OCS Class 2-04
TERMINAL PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE
Given a scenario as a break-in underway Officer of the Deck (OOD), evaluate in writing the practical application of forces and procedures affecting the ship in various maneuvering scenarios in accordance with Crenshaw’s Naval Shiphandling and Knight’s Modern Seamanship.
• Identify and explain the effect of various forces, both controlled and uncontrolled, on an underway vessel. • Identify a pivot point and explain factors affecting it. • Identify and explain purpose of different lines aboard a moored vessel.
ENABLING OBJECTIVES (cont.)
• Explain procedures to get a moored vessel underway. • Explain procedures to moor vessel to pier or wharf. • Identify immediate reactions required from OOD in the event of a man overboard. • Describe the various recovery methods for a man overboard.
• Mark of distinction for the professional mariner. • As much of an art as it is a science. • Must understand the theory before you can effectively grasp the lessons of practical exercises.
• Two types:
– Controllable – Uncontrollable
• Movement is the result of forces acting against a ship.FORCES
• Forces effect a ship’s movement.
Those forces acting on a vessel which are out of the shiphandlers control: • Wind • Current
– The force of one knot of current on a vessel is equivalent to approximately 30 Knots of wind.
UNCONTROLLABLE FORCES (cont.)
• Waves or Sea State • Depth of water • Confined waterways
• • • • • Propeller Rudder Lines Anchor Bow Thruster or Azimuth Thruster
• Momentum: vessel’s tendency to remain in motion when in motion.INERTIA -. • Displacement: the volume or weight of water displaced by the hull (equaling the weight of the ship)
• Inertia: vessel’s tendency to remain at rest.
The greater the vessel’s displacement…
– the greater the inertia and momentum – the greater the friction of water against the hull – the more power is needed to overcome underwater and above water resistance – the longer it takes the vessel to accelerate or decelerate – the lower the speed required to maintain maneuverability.
• What is Bank Suction? • The bodily movement of a ship toward the near bank due to the decrease in pressure as a result of increased velocity of flow of water past the hull in a restricted channel.
. bank cushion tends to force the bow away from the bank due to increase in the bow wave on the near side. especially one with steep banks.BANK CUSHION
• What is Bank Cushion? • In a restricted channel.
bow rises.SHALLOW WATER EFFECT
• As a ship moves through the water there is a change in the level of the bow and stern from the still water level. stern continues to settle. • Moderate speeds: Vessel sinks and the stern squats • Higher speeds: Sinkage stops.
SHALLOW WATER EFFECT
• What is Squat?
– For a vessel underway the bodily sinkage and change of trim caused by pressure changes on the hull due to the relative motion of water.
• Decreases speed • Lose rudder and propeller effect • Possibility of grounding
• • • • Single Screw Twin Screw outboard Twin Screw inboard Controllable pitch propellers
• What does a propeller do?
– Pressure differences – Thrust
• Right / Left handed • Propeller thrust: resultant force transferred to ship from rotation of propeller.
• Side Force: moves or walks the stern of the vessel to one side or the other.
. • Maximum effect when overcoming inertia • Least effect when momentum is gained. • Propeller moves and a force is created moving the stern in the direction of the rotating screw.
• Produces a large force against the rudder.SCREW CURRENT
• The flow of water away from a turning propeller. • Results in a large force against the rudder as well as the force created by the propeller to move the vessel fore or aft.
Vessel speed c. Rudder size • The slower the ship's speed.
. • Rudder effect depends on: a.RUDDER EFFECT
• The force generated by the pressure of water against the flat surface of the rudder. Amount of rudder applied b. • Used to maintain or come to a desired heading. the more rudder is needed to maintain course.
SINGLE SCREW MANEUVERING
• Casting: to turn a single screw ship in a restricted waterway
– Rudder put to right full and apply full power until headway is gained – Shift rudder and apply back full until stern way is gained – Continue the process
Propellers versus rudders when maneuvering • Screws opposed
. Port ahead.TWIN SCREW MANEUVERING
• • • • • Straight. Turn on one shaft Starboard ahead. bow goes _____________. bow goes _______________.
• The point on the center line which the ship pivots when the rudder is put over. • The point of the ship upon which it turns and which scribes the “turning circle” • When going ahead located about 1/3 the vessel's length aft of the bow.
MOVING THE PIVOT POINT
• Dredging anchor:
– Pivot point moves to the hawse pipe.
• Vessel making sternway:
– Pivot point moves above rudders.
• “Springing” alongside a pier:
– Pivot point moves to chock of line to the pier.
• Diameter will decrease with increased rudder angle or speed. • Advance • Transfer • Tactical Diameter • Final Diameter
• The path used by a vessel when completing a 360 degree turn with constant rudder angle.
• The ship has to overcome the inertia resisting rotational acceleration .TURNING CIRCLE
• The rudder is put over to start a turn the stern is forced away from the direction of the turn.a few lengths of the ship passes before there is an effect • Momentum causes the ship to continue in the original direction while coming to new course
STANDARD MOORING LINES
• Breast (or waist) lines: control lateral movement of moored vessel • Spring lines: control fore and aft movement of moored vessel
• • • • Take in breast lines Take in quarter spring Put rudder over to side of pier Use bow spring line to assist in kicking stern out • Rudder amidship • Take in bow spring
• Assess conditions for mooring • Make approach between 10-15 degrees off pier face (adjust as necessary for set) • Put over spring line • Take all way off • Pivot onto pier • Put over and secure all lines
• What action is necessary? IMMEDIATE • REHEARSE REHEARSE REHEARSE
MAN OVERBOARD INITIAL ACTION
• • • • • • • • Right/Left full rudder. apply speed Sound the alarm Six short blasts Break Oscar flag Toss a life ring Visual watch Obtain a position Muster
• Shipboard pickup. person in the water. Windward or Leeward side?
• ANS: Leeward Side
• Small boat pickup. Under what circumstance is a small boat recovery preferred?
• • • • • Anderson Turn (Destroyer Turn) Williamson Turn Racetrack Turn Y-Backing Delayed Turn
.Anderson Turn (Destroyer Turn)
Used by ships that have considerable power and relatively tight turning characteristics.
Used if it is believed that a person fell overboard some time ago and is not in sight.
Used in low visibility because it makes good the original track.
• What 2 kinds of forces affect a ship? • Define the following:
– – – – – Propeller thrust Side force Screw current Rudder effect Shallow Water Effect
Review Objectives (cont.)
• Where is the pivot point normally found? • What factors can change the pivot point and to where? • What are the standard mooring lines and their purposes? • Describe getting a vessel underway from the pier.
Review Objectives (cont.)
• Describe mooring a vessel to a pier or wharf. • What are the immediate reactions for a man overboard? • On which side do we recover a man overboard?
Review Objectives (cont.)
• When would the following recovery methods be used:
– – – – – Anderson Turn (Destroyer Turn) Williamson Turn Racetrack Turn Y-Backing Delayed Turn