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Iodine 1 1 15 15 24
Isotopes of iodine
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I.t. 7 (Image) Physical properties Phase Density (near r.7 °C. symbol. /ˈaɪ.85 K.44 J·mol−1·K−1 2 Vapor pressure (rhombic) P/Pa 1 10 282 100 309 1k 342 10 k 381 100 k 457 at T/K 260 Atomic properties .3 °C.113. 53 /ˈaɪ. 18. p Element category Group.52 kJ·mol−1 2 2 (I ) 41. number Pronunciation iodine. 8.363.4 K.) Melting point Boiling point Triple point Critical point Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization Specific heat capacity solid 4.ɵdɪn/ eye-o-dən. period.57 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) (I ) 54.7 °F 386.65 K (113°C).236. 11. or /ˈaɪ.7 MPa (I ) 15.933 g·cm−3 386.1 kPa 819 K. violet as a gas General properties Name.ɵdiːn/ eye-o-deen halogen 17.ɵdaɪn/ eye-o-dyne.1 Overview Iodine Iodine Appearance Lustrous metallic gray. 5.90447 g·mol−1 Electron configuration Electrons per shell [Kr] 4d 5s 5p 10 2 5 2. 18. 12.184. block Standard atomic weight 126.66 °F 457.
low toxicity. /ˈaɪ. ranking 47th in abundance. Like the other halogens. free iodine occurs mainly as a diatomic molecule I2. However.194 0. 5. its presence in ocean water has given it a role in biology. γ 0.66 (Pauling scale) 1st: 1008. due to initial low abundance as a crust-element. Iodine's relatively high atomic number.ɵdaɪn/ eye-o-dyne. iodine's high atomic number makes it a relatively rare element. Iodine deficiency affects about two billion people and is the leading preventable cause of mental retardation. 3.ɵdiːn/ eye-o-deen. which concentrates it in oceans and brine pools. -1 (strongly acidic oxide) 2. A number of iodine radioisotopes are also used in medical applications. and industrially in the production of acetic acid and certain polymers. Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition. In the universe and on Earth. and also leaching of soluble iodide by rainwater. due to the color of elemental iodine vapor. . It is the heaviest essential element utilized widely by life in biological functions (only tungsten. Iodine's rarity in many soils. The name is pronounced /ˈaɪ. and then only momentarily after being oxidized from iodide by a an oxidant like free oxygen.7×10 y β − 0.9 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 3180 kJ·mol−1 Atomic radius Covalent radius Van der Waals radius 140 pm 139±3 pm 198 pm Miscellanea Crystal structure Magnetic ordering Electrical resistivity Thermal conductivity Bulk modulus CAS registry number orthorhombic diamagnetic  7 (0 °C) 1.449 W·m ·K 7.971 129 131 Xe Xe 8.ɵdɪn/ eye-o-dən. Iodine has only one stable isotope.Iodine 2 Oxidation states Electronegativity Ionization energies 7. Iodine is found on Earth mainly as the highly water-soluble iodide I-. 1.7 GPa 7553-56-2 −1 −1 Most stable isotopes iso 123 127 129 131 NA syn half-life 13 h 127 DM DE (MeV) ε.3×10 Ω·m (300 K) 0.4 kJ·mol−1 2nd: 1845. γ Iodine is a chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53.16 DP 123 I Te I 100% I I trace syn I is stable with 74 neutron 6 15. and ease of attachment to organic compounds have made it a part of many X-ray contrast materials in modern medicine. meaning violet or purple. is heavier). The name is from the Greek: ιώδης iodes. has led to many deficiency problems in land animals and inland human populations.02070 d β−. or (British English) /ˈaɪ. employed in enzymes by a few species of bacteria.
This halogen forms compounds with many elements. although the liquid is often obscured by a dense violet vapor of gaseous iodine. by microbial activity in rice paddies and by the burning of biological material is estimated to be 214 kilotonnes/year. in strongly polar solvents such as acetone or ethanol. This effect is due to the formation of adducts. it appears orange or brown. and.028–0. and is one of the most carcinogenic of nuclear fission products. In non-polar solvents like hexane. However.05 vs 0.Iodine Iodine is required by higher animals. which contain the element. About 19. The colour of solutions of elemental iodine change depends on the polarity of the solvent. which has a high fission product yield. however.04 ppm. but is less reactive than the other members of its Group VII (halogens) and has some metallic light reflectance. It can be seen apparently sublimating at standard temperatures into a violet-pink gas that has an irritating odor. Iodomethane Organoiodine compounds are produced by marine life forms. 3 Characteristics Iodine under standard conditions is a bluish-black solid. The volatile iodomethane is broken up in the atmosphere as part of a global iodine cycle. the solubility of elemental iodine in water can be increased by the addition of potassium iodide. radioisotopes of iodine are concentrated in the thyroid gland along with nonradioactive iodine. the solution is dark crimson. The total iodomethane that is produced by the marine environment. The brown algae Laminaria and Fucus found in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere contain 0. generating the triiodide anion I3− in equilibrium. although tincture of iodine classically dissolves the element in aqueous ethanol. and iodine is the heaviest element thought to be needed by higher animals. concentrates in the thyroid. but is only slightly soluble in water. Minerals containing iodine include caliche. Iodine melts at the relatively low temperature of 113. The molecular iodine reacts reversibly with the negative ion. The radioisotope iodine-131. solution are violet.454 dry weight percent of iodine. Elemental iodine dissolves easily in most organic solvents such as hexane or chloroform owing to its lack of polarity. iodine shows its violet color.  . 0.7 °C. in moderately polar dichloromethane. which is soluble in water.000 tonnes are produced annually from natural sources. iodine is the heaviest element to be essential in living organisms. Iodine occurs in slightly greater concentrations in seawater than in rocks. Occurrence Iodine is rare in the solar system and Earth's crust (47th in abundance). In the gas phase. Because of this function. Aside from tungsten. which use it to synthesize thyroid hormones. iodide salts are often very soluble in water. the most notable being iodomethane (commonly called methyl iodide). found in Chile. This is also the formulation of some types of medicinal (antiseptic) iodine.
The Japanese Minami Kanto gas field east of Tokyo and the American Anadarko Basin gas field in northwest Oklahoma are the two largest sources for iodine from brine. one of the longest single bonds known. Structure of solid iodine Production Of the several places in which iodine occurs in nature. and this interaction is responsible for the higher melting point compared to more compact halogens. Since the atomic size of Iodine is larger. contains sodium nitrate. The crystal motif in the Hermann–Mauguin notation is Cmca (No 64). especially in Japan and the United States. . the sodium iodate and sodium iodide are extracted. with a bond dissociation energy of 36 kcal/mol. causing the iodine to evaporate. In the extraction of sodium  nitrate. which are also diatomic. The solid crystallizes as orthorhombic crystals. One consequence of this weak bonding is the relatively high tendency of I2 molecules to dissociate into atomic iodine. The hydrogen iodide (HI) is reacted with chlorine to precipitate the iodine. which is the main product of the mining activities and small amounts Crystalline iodine of sodium iodate and sodium iodide.  2 HI + Cl2 → I2↑ + 2 HCl I2 + 2 H2O + SO2 → 2 HI + H2SO4 2 HI + Cl2 → I2↓ + 2 HCl The production of iodine from seawater via electrolysis is not used owing to the sufficient abundance of iodine-rich brine. found in Chile. The brine is first purified and acidified using sulfuric acid. then it is passed into an absorbing tower containing acid where sulfur dioxide is added to reduce the iodine. but it is no longer economically viable. most bonds to iodine tend to be weaker than for the lighter halides. Air is blown into the solution. then the iodide present is oxidized to iodine with chlorine. Another source of iodine was kelp. and the iodine-containing brines of gas and oil fields. An iodine solution is produced. The caliche. The I-I bond is relatively weak. The brine has a temperature of over 60°C owing to the depth of the source. Pearson symbol oS8. The I2 molecules tend to interact via weak van der Waals forces. In fact. After filtering and purification the iodine is packed. The high concentration of iodine in the caliche and the extensive mining made Chile the largest producer of iodine in 2007. its melting point is higher. found in Chile. Most other producers use natural occurring brine for the production of iodine.Iodine 4 Structure and bonding Iodine normally exists as a diatomic molecule with a I-I bond length of 270 pm. used in the 18th and 19th centuries. only two sources are useful commercially: the caliche. but is dilute and must be concentrated.
but unlike the others. iodine-125. which can be removed by sublimation. 129I. The next-longest-lived radioisotope. and its presence in the early solar system is inferred from the observation of an excess of its daughter xenon-129.7 million years. which kill tumors by local short-range gamma radiation (but where the isotope is never released into the body). a high dose of this isotope appears safer for the thryoid than a low dose). . which is a common nuclear fission product. which gives copper(II) iodide initially. The element may also be prepared in an ultra-pure form through the reaction of potassium iodide with copper(II) sulfate. also known as MIBG). Iodine-123 (half-life 13 hours) is the isotope of choice for nuclear medicine imaging of the thyroid gland. has a half-life of 15. Like other radioiodines. the compound iobenguane. such as the Chernobyl disaster and more recently the Fukushima I nuclear accidents. and thus protect against accidental contamination from iodine-131 generated by nuclear fission accidents. it is the only iodine radioisotope used as direct therapy. but far too short for it to exist as a primordial isotope today. has a half-life of 59 days. the range of the beta rays). Instead. the method used to isolate other halogens: Oxidation of the iodide in hydrogen iodide (often made in situ with an iodide and sulfuric acid) by manganese dioxide (see below in Descriptive chemistry). Iodine-131 (half-life 8 days) is a beta-emitting isotope. It is preferably administered to humans only in very high doses which destroy all tissues that accumulate it (usually the thyroid). This nuclide is also newly-made by cosmic rays and as a byproduct of human nuclear fission. still functions to naturally accumulate iodide. Because of this tendency of 131I to cause high damage to cells that accumulate it and other cells near them (0.6 to 2 mm away. This is long enough to make it a permanent fixture of the environment on human time scales. which it is used to monitor as a very long-lived environmental contaminant. I-131 accumulates in the thyroid gland. in a number of convenient forms (tablets or solution) may be used to saturate the thyroid gland's ability to take up further iodine. as well as from contamination from this isotope in nuclear fallout from nuclear weapons.Iodine 5 Commercial samples often contain high concentrations of impurities. which naturally accumulates all iodine isotopes. 127I. That decomposes spontaneously to copper(I) iodide and iodine: Cu2+ + 2 I– → CuI2 Iodine output in 2005 2 CuI2 → 2 CuI + I2 There are also other methods of isolating this element in the laboratory. for example. owing to the high local cell mutation due to damage from beta decay. It is also commonly used in brachytherapy implanted capsules. it seems. The longest-lived radioisotope. and a few nuclear medicine imaging tests where a longer half-life is required. in small amounts it is highly carcinogenic there. Isotopes and their applications Of the 37 known (characterized) isotopes of iodine. iodine-129 is an extinct radionuclide. only one. For the same reason. is stable. to kill tissues such as cancers that take up artificially iodinated molecules (example. It is used as a convenient gamma-emitting tag for proteins in biological assays. only the iodine isotope I-131 is used to treat Grave's disease and those types of thyroid cancers (sometimes in metastatic form) where the tissue that requires destruction. Nonradioactive ordinary potassium iodide (iodine-127). which in turn prevents these tissues from developing cancer from a lower dose (paradoxically.
making dark crystals. In alternative fashion. He noted that the vapor crystallized on cold surfaces. from the Greek word ιώδες (iodes) for violet (because of the color of iodine vapor). Hydrolysis of the resulting acetyl iodide regenerates hydroiodic acid and gives acetic acid. Dersormes and Clément made public Courtois's discovery. and to physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836).Iodine 6 History Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois in 1811. The iodine exists as the element. They described the substance to a meeting of the Imperial Institute of France. France was at war and saltpeter was in great demand. which support the world's demand for acetic acid. On December 6. to continue research. On 29 November 1813. In these technologies. Courtois once added excessive sulfuric acid and a cloud of purple vapor rose. or iodine and sodium iodide in a mixture of ethanol and water. To isolate the sodium carbonate. which could be isolated from seaweed collected on the coasts of Normandy and Brittany. which contain iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent (iodide ion may be thought of loosely as the iodophor in triiodide water solutions). He also gave some of the substance to chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–1850). Disinfectant and water treatment Elemental iodine is used as a disinfectant in various forms. Charles Bernard Desormes (1777–1862) and Nicolas Clément (1779–1841). Examples of such preparations include: • Tincture of iodine: iodine in ethanol. iodine may come from iodophors. or as the water-soluble triiodide anion I3.generated in situ by adding iodide to poorly water-soluble elemental iodine (the reverse chemical reaction makes some free elemental iodine available for antisepsis).  He was born to a manufacturer of saltpeter (a vital part of gunpowder). Gay-Lussac announced that the new substance was either an element or a compound of oxygen.  Ampère had given some of his sample to Humphry Davy (1778–1829). which undergoes carbonylation. At the time of the Napoleonic Wars. seaweed was burned and the ash washed with water. forming mostly triiodide. but both scientists acknowledged Courtois as the first to isolate the element. Saltpeter produced from French niter beds required sodium carbonate. hydroiodic acid converts the methanol feedstock into methyl iodide. Arguments erupted between Davy and Gay-Lussac over who identified iodine first. Applications Catalysis The major application of iodine is as a co-catalyst for the production of acetic acid by the Monsanto and Cativa processes. EDDI is provided to livestock as a nutritional supplement. The remaining waste was destroyed by adding sulfuric acid. • Povidone iodine (an iodophor) . Lugol's has a minimized amount of the free iodine (I2) component. • Lugol's iodine: iodine and iodide in water alone. Courtois gave samples to his friends. Davy sent a letter dated December 10 to the Royal Society of London stating that he had identified a new element. Davy did some experiments on the substance and noted its similarity to chlorine.   It was Gay-Lussac who suggested the name "iode". Animal feed The production of ethylenediammonium diiodide (EDDI) consumes a large fraction of available iodine. Courtois suspected that this was a new element but lacked funding to pursue it further. Unlike tincture of iodine.
if people are expected to be exposed to a significant amount of environmental radioactive iodine (iodine-131 in fallout). Potassium iodide has been used as an expectorant.20 g/100 ml at 25 °C). Silver iodide is a major ingredient to traditional photographic film. diethyl ether (20. Practically. when this isotope is used as part of radiopharmaceuticals (such as iobenguane) that are not targetted to the thyroid or thyroid type tissues. where it is kept for periods longer than this isotope's radiological half-life of eight days.) By ingesting this large amount of non-radioactive iodine. In medicine. as iodide ion. as a heavy element. The organoiodine compound erythrosine is an important food coloring agent.Iodine 7 Health. See the main article above for more on this topic.47 g/100 ml at 25 °C). thus. and radiological use In most countries. (Note: typical daily dose of iodine to maintain normal health is of order 100 micrograms. and including the intermediate states of I5+. Iodine chemistry Iodine adopts a variety of oxidation states.5 g/100 ml at 15 °C. and carbon disulfide (16. I3+ and I+.6 g/100 ml at 17 °C. supplying 100 mg (100. Perfluoroalkyl iodides are precursors to important surfactants.603 g/100 ml at 35 °C). radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid gland is minimized. carbon tetrachloride (2. glycerol. table salt is iodized. Other uses Inorganic iodides find specialized uses. is quite radio-opaque. used in medicine as X-ray radiocontrast agents for intravenous injection. medical. The typical adult dose is one 130 mg tablet per 24 hours. benzene (14.oxidation state is of significance.09 g/100 ml at 25 °C). potassium iodide is used to treat acute thyrotoxicosis. For this reason. Elemental iodine is poorly soluble in water. with one gram dissolving in 3450 ml at 20 °C and 1280 ml at 50 °C. which involves the reversible formation of the tetraiodides of these elements. Hafnium. This is often in conjunction with advanced X-ray techniques such as angiography and CT scanning. Iodide is required for the essential thyroxin hormones produced by and concentrated in the thyroid gland. including ethanol (20. only the 1. Organic compounds of a certain type (typically iodine-substituted benzene derivatives) are. acetic acid. such as perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. they may be instructed to take non-radioactive potassium iodide tablets. zirconium. Iodine-131 (in the chemical form of iodide) is a component of nuclear fallout and a particularly dangerous one owing to the thyroid gland's propensity to concentrate ingested iodine. Thousands of kilograms of silver iodide are consumed annually for cloud seeding. Radiocontrast agent Iodine. usually as a saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI). a radiocontrast agent are purified by the van Arkel Process.000 micrograms) iodine. Solubility Being a nonpolar molecule. titanium Diatrizoic acid. commonly ranging from (formally) I7+ to I-. all water-soluble radiocontrast agents rely on iodine. It is also used to block uptake of iodine-131 in the thyroid gland (see isotopes section above). iodine is highly soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. At present. chloroform. see "Dietary Intake" below. 25. although this use is increasingly uncommon. being the form found in iodide salts and organoiodine compounds. 21. Aqueous and ethanol solutions are brown reflecting the role of these .43 g/100 ml at 25 °C).
g. IO3– and IO4–. Molecular iodine can be prepared by oxidizing iodides with chlorine: or with manganese dioxide in acid solution: 2 I− + 4 H+ + MnO2 → I2 + 2 H2O + Mn2+ Iodine is reduced to hydroiodic acid by hydrogen sulfide and hydrazine: 8 I2 + 8 H2S → 16 HI + S8 2 I2 + N2H4 → 4 HI + N2 When dissolved in fuming sulfuric acid (65% oleum). the result of iodine being oxidized by SO3: 2 I2 + 2 SO3 + H2SO4 → 2 I The I of the I 2I + SO2 + 2 HSO Sb2F or I Ta2F can be cation is also formed in the oxidation of iodine by SbF5 or TaF5. carbon tetrachloride. By contrast with chlorine. The oxidation of iodide to iodine in air is also responsible for the slow loss of iodide content in iodized salt if exposed to air.. but several other oxides are known. from hydroiodic acid. The resulting I cation: I disproportionates into I (black). 8 Redox reactions In everyday life. and carbon disulfide are violet. Evidence for this conversion is the yellow tint of certain aged samples of iodide salts and some organoiodine compounds. I2 + H2O H+ + I− + HIO (K = 2. Dissolved bromides also improve water solubility of iodine. . such as the strong oxidant iodine pentoxide. iodine converts in a two stage reaction to iodide and iodate: I2 + 2 OH− → I− + IO− + H2O (K = 30) 3 IO− → 2 I− + IO3− (K = 1020) Organic derivatives of hypoiodate (2-Iodoxybenzoic acid. One of the most distinctive properties of iodine is the way that its solubility in water is enhanced by the presence of iodide ions. iodine forms an intense blue solution. Excess iodine (green) and I Oxides of iodine The best-known oxides are the anions. The blue color is due to I cation. potassium iodide. the formation of the hypohalite ion (IO–) in neutral aqueous solutions of iodine is negligible. and Dess-Martin periodinane) are used in organic chemistry. owing to the formation Under slightly more alkaline conditions. etc. I can then react with I to form I and an iodine(III) compound. The dissolution of iodine in aqueous solutions containing iodide (e. The solutions of these salts turn red when cooled below −60°C.and I2. the color of iodine vapor.) results from the formation of the I3− ion.  2 I− + Cl2 → I2 + 2 Cl− isolated as deep blue crystals. Iodine is easily oxidized and easily reduced.0×10−13) In basic solutions (such as aqueous sodium hydroxide).Iodine solvents as Lewis bases. Solutions in chloroform. Most common is the interconversion of I. iodides are slowly oxidized by atmospheric oxygen in the atmosphere to give free iodine. Some salts use iodate to prevent the loss of iodine.
iodine is able to replace hydroxyl groups on alcohols with iodide. Titanium and aluminium iodides are used in the production of butadiene. and if unconfined. such as aluminium: 3 I2 + 2 Al → 2 AlI3 This reaction produces 314 kJ per mole of aluminum. Sodium iodide is especially useful in the Finkelstein reaction. Alkyl iodides such as iodomethane are good alkylating agents. aryl and alkyl iodides both form Grignard reagents. used as a co-catalyst in the Cativa process for the production of acetic acid. periodic acid (HIO4) and their salts are strong oxidizers and are of some use in organic synthesis. Iodine is oxidized to iodate by nitric acid as well as by chlorates: I2 + 10 HNO3 → 2 HIO3 + 10 NO2 + 4 H2O I2 + 2 ClO3− → 2 IO3− + Cl2 9 Inorganic iodine compounds Iodine forms compounds with all the elements except for the noble gases. examples include iodine monochloride and trichloride. and iodine. because it is soluble in acetone. an alkyl chloride is converted to an alkyl iodide. whereas potassium iodide is less so. comparable to thermite's 425 kJ. a precursor to rubber tires. in that order . which precipitates. Potassium iodide is a convenient source of the iodide anion. For example. and also radiocontrast agents. iodine reacts violently with some metals. From the perspective of commercial applications. This relies on the insolubility of sodium chloride in acetone to drive the reaction: R-Cl (acetone) + NaI (acetone) → R-I (acetone) + NaCl (s) Despite having the lowest electronegativity of the common halogens. an important compound is hydroiodic acid. iodine pentafluoride and heptafluoride. Organic compounds Many organoiodine compounds exist. Both salts are mainly used in the production of iodized salt. The iodoform test uses an alkaline solution of iodine to react with methyl ketones to give the labile triiodomethide leaving group. Organic synthesis With phosphorus. Iodine is sometimes used to activate magnesium when preparing Grignard reagents. Alkali metal salts are common colourless solids that are highly soluble in water. it is easier to handle than sodium iodide because it is not hygroscopic. forming iodoform.Iodine Iodic acid (HIO3). Some drawbacks to use of organoiodine compounds in chemical synthesis are: • iodine compounds tend to be more expensive than the corresponding bromides and chlorides. red phosphorus. Yet the reaction initiates spontaneously. The iodinating reagent is phosphorus triiodide that is formed in situ: 3 CH3OH + PI3 → 3 CH3I + H3PO3 Phosphorous acid is formed as a side-product. The thyroid hormones are naturally occurring organoiodine compounds. Interhalogen compounds Interhalogen compounds are well known. the simplest is iodomethane. approved as a soil fumigant. In this reaction. causes a cloud of gaseous iodine due to the high temperature. the synthesis of methyl iodide from methanol. Iodinated organics are used as synthetic reagents.
Thyroid hormones are phylogenetically very old molecules that are synthesized by most multicellular organisms. ethyl iodide. A solution of starch and iodide can perform the same function. Iodine's main role in animal biology is as a constituent of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). has a higher atomic number and atomic weight). and that even have some effect on unicellular organisms. and so on) as reagents useful for the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine.. T4 and T3 contain four and three atoms of iodine per molecule. the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) regards iodine and compounds containing iodine (ionic iodides. instead of the yellow of dilute triiodide becoming colorless). and so are more toxic (e. Lugol's iodine is applied to the vagina and cervix. respectively. while in excessive production of . Biopsy of suspicious tissue can then be performed. the premise being that counterfeit banknotes made using commercially available paper contain starch. compared to other alkylating agents (e.g. • During colposcopy.Iodine • iodides tend to be much stronger alkylating agents. This is called a Schiller's Test. Thyroid hormones play a basic role in biology. which shows up as blue. The total deficiency of thyroid hormones can reduce basal metabolic rate up to 50%. • Iodine solutions are used in counterfeit banknote detection pens. owing to the atomic mass of iodine. The Iodine clock reaction is an extension of the techniques in iodometry. iodoform.g. iodine forms an intense blue complex with the glucose polymers starch and glycogen. The concentration of an oxidant can be determined by adding it to an excess of iodide. acting on gene transcription to regulate the basal metabolic rate. Clandestine synthetic chemical use In the United States. in order to increase the visual contrast (dark blue becomes colorless. and thus appears pale compared to the surrounding tissue. to destroy elemental iodine/triiodide as a result of oxidation by the oxidant. Biological role Iodine is an essential trace element for life. while abnormal tissue suspicious for cancer does not stain. Several analytical methods rely on this property: • Iodometry. A starch indicator is then used as the indicator close to the end-point. and the second-heaviest known to be used by any form of life (only tungsten. 10 Analytical chemistry and bioanalysis Iodine is a common general stain used in thin-layer chromatography. and are stored prior to release in an iodine-containing protein called thyroglobulin. methyl iodide is very toxic (T+) • low-molecular-weight iodides tend to have a much higher equivalent weight. the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms. a component of a few bacterial enzymes. actions that are regulated by a second hormone TSH from the pituitary. These are made from addition condensation products of the amino acid tyrosine. Normal vaginal tissue stains brown owing to its high glycogen content (a color-reaction similar to that with starch). methyl iodide versus dimethyl carbonate). The thyroid gland actively absorbs iodide from the blood to make and release these hormones into the blood.. The oxidants convert iodide to iodine. Testing a seed for starch with a solution of iodine • An Iodine test may be used to test a sample substance for the presence of starch. In particular. • Starch-iodide paper are used to test for the presence of oxidants such as peroxides.
Iodine accounts for 65% of the molecular weight of T4 and 59% of the T3. T4 acts largely as a precursor to T3. 11 Dietary intake The daily Dietary Reference Intake recommended by the United States Institute of Medicine is between 110 and 130 µg for infants up to 12 months. some cases of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism have been observed (so called Jod-Basedow phenomenon). the cervix. no biological effects. thymus. Iodine deficiency is also a problem in certain areas of Europe. Natural sources of iodine include sea life.Iodine thyroid hormones the basal metabolic rate can be increased by 100%. A family of non-selenium-dependent enzymes then further deiodinates the products of these reactions. In the cells of these tissues. Both of the latter are inactivated hormones that are ready for disposal and have. symptoms of which are extreme fatigue. 130 µg for children up to 13 years. iodide enters directly by sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). etc. weight gain. and low basal body temperatures. The trophic. Fifteen to 20 mg of iodine is concentrated in thyroid tissue and hormones.  Iodized salt is fortified with iodine. Iodine has a nutritional relationship with selenium. including mammary glands. eyes. and salivary glands. which is (with minor exceptions) the biologically active hormone. iodized salt) have been implemented. but. and convert T3 to 3. The tolerable upper limit was assessed by analyzing the effect of supplementation on thyroid-stimulating hormone. antioxidant and apoptosis-inductor actions and the presumed anti-tumour activity of iodides has been suggested to also be important for prevention of oral and salivary glands diseases. as of March 2006. A family of selenium-dependent enzymes called deiodinases converts T4 to T3 (the active hormone) by removing an iodine atom from the outer tyrosine ring. a result that occurs primarily when babies or small children are rendered hypothyroidic by a lack of the element. 150 µg for adults. in essence. The addition of iodine to table salt has largely eliminated this problem in the wealthier nations. including lactating breast. The condition seems to occur mainly in people over forty. but 70% of the body's iodine is distributed in other tissues. consumption is much higher. After iodine fortification programs (e. the median intake of iodine from food in the United States was 240 to 300 μg/day for men and 190 to 210 μg/day for women.100 μg/day (1. . Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation. These enzymes also convert T4 to reverse T3 (rT3) by removing an inner ring iodine atom. mental slowing. As of 2000. The thyroid gland needs no more than 70 micrograms /day to synthesize the requisite daily amounts of T4 and T3.1 mg/day).3'-diiodothyronine (T2) also by removing an inner ring atom. The higher recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary for optimal function of a number of body systems. 220 µg for pregnant women and 290 µg for lactating mothers. iodine deficiency gives rise to hypothyroidism.. In Japan. such as kelp and certain seafood. but its role in the other tissues is unknown. depression. Its role in mammary tissue is related to fetal and neonatal development. iodine deficiency remained a serious public health problem in the developing world. owing to the frequent consumption of seaweed or kombu kelp. and the risk appears higher when iodine deficiency is severe and the initial rise in iodine intake is high. as well as plants grown on iodine-rich soil. epidermis. Deficiency In areas where there is little iodine in the diet.   The high iodide-concentration of thymus tissue in particular suggests an anatomical rationale for this role of iodine in the immune system. gastric mucosa. goitre. gastric mucosa. oral mucosa. typically remote inland areas and semi-arid equatorial climates where no marine foods are eaten. salivary glands. 90 µg for children up to eight years. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for adults is 1.g. choroid plexus.
Some researchers have found an epidemiologic correlation between iodine deficiency.   A decrease of the incidence of death rate from stomach cancer after implementation of the effective iodine-prophylaxis has been reported also. problematic. Elemental iodine (I2) is poisonous if taken orally in larger amounts. see above) can cause anaphylactic shock in highly iodine-sensitive patients. and in the respiratory tract. can lead to breast atypia and increased incidence of malignancy in animal models. • Stomach cancer. Medical use of iodine (i. sometimes manifesting as fibrocystic breast disease. Some cases of sensitivity to iodine can be formally classified as iodine allergies. when iodine level are low. Application of tincture of iodine can cause a rash. Commonly encountered symptoms are abnormal growth of the thyroid gland and disorders in functioning and growth of the organism as a whole. either dietary or pharmacologic. Solutions with high elemental iodine concentration such as tincture of iodine and Lugol's solution are capable of causing tissue damage if use for cleaning and antisepsis is prolonged. Concentration of iodine in the air should not exceed 1 mg/m3 (eight-hour time-weighted average). Toxicity of iodide ion Excess iodine has symptoms similar to those of iodine deficiency. Iodine sensitivity is rare but has a considerable effect given the extremely widespread use of iodine-based contrast media. which is extremely shock-sensitive and can explode unexpectedly. Some cases of reaction to Povidone-iodine (Betadine) have been documented to be a chemical burn. Studies indicate that iodine deficiency. Iodine vapor is very irritating to the eye. in theory. partly for this reason. . 12 Precautions and toxicity of elemental iodine Elemental iodine is an oxidizing irritant and direct contact with skin can cause lesions. Eating iodine-containing foods can cause hives. 2–3 grams of it is a lethal dose for an adult human. so iodine crystals should be handled with care. and may develop a goiter-like hyperplasia.   The role of iodide in breast dysplasia and development of breast cancer is an area of active research. elemental iodine forms nitrogen triiodide. Iodine sensitivity Some people develop a sensitivity to iodine. Excess iodine can be more cytotoxic in the presence of selenium deficiency.e. to mucous membranes. iodine-deficient goitre and gastric cancer. When mixed with ammonia and water. The breast strongly and actively concentrates iodine into breast-milk for the benefit of the developing infant. while iodine treatment can reverse dysplasia.Iodine Other possible health effects being investigated as being related to deficiency include: • Breast cancer. Iodides are similar in toxicity to bromides. as a contrast agent. Iodine supplementation in selenium-deficient populations is.
com/ ?id=wW8KAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA185).  Davy. Journal of the Society of Arts: 185–189.L. Annales de chimie 91: 5. google. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Seymour Stanton (2001). Centers for Disease Control. Institute of Medicine. html). . Annales de chimie 88: 304. google. Phyllis A. ISBN 9780873352338. J.1080/00207239908711210. edu/ en/ Global/ News Announcements/ ~/ media/ Files/ Activity Files/ Nutrition/ DRIs/ DRISummaryListing2. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 43 (5): 895–899. Wiley-VCH.Iodine 13 References  Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds (http:/ / www-d0. (1943).. N. Vol. (2006). ashx). Krystyna (2008). sterilization.  "Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals. (1814). Katarzyna. F.1111/j. chem. "Découverte d'une substance nouvelle dans le Vareck" (http:/ / books. Lorraine Y. Disinfection. (1813). "Sur la nouvelle substance découverte par M. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. 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. "Role of iodine in antioxidant defence in thyroid and breast disease". Victor R.K. R. google. nih. "Analysis of human sodium iodide symporter gene expression in extrathyroidal tissues and cloning of its complementary deoxyribonucleic acid from salivary gland. Chakraborty. Burrow. International Journal of Cancer 119 (6): 1508–1510. Kamangar F. Connolly.21993..  Smyth. doi:10.1002/ijc. Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects. doi:10. E.  Behrouzian. PMID 16642482. Physiol Rev. gov/ medlineplus/ ency/ article/ 002421. England) 19 (3-4): 121–30. Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A. . PMID 12137681.1746.  Lowe. Mark SD. . W. Iodine.int/publications/2004/ 9241592001. Ekblad. M.  Felig. Connolly. B.  Brown-Grant.1210/jc. nap. Bose. Chromium. (2004). (1985). "Peroxidase catalysed iodotyrosine formation in dispersed cells of mouse extrathyroidal tissues". (2009). Linus Pauling Institute. and Heufelder. Sun XD. PMID 17064209...0267. org/ v05p0189. Philip. Li P. Qiao YL.K. "Iodine. 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Huszno B. PMID 19835108. A. Fraumeni JF Jr. PP (2003).Iodine  United States National Research Council (2000).  Spitzweg. Frohman. BioFactors (Oxford. The Breast 10 (1): 379. doi:10. (1998). 258–259. Manganese. Vitamin K.gov/csem/iodine/) U. "Is there a role for iodine in breast diseases?". Ren JS.1054/brst. and Zinc (http:/ / books.  Golkowski F. Venturi M. International Journal of Medical Science 5 (4): 189. 14 External links • "Micronutrient Research for Optimum Health".  Venturi S. "Different tissue responses for iodine and iodide in rat thyroid and mammary glands". australianprescriber. php).int.  "Sources of iodine" (http:/ / www. Ronald. PMID 7577324. R.org/chemicals/oxidations/iodine. 2 (2): 159. S. "Endemic Goiter" (http:/ / books. doi:10.2000.. . E. pdf). Lawrence A. Nickel.. W.com – Iodine (http://chemicalelements. Iron. "Urinary iodine/creatinine ratio in patients with stomach cancer in Urmia. Molybdenum.edu/infocenter/minerals/iodine/) • ATSDR – CSEM: Radiation Exposure from Iodine 131 (http://www..E..S. "Extrathyroidal iodide concentrating mechanisms" (http:/ / physrev. PMC 2452979. com/ magazine/ 32/ 5/ 125/ 8/ ). php?record_id=10026& page=258). Zhao P. A..html) • who. Biochemical..  Abnet CC. A. Eur J Nutr. htm).1007/s00394-007-0657-8. Grotkowski. "Self-reported goiter is associated with a significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma in a large population-based Chinese cohort". R. com/ ?id=AZUUGrp6yUgC& pg=RA1-PA351).. htm). A. D. Silicon. "Povidone-iodine-induced burn: case report and review of the literature". . Sokolowski A. Grotkowski. Constance (2009). 46 (5): 251.. WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency (http://whqlibdoc. . Nutrition and Health 20 (2): 119–134. Brooks. Taylor PR.  Eskin. Buziak-Bereza M. In Preedy. "Iodine Alters Gene Expression in the MCF7 Breast Cancer Cell Line: Evidence for an Anti-Estrogen Effect of Iodine" (http:/ / www. de. B. (1995). OSU Oregon State University (http://lpi. nlm. O. pp. medsci. physiology.06. PMID 2991413. org/ cgi/ reprint/ 41/ 1/ 189. Islamic Republic of Iran". Boron.1002/14651858. Australian Prescriber 32 (5): 125–128. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD003204. Arsenic. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A.1592/phco. PMID 18645607.atsdr..1641.1016/j. PMID 17497074. PMID 14965610. C. and Datta. 41 (1): 189. C. F. (2001). "Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in Gastric Mucosa: Gastric Iodide Secretion". ISBN 9780070220010. PMID 19647627. (2008). Pharmacotherapy 26 (11): 1641–5.com/elements/i.11. and gastric mucosa". Eisenmenger..5. and immunity". "Iodine prophylaxis—the protective factor against stomach cancer in iodine deficient areas". doi:10. WR (2001). Vanadium. K.  Katelaris.K. (2006). oregonstate. doi:10. S. Ghent W.  Stoddard II.organic-chemistry.  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The isotope 135I has a half-life less than seven hours. Its longest-lived radioactive isotope. Unavoidable in situ production of this isotope is important in nuclear reactor control. iodine is thus also a mononuclidic element—one that is found in nature essentially as a single nuclide. The standard atomic mass for iodine is 126. and the nuclide responsible for the so-called iodine pit phenomenon. In addition to commercial production. has a half-life of 15. and high abundance in fission products. and is thus produced inadvertently in very large amounts inside nuclear reactors. Cosmogenic sources of 129I produce very tiny quantities of it that are too small to affect atomic weight measurements. 125I. and four of these are used as tracers and therapeutic agents in medicine. which is far too short for it to exist as a primordial nuclide. Essentially all industrial production of radioactive iodine isotopes involves these four useful radionuclides. 129I. A Pheochromocytoma is seen as a dark sphere in the center of the body (it is in the left adrenal gland). Due to its volatility. Image is by MIBG scintigraphy. These are 123I. 124I. 127I. Most 129I derived radioactivity on Earth is man-made: an unwanted long-lived byproduct of early nuclear tests and nuclear fission accidents. Iodine is thus a monoisotopic element.15 Isotopes Isotopes of iodine There are 37 known isotopes of iodine (I) and only one.90447(3) u. (along with the short-lived iodine isotope 132I from the longer-lived 132Te with a half life of 3 days) is responsible for the largest part of radioactive contamination during the first week after accidental environmental contamination from the radioactive waste from a nuclear power plant. Radioactivity is also seen in the bladder. All other iodine radioisotopes have half-lives less than 60 days. and 131I. as it decays to 135Xe. Note the dark image of the thyroid due to unwanted uptake of radioiodine from the medication by the thyroid gland in the neck. 131I. Accumlation at the sides of the head is from salivary gland uptake of iodide. the most powerful known neutron absorber. short half life. which is too short to be used in biology. is stable. Two images are seen of the same patient from front and back. 131I (half life 8 days) is the most common radioactive fission-product of nuclear fission. with radiation from radioiodine in the MIBG.7 million years. .
radioiodine isotopes are extensively used in imaging and (in the case of I-131) destroying dysfunctional thyroid tissues. and in-situ reactions. in particular nuclear fuel reprocessing and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Note the prominence of radiation from I-131 and Te-132/I-132 for the first week. at the site." Historically. 10−14 to 10−10 (peak thermonuclear 129I/I during the 1960s and 1970s reached about 10−7). half-life 15. ) Radioiodines I-123. both in subsurface rocks and nuclear reactors. where the isotope never has a chance to be released for chemical interaction with the body's tissues. and is produced by cosmogenic. 129I was the first extinct radionuclide to be identified as present in the early solar system. In some ways. soil. In hydrologic studies. which covers the first 85 million years of solar system evolution. 0. 129I concentrations are usually reported as the ratio of 129I to total I (which is virtually all 127I). I− and IO3−) which have different chemical behaviors. and also uranium and plutonium fission.7 million years) is a product of cosmic ray spallation on various isotopes of xenon in the atmosphere. 129I/I ratios in nature are quite small.Isotopes of iodine 16 Notable radioisotopes Iodine-129 as an extinct radionuclide Excesses of stable 129Xe in meteorites have been shown to result from decay of "primordial" iodine-129 produced newly by the supernovas which created the dust and gas from which the solar system formed. Iodine-129 as a long-lived marker for nuclear fission contamination Iodine-129 (129I. but only as an implanted capsule in brachytherapy. I-125. 129I is similar to 36Cl. Artificial nuclear processes. . The portion of the total radiation dose (in air) contributed by each isotope versus time after the Chernobyl disaster. and the second edition of 'The radiochemical manual'.301 million years). in cosmic ray muon interaction with tellurium-130. and I-131 in medicine and biology Due to preferential uptake of iodine by the thyroid. 129I was used in rainwater studies to track fission products following the Chernobyl disaster. it now serves as a groundwater tracer as indicator of nuclear waste dispersion into the natural environment. In a similar fashion. This isotope has long decayed and is thus referred to as "extinct. fairly non-reactive. (Image using data from the OECD  report. exists mainly as a non-sorbing anion.7 vs. and occurs in multiple ionic forms (commonly. and other types of tissue that selectively take up certain iodine-131-containing tissue-targeting and killing radiopharmaceutical agents (such as MIBG). have now swamped the natural signal for this isotope. it is highly biophilic. animal tissue. thermonuclear. As is the case with 36 Cl/Cl. I-124. Nevertheless. 129I differs from 36Cl in that its half-life is longer (15. Iodine-125 is the only other iodine radioisotope used in radiation therapy. This makes it fairly easy for 129I to enter the biosphere as it becomes incorporated into vegetation. It is a soluble halogen. Its decay is the basis of the I-Xe iodine-xenon radiometric dating scheme. milk. etc.
However.6 to 2. and are not produced from radioiodine). The low energy of the gamma spectrum in this case limits radiation damage to tissues far from the implanted capsule. but this does little cellular damage due to the nuclide's short half-life and the relatively small fraction of such events. This procedure may also be used to treat patients with thyroid cancer or hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue. a 159 keV gamma ray is emitted. where it remains. the beta particles emitted by the high dose of radioisotope destroys the associated thyroid tissue with little damage to surrounding tissues (more than 2. The relatively low-energy gamma from I-125/Te-125 decay is poorly suited for imaging. often a thyroidectomy is performed before the radiotherapy. which was first explored by Dr. but it has been seen in experimental animal models). which penetrates 0. is also often preferred for laboratory tests that rely on iodine as a tracer that is counted by a gamma counter. Iodine-125 is also commonly used by radiation oncologists in low dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of cancer at sites other than the thyroid. In the remainder of cases. the gamma rays from iodine-123 and iodine-131 can also be seen by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. it is encapsulated in titanium seeds and implanted in the area of the tumor. but can still be seen. Both I-123 and I-125 emit copious low energy Auger electrons after their decay. This beta radiation can be used in high dose for destruction of thyroid nodules and for elimination of remaining thyroid tissue after surgery for the treatment of Grave's disease. When I-125 is used therapeutically. due to its suitable longer half-life and less penetrating gamma spectrum. which is well-suited for gamma imaging.0 mm from the site of uptake. Both isotopes decay by electron capture (EC) to the corresponding tellurium nuclides. Excited Te-125 from EC decay of I-125 also emits a much lower-energy internal conversion electron (35. Abnormal results may be caused by disorders such as Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. unless the nuclide is incorporated into a medication that accumulates in the nucleus. iodine-131 is the iodine radioisotope used in other water-soluble iodine-labeled radiopharmaceuticals (such as MIBG) which are intended to be used therapeutically to destroy tissues. for example fibrinogen scan imaging to detect blood clots. I131 is administered either intravenously or orally following a diagnostic scan.Isotopes of iodine Iodine-131 Iodine-131 (I131) is a beta-emitting isotope with a half-life of eight days. is to destroy the remaining thyroid tissue that was impossible to be removed by surgery. Following EC. Iodine-123 and iodine-125 The gamma-emitting isotopes iodine-123 (half-life 13 hours). and (less commonly) the longer-lived and less energetic iodine-125 (half-life 59 days) are used as nuclear imaging tracers to evaluate the anatomic and physiologic function of the thyroid. the excited tellurium nuclides decay immediately (half-life too short to detect). Iodine-125. After the intake. but these do not cause serious damage (double-stranded DNA breaks) in cells. In this procedure.0 mm from the tissues absorbing the iodine). Especially in Grave's disease. such as in radioimmunoassaying. or into DNA (this is never the case is clinical medicine. and it is thought to cause the majority of the excess in thyroid cancers seen after nuclear fission contamination (such as bomb fallout or severe nuclear reactor accidents like the Chernobyl disaster). even though its emission is more common. and this longer-lived isotope is necessary in tests which require several days of imaging. 17 . The purpose of this therapy. Due to similar destruction. Instead. Saul Hertz in 1941. The high energy beta radiation from I-131 causes it to be the most carcinogenic of the iodine isotopes. the excited Te-123 from I-123 emits a high-speed 127 keV internal conversion electron (not a beta ray) about 13% of the time. especially in prostate cancer. Most medical imaging with iodine is done with a standard gamma camera. and comparatively energetic (190 KeV average and 606 KeV maximum energy) beta radiation. in order to avoid side effects of epilation and radiation toxicity.5 keV) which does relatively little damage due to its low energy. but in neither case are these the metastable nuclides Te-123m and Te125m (which are of higher energy.
18 Iodine-135 and nuclear reactor control Iodine-135 is an isotope of iodine with a half-life of 6. The process of buildup of xenon-135 from an accumulated iodine-135 can temporarily preclude a shut-down reactor from restarting. which is used in fibrinogen scans to investigate clotting. Its modes of decay are: 74. Iodine-124 as the iodide salt can be used to directly image the thyroid using positron emission tomography (PET). since an excess of thyroid cancers. and iodine-133) have a life lives of a couple of hours or minutes. where again it is imaged by PET scan. directly). so must be dosed daily until a risk of significant exposure to radioiodines from fission products no longer exists. and injected into the body. It has a specific radioactivity of 2. iodine-132. These compounds contain iodine. the nuclide is chemically bonded to a pharmaceutical to form a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical. The most common starting material used is 124Te. or from contamination by fallout from an atomic bomb (prompt radiation from the bomb also cases other cancers. and decays to xenon-135.95% of the original radioiodine has vanished after three months. has been used to block absorption of the radioiodine (it has no effect on other radioisotopes from fission). such as iobenguane (MIBG). which is a cause of multiple complications in the control of nuclear reactors. a saturated solution of potassium (K) iodide in water. such as leukemias. The protective effect of KI lasts approximately 24 hours. Iodine-124 can be made by numereous nuclear reactions via a cyclotron. The iodide solution SSKI. Taking large amounts of iodide saturates thyroid receptors and prevents uptake of most radioactive iodine-131 that may be present from fission product exposure (although it does not protect from other radioisotopes. is the only proven radioisotope contamination effect after a fission accident. but not in the iodide form. . Iodine-128 (25 min half-life) can decay to either tellurium-128 by electron capture." Iodine-128 and other isotopes Iodine fission-produced isotopes not discussed above (iodine-128. presumably due to radioiodine uptake. In this use. However. Iodine-124 can also be used as a PET radiotracer with a usefully longer half-life compared with fluorine-18.6 hours. 124I decays to 124Te.4% electron capture.6% positron emission. Potassium iodide has been distributed to populations exposed to nuclear fission accidents such as the Chernobyl disaster. since they may be ultimately metabolized or break down to radioactive iodide. which used to image or treat neural tissue tumors. Tablets containing potassium iodide are now also manufactured and stocked in central disaster sites by some governments for this purpose. This is known as xenon-poisoning or "falling into an iodine pit.177 x 106 TBq/g. iodine-130. It is an important isotope from the viewpoint of nuclear reactor physics. Those mentioned are neutron-rich and so go through beta decay to their xenon counterparts. so that 99. or iodinated fibrinognen. it is common to administer non-radioactive potassium iodide to insure that iodide from these radiopharmaceuticals is not sequestered by the normal affinity of the thryoid for iodide.18 days. nor from any other form of direct radiation). rendering them almost useless in other applicable areas. many harmful late-cancer effects of nuclear fallout might be prevented in this way.  Iodine-131 (the most common radioiodine contaminant in fallout) also decays relatively rapidly with a half-life of eight days. In theory. 25. which is a nuclear poison with a very large slow neutron cross section. It is produced in relatively large amounts as a fission product.Isotopes of iodine Iodine-124 Iodine-124 is a proton-rich isotope of iodine with a half-life of 4. Non-radioactive iodide as protection from unwanted radioiodine uptake by the thyroid Thyroid iodine uptake blockade with potassium iodide is used in nuclear medicine scintigraphy and therapy with some radioiodinated compounds that are not targeted to the thyroid. or to xenon-128 by beta decay.
93524(33)# 650(20) ms β+ (83%) α (17%) β+.93028(32)# 2.22(4) min β+ 117 Te (5/2)+ . α 109 114 113 114 114 115 116 Sn Te Sb Te I Te Te (5/2+)# 1+ (7-) (7) 1+ 114 I 53 61 113.3(2) min 2.01%) β+. α (.91681(10) 1.104%) α (.0012%) 108 113 109 Sb Te Sb 5/2+# 113 I 53 60 112.9(5) keV 6.88%) β+.3×10−7%) β+.088%) 111 107 112 111 108 Te Sb Te Sb Sn (5/2+)# 112 I 53 59 111.09%) 1+# 111 I 53 58 110.5%) (5/2+) 110 I 53 57 109.92185(32)# 2.91(15) s 3. p (rare) 114m I 265.5%) α (.91%) α (.92797(23)# 3. p (.94348(39)# 36(6) ms α (90%) β+ (9%) p (1%) 104 108 107 108 105 110 106 109 106 Sb Te Te Te Sb Te Sb Sb Sn (1)# 109 I 53 56 108.1(2) s β+ β+. α (1.2(5) s β+ (91%) IT (9%) 115 116 I I I 53 53 62 63 114.5(2) s β+ (99.Isotopes of iodine 19 Table nuclide Z(p) N(n) symbol isotopic mass (u) half-life decay  mode(s)  daughter  isotope(s) nuclear spin excitation energy 108 representative range of isotopic natural composition variation (mole (mole fraction) fraction) I 53 55 107. p (11%) β+.42(11) s β+ (99.92364(6) 6.27(16) µs β+ β+ 116m 117 400(50)# keV 53 64 116.6(2) s β+ (100%) α (3.91805(3) 115.91365(3) I 2.93815(11) 103(5) µs p (99.
400(10) 124.93(5) d EC 125 Te 5/2+ 126 I 53 73 125.57(4)×107 βa 12.0(15) µs 3.9062099(25) 53 72 121.61(9) keV (1+.913074(21) 13.(16%) 129 4(6)Xe 7/2+ Trace  129   130 I I I 53 77 129.(44.84(6) min βIT (84%) β.1099(10) keV 53 78 133(7) ns 315(15) ns 254(4) ns 131 (6)(6)Xe 7/2+ 131   I 8.5865(7) keV 82.1(10) keV 119 120 I I I 53 53 66 67 118.1(4) min β+ 81.9%)  5/2+ 1+ 1.2235(19) β+ h 4.1760(3) d β+ 122 123 120m2 121 I β+ β+ 120 121 Te Te (7-) 5/2+ I I 121m 122 2376.907589(6) 122.906674(3) 130 130 130 Xe I Xe 5+ 2+ 130m1 39.907367(11) 53(4) min 2.7(5) min β+ 8.3%) β.9(4) keV 53 53 53 69 70 71 123.904988(3) 845(20) ns 175(15) ns 1.6(2) min β+ 228(15) ns 5/2+ 2- 120m1 72.904473(4) Observationally Stable 24.12(1) h 9.9046302(16) d 12.0000 128 75 127.3+) 320(15) keV 53 68 120.91007(3) 119.9525(13) keV 130m2 130m3 130m4 I I I 69.9061246(12) d .850(4) keV 167.905589(4) I I I Te Te Te 1+ 5/2+ 2- 123  124  124 125  I 59.63(6) min β+ 13.5(5) min β+ IT (rare) 118 118 118 119 120 118 I I 53 Te Te I Te Te 2(7-) 118m 190.1%) β+ (6.(93.3960(19) keV 85.36(1) h 8.910048(19) 19.02070(11) β130.Isotopes of iodine 20 65 117.905624(4) β+ (56.2+.7%) 126 126 Te Xe 2- 127  I I 53 53 74 126.99(2) min β.367(5) keV 53 76 128.905809(4) 128 128 Xe Te 128m1 128m2 I I 137.
n (22%) 7/2+# 142 I 53 89 141. snmjournals.46%) 138 137 Xe Xe (2-) 139 I 53 86 138. Endocrine Practice 2010 16.54%) β-.(75%) β-. .93100(21)# 860(40) ms β.160(17) keV 53 81 133.(9. n (5.5(2) min β3. n (25%) 2-# 143 I I 53 53 90 91 142.52(4) min IT (97. . kr/ ). Retrieved 2009-05-13.23(3) s β.13(12) s ββββ. org/ cgi/ reprint/ 33/ 12/ 2196.(78%) β-.4(10) s 46.910048(8) 135. n (7.174(17) keV 1729.57(2) h 83.909744(9) I I 52.  Hertz.387(15) h IT (86%) β.(14%) 132 132 132 133 133 132 I I 53 Xe I Xe Xe I 4+ (8-) 132m 104(12) keV 133 I I I 53 80 132.92610(3) 2.8(1) h 9(2) s ~170 ns βIT 7/2+ (19/2-) (15/2-) 133m1 133m2 134 1634.131-Labeled Compounds in Mouse Testes: Implications for Radiopharmaceutical Design" (http:/ / jnm. Narra et al.(90. MD (1905 . Iodine-125.907997(6) 2.7%) β. (1992).94456(43)# 100# ms [>300 ns] 143.  V.14%) 7/2+ (1-) (6-) (7/2+) 136 136m 137 I 650(120) keV 53 84 136.94018(43)# ~200 ms β.Isotopes of iodine 21 79 131.(2.92235(9) 6.7%) β. .91465(5) 6.3%) 134 134 134 135 136 136 137 136 Xe I Xe Xe Xe Xe Xe Xe (4)+ (8)- 134m 316.713-715.86%) β-.907797(5) 20.295(13) h β1. Kristin. n (10%) 139 138 140 139 141 140 142 141 143 Xe Xe Xe Xe Xe Xe Xe Xe Xe Xe 7/2+# 140 I 53 87 139. Saul Hertz.49(22) keV 135  I I 53 53 82 83 134.282(10) s β. pdf). re.9(10) s 24.4. R. kaeri.(94. Barbara.94999(54)# 50# ms [>300 ns] ββ- 7/2+# 1-# 144 144  "Nuclear Data Evaluation Lab" (http:/ / atom. and Iodine.1950) A Pioneer in the Use of Radioactive Iodine.93503(21)# 430(20) ms β.(92.(90%) β-. Schuleller. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 33 (12): 2196.917871(30) I 138 I 53 85 137.3%) (3)(-#) 141 I 53 88 140. "Radiotoxicity of Some Iodine-123.
nucleonica. Blachot and O. spin. Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals 22 (3): 423–430.. .gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003. Holden (2004). "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties" (http://www. E. H.iupac. except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.). Böhlke.org/ publications/pac/75/6/0683/pdf/). "Table of the Isotopes". . aspx  Abbreviations: EC: Electron capture IT: Isomeric transition  Bold for stable isotopes. C. • G. Pure and Applied Chemistry 75 (6): 683–800. Peiser. • Half-life. Bersillon (2003). bold italics for nearly-stable isotopes (half-life longer than the age of the universe)  Has medical uses  Fission product  Theoretically capable of spontaneous fission  Can be used to date certain early events in Solar System history and some use for dating groundwater  Cosmogenic nuclide. and I-131)".nndc.  http:/ / www.729. R. H. doi:10. CRC Press.html).001. Audi. • M. fda. I-124. "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties" (http://www. Blachot and O. Wapstra. "Atomic weights of the elements. P. References • Isotope masses from: • G. "Comparison of Image Quality of Different Iodine Isotopes (I-123. Thibault. Wapstra. J. "NuDat 2. J. A. doi:10. Taylor (2003). also found as nuclear contamination  Produced as a decay product of 135Te in nuclear reactors. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation. Thibault. R. E. com/ d. In D.bnl.Isotopes of iodine  E.. p/ 2001-12-11-01-30492). Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report)" (http://www. Nuclear Physics A 729: 3–128. Retrieved September 2005.gov/nudat2/). Food and Drug Administration.1089/cbr. "Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report)" (http://iupac. • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from: • J. Retrieved 2009-06-06.pdf). Hidaka. Lay summary (http://old. K. Food and Drug Administration. (2007). Bersillon (2003).3A..2003.001. • N.1351/pac200678112051.iupac. A.1016/j. PMID 17651050.nndc. J. Rosman and P.1 database" (http://www.bnl. doi:10. doi:10. htm).. H. and isomer data selected from the following sources. Audi.org/news/archives/2005/ atomic-weights_revised05.  "Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies" (http:/ / www.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003. Wieser (2006).nuclphysa. R.729.11.nndc.pdf).323.2003. Brookhaven National Laboratory.3A. The Federal Register. Bibcode 2003NuPhA.. can shut down reactors due to the iodine pit phenomenon 22 Notes • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data.1351/pac200375060683. . • National Nuclear Data Center. Nuclear Physics A 729: 3–128.1016/j. net/ unc.  "Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide" (http:/ / www.11. if allowed to build up.org/ publications/pac/78/11/2051/pdf/). Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses. Rault et al. K. De Bièvre. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78 (11): 2051–2066. C. doi:10. Section 11. Retrieved 2009-06-06. H. de Laeter.. • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. D. in turn decays to 135Xe. Bibcode 2003NuPhA. S. See editing notes on this article's talk page. which. gov/ Drugs/ EmergencyPreparedness/ BioterrorismandDrugPreparedness/ ucm072265. ISBN 978-0849304859. Lide. but at least partly from systematic trends.nuclphysa. J. P. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed. thefederalregister.2006.
htm) • Iodine-128. Iodine-132 data from 'Wolframalpha' (http://www.com/input/ ?i=iodine-128) \ .gov/education/parent/ I_iso. Iodine-130.Isotopes of iodine 23 External links • Iodine isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project's (http://ie.wolframalpha.lbl.
24 Miscellany .
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Pollocamperoisyummy. Crossfr. Jamonation. 1216 anonymous edits Isotopes of iodine Source: http://en. Nick125. Leaderofearth.tan. 19 anonymous edits . Alex. Yyy. Jengod. Cwkmail.
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