD = LFA = 4 Completing the network, we have:

G 8 13 5 8 13

Finish

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ST = Slack time = LS - ES

STA = 0 STB = 1 STC = 0 STD = 1 STE = 2 STF = 0 STG = 0

PE Review.net

2-4 The Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) is different than the Critical Path Method (CPM) because: (A) there is no need to identify precedences and relations in PERT (B) PERT treats the completion of all activities as random variables with specific probability distributions (C) PERT delivers the total time needed to complete a project (D) PERT is less reliable than CPM. Solution PERT is , CPM is . CPM assumes an activity completion time is entirely dependent on the resources assigned to the activity.

PE Review.net

2-5 For an effective annual rate of 8 %, the equivalent present worth of $1.8 million, in six years time, is most nearly: (A) $1.64 million (B) $1.08 million (C) $1.96 million (D) $2.98 million Solution The equivalent present amount P, to a future worth F, is given by: F = P(1 + i ) n , where n = number of years considered and i = effective annual interest rate. So, the equivalent present worth of $1.8 million, in 6 years time @ 8 %, is given by: F P= (1 + i ) n F = $1.8 million i = 0.0875 n=6

The notation commonly applied to express the equivalent amount of a future sum is given by:

P = F ( P / F , i %, n) Similarly, the future value in n years of a present amount (compound interest) is given by:

F = P (F/P,i %, n) where F = P(1 + i ) n

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2-6 A Civil Engineering Contractor is contemplating the maintenance cost of a new machine, for the next six years. With an annual interest rate of 7 1 % and maintenance costs of 8 $550 each year, the present worth of these costs is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution This problem is a uniform series present worth calculation. Its uniform series because the cost repeats each year, without change. The notation for this problem is: P = A (P/A, i, n) which represents:

(1 + i )n 1 P = A n i (1 + i )

This means, that the present day cost of maintaining the machine is

PE Review.net

2-7 A State Department of Transportation is comparing alternative materials for the maintenance of its drainage systems: PVC or concrete. The costs and lives of the materials are summarized below: CONCRETE PVC Life ( years) 25 10 Capital Cost (per unit) $600 $225 Annual Maintenance Cost (per unit) $25 $60 The interest rate is 6%. The best material economically, over a 25 year period is: (A) Concrete (B) PVC (C) They are both the same (D) Neither

Solution Apply the Annual Cost Method to compare alternatives that serve a similar purpose, but will last for different periods e.g. road marking materials, comparing tape to thermo plastic materials. The Annual Cost Method (is also known as the "Annual Return Method" or the "Capital Recovery Method"). The Annual Cost Method requires that we calculate the Equivalent Uniform Annual Cost (EUAC) for each product, and compare. We apply the following: EUAC = (Capital Cost)(Capital Recovery Factor) + Annual Maintenance Cost (AM) The Capital Recovery Factor (CRF) is the ratio of an annuity to the present value of receiving that annuity, for a given interval. An Annuity is a terminating stream of fixed payments over a specified period.

PE Review.net

Using the standard nomenclature, CRF = (A/P, i%,n) where A P i n = capital cost ($) = present worth ($) = effective annual interest rate (decimal or %) = life of asset (years)

Applying EUAC = (A)(CRF) + Annual maintenance cost (M) So we have nconc Aconc Mconc 25 $60 $25 nPVC APVC MPVC 10 years $225 $60

CRFconc =

CRFPVC

Concrete is the best, because the annual cost of operations is the lowest.

Note! Even though we are considering 25 years for concrete and only 10 for PVC, its annual cost is what matters. Further, the analysis takes into account the two different durations. This means that the duration is irrelevant.

PE Review.net

2-8 An embankment fill to a retaining wall is protected from deterioration with a 9 concrete lining. If wastage is estimated at 15%, the volume of concrete required to construct the lining, in cubic yards, is most nearly: (A) 21 (B) 49 (C) 57 (D) 72

8'

Solution

A 4 3 11' C B

PE Review.net

Slope length = AC = AB 2 + BC 2

Volume of concrete

PE Review.net

Problem Answers: 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 (A) (C) (C) (B) (B) (B) (A) (C)

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