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THE SOUL OF JAPAN
IHAIO NITOBfe, A.M
Author's Edition, Revised and Enlarged
America and JSn^i rtd
edition if f<>r salt only fn
BY INAZO NITOBE
TO MY BELOVED UNCLE
WHO TAUGHT ME
TO REVERE THE PAST
TO ADMIRE THE DEEDS OF THE SAMURAI
THIS LITTLE BOOK
" HALLAM. Bishop Sfoitgrattfs Afology* " There are. if I may so say. " Chivalry is itself the poetry of life. which who stands upon. of relispirits and of honor. Eurofc in Hit Middle Ages. three powerful spirits. ! Not vague. moved on the face of the waters. Philosophy of History. gion."That way Over the mountain. . plain from base to brow. teach him what faith?" ROBERT BROWNING. which have from lime to time. While he views from the waste itself. Is apt to doubt if if it it be indeed a road . mistakable What's a break or two Seen from the unbroken desert either side? And then (to bring in fresh philosophy) What if the breaks themselves should prove at of contrivances is last The most consummate To train a man's eye. Up goes the line there." SCHLEGEL. and given a predominant impulse to the moral sentiments energies of mankind. and These are the of liberty.
and in a voice which I shall not easily forget. to the subject of " Do religion. I moral precepts learned in my childhood days. for the I give no ready answer. were not given in schools. The direct inception of this little book is . did I find it was Bushido that breathed them into my nostrils. and not analyze the different began to elements that formed until I my that notions of right and wrong. " that you have no gious instruction in your schools ?" reli- On my replying in the negative in he suddenly halted astonishment. you mean to say. while spending a few days under the hospitable roof of the distinguished Belgian jurist. he repeated " No religion ! How do you impart moral education ? J> The could question stunned me at the time. our conversation turned. the lamented M." asked the venerable professor. de Laveleye. during one of our rambles.PREFACE About ten years ago.
They consist mainly of what I was taught and told in my youthful days. Hepburn's rule followed. I put down in the order now presented to the public some of the answers given in our household conversation. Feudalism was still in force. vi . Taking advantage of enforced idleness on account of long illness. it is indeed discouraging to write anything Japanese in English. The only advantage I have over them is that I can assume the attitude of a personal defendant. In putting Japanese words is and names into English. and the consonants as in English. attempts to give satisfactory replies Laveleye and to my wife.* the moral ideas of present Japan are a sealed volume. I found in that without understanding Feudalism and Bushido.due to the frequent queries put by my wife as to the reasons why such and such ideas and customs prevail In to my cle M. while these distin* Pronounced Bot-sliee-dolt '. Japan. when Between Lafcadio Hearn and Mrs. Hugh Fraser on one side and Sir Ernest Satow and Professor Chamberlain on the other. that the vowels should be used as in European languages.
I believe in the by Him and handed down to Testament. I are at best solicitors and have often thought. I us in the New in the law written that in the heart. as well as Further. believing that these will aid in bringing the subject nearer to the com- prehension of foreign readers.guished writers attorneys. I would present the cause of Japan in more eloquent terms !" But one who speaks should in if a borrowed tongue be thankful he can just make himself intelligible. All through the discourse illustrate I have tried to whatever points I have made with history parallel examples from European and literature. "Had I their gift of language. with ecclesiastical methods and with the forms which obscure the teachings of Christ. that I have little religion taught sympathy. Should any of my allusions to religious subjects and to religious workers be thought It is slighting. and not with the teachings themselves. I trust my attitude towards Chris- tianity itself will not be questioned. believe God hath made a testament which be called "old" with every vii may people .
Pa. made by her for the cover of this INAZO NITOBE. Gentile or Jew. Twelfth Month. wish to ex- press my for thanks to for my friend Anna C. my theology. need not impose upon the patience of the In concluding this preface. . Hartshorne many valuable suggestions and the characteristically Japanese design book. Malwrn.. Christian or Heathen.and I nation. I As to the rest of public.
by the Russian now being rendered into French. In the meantime. Putnam's Sons. through the publishing- house of Messrs. of New York. into Polish by the Society of Science and although this Life in Lemberg. George H. this little more than six years ago. Bushido has been translated into Mahratti by Mr. the present thus being in its tenth appearance the English language. Dev of Khanclesh. book has had an unexpected history. The Japanese reprint has passed through eight editions.PREFACE TO THE TENTH AND REVISED EDITION ' Since its first publication in Philadelphia. Mora of Chicago. into Bohemian by Mr. into German by Fraulcin Kaufmann of Hamburg. Simultaneously with this will be issued an American and English edition. It is Polish edition has been censured Government. Norwegian and into A Chinese .
I have largely confined I still them to concrete examples. to for his aid in other I whom I also owe much ways. a manuscript in Russian ready for the press. indeed have never ceased to my inability to add a chapter on Filial . showing that the subject matter is of some interest to the world at large. has Russian officer. translation is under A now part of the volume has been brought before the Hungarian public and a detailed review. as do. of younger help students have been compiled by my friend Mr.contemplation. almost amounting to a commentary. A has been published for in scholarly notes the Full Japanese. that President Roosevelt has it done undeserved honor by reading it and distributing several dozens of copies among his friends. Sakurai. H. I continue to regret. Exceedingly flattering is the news that has reached me from official sources. In making emendations and additions for the present edition. a prisoner in Japan. have been more than gratified to feel that my humble work has found sympathetic readers in widely separated circles.
if I were to omit the debt I owe to my wife for her reading of the proof-sheets. some All the subjects in that are touched upon these pages are capable of further amplification and discussion. This Preface would be incomplete and unjust. than to ignorance it. I satisfying to to my own hope one day enlarge upon this and other topics at length. Kyoto. for helpful suggestions. above all.Piety. and. I. . Fifth Month kvenly-second. due rather to My inability is my ignorance of the Western sentiment in regard to this particular virtue. of our own attitude towards and I cannot draw comparisons mind. 1905. but clear to I do not now see my way make this volume larger than it is. for her constant encouragement.N. which is considered one of the two wheels of the chariot of Japanese ethics- Loyalty being the other.
CONTENTS Bushido as an Ethical System Sources of Bushido Rectitude or Justice I 9 20 Courage.ioo The Sword.. the Feeling of Distress Politeness 33 45 56 65 of Loyalty. Veracity or Truthfulness Honor The Duty 74 85 Education and Training of a Samurai Self-Control 93 The Institutions of Suicide and Redress.. 2J ^ ** Benevolence. the Soul of the Samurai Position of 121 The Training and The Is Woman 127 145 Influence of Bushido Still Bushido Alive ?. the Spirit of Daring and Uearinrr " ** J O'~""1M"" "' ~""*" > 1> 1 fc . 153 The Future of Bushido 166 ...
still continue upon us. and if it power and beauty among us assumes no tangible shape or form. and makes us aware that we are potent spell.BUSHIDO AS AN ETHICAL SYSTEM. It is still a living object of . still under of its The it conditions society it which brought forth and nourished have long disappeared. It is a pleasure to me to upon this subject in the language of Burke. illuminates our moral path. still chivalry. who uttered the well-known touching eulogy over the neglected bier of its Euro- pean prototype. so the light of which was a child of feudalism. nor is it emblem. Chivalry is a flower no less indigenous to the soil of Japan than blossom . the cherry a dried-up specimen of an its antique virtue preserved in the herbarium of our history. surviving its mother reflect institution. . but as those far-off stars which once were and are to shed their rays not. it not the less scents the moral atmosphere.
(3rd Ed. how- of the good Doctor's amply excusable. George Miller did not hesitate to affirm that chivalry. Vol. More than a decade later. 2. writing his Capital. . p. Carl Marx.It argues a sad defect of information concerning the Far East. 1853). as the third edition work appeared the that same year Commodore Perry was knocking at the portals of our exclusivism. is Orientals. when so erudite a scholar as Dr. as then to be seen form only in Japan. would likewise invite the Western historical and ethical student to the study of chivalry in the Japan of the present. or an)' other similar institution. II." called the attention of his readers to the peculiar advantage of studying the social and I political institutions in living of feudalism. about the time that our feudalism was in the last throes of " existence. Enticing as is a historical disquisition on the comparison between European and Japanese feudalism and chivalry. * it is not History Philosophically Illustrated.* Such ignorance. has never existed either of antiquity the nations or among among the modern ever.
I may be in the allowed henceforth to use the word original. The Japanese word which I have roughly rendered Chivalry. or else I should have to take my readers into the devious paths of our national history. is.^ fourthly. . Of these several points. the continuity and permanence of its influence. as being most likely to interest students of International Ethics and Comparative Ethol- ogy in our ways of thought and action . Having thus given its literal significance. attempt is rather to relate. its character and teaching thirdlyv fy. and the rest will be dealt with as corollaries.Ways which fighting nobles should observe ways in their daily life as well as in their in vocation . its influence among the masses ^.the purpose of this paper to enter into it at length. in the original. Bu-shi-do \ means the literally Military -Knight. ." the noblesse oblige of the warrior class. the first will be only brief and cursory. The use of the original . a word. more expressive than Horsemanship. the "Precepts of Knighthood. the second will be dwelt upon at greater length. . jr^- My the origin and sources of our chivalry secondly.
not a written code.term is also advisable for this reason. at best it consists of a few maxims handed down from mouth warrior or savant. or who does not feel the difference between the two words verbally so closely allied as the English gentleman and the French gentilhomme ? Bushido. then. to mouth it or coming from the pen of some well-known More frequently is a code unuttered and unwritten. was founded not on the creation of one brain. must its singularity on its face . possessing all the more the powerful sanction of veritable deed. translation what the German improve by " Gemitth " signifies. engendering a cast of mind and character so peculiar. is the code principles of moral which the knights were required It is or instructed to observe. that a teaching so circumscribed and unique. some words have a national timbre so expressive of race characteristics that the best of translators justice. and of a law written on the It fleshly tablets of the heart. however able. or . wear the badge of then. can do them but scant not to say Who can positive injustice and grievance. so local.
" Here is its fountain head. castles. yet it has had nothing to compare with the Magna Charta or the Habeas Corpus Act." Only as it attains consciousness in the feudal age. point We out any definite time and place and say. fills the same position in the history of ethics that the English ConstituIt. But feudalism woven of many its threads. and Bushido shares intricate nature As of in England the political institutions feudalism may rise be said to Oate from the Norman Conquest.century. late in the twelfth . may be identified itself is with feudalism. in respect to time. its origin. early in the seventeenth century Military Statutes (Bukc Hattd) were promulgated. True. of a single personage. tion does in political history .on the life renowned. etc. however It was an organic growth of decades and centuries of military career.. so its we may say that in Japan was simultaneous with the ascendency of Yorifomo. As. and didactic were but meagerly regulations touched upon. . leagues. cannot. but their thirteen short articles were taken up mostly with marriages. therefore. perhaps.
in was naturally a long period of constant warfare. so. and must This class originally have been a rough breed who fighting their vocation. the professional class of warriors naturally came into prominence. to Tacitus. too. recruited. we find the social elements of feudalism far back in the period previous to William the Conqueror. meaning like old English cniht (knecht. from the manliest and the . known the as samurai. followed Germanic chiefs in his soldurii) whom time. knight). These were literally. Again. to take a still later parallel. the germs of feudalism in Japan had been long existent before the period I have mentioned. according Aquitania. or. the in milites medii that one reads about the SinicoEurope. Japanese word Bu-ke or Bit-shi (Fighting history of Mediaeval A Knights) was also adopted in common use. who. in England. They were a made privileged class. feudalism in Japan as in Europe.however. when was formally inaugurated. guards or attendants resembling in character the in Caesar mentioned as existing or the comitati.
so must also warriors possess some resort for final judgment on their misdemeanors. and only "a rude race. of all military (as if not the root ? and civic virtues it ! We smile we had outgrown ) at the boyish desire of the small Britisher. the timid process and the feeble being sorted out. all masculine. Coming to profess great honor and great of a privileges. surviving to form families and the ranks of went strength/' the samurai. Fair play in fight of morality lie ! What Is it fertile germs in this primitive sense of savagery and childhood.most adventurous. especially as they were always on a belligerent footing and belonged to different clans. Just as physicians limit competition among themselves by professional courtesy. with brutish to borrow Emerson's phrase. behind him the name of a fellow little who never bullied a boy or turned his . and correspondingly great responsibilities. " to leave Tom Brown. they soon felt the need common standard of behavior. just as lawyers sit in courts of honor in cases of violated etiquette. and of elimination all the while the on.
We know from what failings " Sneaks " and " cowof the most gentle-hearted and peace * our virtue springs." not And is yet. * * I found in brief. ^ the fervor of a worshiper of the strenuous " When I tell you.back on a big one. be it offensive or defensive. taught by war and deceived by peace . # but I saw to be quite an undeniable fact. that all great -nations learned their truth of word and strength of thought in war. and very dreadful. as Quakers rightly testify. brutal and wrong." * Rusltin loving all was one men that ever lived." . trained by that they were born war and betrayed by peace in in war and expired in peace. that they were nourished in war and wasted by peace. If fighting in itself. very strange to it me to discover this." he says the foundation of Crown of Wild Olive " that war is all' the arts. Yet he believed in war with life. is. who does know that this desire the corner-stone on which moral structures of mighty dimensions can be reared ? May I not go even so far as to say that the gentlest ' and most this is peace-loving aspiration ? of religions endorses This desire of Tom's the the greatness of England basis is largely built. and it will not take us long to discover that Bushido does not stand on on which a lesser pedestal. a woi d. . I mean also that it is the in the It foundation of is all the high virtues and faculties of men. " we can still say with Lessing..
but.ards" are epithets of the worst opprobrium to healthy." says La'martine. as life grows larger and relations many-sided. and knighthood also. * If military had operated alone. Christianity. how far short of chivalry fallen ! would the ideal of knighthood have In Europe. the early faith seeks sanction from higher authority and more rational sources for its own justification. interpreted with concessions convenient to chivalry. without higher moral support. its satisfaction interests and development. nevertheless with spiritual data. It furnished a sense of calm trust in Fate. that stoic composure in sight of danger or calamity. simple natures. "Reliwar and glory were the three souls of a perfect Christian knight. Childhood begins life with these notions. a quiet submission to the inevitable. life and friendliness with A foremost teacher of swordsman- . that disdain of death. infused it gion. of which I may begin with Buddhism. In Japan there were several SOURCES OF BUSHIDO.
" to a new Heaven and a new Earth. to be convinced of a principle that underlies all phenomena. Exotics and Retrospectives\ p. "Beyond my instruction " Zen " ing. of the Absolute itself. told him. Such loyalty for sovereign. were inculcated by the Shinto doctrines. was more than the dogma of a sect. 84. as far as I understand it. 10 . and such piety as are not taught by any other creed. What Buddhism such failed to give. and whoever attains to to put oneself in Thus defined. imparting passivity to the otherwise arrogant character of the samurai." . Shintoism to the offered in abundance. which " represents human effort to reach through meditation zoiies of thought beyond the range of verbal expression. and its purport. the teaching the perception of the Absolute raises himself above mundane things and awakes.ship. and."* Its method is contemplation. Shinto theology has no place for * Lafcadio Hearn. and thus harmony with this Absolute. reverence filial ancestral memory. when he saw his pupil master the this utmost of his art. if it can." must give way to Zen teachis the Japanese equivalent for the Dhyana.
comparing the Greek and the Roman. which. when perfectly placid clear. in the its sanctury forms the furnishing. you sec your When you stand. from which divine adoring it as the adytum Everybody has oracles are proclaimed. not his anatomy or his psycho-physics knowledge was to be of ." On the contrary.the dogma it of original sin. "Know Thyself. Mommsen. cither in the Greek or Japanese teaching." self-knowledge does not imply. is ! essential part of The presence it of this article easy to explain: typifies the human and heart. of the shrine to worship. in front own image reflected on its is shining surface. and the act of worship tantamount to the old But Delphic injunction. observed that the Shinto shrines are conof objects and instruments spicuously devoid and that a plain mirror hung of worship. reflects the very image of the Deity. a moral kind. the introspection of our moral nature. knowledge of the physical part of man. therefore. says that when the former worshiped he raised his ii eyes to heaven. believes in the innate goodness and God-like purity of the human soul. for .
If what M. To soil us the country is more than land and grainit Emperor from which to mine gold or to reap is the sacred abode of the gods. 188. while the latter veiled his head. doubly and in trebly may * this be affirmed of royalty Japan. for his was reflection. Roman conception of nence not so our reflection brought into promimuch the moral as the national consciousness of the individual $ Its nature- worship endeared the country to our inmost souls." as I believe to be. but the author and symbol it of national unity. blending in his person its and mercy.his prayer was contemplation. Tlit English People. Essentially like the religion. made the Imperial family the fountain-head of the whole nation. to us the spirits of our forefathers: is the more than the Arch Constable the bodily representative of a Rechtsstaat. . p. tracing from lineage to lineage. or even the Patron of a Culturstaat\\t of its is Heaven on power it earth. while its ancestor-worship. Boutmy* says that " is is true of English royalty not only the image of authority.
The tenets of Shintoism features cover the two the predominating life of our race Arthur of emotional " In Patriotism and Loyalty. p. than as doctrines . of its verbal ambiguity still. furnishing of a them at the same time with agenda * Feudal and Modern Japan" Vol. never pretends to a systematic This philosophy or a rational theology. religion Shintoism the race ? emotions - which this religion expressed thoroughly imbued Bushido with loyalty to the sovereign and love of These acted more as impulses country. . because it be so deemed by a logical intellect on account . 183. prescribed to votaries scarcely any credenda. or. unlike the its Mediaeval Christian Church." of the Messiah or of the nation A similar confusion may will be noticed in the nomenclature of our national faith. of heaven . : May Knapp literature it very truly says is is Hebrew of the * often difficult to tell whether the writer speaking of God or or of Commonwealth. I. is it not more correct to say.* Jerusalem itself. for Shintoism. being a framework of national instinct and race feelings. I said confusion.
the teachings of Confucius of Bushido. between friend and firmation was but a coninstinct of what the his race had recognized before duced from China. Still. As to strictly ethical doctrines. prolific source tion of the five were ' the most Mis enuncia- moral relations between master the and servant (the governing- and governed). to. His aristocratic and conservative tone was well adapted to the requirements of these warrior statesmen. benignant. wife. was particularly well suited who formed the ruling class. and they were and subversive his the existing for social order. and friend. and worldly-wise character of his politico- The ethical precepts to the samurai. even thought dangerous of. a long time under cen- the words of this master mind . older father and son. writings were intro- calm.straightforward and simple type. husband and and younger brother. hence works were sure. Mencius exercised over Bushido. Next to Confucius. immense authority His forcible and often quite an democratic theories were exceedingly taking to sympathetic natures.
and a man who has read much both are alike unsmells yet more so pleasant. An a intellectual was itself considered machine. proverb ridicules one who has intellectual A A common man only an of Confucius. however. Intellect was considered subordinate to ethical emotion. in no high esteem. in the heart of The writings of Confucius and Mencius youths formed the principal text-books and the highest authority in for discussion among mere acquaintance with the old. the classics of these two sages was held. The writer meant thereby that knowledge becomes really such only when it is assimilated in the mind of the learner and shows specialist in his character. as a knowledge ever studious but ignorant of A ualects* A typical samurai sot.found permanent lodgment the samurai. a little smells a pedantic. little A man who has read . calls a literary savant a book-smelling Another compares learnit is fit ing to an ill-smelling vegetable that must be boiled and boiled before for use. Man and the universe spiritual were conceived to be alike and .
"Seek ye his God and kingdom of righteousness. but a means to the attainment of wisdom.' inasmuch as bitshi some of the noblest types of were strongly influenced by the teachings of this sage. terms allowance either first for peculiar teaching. Western readers will easily recognize in his writings many Making to parallels to the New the the Testament. passage. with its practical and this Socratic doctrine found its greatest exponent in the Chinese philosopher. and all these 16 the ." I Ming. Wan Yang wearies of repeating. knowledge was conceived as application in identical life . was not pursued as an end in itself. who never know and to act while I beg leave am on for a this moment's digression subject. Bushido It as made light of knowledge as such. "To are one and the same. which could turn out poems and maxims at bidding.ethical. Bushido of could not that judgment process Huxley. Thus. the accept the cosmic was unmoral. end was regarded no higher than a convenient machine. he who stopped short of this tlence.
Spontaneously springing up in our mind. attributing to the faculty to perceive. dwelling in of man. becomes his mind hence a mind is a living thing. He doctrine of the infallibility of conscience to extreme it transcendentalism. not only the distinction between right and * Miwa Shissai. and wrong: it is it is even the light that proceedeth from the god of heaven. as express- ed in the simple tenets of the Shinto to religion. 17 . was his particularly open the reception of carried Yang Ming's precepts. (Kokoro}\ and is ever luminous:" and again. of all living beings. disciple A Japanese * of his says " The lord of heaven and the earth." conveys a thought that may be found on almost any page of Wan Yang Ming. and by the will of man." How very much do these words sound like then called conscience some passages from Isaac Pennington ! I am inclined or other philosophic mystics to think that the Japanese mind. "The spiritual light of our essential being is heart pure. is not affected it shows what is right .things shall be added unto you.
whatever the sources. but also the nature ot facts and physical phenomena. as far as. Thus. simple. and assimilated were as few and were. The wholesome unsophisticated nature of our warrior ancestors derived ample food for their spirit from a sheaf of commonplace and fragmentary teachings. xS demands thought.wrong. denying the existence of of things outside human all ken. formed from these gleanings a new and unique type of manhood. had the its of strong in conviction and moral of import developing individuality character and equanimity of temper cannot be gainsaid. gleaned as it were on the highways and byways of ancient age. if psychical He went Fichte. Few and simple these they were sufficient to furnish a safe conduct of life even through the unsafest days of the most unsettled period of our nation's history. the essential principles which Bushido imbibed from them to itself. stimulated by the . of the and. If his system had to all it the logical errors charged efficacy Solipsism. Berkeley and Idealism. in not farther than.
his thus sums up impressions of the six- teenth century: "Toward the middle of the sixteenth century.An acute French savant.' and wholly And why the sixteenth century displays 'in the highest degree the principal quality of the Japanese race. these formed men comparable to those Italians of the sixteenth century. the necessity for each to execute justice for himself. that great diversity which one finds there between minds (esprits) as well as While to in between temperaments. by origNow. inality Japan they as of character is well. India and even in China men seem chiefly in in differ degree of energy differ or intelligence. in- dividuality the sign 19 of superior races . *But the civil wars. in society.' $ In Japan as in Italy the rude manners of the Middle Ages made of wholly militant this is man a superb animal. in whom Taine praises ' the vigorous initiative. all is confusion in Japan. in the government. in the church. the habit of sudden resolutions and desperate undertakings. the * grand capacity to do and to suffer. de la Mazeliere. resistant. the manners returning to barbarism. M.
one represents it above all by its mountains. de la Mazeliere let us now address ourselves. to speak of humanity is to speak of its plains. the most cogent precept in the code of the samurai. To the pervading characteristics men of whom M. A well-known of resolution defines it as a " Rectitude is the power power without of deciding upon a certain course of con- duct in accordance to die to with reason." : Another "Recti- speaks of it in the following terms tude the bone that gives firmness and ." of the writes. to when is strike right. strike when right to die. I shall begin with RECTITUDE OR JUSTICE. Nothing is more loathsome to him than underhand dealings and crooked undertakings. it is is wavering. in Japan as in Europe.and of civilizations already we make use ot an developed. we might say that in Asia. may be narrow. expression dear It to Nietzche. The conception it of Rectitude may be erroneous bushi .
narrow path which a man Righteousness. but they lose their to seek for it." exclaims. lie " How lamentable. is it to neglect the path and not pursue to lose ! the mind and not know them not u to seek it again When know men's fowls to and dogs are lost. ^ With the lack of ac- complishments is as nothing.stature. and 21 ." Mcncius calls Benevolence man's mind. so without rectitude neither talent nor learning can make it of a human frame a samurai. Way the lost could be found ? my point. and Rectitude or Righteousness his path. is Mencius. of Righteousness. they seek for again. rest As without bones of the spine. the head cannot on the top nor hands move nor feet stand. when lei- the long continuance of peace brought sure into the life of the warrior class. " it. a straight and ought to take to regain the lost paradise." " mind and do know Have we not here a parable propounded three hundred years later in another as in a glass darkly clime and by a called Himself the through whom But I stray from according to who greater Teacher. Even in the latter days of feudalism.
frank and downright this manly and honest. which. But before proceeding to speak of Valor.and gentle the epithet Gishi (a man accomplishments. pure and . another martial virtue. but which came in time to mean a vague its sense of duty which public opinion expected an incumbent to unalloyed sense. signified mastery of learning The Forty-seven Faithfuls of whom so much is made in our popular education are known in common parlance as the Fortyseven Gishi. more removed from perverted in it. was a jewel that shone the brightest and was most highly praised. at first deviating slightly from its original. In times when cunning artifice was liable to pass for military tact falsehood for ruse de guerre^ virtue. I the popular speak of Gi-ri. let me linger a little while on what I may term a derivation from Rectitude. until its became more and meaning was acceptance. of rectitude) was considered superior to with it dissipations of all kinds any name that or art. Rectitude is a twin brother to Valor. fulfil. literally the Right Reason. In original and it meant duty.
in though love should our conduct. as a . hence. to inferiors. The obligation. recourse must be had to man's intel- lect and his reason must be quickened to necessity convince him of the of acting * The same aright. with a birch-rod in his hand to make sluggards perform It is their part. of the Girl we owe to parents. to forth. there must be some other authority to enforce filial piety. and they formulated rightly did this authority in Giri. we speak and so . society at large. and I dare say its etymology was derived from the fact that parents. Giri thus understood is a severe taskmaster. In these instances Giri is duty for than what Right Reason what else is duty demands and commands us to do. Very Giri they formulate this authority since if love does not rush to deeds of virtue. say to our be the only motive. to superiors.simple. is true of any other moral instant Duty becomes onerous. Right Reason steps in to prevent our shirking it. a secondary po\vcr 23 in ethics. lacking that. Should not Right Reason be our categorical imperative ? Girl primarily meant no more than duty.
that " as so it the fairest. Girl in time degenerated into a vague sense of propriety called up to explain example. in which natural affections had often to suc- cumb before arbitrary man-made customs. It my has even degenerated I censure. in which seniority of age was of more account than superiority of talents. deem it artificial society a product of the conditions of an of a society in which acci- dent of birth and unmerited favour instituted class distinctions. sacrifice all her other children or order to save the first-born ter why a daugh- must sell her chastity to pay for the father's get funds to dissipation. a mother must. in need be. mask of Carried beyond or below monstrous Right Reason." most suspicious. this and sanction that. in opinion. as. Because of this very artificiality. into cowardly fear of might say of Giri what Scott it is wrote of patriotism. Starting as Right Reason. is often the other feelings. for if why . often stooped to casuistry. and the like.motive it is infinitely inferior to the Christian doctrine of love. Giri became a 24 . I which should be the law. in which the family was the social unit. Girl has.
" and doing lack of courage. Courage was scarcely deemed worthy to be counted among virtues. every It It harbored under sophistry - its wings' sort of and hypocrisy. what its negative is. "valor but 25 applauded. to the consideration of which we shall now return." positive statement. argues Put this epigram into a and it runs." To run self.misnomer." he says. it not. In his " Analects" Confucius defines Courage by explaining. unless it was exercised in the cause of Righteousness. all kinds of hazards. might easily have been turned into a nest of cowardice. misbegot" is not so in the . to jeopardize one's the jaws of death these identified to rush into are too often with Valor. " Perceiving what is right. as is often his wont. and in the profession of arms such rashness of conduct what Shakespeare unjustly calls. if Btishido had not a keen and correct sense of COURAGE. THE SPIRIT OF DARING AND BEARING. " Courage is doing what is right.
" says a Prince of Mito. and the merest churl is equal to the task. and which can be trained by exercise and example. Fearlessness. Courage. virtues." distinction A which is made in the West between moral re- and physical courage has long been us. cognized among " has not heard of " Great Valor and the What samurai youth "Valor of a Villein?" Valor. being the qualities of soul which appeal most easily to juvenile minds. were. who "the knowledge of things that a man should fear and that he should not fear. the most popular the youth. Bravery. when it is right to die. easy enough. Death for a cause " unworthy of dying for." he continues. was called a dog's " To rush into the thick of battle death. Does a little booby Stories 26 . "it is and to be " is true courage to live and to die only when it is right to live. Fortitude." slain in it. early emulated among of military exploits were repeated almost before boys left their mother's breast. so to speak. but." and defines courage as yet the Prince had not even heard of the name of Plato.Precepts of Knighthood.
though stories ot is this kind are not by any means the only method of early imbuing the spirit with Parents.cry for any this ache? fashion: The mother scolds him to in "What pain ! a coward cry for a trifling What cut off will in you battle to do ? when your arm is What when you are " called upon boy- commit harakiri ? We all know the little is pathetic fortitude of a famished prince of Sendai. it is a disgrace to feel Anecdotes of fortitude and bravery hunger. " Bears hurl their cubs down were Samurai's sons the gorge. with daring and fearlessness." abound in nursery tales. let down the steep valleys of hardship. ones mother with worms to feed How eat ! eagerly and happily the little but for a samurai. " Seest thou those tiny sparrows bills in the nest. who in the drama made to say to his little page." they said. and spurred 27 to Sisy- . are opened wide. set their children to tasks that called forth all the pluck that was in them. their how their yellow and now see there ! comes them. when his stomach empty. sternness sometimes verging on cruelty.
houses favorite reputed be haunted. Pilgrimto ex- ages to all sorts of to uncanny places to ecution grounds. Does this ultra-Spartan system of" drilling the nerves" strike 'the modern pedagogist with horror and doubt doubt whether the 28 . walking to their teacher with bare feet in the cold of winter. Children of tender age were sent among deliver. was considered phus-like tasks.Occasional deprivation of food or exposure to cold. to graveyards. as on the festival of in a god of learning. came together small groups and passed the night without sleep. but they were made to visit alone the place in the darkness of night and there to leave a mark of their visit on the trunkless head. not only when were small boys sent to witness the ghastly scene. to their reading and before breakfast attend exercises. decapitation was In the days public. a highly efficacious test for inuring them to endurance. utter strangers with some message to were made to rise before the sun. were pastimes of the young. in reading aloud by turns. they frequently once or twice a month.
tendency would not be brutalizing, nipping in the bud the tender emotions of the heart ?
Let us see what other concepts Bushido had
spiritual aspect of valor
daring deeds arc a dynamical. truly brave man is ever serene he is never taken by surprise
nothing ruffles the equanimity of his In the heat of battle he remains cool
midst of catastrophes he keeps level his mind. Earthquakes do not shake him, he
laughs at storms.
admire him as truly
the menacing presence of
danger or death, retains who, for instance, can
face of death.
a strain in the
Such indulgence betraying
in the writing or in the voice,
taken as an
index of a large nature
a capacious mind
from being pressed or crowded, has always room for something more.
us as a piece of
authentic history, that as
great builder of the castle of
Ota Dokan, the Tokyo, was
pierced through with a spear, his assassin, knowing the poetical predilection of his
thrust with this
Ah how in moments like these Our heart doth grudge the light
whereupon the expiring hero, not one whit
daunted by the mortal wound added the lines
in his side,
not in hours of peace,
learned to lightly look on
even a sportive element in a Things which are serious
to ordinary people,
but play to the it was not at
the parties to a conflict
exchange repartee or to begin a rhetorical Combat was not solely a matter of
engagement. Of such character was the battle fought on
the bank of the
Koromo River, late in the The eastern army routed,
leader, Sadato, took to flight.
pursuing general pressed him hard and called aloud " It is a disgrace for a warrior to show his back to the enemy," Sadato
reined his horse
chief shouted an
" Torn into shreds
upon this the conquering impromptu verse
warp of the
Scarcely had the words escaped his lips defeated warrior, undismayed,
Since age has
completed the couplet
whose bow had
the while been
bent, suddenly unstrung
and turned away,
leaving his prospective victim to do as he When asked the reason of his pleased.
strange behavior, he replied that he could not bear to put to shame one who had kept
presence of mind while hotly pursued
enemy. The sorrow which overtook Antony and Octavius at the death of Brutus, has been
Kenwho fought for fourteen years with Shingen, when he heard of the latter's death,
the general experience of brave men.
wept aloud at the loss of "the best of It was this same Kenshin who
set a noble
for all time, in his
hearing of his to obtain his salt own dominions. but with the sword. furnish him with plenty of do not We the samurai heart when he is wrote." fight affording more than a parallel to the words Romans do not fight with of Camillus. although not openly at war with him. had cut off from Shingen all traffic in this important article. away from the who had consequently depended and for upon the Hojo provinces of the Tokaido to weaken saltg. we When valor attains this height. " but with iron. enemy's dilemma and able from the coast of his Kenshin.' "You the are to be proud of your enemy.The Hojo prince wishing him. wrote Shingen that in his opinion the Hojo lord had committed a very mean act." honor alike required own as enemies in war only such as prove worthy of being friends in should peace. "I with salt. and that although he (Kenshin) was at war with him (Shingen) he had ordered his subjects to salt adding. then success of your enemy and Indeed that valor your success also.treatment of Shingen. 32 it ." Nietzche spoke for gold. whose provinces lay in a mountainous region quite sea.
Confucius cultivate would virtue. princely as particularly befitting a princely profession. Virtue is the root. of a ruler of How often both Confucius and Mencius repeat the highest requirement men to consist in benevolence. that was above his sceptered sway. THE FEELING OF DISTRESS. 33 . princely virtue in a twofold among the manifold attri- butes of a noble spirit. to him lands. affection for others. love.'* Again. Benevolence was deemed a princely sense. say. perhaps. like the rest of the world. We needed to no Shakespeare to express it feel though.becomes akin to BENEVOLENCE.- we needed him it that mercy became a monarch better than his crown. and wealth an outcome. the highest of all the attributes of the human soul. sympathy and pity. "Let but a prince with people will come people will flock to him. magnanimity. lands will bring forth for him wealth . which were ever recognized to be supreme virtues. wealth will give him the benefit of right uses.
It is become have hearts." Under the regime of feudalism." Never has there been a case of a sovereign loving benevolence. and this has for its consequence the growth of that absolutism so often called "oriental despotas though there were no despots of ism." Also. it was to Benevolence that we owed our deliverance from of the worst kind. An utter despotism " surrender of " life and limb on the part of the governed would have left nothing for the governing but natural self-will. and the people not loving righteousness. which could easily be perverted into militarism. supreme power without benevolence." occidental history ! Let it be far from me 34 to uphold despotism . lence Benevolence is Man." Mencius follows close at his heels and ' says. but never have into the " I heard of a whole empire falling hands of one who lacked this virtue." ruler impossible that any one should of the people to whom they not yielded the subjection of their Both defined this indispensable ' tl Benevorequirement in a ruler by saying. Instances are on record to where individuals attained in a single state.
of any sort but It feudalism with it.
a mistake to identify
servants of the State," jurists thought rightly
era was reached in the develop-
ment of freedom. Strangely coinciding in time, in the backwoods of North-western
Japan, Yozan of Yonezawa made exactly the same declaration, showing that feudalism
feudal prince, although unmindful of
reciprocal obligations to his vassals, felt a higher sense of responsibility to his- ancestors
and to Heaven.
He was a father to his whom Heaven entrusted to his care.
In a sense not usually assigned to the term,
Bushido accepted and corroborated paternal
as opposed to
The difference (Uncle Sam's, to wit!). between a despotic and a paternal government lies in this, that in the one the .people
obey reluctantly, while in the other they do so with " that proud submission, that dignified obedience, that subordination of heart
even in servitude
exalted freedom."* The old saying not entirely false which called the king of England the "Icing of devils, because of
his subjects' often insurrections against,
made the French monarch the
because of their
taxes and im-
king " because of his subjects' willing obedience."
but which gave the title of "the to the sovereign of Spain
But enough! Virtue and absolute power may strike thf Anglo-Saxon mind as terms which* it is
Pobyedonostseft impossible to harmonize. has clearly set before us the contrast in the
foundations of English and other European communities ; namely that these were organized on the basis of
was distinguished by a strongly
veloped independent personality. this Russian statesman says of the personal
dependence of individuals on some social alliance and in the end of ends of the State, among the continental nations of Europe and
Burke, French Revolution*
doubly true ot the Japanese. Hence .not only is a free exercise of monarchical power
us as in Europe, but
by parental 'con'
the feelings of the people/
honesty, devotion to duty, energy and inward humiliIf I
in the ruler impartiality,
allowed to make one more
quotation on the
this subject, I
Coblenz, in which he spoke of "Kingship, by the grace of God, with its heavy duties,
tremendous responsibility to the Creator which no man, no minister, no
parliament, can release the monarch."
was a tender
If upright Rectitude
-Mercy had the gentleness
were peculiarly masculine, and the per-
suasiveness of a feminine nature.
warned against indulging
charity, without seasoning it with justice
Rectitude carried aphorism to excess hardens Into stiffness;. Benevolence
not that the mercy of a samurai was generically different from the mercy of any other being." " Bushi no nasake" the tenderness of a warrior had a sound which appealed at once to whatever was noble in us. and state of mind. for it is universally true that "The bravest arc the tenderest. " " Benevolence/' he saysj brings . the loving are the daring. power of As economists speak demand as being effectual or ineffectual." was Fortunately Mercy was not so rare as it beautiful. but because it implied mercy where mercy was not a blind impulse. the samurai gave full consent to what Mencius taught concerning the power of Love. but where it recognized due regard to justice. but where mercy did not remain merely a certain where it was backed with to save or kill.38 . similarly we may call the mercy of bushi implied the power of acting for the good or detriment of the effectual. Priding themselves as they did in their brute strength and privileges to turn it into account.indulged beyond measure sinks into weakness. since it recipient.
under its sway whatever hinders fire : just as water subdues power." who are suffering and in anticipate Thus did Mencius long Adam It is Smith who founds indeed striking his ethical philoso- phy on Sympathy. Benevolence to the weak. was ever extolled as peculiarly becoming to a samurai. et debellare superbos. they only doubt its the power of water to quench flames who try to extinguish with a cupful a whole burning wagon-load of fagots. oriental ideas of morals find their counterparts in the noblest literature. Lovers 39 . how closely the code of knightly honor of one country coincides with that of others . he might readily accuse the Mantuan bard of plagiarizing from the literature of his own country. therefore a benevolent man is ever mindful of those distress." He also says that " the feeling of distress is the root of benevo- lence. were shown a Japanese gentleman. the down- trodden or the vanquished. how the much abused European lines. maxims of If the well-known TIae tibi erunt artes pacisque imponere morem. Parcere subjectis. in other words.
Haste yon pass before thy enemies " ! come to The young warrior refused and begged Kumagaye. when the sight of a juvenile face. his hold. which was one -of the most decisive in our history. known.of Japanese art must be familiar with the representation of a priest riding backwards on a cow. in the of his gigantic Now the etiquette of war required that on such spilt. D. The rider was once a warrior who in his day made his name a by-word of terror. for the honor go in sight 40 . he overtook an enemy and clutch in single combat had him arms. The grim combatant would have the name of the man under him but he refusing to make it .). in : paternal " tones he bade the stripling go Off. to thy mother's side of ! The sword tarnished Kumagaye shall never be and flee o'er by a drop of thy blood. occasions no blood should be unless the weaker party proved to be a man of rank or ability equal to that of the stronger. made the astonished knight relax Helping the youth to his feet. helmet was ruthlessly torn off. fair and his beardless. (1184 A. In that terrible battle of Sumano-ura. young prince.
where lies the Paradise whence salvation comes for his rest. 41 . is When for the war ended. to despatch him on the spot. devotes the rest of his days to holy pilgrimage. thou mayest fall at a more ignoble hand than mine. shaves his head. which many a time before has life. but his stout there flashes athwart his mental eye the vision of his this self-same own boy. sundered the chords of heart quails . we find our soldier returning in triumph. dons a priestly garb. and when red with adolescent blood. he exclaims: "If thou art overtaken. Above the hoary head of the veteran gleams the cold blade. but little cares he now honor or fame. the strong . hand of the warrior quivers his victim to flee for his life. thou Infinite ! receive his soul " ! In an instant it falls the sword flashes in the it is air. and whither the sun hastes daily Critics may point out flaws in this story. who bugle to try his day marched to the sound of maiden arms. he renounces his warlike career.of both. O. again he begs Finding all his entreaties vain steps of his and hearing the approaching comrades. never turning his back to the West.
but sad and tender melodies on the soothing our fiery spirits. for young men not the blast of trumpets or the beat of drums. of a fallen foe. were traits which adorned the most sanguinary exploits of the samurai.which all is casuistically vulnerable. our greatest novelist. It the same was an old maxim among them that "It becometh not the fowler to slay the bird which takes refuge in his bosom. "those clamorous harbingers of blood and death "stirring us to imitate the actions of a tiger. Pity and Love. Polybius tells us of the biwaf Constitution of Arcadia. the custom prevailed to practice music . . drawing our thoughts away from scent of blood and scenes of carnage. Bakin. In the principality of Satsuma. which required all * A musical instrument. resembling the guitar. had familiarized us with the medical treatment. noted for its martial spirit and education. so readily found a firm footing among For decades before we heard of the Geneva Convention. us. considered peculiarly Christian." This in a large measure explains why the Red Cross movement. it Let it be : shows that Tenderness.
the insect humming of a frosty night. Nor was Satsuma the only place in Japan where gentleness was inculcated among the warrior class." And again." to express. but rather cherish these ers. A Prince of Shirakawa jots down them his is random thoughts. in order that this gentle art might alleviate It is to the rigors of that inclement region. these three you have only to forgive.youths under thirty to practice music. these gentler emotions that the of verses was encouraged. drive not away. the fragrance of flowthe sound of distant bells. but actually It was ostensibly to cultivate. Our poetry has therefore a strong undercurrent of pathos and tenderness. and the man who tries to pick quarrels with you. the cloud that hides your moon. "Though they may wound your feelings. well-known writing A 43 . its 'influence that he attributes the absence part of the of cruelty in that Arcadian mountains. the breeze that scatters your flowers. and the following: among "Though they come stealing to your bedside in the silent watches of the night.
anecdote of a case in point. and he wrote '. until one day the music of his soul was awakened -to respond to the sweet notes of the itguisu. versification. epigrammatic or warbler.' Stands the warrior. which ran " The brave warrior keeps apart The ear that might listen To the warbler's song. sometimes called the nightingale of Japan. "Warbled sweet the trees among." His master. To hear the uguisu's song. his fiery spirit rebelled and he flung at the feet of his master this uncouth production. as he lay battle-field. mailed and strong." We in Korner's admire and enjoy 'the heroic incident short life. The uguisu of a similar kind were not at all unusual in * Our pithy. wounded on the his he scribbled Incidents famous "Farewell to Life. continued to encourage the youth. when. undaunted by the crude sentiment. rustic samurai illustrates a When he was told to learn and "The Warbler's Notes"* was given him for the subject of his first attempt. 44 ." our warfare.
and such papers were found aftera poetaster. love of music and The cultivation letters has done in Japan. and compose an ode. that courtesy and urbanity of manners which has been noticed by every foreign tourist as a marked Japanese trait. rousing of tender feelings breeds considerate regard for the sufferings of others. their lifeless when these were removed from wearers. Everybody of any education was either a poet or Not infrequently a marching might be seen to halt. actuated by respect for others' feelings. What toward Christianity has done in Europe compassion in the midst of belligerent horrors. if it is actuated only by a fear of offending good taste. Modesty and complaisance. whereas it should be 45 .poems were particularly well suited to the improvisation of a single sentiment. take his writing utensils from his belt. are at the root of POLITENESS. Politeness is a poor virtue. soldier ward in the helmets or the breast-plates.
" suffered! reverently say. for what virtue stands alone it ? While or rather - was exalted as peculiar to the of arms. form. vaunteth not up . in speaking of the six elements of Humanity. not easily provoked. and is kind . there came because 46 . If we analyze it. is is not her own. not puffed doth not behave itself unseemly.the outward manifestation of a sympathetic It also regard for the feelings of others. inasmuch as ripest fruit it is the of social intercourse ? While thus extolling from Politeness. politeness almost approaches politeness We may long. seeketh itself. far be it me to put it in the front rank of virtues." not account of Is it any wonder that Professor Dean. and as such esteemed in profession a degree higher than its deserts. express no plutocratic dis- tinctions. but were originally distinctions for actual merit. envieth not. accords to Politeness an exalted position. we shall find it correlated with other virtues of a higher order. In its highest love. therefore for these latter due respect to social positions. implies a due regard for the fitness of things. taketh evil.
How one in accosting others. absorbing too much of our thought and in so far a folly to observe strict obedience to it. 46. in his interesting book/ call decorum " a product and an exponent of the leisure-class life. were taught and learned with Table manners grew to be a serving and Tea raised to a ceremony. expected to be master of all Very fitly does Mr.into existence its counterfeits. Y. I admit that there may be unneces- sary * niceties in ceremonious etiquette. but Theory of the Leisure Class. sit. Confucius himself has repeatedly taught that external appurtenances are as little a part of propriety as sounds are of music When propriety was elevated to the sine qua non of social intercourse." I have heard slighting remarks made by Europeans upon our elaborate discipline It has been criticized as of politeness. of course. 1899. utmost care. is. N. 47 . Veblen. p. A man drinking were of education these. it was only to be expected that an elaborate system of etiquette should come into vogue to train youth must bow in correct social behavior. how he must walk and science.
for it denotes the result of long observation as to the most appropriate do method of achieving a certain result. Spencer defines grace as the graceful. to borrow from the . is a question not very clear to my mind. The most economical manner of motion. The corum. spiritual or. a spoon. soon discovers that the after all. a napkin. the most economical use of hence. solely as freaks of vanity I do not consider on the contrary. etc. the most graceful. and the best way is If there is both the most economical and the most Mr. other words. there is certainly a best way to do it. search look upon these as a ceaseless of the less human mind I for the beautiful. I significance de- might say. anything to do. Much consider elaborate ceremony as altogether trivial. of social force. Even fashions I . tea ceremony presents certain definite ways of manipulating a bowl. But one is. according to Spencer's dictum. To a novice it looks tedious. the way prescribed in most saving of time and labor. .whether it partakes as much of folly as the adherence to ever-changing fashions of the West.
so much so that dif- ferent schools advocating different systems. that I wish to emphasize. Spencer and trace in our ceremonial institutions their origins rise to them and the moral motives that gave but that is not what I shall . the Ogasawara." vocabulary of the Philosophy of Clothes. I have said that etiquette was elaborated into the finest niceties. came into existence.' 1 the spiritual discipline of which etiquette and ceremony are mere outward garments. is out of all appearance proportion to what their warrants us in believing." It means. in the " The end of all etiquette following terms : is to so cultivate your mind that even when you are quietly seated. It is the moral training involved in strict observance of propriety. in endeavor to do this book. not the roughest ruffian can dare make onset on your person. one brings all the parts and faculties of his 49 body . in other words. in the ultimate essential. But they all united and this was put by a great exponent of the best known school of etiquette. that by constant into exercise in correct manners. I might follow the example of Mr.
mean power in repose. I tea ceremony. during the sack of Rome.perfect order itself and into such harmony with environment as to express the What a mastery of spirit over the flesh. When the barbarian Gauls. or * Etytnologically well-seatedntss. Why should it may take Cha-no-yu. burst into the assembled Senate and dared pull the beards of the venerable Fathers. we and at- think 'the old gentlemen were to blame. inasmuch as they lacked Is dignity strength of manners. in the So . the Tea-sipping as a fine art In the children not be? ! drawing pictures on the sand. lofty spiritual tainment really possible through etiquette? Why not ? All roads lead to Rome ! As an example of how the simplest thing can be made into an art and then become spiritual culture. Fine manners. therefore. its and new and deep If the significance the French word ! bienseance* comes thus to contain premise is true force. that gracefulness means economy of then it follows as a logical sequence that a constant practice of graceful deportment must bring with it a reserve and storage offeree.
shut from sight and sound of the madding crowd. The very * fact that scrolls. that composure and quietness of demeanor. whereas anything like display is banished with religious horror. 51 . The bare interior does not engross one's attention like the innumerable pictures and bric-a-brac of a Western parlor. which are the first essentials of Cha-no-yu. entitled to develop into a handmaid of Religion and Morality? That calmness of mind. are without doubt the first conditions of right thinking and right feeling. the presence of kakemono* calls our attention more to grace of design than to beauty of color. used for decorative purposes. The scrupulous off cleanliness of the little room. that serenity of temper. it was invented by a be. which began with the transcendental conis templation of a Hindoo anchorite. is in itself conducive to direct one's thoughts from the world. was the promise How of a Raphael or a Michael Angelo. much more the drinking of a beverage. either paintings or ideo- Hanging which may grams. The utmost refinement of taste is the object aimed at .savage carving on a rock.
Its greatest value lies this last phase. and a friendship. is sympathy. springing as it does from motives of benevolence and modesty. the ferocity of the battle-field or the cares of government. in a time when wars and the rumors of wars were incessant.contemplative recluse. with articulate gestures for rhythm : it is a modus operandi of soul discipline. there to find peace company assembling laid ceremony aside. the partake of the together with their swords. if it does no more than impart grace to manners. Not infrequently the other phases preponderated in the mind of its votaries. is Cha-no-yu fine more than a ceremony is it is art. is well calculated to show that of the to this institution was more than a pastime. and actuated by tender feelings toward the sensibilities of others. Politeness will be a great acquisition. but that does not prove that its in essence was not of a spiritual nature. but its function does not stop here. the quiet precincts Before entering tea-room. Its ever a graceful expression of requirement is that we . it poetry. For propriety.
They the "bodying forth" of thoughtful feelings for the comfort of others. exactly so." Little acts of this kind. expresses little acts scarcely noticeable. acquainted. is.should -weep with those that rejoice with those requirement. as one missionary lady of twenty years' residence once said to me. or if we were familiarly sun . equally or more amusing. or. but the "awfully funny" performance is. provided " You are the motive were less than this : How foolish! in the sympathize with you I would take you under my parasol if it willingly were large enough. 53 . " You are out in the hot awfully funny. that all :he while he talks with you his parasol is down and he stands in the glaring sun also. noticed. I . I will share your discomforts. and instantly his hat is offwell. Yes. when reduced into that of life. you accost him. a Japanese acquaintance passes by." glaring sun with no shade over you. that is perfectly natural. are not mere gestures or are conventionalities. as I cannot shade you. small every-day details itself in if didactic weep and Such rejoice.
so accept this. It will be an insult to your worth to call the best gift good is enough for you." material which makes the gift." Place the two ideas side by sidej and we see that the ultimate idea Neither is one and the same. have dismissed . "awfully The American speaks of the funny. in it. it topsy-turvyness foreigner of the Every who has observed felt in will confess the awkwardness he reply upon the occasion. but as a token. making proper In America. the Japa54 . gift. "This were not nice I would not for it dare give to give to you. when its you make a recipient." In are for contrast to our logic runs: gift is nice "You enough a nice person." Another " awfully funny custom is dic- tated by our canons of Politeness but many superficial writers on Japan. you sing praises to the Japan we if it depreciate or slander The underlying a nice gift it : is idea with you is. nice. You will not accept anything I can lay at your feet except as a token of my good will . will be an is insult you anything but what this. and no you. it by simply attributing it to the general nation. not for its intrinsic value.
It is perverse reasoning to conclude. to take the least important of it as the type. and pass judgment upon the principle itself. to the question. A eating is all-important. because our sense of propriety shows itself in all the smallest ramifications of our them and uphold deportment. Which is more important. and the observing the rules of propriety is of little importance.nesc speaks of the spirit which prompts the gift. why merely say that the eating is of the more import" " Metal is ance ? heavier than feathers. to eat or to observe rules of propriety about eating? Chinese sage "If you take a case where the answers. and compare them together. "Which is the tell the truth or to be polite ?" the Japanese are said to give an answer diametrically opposite to what the American will say. and To more important. none would call it taller than the temple." but does that saying have reference to a single clasp of metal and a wagon-load of feathers? thick Take a raise it piece of wood a foot above the pinnacle of a temple. but I forbear any 55 .
almost identifying them with the Divine. its power to produce changes without movement and by its mere presence effort.comment until I come to speak of VERACITY OR TRUTHFULNESS." its He then eloquence on far-reaching long enduring nature. " " a combination of and Perfect. the beginning of ty there would dwells with and." says Masamune. without which Politeness show." An ancient poet has outdone Polomus in the advice he gives " To thyself be faithful: if in thy heart thou strayest not from truth. becomes a lie. to accomplish its purpose without for From which the Chinese ideogram is " Word Sincerity. " Sincerity all is the end and things ." to The apotheosis of Sincerity which Tsu-tsu gives expression in the Doctrine of the Mean^ attributes to it transcendental powers. is a farce and a "Propriety beyond right " bounds. without Sinceri- be nothing." one it draw a parallel between tempted to and the Neois . without prayer of thine the Gods will keep : carried thee whole.
I am well aware that they the did swear by different deities or upon their swords . the generality of Christians persistently violate the plain who commands of Teacher not to swear. ichi~gon~-ft\Q word of a samurai exact German equivalent ein Rittenvort was sufficient guaranty of the truthfulness of an assertion. Many anecdotes were told of those for iii-gon^ who atoned by death tongue. but never has swearing degenerated 57 . which would have been deemed thrilling quite beneath his dignity. his high social standard of veracity than that of the trades- The bushi held that position demanded a loftier Bus hi no or in man and peasant. Lying equally or equivocation were deemed cowardly. a double The regard unlike for veracity was so high that. the best of samurai looked upon an oath as derogatory to their honor.to such height Platonic doctrine of Logos does the sage soar in his unwonted mystic flight. His word carried such weight with it that promises were generally made and fulfilled without a written pledge.
even a samurai. but wrong (in in attributing too much weight 7 to the term he translates " falsehood. to tell a falsehood or be impolite. and an ordinary Japanese as is in this respect as good Wordsworth. wrong. may answer in the way Peery* in ascribed to him. 86. or even whether he * an American of any refinement. 58 .into tion. he will not hesitate to answer " to is tell a falsehood " ! Dr. Ask a Japanese. I need only refer readers to Goethe's Faust. to tell you dislikes you or whether he is sick Feery. right partly right and partly that an ordinary Japanese. To emphasize my A for recent American writer this is responsible statement. Lowell us that Wordsworth could not dis- tinguish between truth and fact.' is This word employed to denote anything Japanese uso) which is not tells a truth (makoto) or fact (Jwnto). of such a practice. that if you ask an ordinary Japanese which is better. The Gist of Japany p. wanton form and irreverent interjec- our words a practice of literally sealing with blood was someFor the explanation times resorted to.
all Of was farther the great occupations of life. thank you." truth merely for the sake To sacrifice of was regarded as an " empty form" (kyo-rei) and " deception by sweet politeness words. let us calmly study it and we shall be rewarded with consolation for the future. none removed from the profession of arms than commerce. and he will not hesitate long to tell falsehoods much/* or. the mechanic. in . and answer. the tiller of the soil. of which I have much A complaint in foreign books and journals. loose business morality has indeed been ." and was never justified. but it I own I am now of the Bushido may to not be amiss to devote a few words our commercial heard integrity. " I like you "I am quite well. the worst blot on our national reputation but before abusing it or hastily condemning the whole race for it. The samurai derived his income from land and could even indulge.at his stomach. speaking idea of veracity . the merchant. if he 59 had a mind to. The merchant was placed lowest in the category of vocations. the knight.
pale " Call one a thief and he put a stigma adjust their on a calling and followers 60 . Century Western was the permission given to the nobility engage in trade. in that it prevented wealth from accumulating in the hands of the powerful. author of of Professor Dill. Commerce. the counter and We knew the wis- dom of this social arrangement. not therefore. The obloquy attached brought within will steal :" its little for to the calling naturally its such as cared social repute. and the consequent monopoly of wealth and power by a minorito ty of the senatorial families.amateur farming. Montes- quieu has made it clear that the debarring of the nobility from mercantile pursuits was an admirable social policy." has brought afresh to our mind that one cause of the decadence of the Roman Empire. The separation of power and distribution of riches kept the the latter more nearly equable. in feudal Japan did reach it which development would have attained under freer degree that of conditions. but abacus were abhorred. the "Roman the Society in the Last Empire.
such fundamental mercantile institutions as the guild. for it is natural that "the normal conscience. bills of exchange. while the respectable business This being the case. as they did. but in their relations with people outside their vocation." as Hugh Black says. to the demands made on it. only the most adventurous and unscrupulous rushed to the ports." from unnecessary to add that no business. the bourse. when houses declined for some time the repeated requests of the authorities to establish branch houses. merchants of the feudal among themselves. Our had one period without which they could never have developed. checks. etc.. Those who are well acquainted with our history will remember that only a few years 61 . and easily expected It is to the limit of the standard it.morals to " rises falls it. the bank. the tradesmen lived too true to the reputation of their order. commercial or otherwise. insurance. can be transacted without a code of morals. Was of commercial dishonor Bushido powerless to stay the current ? Let us see. the country was opened to foreign trade.
them Now you may their ask. feudalism was abolished. "Why could they not bring much relations boasted veracity into their new business and so reform the old abuses?" Those who had eyes to see could not weep enough. they were given liberty to invest them in mercantile transactions. but it was soon patent to every 62 . and when after with it the samurai's issued to fiefs were taken and in bonds compensation. is it any wonder that scarcely one among a hundred samurai who went into trade could succeed in his It will new vocation? be long before it will be recognized how many fortunes were wrecked in the attempt to apply Bushido ethics to business methods. through sheer lack of shrewdness in coping with his artful plebeian rival. When we know houses that eighty per cent. with the fate of a noble and honest samurai who signally and irrevocably field 'of failed in his new and unfamiliar trade and industry. of the business fail in so industrial a country as America.our treaty ports were opened to foreign trade. those who had hearts to feel could many not sympathize enough.
then. could develop little in a political community under a feudal system. that Honesty attained elevated rank in our catalogue of virtues. in its highest aspect. Bushido would rather indulge in am ! lies Bushido rejects a doctrine of quid pro rewards. readily accept Lecky has very truly remarked that Veracity owes its growth largely to commerce and manufacture. its own reward ? brings in afraid If q^to If it is followed because I more cash than falsehood. and as Lecky says. As to the second. In what respects. Honesty 63 is the youngest . when pays it ask for the ultimate ground.observing mind that the ways of wealth were not the ways of honor. the first and the philosophical. political. It is in it its philosophical. the shrewder tradesman will it. the industrial. then. the was altogether lacking in Bushido. virtue. as Nietzsche puts " it. were they viz different ? Of the three incentives to Veracity that : Lecky enumerates. With all my sincere regard for the high commer- cial integrity of the I Anglo-Saxon I race." that Is not this to be honest. am told that it " Honesty is the best policy.
IV. for want of a more democratic and utilitarian foster-mother. warnthem of " a lamentable lack of ing reliability with regard to German shipments inter alia> apparent both as to quality and quantity .of virtues" in other words. twenty years her merchants * learned that in the end honesty pays.* * judgment on interesting to remark in this Knapp. Japan in Transition. ." now-a-days we hear comparatively little of German In carelessness and dishonesty in trade. Fettdatand Modem Ja$an> Vol. With- out this mother. Veracity will prove an easy. Ransome. Ch. For the rest I recommend the reader It is to two recent this writers for well-weighed point. Veracity was like a blueblood orphan whom only the most cultivated mind could adopt and nourish Such minds were general among the samurai. a profitable. the tender child failed to Industries advancing. as late as November 1880. virtue to practice. nay. of modern industry. Ch. it is the foster- child of industry. Already our merchants are finding that out. I. VIII. thrive. but. Bismarck sent a circular to the professional consuls of the German Empire. Just think.
had any motive higher than In the absence of any positive against bearing false witness. you may call me I a fool. implying a vivid 65 . and.connection that integrity and honor were the surest guaranties which even a merchant debtor could present in the form of promisIt was quite a usual thing to sory notes." or. In pay you back." and the Often have wondered whether the Vera- city of Bushido courage. the idea its of honesty Latin and tified is so intimately blended. I shall say nothing against being ridiculed in " case I fail to public . commandment lying was not condemned as sin. The sense of honor. as such. and its German etymology so iden- with HONOR that it is high time I should pause a few moments for the consideration of this feature of the Precepts of Knighthood. As a matter of fact. but simply denounced as weakness. like. insert such clauses as these: "In default of the repayment of the sum lent to me. highly dishonorable.
and the sense of shame (Ren-chi-shin) was one of the education. guaibun (outside hearing)." "It " will disgrace you. ordinarily given yet the idea was conveyed as by such terms na (name) men-moku (countenance).consciousness of personal dignity and worth. 66 for most truly . and of " fame." Are you not ashamed ?" were the appeal to correct behavior on the part of a youthful delinquent. any infringement upon its integrity was felt as shame. reminding us respectively of the biblical use of "name. as it had been nursed on honor while mother's though it was is in its womb." of the evolution of the term "personality" from the Greek mask. the immortal part what remains being bestial assumed as a matter of course. Such a recourse to his honor touched the most last sensitive spot in the child's heart. reputation. born and bred to value the duties and the privileges of their profession Though word now-a-days as the translation of Honor was not used freely. earliest to "You be cherished in juvenile will be laughed at." good A nameone's of one's self. could not fail to characterize the samurai.
but the awakening of the sense of shame. not the sorrow of childbirth. the sense of shame seems to me to be the indication of the moral consciousness of our race. to of that my mind. The fruit first and worst punishment which befell humanity in consequence of tasting "the forbidden tree" was. nor the thorns and thistles. "society has lost the fundamental force which Montesquieu earliest named Honor/ 7 Indeed." says Balzac. "In losing the solidarity of families. being closely bound up with strong family consciousness. All the sartorial ingenuity of mankind has not yet succeeded in sewing an apron that will efficaciously hide our sense of shame. "because. Few incidents in history excel in pathos the scene of the first mother plying with heaving breast and tremulous fingers. "dishonor is 67 .honor a prenatal influence. That samurai was right who refused to compromise his character by a slight humiliation in his youth. her crude needle on the few fig leaves which her dejected husband plucked for her. This first fruit of disobedience clmgs to us with a tenacity that nothing else does." he said.
what Carlyle has latterly expressed. of good manners and good morals. only helps to enlarge. it was an unpardonable insult to identify a 6* . deeds were perpetrated which can find no justification in the slightest. and many an unnecessary strife was raised and many an innocent life lost. that Shame is the soil of all Virtue. code of Bushido. for the simple and questionable reason that inasmuch as fleas are parasites which feed on animals. " namely. instead of effacing. in almost the identical phrase. if it The nevertheless hung like Damocles' sword over the head of every samurai and often assumed a morbid character. which time." Mencius had taught centuries before. In the name of Honor. resorted to the use of the sword. imaginary insult. The story of a well- meaning citizen who called the attention of a bushi to a flea jumping on his back. the quick-tempered braggart took offense. and who was forthwith cut in two. At the nay." fear of disgrace was so great that our literature lacks such eloquence as Shakespeare puts into the mouth of Norfolk.like a scar on a tree.
as compared with the delirium tremens of a drunkard. the circulation of such stories implies three things. as in religious and hypocrisy." The popular adage bear what you think you cannot bear 69 ridiculed as " shortsaid : " To is . Yet. so in that extreme sensitiveness of the re- sanaurai about their honor do we not cognize the substratum of a genuine virtue ? The morbid excess into which the delicate code of honor was inclined to run was strongly counterbalanced by preaching magnanimity and patience. stories like these are too frivolous to believe. (2) that abuses were really made of the samurai's profession of honor and (3) that a very strong sense It of shame was developed among them.noble warrior with a beastI say. monomania there is something touchingly noble. any more than to judge of the true teaching of Christ cast from the fruits of religious fanaticism and inquisitions extravagance But. . (i) that they were invented to overawe common people. is plainly unfair to take an abnormal case to blame upon the Precepts. To take offense at slight provocation was tempered.
really to bear."
The great lyeyasu left to a few maxims, among- which are posterity the following: "The life of man is like
upon the shoulders.
going a long distance with a heavy load Haste not. * # * *
Reproach none, but be forever watchful of
* * * Forbearshort-comings. the basis of length of days." He
his life what he preached. wit put a characteristic epigram literary into the mouths of three well-known per-
sonages in our history: to
will kill her, if the nightingale
to Hideyoshi, " I will " and to lyeyasu, force her to sing for me ; " I will wait till she her
sings not in time
opens lips." long suffering were also In one highly commended by Mencius.
place he writes to this effect
denude yourself and
cannot defile my soul by your Elsewhere he teaches that anger at a petty offense is unworthy a superior man, but indignation for a great cause is
height of unmartial and unresist70
ing meekness Bushido could reach in some of
seen in their utterances.
for instance, this
things against thee, return not evil for
but rather reflect that thou wast not more
discharge of thy of Kumazawa:
others blame thee, blame
them not; when
others are angry at thee, return not anger.
Joy cometh only
Passion and Desire
from Saigo, upon whose overhanging brows
ashamed to sit;" -"The Way Man's of Heaven and Earth
Heaven loves me and others with equal
thou lovest thyself, love others. Make not Man thy partner but Heaven, and making
Heaven thy partner do thy condemn others; but see to
of those sayings remind us of Christian
and show us how
practical morality natural religion can
Not only did these proach the revealed. remain as utterances, but they were sayings
must be admitted that very few attained
sublime height of magnanimity, patience
and forgiveness. It was a great pity that nothing clear and general was expressed as to what constitutes Honor, only a few " enlightened minds being aware that it from
acting well his part for nothing was easier for youths to forget in the heat of action what they had learned in Mencius
in their calmer " 'Tis in
Said this sage,
every man's mind to love honor doth he dream that what is truly
within himself and not anyconfer
The honor which men
not good honor.
Great ennobles, he can make mean again." For the most part, an insult was quickly
resented and repaid by death, as we shall see later, while Honor too often nothing
higher than vain glory or worldly approbation was prized as the summum bonum of earthly
that he would not recross it until he had made a name in the world : and many an ambitious mother refused to see her sons again unless they could "return home. chagrined and wept so bitterly that an old all councillor tried to console him with " the resources at his command. many come years that divers oc- you may live.existence." as the expression is. Sire/* Take comfort. Osaka." fixed his indignant gaze upon the 73 The boy man and . and not wealth or knowwas the goal toward which youths had to strive Many a lad swore within himseli as he crossed the threshold of his paternal home. he was so army. was placed at the rear of the When the castle fell. Fame. samurai boys would submit to any privations and undergo severest ordeals of bodily or mental suffering." To shun shame or win a name. " caparisoned in brocade. "at thought of the long In the future before you. said he. there will casions to distinguish yourself. They knew that honor won in youth In the memorable siege grows with age. a young son of lyeyasu. ledge. in spite of his earnest entreaties to be put in the of vanguard.
which was considered dearer than utmost serenity and celerity was down. assumes paramount importance. but this virtue homage and fealty to a superior is its distinctive feature. I am aware adhesion that personal fidelity is a moral existing among . with laid life no Of the causes in comparison with which life was too dear to sacrifice. all sorts and a gang of pickpockets owe allegiance to a Fagin but it is only in the code of chivalrous honor that Loyalty conditions of men. whenever a cause presented life.Can ever said" How foolishly you talk " round again ? my fourteenth year come ! Life itself was thought cheap be attained if honor and fame could therewith: itself hence. was THE DUTY OF LOYALTY. with people. which was the key-stone virtues a symmetrical making feudal Other virtues other of classes arch. feudal morality shares in common with other systems of ethics. In spite of Hegel's criticism 74 that the .
being. Pt. was Bismarck had good reanot because the Treue he boasts of was the monopoly of his Fatherland or of any single nation or race.fidelity of feudal vassals." but preposterous as encouraged among us. In America where " everyfruit favored the body the is as good as anybody else. as Irishman added. H. ""better too. Loyalty Philosophy of History (Eng." and. Montesquieu com- plained long ago that right on one side of the Pyrenees was wrong on the other. a bond established on totally that personal loyalty unjust principles. an obli- gation to an individual is and not to a Com- monwealth. I. by Sibree). Similarly. but because this of chivalry lingers latest among people where feudalism has lasted longest. Ch. 75 . save that the Pyrenees were justice finds * Sec. IV. -trans. not the sole boundary beyond which French no accord. and the recent Dreyfus trial proved the truth of his remark.* a great compatriot of his made it his boast a German virtue." such exalted ideas of loyalty as we feel for our sovereign may be deemed "excellent within certain bounds. son to do so.
in human to Japan precedence was given 4< Loyalty. When * orders are deliver to the schoolmaster to dispatched the head Religions of Japan. Not content with this. earned a place i'the story. I am afraid. not degree not reached in any other country. as Shakespeare assures. and also because we carry it to a elsewhere. but because it is. I will relate of one fall'n lord *' who and could endure to follow a " who thus. Strict search for his son not yet grown reveals the fact of his being secreted in a village school kept by one Genzo. a former vassal of Michizane. At the risk of shocking some of my good readers. Michlzane. . his unrelenting enemies are now bent upon the extinction of his family. forgotten." The story is of one of the purest characters in our history.as we conceive it may find few admirers because our conception is wrong. falling a victim to jealousy and calumny. Griffis* was in quite right in stating that whereas China Confucian ethics made obedience to parents the primary duty. is exiled from the capital. who.
then. is but for a moment . arrives the officer commissioned to identify and receive the head of the youth. for. yet without sign to the outer world. behold. the one his life. his first idea is to find a suitable substitute ponders over his school-list. On the day appointed. escorted by a mother of noble mien. but none for it. as they stroll into the class-room. head? The poor Will he be deceived by the false Genzo's hand is on the 77 . is whom rest the scape-goat ! The of the narrative may be briefly told. the other her heart. were the mother and the boy himself.of the juvenile offender on a certain day. Unwitting of what had passed be- tween them. a new scholar is announced a comely boy of the same age as his master's son. His despair. In the privacy of home both had laid themselves upon the altar . it is the teacher from comes the suggestion. Here. He among the children born of the soil bears the least resemblance to his protege. No less conscious of the resemblance be- tween infant lord and infant retainer. scrutinizes with careful eyes all the boys. however.
goes calmly over each feature. Now the day'syea. business-like tone. should the examination defeat his scheme. He himself could not be untrue to his own cruel master but his son could serve the cause of the grandsire's lord. it was he who had been entrusted with the task of identifying the boy's head. my wife. but since his banishment circumstances have forced her Her father-in-law has husband to follow the service of the enemy . he returns home and as he crosses " : its threshold. Does she know the eagerness for fate of her child ? It is not for his return that she watches with the opening of the wicket. of his family's benefactor.hilt either at the of the sword. and in a deliberate. pronounces it genuine. ready to strike a blow man or at himself. been for a long time a recipient of Michizane's bounties. he accosts his wife. the life's hard work is done. The officer takes up the gruesome object before him. That evening in a lonely home awaits the mother we saw in the school. saying Rejoice. As one acquainted with the ' exile's family. our darling son has proved of service to his lord " ! 78 .
The individualism of the West. hence. -one and inseparable. what is that " For if ye love them ? that love you. This interest is it bound up with irresistible . which recognizes separate interests for father son. but Bushido held that the interest of the family and of the members thereof intact. what reward have ye 79 Do . we ? die for one we love with natural love (which animals themselves possess). but I abstain from preaching. affection if natural."What readers an atrocious story!" Parents I hear my exclaim. or heard by an outward or an inward ear. utter submission to the command of a higher voice. and not more revolting than. whether given by a visible or an invisible angel." But this child : was a conscious and willing victim story of vicarious death it is a as significant as. instinctive. and husband and wife. the story of Abraham's intended sacrifice of Isaac. necessarily brings into strong relief the duties owed by one to the other . In both cases it was obedience to the call of duty." sacrificing their own innocent the life deliberately child to save of another man's.
the samurai matron stood ready to give up her for the cause of Loyalty. conceived the state as So . undone if I ! soul that kind Heaven may visit him with this death. Since Bushido. Indeed neither Shakespeare nor the Old Testament itself contains an adequate renderconflict filial ing of ko. Women. Sanyo relates in language the heart struggle of Shigemori concerning his father's rebellious conduct "If I be loyal. and yet in such conflicts Bushido never wavered in its choice of Loyalty. my father must be touching obey my father. that he may be released from for purity world where it is hard and right- eousness to dwell. too. their offspring to sacrifice all for Ever as resolute as Widow Windham and boys her illustrious consort. our conception of piety.not even the publicans the same ?" In his great history." Poor 'Shigemori sovereign We see him afterward praying with all his . like Aristotle and some modern sociologists. Many the a Shigemori has his heart torn by between duty and affection. encouraged the king. my duty to my must go amiss.
Pt. you and " These are words your fathers before you ! which do not . Ch. H. Among others he makes " them (the laws. or the state) say Since : you were begotten and nurtured and educated under us. Sufficient unto the day is the virtue thereof. Readers of Crito will remember the argument with which Socrates represents the laws of the city as pleading with him on the subject of his escape. that the laws and the state were represented with us by a personal being. Spencer's view according to which political obedience Loyalty is accredited with only a transitional function. I.. . * Principles of Ethics.* It may be so. modification. 81 We may X. impress for the lips extraordinary us as any thing same thing has long with this been on the of Bushido. dare you once to say you are not our offspring and servant. Loyalty is an ethical outcome of this political theory.born into the former thereof antedating the individualthe latter being as part and parcel he must of live its and die for it or for the incumbent legitimate authority. Vol. I am not entirely ignorant of Mr.
believe that " tiny pebbles with moss." Boutmy recently said. without being unfaithful to either. during which.. will give place dictates of conscience." Political subordination. from being subjects of a ruler that wields the temporal sceptre we become servants of the monarch who sits enthroned in the penetralia of our heart. especially as we day to be a long space of time. Spencer predicts. "the sentiment of personal fidelity to a man and his posterity felt for their which chiefs. so our national anthem says. their Germanic ancestors as Monsieur has." grow into mighty rocks draped We may remember at this juncture that even among so democratic a people as the English. Mr. "only passed more or less into their profound loyalty to the race and blood of their princes. is loyalty to the Suppose his induction to realized will loyalty and its concomitant ? instinct of reverence disappear forever We transfer our allegiance from one master to another. started a very stupid the misguided dis- . A few years ago by 52 controversy. as evidenced in their extraordi- nary attachment to the dynasty.complacently repeat it.
made havoc among the reading class of Japan. the niceties of the Schoolmen. they charged Christians with treasonable propensities in that they their avow fidelity to forth Lord and Master They arrayed without the of arguments and scholastic tortuosities minus Sophists. dying. two masters without holding to the one or " rendering unto Caesar despising the other. his country he served. Alack the day when a state command grows so powerful as to demand of ! its citizens the dictates of their conscience Bushido did not require us to make our conscience the slave of any lord or king. obey with equal fidelity and equanimity the of his earthly master. Thomas Mowbray was a veritable spokesman for us when he said : 85 . Little did sophistical wit they know that we " serve can." all Did not Socrates. In their zeal to uphold the claim of the throne to undivided loyalty. refused to the while he unflinchingly concede one iota of loyalty to his dcsmon.ciples of Spencer. the State ? His conscience he followed." the things that are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's. in a sense. alive.
for the it was quite a usual course last samurai to make the 84 appeal to the . My life thou shalt command. dread sovereign. that lives upon fair name. who makes court by unscrupulous fawning or as chd-shin^ a favorite who steals his master's affections . a duteous and knee-crooking knave. a cringeling. In for him to pursue to means cases of this kind. as Kent did to King Lear. thou shalt not have. but not ." A man who sacrificed his own conscience to the capricious will or freak or fancy of a sovereign was accorded a low place in the estimate of the Precepts. my shame. my To dark dishonor's use. the other trimm'd in forms and visages of duty. wearing out his time much like his master's ass. Failing in this. at thy foot. by means those of servile compliance these two species of subjects corresponding exactly to which lago describes. Such an one was despised as nei-shin. the one. When a subject differed from liis master."Myself I throw. grave. the loyal path available was to use every persuade him of his error. The one my duty owes but my Despite of death. let the master deal with him as he wills. keeping yet his heart attending on himself. doting on his own obsequious bondage.
in the first instance and placed knowledge only in a very subordinate The tripod that supported the place. but the word CAi. they were of accessories rather than essentials of samurai training. leaving in the shade the subtler faculties of prudence. We have seen the important part aesthetic accomplishments played in his education.intelligence and conscience of his lord by demonstrating the sincerity of his words with the shedding of his Life being own blood. framework of Bushido was said to be Chi> 85 . intelligence and dialectics. and its ideal being set upon honor. employed meant wisdom was esteemed . regarded as the means whereby to serve his master. The first point to observe in knightly pedagogics was to build up character. which to denote intellectuality. Intellectual superiority was. course. the whole EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF A SAMURAI were conducted accordingly. they were to a man Indispensable as of culture.
From what has been surprising to be note that the curriculum of studies. Religion and theology were relegated he concerned himself with them in so far as courage. it will not military or political problem. i ve truth that he strove was not objectliterature was and philosophy formation of pursued mainly as a pastime. Wisdom. tactics. believed " they helped to nourish Like an English poet the samurai 'tis not the creed that saves the is man. but creed. samurai was essentially a Science was without the pale of his activity. not for the exposition of some said. the use of the spear. to the priests. according to the pedagogics of Bushido. archery. A man of action. literature 86 and history. caligraphy.. consisted mainly of the following. . fencing. He took advantage of -it in so far as -it concerned his profession of arms. Benevolence. horse- manship. ethics. Yu t respectively and Courage. it after. as a practical if aid in the character. even ' in the pursuit of these. jiitjutsu or yawara." it the man that justifies the Philosophy and literature formed the chief part of his intellectual training but .
mathematics.Oftiie$e ji?fjutsu and caligraphy may require a few words of explanation. resistance. however. but the whole training of the 87 . This. jittsu be briefly defined as an application of anatomical knowledge to the purpose of offense or defense. does not depend upon muscular It differs from other forms of it attack in that uses no weapon. but to incapacitate one for action the time being. It differs from wrestling. * Great stress t was laid on good writing. possess artistic value. can be readily explained in part by the fact that feudal warfare scientific was not carried on with precision. probably because our logograms. Not only that. and also because chirography was accepted as Jiu- indicative of one's personal character. Its feat consists in clutching or striking such part of Its is the enemy's body as will make him numb object and incapable of not to for kill. may in that it ' strength. A subject of study which one would expect to find in military education and which in is rather conspicuous by its absence is the Bushtdo course of instruction. partaking as they do of the nature of pictures.
fostering nu- Chivalry penury." says panegyrized. and a samurai is in hearty sympathy with his exaggerated confrere of La Mancha. The hackneyed expression to describe the decadence of an age is " that the civilians loved * money and the soldiers feared death. riches all things.' Niggardliness of gold and of tion life excites as lavish much disapprobais as their use "Less than precept. the art of making or hoarding it.samurai was unfavorable to merical notions. It was considered bad taste to speak of it. different coins and ignorance of the value of was a token of good breeding. It is uneconomical. a current it is "men must grudge money: wisdom is 'by that hindered. it boasts of that Ventidius says with " ambition. rather makes choice of loss." Don Quixote takes more pride in his rusty spear and skin-and-bone horse than in gold and lands. the soldier's virtue." Hence children were brought up with utter disregard of economy. He disdains money itself. than gain which darkens him. It is to him veritably filthy lucre. in Knowledge of numbers was indispensable 88 .
Not so with the Precepts of Knighthood. of money was left to meaner hands. but not economical reasons so much as for the exercise of abstinence.enforced in many of the We read that in ancient Rome of revenue the farmers and other financial agents were gradually raised to the rank of knights. ally These persisted in systematic- regarding finance as something 89 low low . and simplicity was required of the clans.the mustering of forces as well as in the distribution of benefices and fiefs but the counting . that thrift for It is true was enjoined by Bushido. the greatest severest Luxury was thought menace to manhood. warrior class. Every thinking bushi knew well enough that money formed the sinews of war. the State thereby their service showing its appreciation of and of the importance of money itself. How closely this was connected with the luxury and avarice of the Romans may be imagined. sumptuary laws being. but he did not think of raising the appreciation of money to a virtue. In many feudatories. public finance was administered by a lower kind of samurai or by priests.
Bushido itself could long remain free from a thousand and one evils of which money is the root. This is sufficient reason for the fact that our public men have long been free from corruption . 90 it was with a . being thus diligentfy'ignored. decision of character. but. for delight. was supplied by literary exegesis and deontological discussions. how fast plutocracy is making its way In our time and generation The mental discipline which would now! a-days be chiefly aided by the study of mathematics. alas. Of the three gives. where their use was " in disposition of business. and ability.as compared with moral and the love of it intellectual vocations. as I have said." judgment and the Whether it was or for for the disposition of public business the exercise of self-control. services of studies that Bacon ornament. People whose minds were simply stored with information found no great admirers. Very few abstract subjects troubled the mind of the young. Bushido had decided preference for the last. the chief aim of their education being.
sacred character. and an adviser to the erring. chosen a teacher for the material to work upon and to develop. said " Learning "is without lost 1 Confucius. thy teacher and thy lord are like the sun and moon." The sort of service present system of paying for every was not in vogue among the It believed in adherents of Bushido. his vocation partakes of a "It is the parent has borne me : it is the teacher who who makes me man. service a which can be rendered only without and without price. labor %lhought without learning is perilous. so runs Thy father and thy mother our maxim " are like heaven and " " earth . money ." : conducted. must necessarily be endowed with superior per- sonality without lacking erudition.' When character and not intelligence. is when by the soul and not the head. therefore. man to evoke such A confidence and respect from the young. Spiritual service. He was a father to the fatherless." With this idea.practical end in view that education was thought. the esteem in which one's preceptor was held was very high.
definite. is of inadequate use. money. pupils Usage to their sanctioned teachers that brought money or goods at different seasons of the year. They were of stern grave personifications of high daunted by adversity. for wages and salaries can be paid only for services whose results are and measurable. was not to be repaid in gold or silver. whereas the best service done in education. boasting too dignified to work with their penury. but these were not payments but offerings. not because it was valueless but because it was invaluable. tangible. not tangible measurable. the ostensible measure of value. definite. which indeed were welcome to the recipients as they were usually men of honorable calibre. and were thus 92 .be it of priest or teacher. They spirits un- were an embodiment of what was considered as an end of all learning. Plere the non-arithmetical honor-instinct of Bushido taught a truer lesson than modern Political Economy . namely. hands and too proud to beg. Being immeasurable. in soul development or (and is this includes the services of a pastor).
The discipline of fortitude on the one hand. . requiring us not to mar the pleasure or serenity of another by manifestations of our to own sorrow stoical it or pain. combined engender a turn of mind. SELF-CONTROL. and also because some of our national manners and customs may seem to a foreign observer hard-hearted. and eventually to confirm of apparent stoicism. inculcating . stoicism can ever become the characteristic of a whole nation.a living example of that discipline of disciplines. endurance without a groan. into a national trait I say apparent stoibecause I do not believe that true cism. I am inclined to think that in one sense feel we have to doubly more more than others the very yes. to since attempt restrain natural promptings 93 entails suffering. Yet we are really as susceptible to tender emotion as any race under the sky. and the teaching of politeness on the other. which was universally required of samurai.
The under most natural control. a regiment left a certain town. in private/' Calmness of behavior.Imagine boys and girls too brought up not to resort to the shedding of a tear or the of their uttering of a groan for the relief feelings. at the expense of would not kiss his a husband not in no. when he "American husbands kiss their wives in public and beat them in private Japanese husbands beat theirs in public and kiss them . affections were kept A father could embrace his son only his dignity wife. should not be disturbed by passion of any kind. and there is a effort physiological steels problem It whether such their nerves or makes them more sensitive. the presence of other people. . whatever he might do in private There may be the remark of a witty youth ! some truth in said. a large concourse of people flocked to the 94 . composure of mind." was a phrase used in describing a strong character. "He shows no sign of joy or anger. to betray his emotions was considered unmanly for a samurai on his face. I remember when. during the late war with China.
too. and sweethearts of the soldiers in the crowd The American was strangely disappointed. In domestic life. but deep silence in which only an attentive ear could catch a few broken sobs. standing behind the door that he might not be caught in such an act of I know of a mother parental weakness I who. refrained from sending for her son. Our history and everyday life are replete with examples of heroic matrons who can well bear comparison with of Plutarch. On this occasion an American resident resorted to the place. the hats of thousands of people were silently taken off and their heads bowed well . no word uttered. some of the most touching pages Among our peasantry an Ian 95 .station to bid farewell to the general and his army. expecting to witness loud demonstrations. in her last moments. as the nation itself was highly mothers. in reverential fare- no waving of handkerchiefs. excited and there were fathers. for as the whistle blew and the train began to move. that he might not be disturbed in his studies. I know of a father who spent whole nights listening to the breathing of a sick child.
by an when we have eloquence of the tongue set free It is sincerity and fervor. Disturb it not with speech ." writes a young samurai in his diary. to any indication of In rare instances is irresistible spirit. It is truly jarring to Japanese ears to hear the most sacred words. soil of "Dost thou feel the ? thy soul stirred with tender thoughts It is time for seeds to sprout. quietly suppress first instinct it. putting a premium upon a breach of the third commandment to encourage speaking lightly of spiritual experience. but let it work alone in - quietness and secrecy. the most secret heart experiences. thrown out in pro- miscuous audiences. To give in so many articulate words one's inmost thoughts and feelings notably the is taken religious among us as an unmistakable sign that they are neither very profound 96 .Maclaren would be sure to find many a Marget Howe. When a man the or woman feels his is or her soul stirred. It is the same which is discipline of self-restraint accountable for the absence of more frequent revivals in the Christian churches of Japan.
but a woman's heart will indulge in follies." must part. when he gapes his mouth. with red eyes or moist cheeks. the Japanese have recourse 97 ." nor very sincere. So the noble words of a noble Hohenzollern Lerne zu leiden ohne Klagen many responsive minds among fore " " had found us. the Speech is Frenchman defined very often with us." and the like. At first you may think him Press him for explanation and hysterical. Indeed. long beto they were uttered. Only a pomegranate is J> " so runs a popular saying he who." "It is foolish to count the years of a child that is gone. concealing thought. displays the contents of his heart/' It is minds that the instant our not altogether perverseness of oriental emotions are try to guard our lips in order to moved we hide them." Call upon a Japanese friend in time of deepest affliction and receive he will invariably you laughing." " They who meet "He that is born must die. as " the art of it. you " will get life Human a few broken commonplaces has sorrow .
of sorrow or rage. I think we possess a better reason than Dcmocritus him- Abderian tendency for laughter with us oftenest veils an effort to regain self for our . poet of the tenth century writes. " How far to-day in chase. Has gone my hunter I refrain I of the dragon-fly I" know I could from quoting other examples. I hope I have 98 in a measure shown . It is a counterpoise The suppression of feelings being thus they find their safetyvalve in poetical aphorism. A mother who bitter grief in verse. hums. humanity.risibility whenever the frailties of human nature are put to severest test. when disturbed by any untoward circumstance. tells its when moved by sorrow.' 1 tries to console her broken heart by fancying her departed child absent on his wonted chase after the dragon-fly. balance of temper. for do only scant justice to the pearly gems of our literature. A as well. I wonder. " In Japan and China steadily insisted upon. were I to render into a foreign tongue the thoughts which were wrung drop by drop from bleeding hearts and threaded into beads of rarest value.
It has also been suggested that our endurance of pain and indifference to death This is are due to less sensitive nerves. Discipline in self-control can easily go too can well repress the genial current of the soul. It 99 . without taking into account long years of discipline in self-control. It can force pliant far.that inner working ol our minds which often presents an appearance of callousness or of an hysterical mixture of laughter is and dejection. I believe was our very excitability and sensitiveness which made it a necessity to recognize and enforce constant self-repression. Personally. Why It are strung? may The next quesgoes. our nerves less tightly be our climate is not so it It may be stimulating as the American. none can be correct. but whatever may be the explanation. our monarchical form of government does not excite us as the Frenchman. plausible as far as tion is. and whose sanity sometimes called in question. much It as the Republic does may be that we do it not read Sartor Resartns as zealously as the Englishman.
namely. it has its counterpart and counterfeit. THE INSTITUTIONS OF SUICIDE AND REDRESS. The acme of self-control best illustrated in the tutions first is reached and insti- of the two which we shall now bring to view. can beget bigotry. breed hypocrisy or hebetate affections. of which (the former known as hara-kiri and the latter as kataki-uchi) many foreign writers have treated more or less fully.natures into distortions and It monstrosities. let me state that my observations only to seppuku or kappukn. in We must recognize each virtue its its own is positive -excellence ideal. to expression borrow a Greek term. and follow as our positive to is and the ideal of self-restraint keep our mind level -or. popularly known as hara-kiri confine which means self-immolation by disem100 . attain the state of euthymia which Democritus called y the highest good. Be a virtue never so noble. To I begin with suicide.^.
tenderness. Or. Whoever has read the swanwill song which Addison makes Cato sing. who " puts these words in Brutus' (Caesar's) spirit mouth Thy walks abroad and turns our entrails. that the vilest form of death assumes a sublimity and becomes a symbol of new life. and of most touching pathos. first Absurdly odd as it may sound at to foreign ears. it can not be so very students of foreign to Shakespeare. look at Guercino's painting of Cato's death. or else the sign which Coiv xoi . to take another example. So wonderful is the transof forming power of virtue. mars our conception of it. so that nothing much less ludicrous." swords into our proper Listen to a modern English poet. who in his Light of Asia. is In our minds this mode of death associated with instances of noblest deeds repugnant.bowelment absurd is ! " Ripping the abdomen cry those to ? How name "so whom the new. not jeer at the sword half-buried in his abdomen. of greatness. speaks of a sword piercing the bowels of a queen: none blames him for bad still English or breach of modesty. in the Palazzo Rossa in Genoa.
The term hara was more comprehensive than the Greek phren or thwnos. surdity. abdomen was enshrined habitually spoke of The Semites the liver and kidneys and surrounding fat as the seat of emotion and of life." or David prayed the Lord not to forget his bowels.stantine \y. for the particular body was based on an old anatomical belief as to the seat of the soul and of the affections. Jeremiah and of the " other inspired men of old spoke " troubling "sounding" or the of bowels. and the Japanese and Hellenese alike thought the spirit of man to dwell somewhere in that is region to Such a notion by no means' confined The French. they all and each endorsed the belief prevalent among the Japanese that in the the soul. When Moses wrote of Joseph's " bowels yearning upon his brother. or when Isaiah. of the theory propounded by one of spite 102 .orld ! beheld would not conquer the Not for seppnku lose part of the extraneous associations only does in our mind any taint of abchoice of this to operate upon. in the peoples of antiquity.
" I with it polluted or do not wish to be understood as assert- ing religious or even moral justification of suicide. and show you how See for yourself whether clean. but the high estimate placed upon 103 . is which.their most distinguished philosophers. the syllogism of construct. soul strongly affected seppuku it is easy to "I will open the seat of fares is my it. denoting thereby sympathetic nerve-centres in those parts which are by any psychical action. belief mere asking a friar. insist in in a sense. physiologically significant. Desstill cartes. Similarly entrallies stands in their language nevertheless Nor is such more sciensuperstition. for affection and compassion." neurologists speak of the abdominal and pelvic brains. the Japanese knew better than Romeo " in what vile part of this Modern anatomy one's name did lodge. being tific than the general idea of making the Without heart the centre of the feelings. This view of mental physiology once admitted. if using the term venire anatomically too vague. that the soul is located in the pineal gland.
I will confess the fascination of. terminated their own earthly existence. for own honor's life. 'tis Death's but a sure retreat from infamy. Is it too bold to of the phi- hint that the death of the first When we losophers was partly suicidal? are told so minutely by his pupils how their master willingly submitted to the mandate of the state which he knew was morally mistaken in spite of the possibilities of escape. Brutus. if not positive admiration for. so that to an ambitious samurai a natural de- parture from life seemed a rather tame affair and a consummation not devoutly wished for. "When lost. dare say that many good only they are honest enough. was accepted in Bushido as a key to the solution of many complex problems. if to be Christians. How many a relief to die acqui- esced in the sentiment expressed Garth." to oblivion and have smilingly surrendered their souls Death when honor was in! volved. Petronius and a host of other ancient worthies. and how he took up the cup of 104 .honor was ample excuse taking one's with many by . the sublime composure with which Cato.
Socrates was a suicide. even offering from not discern in deadly contents. Plato. it was practiced with due cere- mony. do we his whole proceeding and demeanor.hemlock libation in his its own hand. as in ordinary True the verdict oi cases of execution. and for these reasons 105 it was . would not call his master a suicide. redeem their friends. It was a refinement of self-destrucion. An invention of the middle ages. own hand. will Now my readers understand that seppuku was not a mere suicidal process. compulsory and that by thy own hand. " Thou the it was judges : shalt die. an act of self-immolation? No said. punishment. who was averse to it." If suicide meant no more than dying by one's physical compulsion here. It was an institution. apologize for errors. clear case of But nobody would charge him with the crime. it was a expiate process by which warriors could their escape from disgrace. or prove their sincerity. and none could perform it without the utmost coolness of temper and composure of demeanor. When enforced as a legal crimes. legal and ceremonial.
would tempt me to give here a description of this obsolete ceremonial. altar. where the ceremony was to be performed. Tall candles placed at regular 106 . but seeing that such a description was made by a far abler writer. whose book is not to a-days. A large hall with a high roof supported by dark pillars of wood. was laid a rug of scarlet felt. in his "Tales of Old Japan. Antiquarian curiosity. is raised some three or four inches from the ground. From the ceiling hung a profusion of those huge gilt lamps and ornaments peculiar to In front of the high Buddhist temples. It was an imposing scene. Mitford. covered with beautiful white mats." after giving a translation of a treatise on seppuku from a rare Japanese manuscript. where the floor. goes on to describe an instance of such an execution of which he was an eye-witness " : We (seven fo-reign representatives) were invited to follow the Japanese witness into the Hondo or main hall of the temple.particularly befitting the profession of bushi. if nothing else. I am tempted much read nowmake a somewhat lengthy quotation.
with a noble his air. foreigners on the No other person was present. In this that of victim instance the kaishaku was a pupil of Taki Zenzaburo. with the are peculiar hempen-cloth wings which worn on great occasions. He was accompanied by a kaishaku and three officers. and the relation between them rather that of principal and second than and executioner. the seven right. > observed. and was selected by friends of the latter from among their own number 107 . who 'wore tfajimbaori or war surcoat with gold tissue The word kaishaku it should be facings. walked into the hall attired in dress of ceremony. The left on the proceedings be seven Japanese took their places of the raised floor.intervals gave out a dim mysterious light. a stalwart man thirty-two years of age. ecutioner is is one to which our word ex- The office is no equivalent term. "After the interval of a few minutes of anxious suspense. Taki Zenzaburo. that of a gentleman in many cases it is : performed by a kinsman or friend of the is condemned. just sufficient to let all the seen.
wrapped in paper. and seated* himself on the felt carpet with his back to the high altar. then drawing near to the foreigners they saluted us in the same way. In this position. nine inches and a half in length. his knees and toes touching the ground and his body resting on his heels. Taki Zenzaburo advanced slowly towards the Japanese witnesses. to the * Seated himself that is. which is one of respect. he remained until his death. lay the wakizashi> the short sword or dirk of the Japanese. perhaps even with more deference in each case the salutation was ceremoniously Slowly and with great dignity the condemned man mounted on to the returned. bearing a stand of the kind used in the temple for offerings. in the Japanese fashion. and the two bowed before them. with a point and an edge as sharp as a razor's. left "With the kaishaku on his hand. on which. the kaishaku crouching on his left hand side. . prostrated himself before the high altar twice.for his skill in swordsmanship. One of the three attendant officers then came forward. prostrating himself. This he handed. raised floor. 108 .
Taki Zenzaburo.' " Bowing once more. Carefully. but with no sign of either or manner. raising it to his head with both hands. with a steady hand he took the dirk that lay before him. order to unwarrantably gave the on the foreigners at Kobe. and fire are present to do me the honor of witnessing the act. he looked at for it wistfully. the speaker allowed who his upper garments to slip down to his girdle. to himself from falling backward for a prevent noble Japanese gentleman should die falling forwards. he tucked his sleeves under his knees . and For this again as they tried to escape. who received it reverently. almost affectionately to collect . crime I disembowel myself. according to custom. " After another profound obeisance. a moment he seemed 109 his . and I beg you I. Deliberately.condemned man. and remained naked to the waist. in a voice which betrayed just so much emotion and hesitation as might be expected in his face * from a man who is making a : painful confession. and placed it in front of himself. spoke as follows I alone.
still crouching by his side. there broken only by the hideous noise of the blood throbbing out silence followed. and then stabbing himself deeply below the waist in the left- hand to side. " The kaishaku made a low no . who. head had been severed from the body. the air. and turning it in the During operation he never wound. his he drew the dirk slowly across right side. a heavy. with one blow the thud. this sickeningly painful moved a muscle of his face. gave a slight cut upwards. and retired from the raised floor. " A dead of the inert head before us. wiped sword with a piece of paper which he had ready for the purpose. and the stained dirk was his chivalrous man. no sound. sprang to his feet. ugly a crashing fall.thoughts for the last time. which but a brave moment before had been a and bow. At that moment the kaishakit. When he drew out the dirk. It was horrible. had been keenly watching his every movement. poised his sword for a second in was a flash. but he uttered . he leaned forward and stretch- ed out his neck the first an expression of pain for time crossed his face.
called to us to witness that the sentence of death upon left faithfully carried The ceremony being at an end. and the the male members in . effort to kill age. but one more instance will suffice. respecttwenty-four and seventeen years of brothers." might multiply any number of descriptions of seppukn from literature or from the I relation of eye-witnesses. and crossing over where the foreign witnesses Taki Zenzaburo had been out sat. camp they were made admired the The old general pluck of the youths who dared an attempt on his life and ordered that they should be allowed to die an honorable death. we the temple. little Their brother Hachimaro.solemnly borne away. a bloody proof of the execution. to made an avenge their father's lyeyasu in order wrongs . but before they could enter the prisoners. " The two representatives of the Mikado to then left their places. fate. Two ively Sakon and Naiki. as the sentence was condemned to a similar was pronounced on all of the family. a mere infant of eight summers.
it for I wish to be sure that thou doest aright. don't push the dagger too Only. thou fall Lean forward. * anything within and thy take courage and double thy strength fails. little fellow So canst thou well boast of being our father's child. lest Look. the older brothers smiled their tears : between ! Well said.' Naiki did likewise and said to the boy Keep thy eyes open or else thou mayst look like a dying woman. effort to cut across/ The child looked from If thy dagger feels 112 . as he them. and keep thy knees well composed. Sakon turned said and Go thou first.' Upon the little had never seen he would like to see his seppuku performed. " was to be executed. Sakon side of his thrust the dagger into the brother! own abdomen and asked Dost understand now? far. brothers do it and then he could follow one's replying that. back. rather.' When they had placed him between left * them.three were taken to a monastery where it physician present on the occasion has left us a diary from which the following scene is translated. A who was When they were ' all seated in a row for to the youngest final despatch.
for a true samurai to hasten it.one to the other." The its glorification seppuku offered. naturally enough. Life was cheap cheap as reckoned by the popular standard of honor. battle and was pursued from plain to hill and from bush to cavern. lost battle after A typical fighter. For causes for entirely incompatible with reason. mixed and dubious motives drove to this more samurai deed than nuns into convent gates. which was always metals. was when he death or to court alike cowardice. hot headed youths rushed into it as insects fly into fire . and when both had expired. was not always solid gold. to which Dante consigns all victims of self-destruction ! And yet. he calmly half denuded himself and followed the example of set him on either hand. no small temptation to unwarranted committal. or reasons entirely undeserving of death. in the agio. so to speak. found himself "3 . but alloyed with baser No one circle in the Inferno will boast of greater density of Japanese population than the seventh. The saddest feature was that honor.
" True honor lies in fulfilling' * I use Dr. deemed fortitude cowardly but with a approaching a Christian martyr's. That I not one test Of what strength in may lack me remains !" This. Yc dread sorrows and pains And heap on my burden' d back ! ! . and his sinews and bones with toil it body to hunger . In all these ways it stimulates his mind. then. his sword blunt with use. Legge's translation verbatim. "When Heaven is about to confer a great office on anyone.hungry and alone in the dark hollow ot a tree. his bow broken and arrows exhausteddid not the noblest of the Romans fall upon his own ? sword in Phillippi it under like circumstances to die. and supplies his incompetencies. and subjects him exposes his to extreme poverty and it confounds his undertakings. with patience and a pure conscience for as Mencius* taught. Bear and face was the Bushido teachingall calamities and adversities . cheered himself with an impromptu verse: " Come evermore come. it first exercises his mind with suffering . hardens his nature. 114 .
" It is is repeatedly : quote it a brave act of valor to contemn death." priest of the seventeenth cen" Talk as he may. tury satirically observed A renowned a samurai who ne'er has died is apt in decisive moments to flee or hide. then the truest valor to dare to live.. notwithstanding an attempt so assiduously tion made to render the distinc- between Christian and Pagan as great as possible. . Religio Medici^ there is an exact English equivalent for what Let taught in our Precepts. once has died in the bottom of no spears of Sanada nor the arrows near of Tametomo can pierce." Again all "Him who his breast. life is me but where it is more terrible than death. whereas death to avoid what Heaven has in store is cowardly ! indeed In that quaint book of Sir Thomas Browne's.Heaven's decree and no death Incurred in so doing is ignominious." How temple we come to the portals of the whose Builder taught "he that loseth his " life for my sake shall find it These are but a few of the numerous examples which ! tend to confirm the moral identity of the human species.
adultery is and only the jealousy of a lover a woman from abuse so in a time protects which has no criminal court. that the wrongs of Among a savage Dreyfus be avenged? tribe which has no marriage. I mitigating features.We have thus seen that the Bushido in- stitution of suicide was neither so see whether or call it irrational first nor barbarous as its abuse strikes us at sight. has not an American captain recently challenged Esterhazy. or call it you willhas custom. is the most beautiful thing on earth?" said Osiris to Horus. Why. and only the vigilant vengeance of the victim's people preserves social order. I can dispose of this question in a few hope words. as attested by the continuance of duelling and lynching. since a similar institution." to which a Japanese would have added " and a master's. if that suits you better. : a crime. The reply avenge a parent's wrongs. "What was. has at some time prevailed among all peoples and has not yet become entirely obsolete. murder is not not a sin." 116 "To . We will now its its sister institution of if Redress Revenge.
evil. vengeance may be left to superhuman agencies. hand I. " father did not deserve reasons good : My if death.Ill revenge there is something which The avenger satisfies one's sense of justice. which believed in a jealous God." is Our sense of revenge mathematical faculty. He who a killed him did great alive. which provided a Nemesis. He must perish father's by my blood. nevertheless it shows an innate An of exact balance and equal justice eye for an eye. In Judaism. a tooth for a tooth." The ratio- cination know sense " simple and childish (though we Hamlet did not reason much more is deeply). or in Greek mythology. but common sense "7 . My father. because he shed his flesh my who am shed the murderer's. . the will of my evil- it is the will of Heaven that the doer cease from his work. father . he were like would not itself tolerate deed this: It is Heaven hates wrong-doing. shall not shelter and blood. must The same Heaven him and me. as exact as until our and both terms of the equation are satisfied we cannot get over the sense of something left undone.
were to be borne and forgiven. appeal to. The master condemned retainers of the forty-seven Ronins was to death. Though Lao-tse taught recompense injury with kindness. he had no court of higher instance to ance. behalf of our superiors One's own wrongs. where people could take cases not to be judged in accordance with ordinary law. his faithful addressed themselves to Vengethe only Supreme Court existing. which counselled that injury must be recompensed with justice and yet revenge was justified only when in . it was undertaken and benefactors.furnished Bushido with the institution of. includ- ing injuries done to wife and children. the voice of Confucius was very much louder. different still judgment and hence their memory kept as green and fragrant as are to their graves at Sengakuji to this day. of redress as a kind of ethical court equity. A samurai could therefore fully sympathize with Hannibal's oath to avenge his country's wrongs. but he scorns James Hamilton for wearing in his nS . but the popular instinct passed a they in their turn were condemned by com- mon is law.
The sense of justice satisfied. do we hear of romantic adventures of a fair maiden as she tracks of her parent. have made an end of y As to seppukit though it too has no existence de jure. there If this had meant is no need of kataki-itchi. in disguise the murderer witness No more can we tragedies of family vendetta enacted. and shall continue to hear. The whole wrong is and society will see that righted. a few paragraphs in the Criminal Code would not it. as an eternal incentive to avenge her wrongs on the Regent Murray. we still hear of it from time to time." as a New England so entirely divine has described it. I "9 . is knight errantry of Miyamoto Musashi a tale of the past. that " hunger of the heart which feeds upon the hope of glutting that hunger with the life-blood of the victim. Both of these institutions of suicide and redress lost their raison d'etre at the pro- No more mulgation of the criminal code.girdle a handful of earth from his wife's grave. The well-ordered police spies out the criminal for the injured party The now and the law metes out state justice.
as Many long as the past is remembered. Suicide. in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred. 314. | Suicide and Insanity. seppuku is the best example of the former type. as its with fearful rapidity votaries are increasing self-immolation will come throughout the world but Professor Morselli will have to concede to seppuku an aristoHe maintains cratic position among them. . and the Irrational or True. From these bloody institutions. or excitement. that " when suicide is accomplished by very painful means or at the cost of prolonged it agony. may be assigned as the act of a mind morbid excitement. Morselli. as well it as from the general tenor of Bushido. the Rational or Quasi. Strahanf divides suicide. or by But a normal seppuku does not savor of fanaticism.am afraid. into Of the two kinds which Dr. . or madness disordered by fanaticism. painless and time-saving methods of in vogue."* by madness. is easy to infer that the portant part in social * sword played an imThe discipline and life. p. its utmost sang froid being necessary to successful accomplishment.
even if it was usually but is The game of go is sometimes called Japanese checkers. The gois hoard contains 361 squares and battle-field supposed to represent a to the object of the game being occupy as much space as possible. It when in at the was a momentous occasion for him age of five he was apparelled the paraphernalia of samurai costume. After this first ceremony of adoptio per arma. and made sworcl it the emblem of power and proclaimed that the key of Heaven and of Hell. When Mahomet is "The it. placed upon a ^-0-board* and initiated into the rights of the military profession by having thrust into his girdle a real sword. instead of the toy dirk with which he had been playing. .saying passed as an axiom which called THE SWORD THE SOUL OF THE SAMURAI. Very early the samurai boy learned to wield prowess. much more intricate than the English game." he only echoed a Japanese sentiment. he was no more to be seen outside his father's gates without this badge of * his status.
122 . they grace the most conspicuous place in study or parlor. being given independence of action. they are beloved. wear by a gilded Not many years pass before he wears constantly the genuine steel. The very possession of the dangerous instrument imparts to him a feeling and an air of self- "He beareth respect and responsibility. be reaches man's estate at the age of fifteen. he marches out to When try their edge on wood and stone. When home. he can now pride himself upon the possession ol for arms sharp enough any work. not his sword in vain. Constant companions.substituted for every-day wooden dirk." What he carries in his belt is a symbol of what he carries in his mind and heartLoyalty and Honor. though blunt. The two swords. the longer and the shorter- called respectively daito and shoto or katana and voakizashi at never leave his side. and then the sham arms are thrown aside and with enjoyment keener than his newly acquired blades. by night they guard his pillow within easy reach of his hand. and proper them. names of endearment they are given Being venerated.
as the phrase was. terror The swordsmith was not a mere but an inspired sanctuary. " artisan artist and his workshop a or. silver Shark-skin and finest silk for hilt. and gold of half for guard. when it is worn with no more use than a crosier by a bishop or a sceptre by vanity of a king. Woe to him who carelessly steps over a weapon ! lying on the floor So precious an object cannot long escape the notice and the skill of artists nor the its owner.well-nigh worshiped. weapon tenances are playthings compared with the blade itself. lacquer of varied hues for scabbard. its robbed the deadliest but these appur. Daily he commenced his craft with prayer and purification. "he committed 123 his soul and . tory has recorded as information that The Father a curious of Hispiece oi the to an iron scimitar. Any insult it is to tantamount to personal affront.temple and many a family in Japan hoards a sword as an object of adoration. especially in times of peace. Many Scythians sacrificed a . Even the commonest dirk has due respect paid to it.
from its The abuse some- times went so far as to try the acquired steel on some harmless creature's neck. was a religious act of no slight import. collecting on its impart." hto the forging and tempering of the Every swing of the sledge. setting at defiance Toledo and art could Damascus rivals. matchless edge. its immaculate texture.spirit steel. every plunge into water. upon which . histories and possibilities hang the curve of its back. every friction on the grindstone. . surface the moment it is drawn the vapors of the atmosphere . there is more than Its cold blade. uniting exquisite grace with utmost strength. its flashing light of bluish hue. Was it the spirit of the master or cast a formidable of his tutelary god that spell over our sword? Perfect as a its work of art. The question that concerns us most is. of awe and if it ! terror. abuse. and joy hand. it only remained a thing of beauty But. ever within reach of the Too presented no small temptation for often did the blade flash forth peaceful sheath. Harmless were its mis- sion. all these thrill us with mixed feelings of power and beauty.
when assas- and other sanguinary practices were the order of the day. and such times come Katsu.however. plebeian way peculiar him " : I have a great dislike for killing people and so I I have haven't killed one single man. who passed through one of the most turbulent times of our history. repeatedly marked out as an object he never tarnished his sword with blood. A friend ' said to me one don't kill enough. right time to but rarely. sinations. some people pepper are no better But you see that fellow was day. no its its ! As it it laid great stress on proper use. suicides. Don't you eat and egg-plants ? Well. En- dowed as he once was with almost dictatorial for assassination. powers. in a quaint. You ! 125 . Did Bushido justify the promiscuous use of the weapon? The answer is unequivocally. released those whose heads should have been chopped ' off. In relating some of his remito niscences to a friend he says. so did misuse. Let us listen to the late Count was he weapon on undeserved self-possessed man knows the use it. his denounce and abhor A dastard or a braggart A who brandished occasions.
" and others of similar shedding import will show that after all the ultimate best ideal of It won knighthood was Peace. and " The victory is that obtained without of blood. that's all it won't endanger . while the samurai went on and extolling martial traits.slain himself. In practicing this they went so far as to tinge the ideals of to womanhood with Amazonian character. " To be beaten popular apothegm true The is to conquer/' meaning conquest consists in not opposing a riotous foe . Yes. had the of my sword so tightly fastened to the scabbard that it was hard to draw the blade." These are the words of one whose training Bushido furnace was tried in the fiery of adversity and triumph. life. yes! some people are truly like bite It fleas and mosquitoes and they but what does their biting amount to ? itches a little. I cut. My escape I may be due hilt to my dislike of killing. was a great pity that this high ideal was left exclusively to priests and moralists preach. Here we may profitably devote a few -126 . I made up will my not mind that though they cut me.
paragraphs to the subject of THE TRAINING AND POSITION OF WOMAN. because the intuitive working of its mind is beyond the comprehension of men's arithmetical understanding. The female half of our species has some- times been called the paragon of paradoxes. neither for witchcraft. there is little mystery and only a seeming paradox. Ideographically the Chinese represent wife by a woman holding a broom certainly not to brandish it offensively or defensively against her conjugal ally." The Chinese " the ideogram denoting mysterious. but that is only half the truth." "the " unknowable. however. " one young and the other woman. I have said that it was Amazonian." because the physical charms and delicate thoughts of the fair sex are above the coarse mental calibre of our sex to explain. but for the more harmless uses for which the besom was first invented the idea involved 127 . In the Bushido ideal of woman." meaning " consists " of two parts.
128 p. 383. the was pre- eminently domestic. Bushido " women most who emancipated themselves from the frailty of their sex and displayed an heroic fortitude worthy of the strongest and the bravest of men. Kinder. . were trained to repress their feelings. derivation Kirche. as we shall see. the virtues it prized in woman were naturally far from Winckelmann being distinctly feminine. remarks that " the supreme beauty of Greek art is rather male than female. milkmaid)."* Young girls therefore. to indurate their * Lecky. History of European Morals H.being thus not less homely than the etymoof the English wife and daughter (duhitar." and Lecky adds that it was true in the of the Greeks as in their similarly praised those moral conception art. Bushido a teaching being primarily intended for the masculine sex. as the German Kaiser is said Bushido ideal of womanhood present to do. (weaver) Without confining the sphere of woman's logical activity to Kuche. dictions These seeming contraDomesticity and Amazonian traits are not inconsistent with the Precepts of Knighthood.
if rarely of were a wholesome counter- balance to the otherwise sedentary habits of But these exercises were not woman.nerves. Woman own bodyWith her weapon she guarded her guard. pocket poniards). to manipulate weapons. Girls. were presented with dirks (kai-ken. as of her warlike training was in the we shall see later. to their own. which might be directed to the bosom of their assailants. so as to be able to hold their own against unexpected odds. They could be turned into use in times of need. Even its horror of . followed only for hygienic purposes. Fencing and similar exercises. formed her utility education of her sons. suzerain of her own. if advisable. Yet the primary motive for exercises of this martial character was not for use in the field. or. The latter and yet I will the Christian conscience with 129 was very often the case: not judge them severely. when they reached womanhood. especially the long-handled sword called nagi-nata. practical use. it was twofoldowning no personal and domestic. personal sanctity with as much zeal as her The domestic husband did his master's.
and bathing 130 . she did not wait for her father's Her own weapon lay always in her It was a disgrace to her not to know the proper way in which she had to For example. will not be harsh with them. she must the exact spot to cut in her throat: she must know how to tie her lower limbs know together with a belt so that. dagger. perpetrate self-destruction. based on our bathing customs and other trifles. abrupt were it not for a misconception. two suicides. seeing Pelagia and Domnina.* A * For a very sensible explanation of nudity see Finck's Lotos Time in Japan. were canonized for their purity and piety. 286-297. Is not a caution like this Vestal Cornelia worthy of the Christian Perpetua or the I would not put such an ? interrogation.self-immolation. whatever the agonies of death might be. young woman. held above life itself. bosom. that chastity is unknown On the contrary. among us. When a Japanese Virginia saw her chastity menaced. little as she was taught in anatomy. pp. chastity was a pre-eminent virtue of the samurai woman. her corpse be found in utmost modesty with the limbs properly composed.
whom war has dispersed in every When the epistle is finished. " For fear lest clouds may dim this her light. The young moon Doth poised above the height hastily betake to flight. off she runs to the nearest well and saves her honor by drowning. provided she be first allowed to write a line to her sisters. The letter she leaves behind ends with these verses ." It would be unfair to give my readers an idea that masculinity alone was our highest ideal for woman. seeing herself in danger oi violence at the hands of the rough soldiery. Far from it ! Accomlife plishments and the gentler graces of were required of them. says she will obey their pleasure. dancing and literature were not neglected. women played an important role Japanese (I in the history of belles lettres. sions of feminine sentiments in fact. Dancing was taught speaking of samurai girls and not of geisha) only to smooth the angularity of am their movements. Should she but graze nether sphere. Some of the finest verses in our literature were expres.taken prisoner. direction. Music. Music was to regale the .
weary hours of their fathers and husbands hence it was not for the technique, the art
as such, that music
ultimate object was purification of heart, since it was said that no harmony of sound
attainable without the player's heart being harmony with herself. Here again we see
the same idea prevailing which we notice in the training of youths that accomplishments
were ever kept subservient to moral worth. Just enough of music and dancing to' add
grace and brightness to
but never to
thize with the Persian prince,
taken into a ball-room
I sympawho, when London and asked
country they provided
a particular set of girls to do that kind of
business for them.
The accomplishments of our women were not acquired for show or social ascendency. They were a home diversion and if they
in social parties,
was as the
other words, as a part of the household contrivance for hospitality.
of a hostess,
Domesticity guided their education.
be said that the accomplishments of the women of Old Japan, be they martial or
pacific in character,
were mainly intended and, however far they might
roam, they never lost sight of the hearth as the center. It was to maintain its honor
and integrity that they slaved, drudged and gave up their lives. Night and day, in tones at once firm and tender, brave and plaintive,
they'sang to their
sacrificed herself for her father, as
wife for her husband,
and as mother
Thus from earliest youth she was taught to deny herself. Her life was not one of independence, but of dependent
helpful she stays
the stage with him if hinders his work, she retires behind the
that a youth becomes
it happen enamored of a maiden
who returns his love with equal ardor, but, when she realizes his interest in her makes
him forgetful of
the minds of
girls, finds herself
loved by a
order to win her affection, conspires Upon pretence of against her husband. in the guilty plot, she manages in joining
the dark to take her husband's place, and the sword of the lover assassin descends
upon her own devoted head.
following epistle written by the wife young daimio, before taking her own
needs no comment
that no accident or chance ever mars the
march of events here below, and that all moves in accordance with a plan. To take
shelter under a
or a drink of
the same river,
alike ordained from ages
prior to our birth.
ties of eternal
wedlock, now two short years heart hath followed thee, even as
shadow followeth an
that the coming battle is to be the last of thy labor and life, take the farewell greeting of thy loving partner. I have heard that Ko-u,
the mighty warrior of ancient China, lost a
loth to part with his favorite
Yoshinaka, too, brave as he was, brought
The gratitude we owe him is as deep as the sea and as high as the hills. help. await thee on the road which all mortal kind must sometime tread ? Never. was as . never forget the many benefits which our good master Hideyori hath heaped upon thee. who annihilated herself for man. thoughts by living? rather. farewell to his wife. without which no life-enigma can be solved. willing Woman's surrender of herself to the good home and family.disaster to his cause." of her husband. and honorable as the man's to self- surrender country. that he in turn might obey heaven. was the keynote of the Loyalty of man as well as of the Domesticity of woman. I know the . prithee. the good of his lord and Self-renunciation." In the ascending scale of service stood woman. She was no more the slave of his liege-lord. man than was her husband of and the part she played was " the inner recognized as Naijo. Why should to whom why joy earth no longer offers hope or should I detain thee or thy Why should I not. that he might annihilate himself for the master. too weak to bid prompt I.
Nevertheless. that it was required not only of Hence. favor of slavish surrender of accept in a large measure the view advanced with breadth of learning and profundity of thought by that history is the unfolding and Hegel. I say the doctrine of service. is woman influence but of of its man. Precepts until the entirely done away view with.weakness of this teaching is it and that the superiority of Christianity nowhere more requires of each manifest than here. in that and every its living soul direct responsibility to Creator. even at the doctrine of service sacrifice of one's individuality. Bushido is based on eternal truth. which is the greatest that Christ preached and is the sacred keynote of his mission as far as that is concerned. as far as the the serving of a cause higher than one's own self. our society will not realize the rashly expressed by an American . My readers will not accuse in I me of undue prejudice volition. defended with make that the whole teaching of Bushido was so thoroughly imbued with the spirit of is self-sacrifice. The point I wish to realization of freedom.
exponent of woman's rights. 137 . that gallantry implied illicit love. who exclaimed. " ! "May a all the daughters of Japan rise in revolt against ancient customs revolt Can such succeed ? Will it improve the Will the rights they gain by ? such a summary process repay the loss of that sweetness of disposition. that gentleness female status of manner. the incongruity of the two terms Gibbon blush we are also told by coarse. Changes must and will come without revolts In the meantime let ! us see whether the status of the fair sex bad under the Bushido regimen was really so as to justify a revolt. of the outward respect " God and the European knights paid to We hear much ladies. The effect of Chivalry on the weaker vessel . which are their present heritage ? Was not the loss of of Roman matrons domesticity on the part followed by moral cor- Can the ruption too gross to mention? American reformer assure us that a revolt of our daughters historical is the true course for their ? development to take These are grave questions." making Hallam that the morality of Chivalry was .
and peasants life was devoted to arts of peace. M.000 souls. while those of the industrial type above and below were applicable to the classes it. M. teristics of whose Thus what Herbert Spencer gives as the characa militant type of society may be said to have been exclusively confined to the samurai class. In reply I might aver that The to military class in Japan comprising nearly 2. the kuge. and the court nobles. Spencer tells us that in society a militant society (and what is feudal if not militant?) the position of is woman is necessarily low. sybaritical nobles being fighters only in name. these higher. improving only as society becomes more industrial. tradesmen.000. Guizot contending that Feudalism and Chivalry wrought wholesome influences. Above them were the military nobles. Now or is Mr. the daimio. Below them were masses of the common people mechanics.was food for reflection on the part of philosophers. Guizot's theory true of Japan. This is well illustrated by the position of woman 138 . Spencer's ? both are right. while Mr. for in no class . was restricted the samurai.
did she experience less freedom than among the samurai. for instance. the lower the social class as. Strange to say. I shall be guilty of gross injustice to if my words give one a very low opinion of the status of woman under I do not hesitate to state that Bushido. those who Old Japan. Thus Spencer's dictum was fully exemplified As to Guizot's. the leisurely nobleman having become literally effeminate. historical truth she was not treated as man's equal. chiefly because there were few occasions to bring the differ- ences of sex into prominence. read his presentation of a feudal community had the higher will remember that he nobility especially under consideration. among small artisans the more equal was the position of husband and wife. so in that his generalization applies to the daimio and the kuge. When we think in how few 139 respects men . the difference in the relations of the sexes was less marked. until but we learn to discriminate between always difference and inequalities. there will be misunderstandings upon this subject. Among the higher nobility. tco.
g. to compare man's as the value of compared with that of gold. Were the law the only scale by which to measure the position of woman to tell in a community. it would be as easy where she stands as to give her avoirdupois in pounds and ounces. namely. and give the ratio numerically ? Such a method consideration of calculation excludes from the most important kind of value which a human being possesses. is it woman's silver is status to enough. the intrinsic. that before the law all men are equal : Legal rights were in this case the measure of their equality. it had no reference to their mental or physical gifts it simply repeated what Ulpian long ago announced. e. But the Is there a correct standard in question is : comparing the sexes ? relative social position of the Is it right.are equal among themselves. for In view of the manifold variety of requisites making each sex fulfil its earthly mission. 140 . it seems idle to trouble ourselves with a discussion on the } equality of sexes. before law courts or voting polls. When the American Declaration of Independence said that all men were created equal.
did men bow fathers before them. of It tried to guage the value woman on the battle-field and for by the hearth. or. even their defence. were primarily intelligently 141 to them to direct and . was entrusted to them. The education of the the household young. as as a social-political unit not much. of which enable I have spoken. but as their mothers with us. it was binomial. mothers? Not as fighters or law-givers. Bushido had a standard of its own and it ]anguage. to borrow from economic must be a multiple standard.the standard to be adopted in measuring relative its position must be of a composite character. There she counted here for all The very little. were matrons so highly venerated Was it not because they were matrona. so military a nation as the their Why ? among Romans. the government of was left entirely in the hands of mothers and wives. The warlike exercises of women. treatment accorded her corresponded to this double measurement. while wife and mother she received highest respect and deepest affection. So While in field and husbands were absent or camp.
" "my lovely disposition. their separate rights are recognized. kind." The individualism of the Anglo-Saxon cannot let go of the idea that husband and wife are two persons. and what not.." and 142 . not the answer clear enough ? To me it seems that our idea of marital union goes in some ways further than the so-called Christian. she is esteem. they exhaust their vocabulary in all sorts of silly pet-names and -nonsensical blandishments. I have noticed a rather superficial notion prevailing among half-informed foreigners. when a husband or wife speaks to a third party as being of his other half better or worse lovely. and when they agree. It sounds highly irrational to our ears.follow the education of their children." etc. hence when they disagree." "my swinish son. bright. that because the common Japanese expression for one's wife is " my rustic \vife " and the like. are in current use. as " is When despised and held in little it is told that such phrases "my my awkward foolish father." self. Is it good taste to speak of one's self as "my bright self. "Man and woman shall be one flesh.
as bad taste among us. and self-praise is regarded. I am afraid. fast losing the prestige their colonial mothers enjoyed). etc. now increasing. among Christian nations too have diverged at some length because the polite debasement of one's consort was a usage most life in vogue among the samurai. ! and I I hope. for so many pounds of H3 . to 5O forth ? say the least. The Teutonic races beginning their tribal with a superstitious awe of the fair sex this is (though really wearing off in Ger- many social !). and the Americans beginning their under the painful consciousness of the numerical insufficiency of women* life (who. It was located along the line of duty which bound * I refer to thosp days man to his own divine when girls were imported from England and given in marriage tobacco.We think praising one's own wife own husband is praising' a part of or one's one's own self. the main water-shed dividing the good and the bad was sought elsewhere. are. the respect man pays to woman has in Western civilization become the in chief standard of morality. ethics But the martial of Bushido.
Upon the rest. Of these we have brought to our reader's notice. though particulars they may have been accentuated by conditions which its all could but in be common to some teachings induced. Being founded on natural affections.soul and then to other souls. there the peculiar strength and comes before me tenderness of friendship between man. they mankind. 144 . the relation between one man as vassal and another as lord. I have only dwelt presented itself. or Bushido parlance of tics as sympathetic as those which bound David and Jonathan. might fill pages with Japanese versions of the story of Damon and tell in Pythias or Achilles and Patroclos. In this connection. a separation which denied to affection the natural channel open to it in less Western chivalry or in the free intercourse of I Anglo-Saxon lands. which often added to the man and bond of brotherhood a romantic attachment doubtintensified by the separation of the sexes in youth. in in the five relations I have mentioned the early part of this paper. Loyalty. incidentally as occasion because they were not peculiar to Bushido.
to the consideration of This makes us hasten THE INFLUENCE OF BUSHIDO on the nation at large. spirit among the than vices. and aristocracy infuses a princely Virtues are no people.It is not surprising. No HS . so the contagion." says Emerson. and then gradually casts its rays on rising first tips the highest the valley first below. that the and teachings unique in the Precepts of Knighthood did not remain circumscribed virtues to the military class. in themselves much more elevated than the general level of our national life. so the ethical system which drew in enlightened the military order course of time followers from amongst the masses. and are wise. contagious "There needs but one wise all less man rapid in is a company. We have brought into view only a few of the more prominent peaks which rise above so the range of knightly virtues. however. As the sun in its peaks with russet hue. Democracy raises up a natural prince for its leader.
Was it not rather the work of the squires and gentlemen " ? Very truly does M. These three syllables. All the of Heaven flowed through 146 ." Democracy may make self-confling fident retorts to such a statement and back the question "When Adam delved and Eve span. summarize the history of English society. rarely has re- ceived impetus from the masses. Had he been there. What Japan was rar. Taine say. but they would have learned without painful experience that disobedience to Jehovah was disloyalty and dishonor. treason and rebellion. not only would the garden have been more tastefully dressed. where then was the gentle- man ?" All the more pity that a gentleman The first parents was not present in Eden missed him sorely and paid a high price for ! his absence. we may of the triumphant march it Anglo-Saxon liberty. as used across the channel.social class or caste can resist the diffusive power of moral Prate as of influence. she owed to They were not only the its the samuflower of the nation but gracious gifts root as well.
amusement and instruction the the story-teller's booths. the musical recitations. I admit Bushido had its esoteric monistic. Though they kept themselves social- ly aloof from the populace. while those were aretaic. looking after the welfare and exoteric teachings. paint this figure (gentleman)/' Write in place of Sidney and Scott. the preacher's dais. for their emphasizing the practice of virtues own sake. fire in The peasants round the open their huts never tire of repeating the . they set a moral standard for them and guided them by their example. the novels have taken for their chief theme the stories oi the samurai. In the most chivalrous days of Europe. these were eudeand happiness of the commonalty. The innumerable avenues popular theatres.them. from Sir Philip Sidney to Sir Walter Scott. as Emerson says" In and all English Literature half the drama the novels. Chikamatsu and Bakin. Knights formed numerically but a small fraction of the population. but. and you have nutshell the in a main features of the literary of history of Japan.
imbued with the love Even girls are so of knightly deeds and virtues that. the dusky urchins until fire with burns gaping mouths out and the leaving that after is the last stick in its dies their hearts embers. like Desdemona. to be the beati ideal ot "As among among men flowers the cherry is is queen." so sang the populace. until slumber overtakes their weary eyes and transports them from the drudgery of the counter to the exploits of the field. they would seriously incline to devour with greedy ear the romance of the samurai. so the samurai lord. still with the tale aglow told. * Outside shutters. the daring conqueror of ogre-land. gather to- gether to relate the story of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi far into the night. The samurai grew the whole race. or of the faithful two brave Soga listen brothers. The clerks their day's work and the shop-boys. Debarred 14$ . is over and the amado* of the store are closed. The very babe just beginning to toddle is taught to lisp the adventures of Momotaro.achievements of Yoshitsune and his retainer Benkei.
no avenue in which did not receive some Intelmeasure an impetus from Bushido. no channel of of thought." further. his may be defined as the unintended result of the intentions of great historical progress is men. in exceedingly sugAristocracy and Evolution. that produced by a struggle "not among the community generally. Mallock. to employ. lectural and moral Japan was directly or indirectly the work of Knighthood. in so far as it is other than biological. of our Empire. How social classes the spirit of Bushido permeated all is also shown in the develop- ment of a certain order of men. the majority in the best way. known as 149 . to live. to direct. human activity. gestive book. as far as went. " Mr. these statements are verified in the part social amply in 'the played by bushi it progress." Whatever may be said about the soundness of his argument." has eloquently told us that "social evolution.from commercial pursuits. but a struggle amongst a small section of the community to lead. the military class but there was itself did not aid commerce .
yet the Soul of Japan. The Precepts of Knighthood. If the Volksgeist of the 150 Island . betime an aspiration and inspiration the nation at large. the willing " limb and life. who proffered in the same fashion daimio. In manifold ways has Bushido filtered it down from inated. furnishing a moral standard for the whole people. and though the in populace could not attain the moral height of those loftier souls.otoko-date> the natural leaders of democracy. dable check to the rampancy of the two- sworded order." multitude of rash and impetuous working" those born " bosses formed a formimen. every inch of them strong with the strength of massive manhood. At once the spokesmen and the guardians of popular rights. chattels service of that samurai did to Backed by a vast and earthly honor. ultimately Yamato Damashii. of body. begun at came to first as the glory of the elite. they had each a following of hundreds and thousands of souls Staunch fellows were they. the social class where orig- and acted as leaven among the masses. came to express Realm.
Mark particularly the terms of definition which the poet uses. But its nativity is not its sole claim to our affection. . Lindley. its indigenous to the accidental qualities it may share with the flowers of other lands. the words the wild cherry flower scenting the morning sun. few ethical systems are better entitled to the rank of religion than Bushido. The Yamato growth. Motoori has put the mute utterance of the nation into words "Isles of blest when he sings : Japan! Should your Yamato spirit Strangers seek to scan. tender plant. Sayscenting morn's sun-lit air. fair Blows the cherry wild and " ! Yes." Matthew Arnold defines it. The refinement and * Cerasus pseudo-ceraszis. but a wild is in the sense of naturalsoil. spontaneous outgrowth of our clime. it spirit is not a tame.religion is no more than " Morality touched as by emotion. but in its essence it remains the original. the sakura* has for ages been the favorite of our people and the emblem of our character.
few sensations more as serenely it exhilarating than to 152 inhale. which lack the simplicity of our flower. Then. the thorns that are hidden beneath the sweetness of the rose. and of form is limited in its is volatile. preferring to rot on her stem her . ceremonies frankincense and myrrh play a prominent part is There something spirituelle in redolence. whereas fragrance light fragrance never palls. When the delicious perfume of the sakura quickens the morning air. the tenacity with which she clings to life. showy traits and heavy odors all these are so unlike our flower. were. which is ever ready to depart life at the call of nature. as though loth or afraid to die rather than drop untimely. . ethereal as the in all religious So breathing of life.grace of its sense as no other flower can. as the sun in its course rises to illumine first the isles of the Far are East. too. beauty appeal to our aesthetic We cannot share the admiration of the Europeans for their roses. which carries no colors its dagger or poison under beauty. and whose Beauty of color showing. it is a fixed quality of existence. whose colors are never gorgeous.
already wiped out every trace of its ancient discipline? . this flower.the When very breath of beauteous day. this flower the type of the Yamato spirit Japan so frailly mortal ? Is the Soul of IS BUSHIDO STILL ALIVE? civilization. Or has Western in its march through the land. if for a time their limbs their hearts forget their toil and moil and pangs and sorrows. Their brief pleas- ure ended. sweet and evathe nescent. is it any wonder that the sweet-smelling season of the cherry blossom should call forth the whole nation from their little habitations ? Blame them their not. 21). then. is ? ready to vanish forever. listeth. Is. blown whithersoever wind and. the Creator himself is pictured as resolutions in his making new heart upon smelling a sweet savor (Gen. shedding a puff of perfume. Thus ways more than one so the sakura the flower of the nation. VIII. they return to their daily tasks with new in strength and new is resolutions.
were a sad thing if a nation's soul could That were a poor soul that could succumb so easily to extraneous It die so fast." In his recent book. 33. Schematizing theories of this sort had been advanced long before LeBon began to write his book. The aggregate of psychological elements which constitute a national character. full of shallow asseverations and brilliant gendis- eralizations. qualities or defects of character constitute the exclusive patrimony of each people they are the firm rock which the waters must wash : day by day for wear away even These are centuries. influences. and they were * The Psychology of Peoples. of the fins of fish. of the tooth of the carnivorous animal. . M. of the beak of the bird. LeBon* says." strong words and would be highly worth pondering over. 154 p. before its they can external asperities. is as tenacious as the "irreducible elements of species. "The are coveries due to the intelligence the common patrimony of humanity. provided there were qualities and defects of character which constitute the exclusive patrimony of each people.
the Concord philosopher calls it "an element which most forcible persons of every country . instead of making it. LeBon does. and we have seen that no one quality of character was its exclusive pat- rimony. virtues instilled In studying the various by Bushido." as But. qualities It is this It is true the aggregate of moral quite unique aspect. the Were Bushido momentum it a mere pl^sical has gained in the . aggregate which Emerson names a " compound result into which every great presents a force enters as an ingredient." The character which Bushido stamped on our nation and on the samurai in particular.exploded long ago by Theodor Waitz and Hugh Murray. an exclusive patrimony of a race or people. and is somewhat so precise that it is at once felt if an individual unites the lack the Masonic sign. we have drawn upon European sources for comparison and illustrations. force." but nevertheless as to the vitality which it retains there is no doubt. makes them intelligible and agreeable to each other. cannot be said to form "an irreducible element of species.
"each of us would have in his veins the blood of at least twenty millions of the people living in the year 1000 A. that supposing there be three generations in a century. as M." and irresistible power.seven hundred years could not stop so Were it transmitted only by abruptly. Bushido has been moving the nation and individuals. " Full well I It knew this course must end in death . was Yaniato spirit urged me on To dare whate'er betide." has in his veins the blood of ages. and is thus a brother to us as much as " to the ox. Bushido was and the animating country. D. last heredity. "bowed by the weight of centuries. 156 spirit. wrote on the eve of his execution the followbrilliant ing stanza. its influence widespread. a French economist. the motor force of our . one of the most pioneers of Modern Japan." The merest peasant that grubs the soil. has calculated. must be immensely Just think. Cheysson. It was an honest confession of unconscious the race An when Yoshida Shoin." still is Unformulated.
were men who knew no other moral teaching than the Precepts of Knighthood. Ransome says that " there are three Japans in existence side by side today. and concrete as the statement. the old. II. is still the guiding principle of the transition and will prove the formative force of the new era. 32. and the its transition. : Missions and Politics m Asia. etc. 70. The great statesmen who steered the ship of our state through the hurricane of the Restoration and the whirlpool of national rejuvenation." very true in most respects. which has not wholly died out. Vol. ethical applied requires to fundamental notions. Some writers* have lately tried to prove that the Christian missionaries contributed an appreciable quota to the * making Speer . p. critical passing now While through this is most throes. and par- ticularly as regards tangible institutions. IS7 .1 90 Dennis : Christian Missions and Social Progress. I. some modification. pp. hardly yet born except in distinct spirit. the new. Lecture IV. p. the maker and product of Old Japan.Mr. for Bushido. 1 89. Vol.
Henry Norman declared. for For myself. I believe that Christian missionaries are doing great things Japan in the domain of education.of to New Japan. it was under the impetus of samuraihood that they thought and wrought. etc. More will be to their profession to stick to the scriptural injunction of prefer- ring one another in honor. Open the biograof the makers of Modern Japan of phies Sakuma. of Kido. was Bushido. the less certain in still still hidden is Whatever they do little of indirect effect. pure and simple. that urged us on for weal or woe. than to advance a claim in which they have no proofs to back them. No. Itagaki. as yet Christian visible in missions have effected but moulding the character of it New Japan. : will find that When Mr. not to mention the reminiscences of living men and you Okuma. of Okubo. of Saigo. 158 after . the mysterious though working of the Spirit divine secrecy. and especially of moral education: not is only. whom honor fitting it I is would due : fain render honor but this honor can hardly be accorded to the good missonaries. No. such as Ito.
it a blind imitation close observer of : A oriental institutions and peoples has written every day p. but if one were to name the principal.his study and observation of the Far East. our guiding was not the development of our physical resources and the increase of motive wealth of much less was Western customs. In a work of such magnitude various motives naturally entered. one would not hesitate to name Bushido. when we introduced the latest improvements in every department of life. when we began to study Western politics and sciences. '59 . . loftiest. 375. of Japan is The transformation a fact patent to the whole world." and the most punctilious codes of honor that man has he touched the main spring which has made new Japan what she is and which will make her what she is destined to be. When we opened the whole country to foreign trade.* that only the respect in which Japan differed from other oriental despotisms lay in "the ruling influence strictest. among her people of the ever devised. "We are told how Europe * The Far East.
me- chanical science. England is influenced by Where is the purchasing tea of China. 1900.has . Townsend has well perceived that the spring of action which brought about the changes in Japan lay entirely within our own selves . asks our author. exactly influence. N. 160 ." continues Mr. Townsend.influenced Japan. as the Turks years before That is not imported European artillery. his keen powers of observation would easily have convinced him that that spring was no other than Bushido. The sense of honor which cannot bear being looked down upon as an inferior power. "unless. * Meredith 28. "or European apostle. but that Japan of herself chose to learn from civil and military. Europe methods of organization. and forget that the change in those islands was entirely selfgenerated. that was the strongest Y." philosopher or statesman or agitator who has re-made Japan ? "* Mr. Asia and Europe. indeed. and if he had only probed into our psychology. which have so far proved She imported European successful. Townsend. that Europeans did not teach Japan..
* " Is there The any and patriotic?" is a question asked by many. Read Hearn. the most eloquent interpreter and truthful of the Japanese mind. On the other hand." we must thank the Precepts of Knighthood.of motives. siderations Pecuniary or industrial con- were awakened of later in the process of transformation. A it Japanese make manifest. it is fair to recognize that for the very faults and defects of our character. Among other works on the subject. and for the proud answer. is too well known to be repeated Japanese loyal physical endurance. * Bushido is largely responsible. The which universal politeness of the is the legacy of knightly ways. "There is not. 161 . anew. and you see the working of that mind to be an example of the working of Bushido. people. fortitude " and bravery that " the little Jap possesses. The glimpse influence Bushido runs life is stiu so palpable that he into who may will read. read Eastlake and Yamada on Heroic Japan> and Diosy on Tfa New Far East. were sufficiently proved in the Chinanation more war.
worldly goods 162 . He to mundane has his life. stalking about the streets with an air of utter indifference He is the shosei things? the earth is too small (student). mind is knowledge. Our sense of honor is responsible for our exaggerated metaphysical sensitiveness and touchiness and . Have you seen in your tour of Japan many a young man with unkempt hair. carrying in his hand a large cane or a book. too. to whom and the Heavens are not high enough. In his eyes his is beams the athirst for fire of ambition. own theories of the universe and of He dwells in castles of air and feeds on ethereal words of wisdom. not in one has achieved is philosophical lines of anything traceable to the under training neglect Bushido's regimen of education.while Our lack of abstruse philosophy some of our young men have already gained international reputation in scientific re- searches. if there is the conceit in us with which some a foreigners charge us. is pathological outcome of honor. that. Penury only a stimulus to drive him onward. dressed in shabbiest garb.
without knowing the reason why. The heart of the people responds. He ism. faults. loyalty. has a vastly degree of efficacy. was reverted from his course by an appeal made to his revived all Loyalty the noble sentiments that were permitted to band of unruly youths grow lukewarm. I have said that is an unconscious and mute influence.are in his sight shackles to his character. With all his virtues and still it his he is the last fragment of Bushido. help from downward tendency. backsliding whom no pastoral persuasion could different A Christian. is the repository of Loyalty and PatriotHe is the self-imposed guardian of national honor. the fidelity he " once swore to his " Master. and hence the same moral idea expressed in a newly* translated term and in an old Bushido term. The word A engaged strike in a long continued "students' a college. on account of -their dissatisfaction with a certain teacher. the effect Deep-rooted and powerful as is of Bushido. 163 . disin " banded at two simple questions put by the "Is your professor a blameless Director. to any appeal made to what it has inherited.
If so. as though the Mocking a nation's history career of any people even of the lowest African savages possessing no record were ! written not a page in the general history of mankind. To a philosophic and pious mind. Is he weak? and keep If so. by the hand of God Himself. dwindled into insignificance in comparison with the moral issues hinted the sentiments nurtured at. the races themselves are marks of Divine chirography clearly traced 164 . you ought to respect him him in the school. The very lost races are a palimpsest to be deciphered by a seeing eye." character? The scientific incapacity of the professor. it is not manly to push a falling man. One cause of the failure of mission work is that most of the missionaries are grossly " What do we care ignorant of our history " for heathen records ? some say and consequently estrange their religion from the habits of thought we and our forefathers have been accustomed to for centuries past. By arousing by Bushido. which was the beginning of the trouble. moral renovation of great magnitude can be ac- complished.
missionaries claim that Christianity is a new " religion." which. root and.in black and white as on their skin . to my if mind. irrespective its of race or nationality. and in : amassing is annihilating the aboriginal race such a process in most it is Japan nay. whereas. propagator of the new faith uproot the entire stock. old story. a process which Jesus himself would never decidedly impossible 165 . the yellow race forms ' a precious page inscribed in hieroglyphics of gold Ignoring the past career of a ! people. and plant ? the seeds of the Gospel on the ravaged soil Such a heroic process may be possible Hawaii. militant spoils it in is alleged. and if this simile holds good. it is an in old. the in church had complete success of wealth itself. if intelligible words. that is presented to say. branches. Christianity in American or English form with more of Anglo-Saxon freaks and fancies than grace to and purity of its founder is a poor scion Should thegraft on Bushido stock. where. expressed moral development of a people in the vocabulary familiar in the will find easy lodgment in their hearts.
"* But. all but have that could been contented to accumulate praise of their own. or how much good how with ibest may have been mingled They have compared the the other. the following words of a saintly man.have employed in founding his kingdom on It behooves us to take more to heart earth. Sermons on Faith and Doctrine^ II 166 . part of themselves with the worst of their neighbors. the ideal of Christianity with the corruption of Greece or the East. They have not aimed at be said in impartiality. there is little doubt that the fundamental principle of the religion they profess Is a power which we must take into account in reckoning THE FUTURE OF BUSHIDO. whose days seem to be already numbered. without considering may much have been hidden evil in the one. devout " Men have Christian and profound scholar: divided the world into heathen and Christian. * Jowett. and in dispraise of other forms of religion. whatever may be the error committed by individuals.
that. but redoubtable at work to threaten it. local causes for the St. Palaye gives. if history repeats itself. when the mother it. and. The have. was gone. Feudalism. little application to Japanese conditions larger and but the more general causes that helped to undermine Knighthood and Chivalry in and after the Middle Ages are as surely working for the decline of Bushido. One remarkable difference between the experience of Europe and of Japan is. life. left an orphan. particular and decay of Chivalry which of course. be more Few historical comparisons can judiciously made than between the Chivalry of Europe and the Bushido of Japan. obtained a fresh lease of in to nourish Japan no religion was large enough hence. shift for itself. was weaned from Feudalism and was adopted whereas in Europe it when Chivalry by the Church.Ominous signs are its future. institution. had to The present elaborate military organization might 167 . in the air. Bushido. it certainly will do with the fate of the latter what it did with that of the former. that betoken forces are Not only signs. .
which is itself fostered ated. infancy. "the decay of the ready. ceremonial code or." The irresistible tide of triumphant democracy. and therefore thought well-adapted have been invented the and propounded. as Veblen says. it in its afford little for its continuous Shintoism. as it is otherwise called.take that it under its patronage. superannusages of ancient China are being supplanted by the intellectual parvenu of the type of Bentham and Mill. Principalities and powers arrayed Alagainst the Precepts of Knighthood. flatter- the Chauvinistic tendencies of the to the need of this day. ing to time. which can tolerate no form or shape of trust and Bushido was a trust organized by those who monopolized reserve . but we know room modern warfare can growth. has become one of the chief enormities of latter-day civilization in the eyes of all persons of delicate sensibilities. the vulgarization of life among the industrial classes proper. but as yet we hear only their shrill voices echoing columns of yellow journalism through are . The hoary Moral theories of a comfortable kind.
fixing the is grades qualities alone powerful enough to engulf the remnant of Btishido."* habits. of industrial arts and exclusive class. the Heroarchy ? into the hands of quibbling fast falling lawyers and gibbering politicians armed with logic-chopThe words which a ping engines of war. cannot admit purely personal obligations devised in the interests of an any Add to this the progress of popular instruction. Modern society.capital of intellect and of culture. bows can aught The built upon the rock of Honor and call it by the same shall we the Ehrenstaat or. 169 . of wealth and nor city-life. p. a class to spirit. and Chivalry is. V. The present societary forces and value moral are antagonistic to petty class spirit. if it pretends " unity. that "the medium in which their * Norman Conquest. Vol. great thinker used in speaking of Theresa and Antigone may aptly be repeated of the samurai. as Freeman severely criticizes. after the manner fortified is of Carlyle. 482. then we can shafts easily see that neither the keenest cuts of samurai's sword state the sharpest shot from Bushido's boldest avail.
ardent deeds took shape is forever gone. Callings nobler and broader than a warrior's claim our attention to-day. as it has proved to be noble sentiments and manly virtues. practical need. the state built on martial virtues be it a city like make on versal in Sparta or an Empire like Rome can never earth a "continuing city. engrossed. with the growth of democracy." Uni- and natural as fruitful is the fighting instinct of man. Beneath instinct to love. Life has grown larger latter times." If history can teach us anything. Mencius and all clearly Wan Yang it. have but Bushido and all other militant schools of ethics. With an enlarged view of life. with better 170 . the instinct to fight there lurks a diviner have seen that Shinto- We ism. taught Ming. with questions of immediate doubtless. it does not comprehend the whole man.*' ! Alas ! for knightly virtues alas for samurai pride Morality ushered into the world with the sound of bugles and drums. is destined to fade away as " the captains and he kings depart. too often forgot duly to emphasize in these this fact.
inception. II. we will believe that the wings of the angel of peace can disperse them. the edict formally 171 . Miller says that Chivalry was formally 'abolished in the year 1559. It is just as difficult to point out dies. Men having become more than subjects.knowledge of other peoples and add the Buddhist idea of Pity ? have nations." its A and nation that sells birthright of peace. ! makes a poor bargain indeed When the conditions of society are so changed that they have become not only adverse but hostile to Bushido. Though war clouds hang heavy upon our horizon. : grown to the estate of citizens nay. being men. when Henry tournament. the Confucian idea of Benevolencedare I also will expand into the Christian conception of Love. they are more than citizens. it is time for it to prepare for an honorable burial. The history of the world confirms the prophecy the "the meek shall inherit the earth. of France was slain in a With us. backslides from the front rank of Industri- alism into the file of Filibusterism. as to when chivalry its determine the exact time of Dr.
abolishing Feudalism in 1870 was the signal edict. economists. issued The two years later. "the unbought grace of life. the cheap defence of nations. but these are less than half-truths. and calcuhas been said that Japan won her late war with China by means of Murata guns and Krupp cannon. Does ever a piano. without a master's Or. hand? not Louis his guns win battles. the and heroic enterprise. burst forth into the Rhapsodies of Liszt or the Sonatas of Beethoven. whose arms were no better than the old-fashioned Remingtons ? Needless to repeat what has saying that it is the spirit that without which the best of implequickeneth." lators/' It nurse of manly sentiment it rang in the new age of "sophisters. rang out the old. to toll the knell of Bushido. or the Spaniards their Mausers the Filipinos. be it of the choicest workmanship of Ehrbar or Steinway. trite 172 grown a . it has been said the victory was the work of a modern school system. why did Napoleon beat the Prussians if with with Mitrailleuse. prohibiting the wear- ing of swords.
To those who have clearly visible.m ents profiteth but little. of . those eyes to see. they are Scratch a Japanese of the ghosts. as Professor The Cramb very trust. on the Yalu. like castles moral system and its . the spirits of our warlike ancestors. The most improved guns and cannon do not shoot of their own accord. guiding our hands and beating in They are not dead. has been predicted and predictions have been corroborated by the events of the last half century that the its of Feudal Japan. nor to bate one jot of the ancient spirit. No What ! won the and our Manchuria. the most modern educational system does not make a coward a battles hero. most advanced samurai." and the summons of the present is to guard this heritage. ideas. fitly expresses it. the summons of the future will be so to widen its scope as to apply it in all It walks and relations of life. in Corea was the ghosts of our fathers. hearts. and he will show a great inheritance of honor.valor and of all martial virtues is. "but ours on the fief inalienable of the dead and of the generation to come.
and ethics rise phcenix-like to lead in new New her path of progress." The seeds of the Kingdom. and that it is not a bird of passage. "to every people a in its own tongue. The profit and loss philosophy of Utilitarians and Materialists finds favor among logic-choppers with half a soul. how- ever lofty. Desirable Japan and probable as the fulfilment of such a prophecy is. not Kingdom of God is within you. " God has granted." It does come rolling down the mountains. Now its days are closing sad to say. however broad. neither does it fly on "The pinions borrowed from other birds. as vouched for and apprehended by the Japanese mind. it does not come sailing across the seas. will crumble into dust. The only other is eihical system which powerful enough to cope with .armories." says the Koran. but among them there is as yet nothing found to take its place. we must not forget that a phcenix rises only from its own ashes. blossomed prophet in Bushido. before its full fruition in and we turn every direction for other sources of sweetness and light. of strength and comfort.
is. Amos and Habakkuk Bushido laid particular stress on the moral conduct of rulers and public men and of nations. by morbid distortion. which deal almost solely with individuals and His personal followers. Like His to Hebrew Isaiah. The domineering. will find more and more practical application as individualism. whereas the Ethics of Christ. grows in potency. itself akin in some respects to Bushido. self-assertive.Utilitarianism ty. in and Materialism is Christiani- comparison with which Bushido. if I am not greatly mistaken. a passing phase or tem- porary reaction against what he terms. Lesser systems of morals will . precursors. the prophets notably Jeremiah. so-called master-morality of Nietsche. is like " a dimly burning wick" which the Messiah was proclaimed not quench but to fan into a flame. it must be confessed. in its capacity of a moral factor. self-denying slave-morality of the Nazarene. Christianity Utilitarianism) and Materialism (including or will the future reduce them to still more archaic forms of Hebraism and Hellenism ? will divide the world between them. the humble.
Who : It is still felt through many channels of life in the philosophy of Western nations. wherever his spirit masters his flesh by his own exertions.ally themselves on either side will for their preservation. not perish from the earth. its schools of martial prowess may be demolished. or civic honor light ruins. but its and its glory will long survive their its Like symbolic flovver. enlist? On which set side Bushido Having no it dogma or formula to defend. gust of the morning But a total extinction will never first be its dead alive ? can say that stoicism is dead as a system . wherever man struggles to raise himself above himself. but its power will. but it is as a virtue its energy and vitality are lot. entity . Nay. in the jurisprudence of all the civilized world. Bushido as an independent code of ethics may vanish. it willing to die at the - breeze. after it is it blown to the four winds. can afford to disappear as an is like the cherry blossom. there we see the immortal discipline of Zeno at work. will still bless it mankind with the perfume with which 176 .
.'-ATKiNfe. - fife's Til every e iifh Copyright secured. aU rights reserved. 1883. T. printed and published by P.CHRIST VERSUS KRISHNA: A BRIEF COMPARISON BETWEEN THE &M IM& MmthMtt $ 1_ THE BABE OF BETHLEHEM JUDJ5A AND THE BABE OP EKINDABUH MATHURAPURIi WITH A CONCISE REVIEW OF EINDOOISM. } but a Ipan. at the* 6. "Ml South-Boad. DERIVATION FROM CHRISTIANITY^ II* ^H*^* JUBBULP^BE.
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