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Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Chng 2: X L NC THI BNG


PHNG PHP C HC
2.1. KHI NIM V PHNG PHP X L NC THI BNG PHNG PHP
C HC
Phng php ny c s dng tch cc tp cht khng ha tan v mt phn cc cht
dng keo ra khi nc thi. Cc cng trnh x l c hc bao gm:
2.1.1. Thit b chn rc:
Thit b chn rc c th l song chn rc hoc li chn rc, c chc nng chn gi
nhng rc bn th (giy, rau, c, rc), nhm m bo m cho my bm, cc cng
trnh v thit b x l nc thi hot ng n nh. Song v li chn rc c cu to
bng cc thanh song song, cc tm li an bng thp hoc tm thp c c l ty
theo kch c cc mt li hay khong cch gia cc thanh m ta phn bit loi chn
rc th, trung bnh hay rc tinh.
Theo cch thc lm sch thit b chn rc ta c th chia lm 2 loi: loi lm sch bng
tay, loi lm sch bng c gii.
2.1.2. Thit b nghin rc:
L thit b c nhim v ct v nghin vn rc thnh cc ht, cc mnh nh l lng
trong nc thi khng lm tc ng, khng gy hi cho bm. Trong thc t cho thy vic s
dng thit b nghin rc thay cho thit b chn rc gy nhiu kh khn cho cc cng on
x l tip theo do lng cn tng ln nh lm tc nghn h thng phn phi kh v cc thit b
lm thong trong cc b (a, l phn phi kh v dnh bm vo cc tuabin. Do vy phi cn
nhc trc khi dng.
2.1.3. B iu ha:
L n v dng khc phc cc vn sinh ra do s bin ng v lu lng v ti lng
dng vo, m bo hiu qu ca cc cng trnh x l sau, m bo u ra sau x l, gim chi
ph v kch thc ca cc thit b sau ny.
C 2 loi b iu ha:
B iu ha lu lng
B iu ha lu lng v cht lng
Cc phng n b tr b iu ha c th l b iu ha trn dng thi hay ngoi dng thi x
l. Phng n iu ha trn dng thi c th lm gim ng k dao ng thnh phn nc thi
i vo cc cng on pha sau, cn phng n iu ha ngoi dng thi ch gim c mt
phn nh s dao ng . V tr tt nht b tr b iu ha cn c xc nh c th cho
tng h thng x l, v ph thuc vo loi x l, c tnh ca h thng thu gom cng nh c
tnh ca nc thi.
2.1.4. B lng ct:
Nhim v ca b lng ct l loi b cn th, nmg nh: ct, si, mnh thy tinh, mnh kim
loi, tro, than vn nhm bo v cc thit b c kh d b mi mn, gim cn nng cc cng
on x l sau.
B lng ct gm nhng loi sau:
B lng ct ngang: C dng nc chuyn ng thng dc theo chiu di ca b. B c
thit din hnh ch nht, thng c h thu t u b.
B lng ct ng: Dng nc chy t di ln trn theo thn b. Nc c dn theo
ng tip tuyn vi phn di hnh tr vo b. Ch dng chy kh phc tp, nc
va chuyn ng vng, va xon theo trc, va tnh tin i ln, trong khi cc ht
ct dn v trung tm v ri xung y.
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Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

B lng ct tip tuyn: l loi b c thit din hnh trn, nc thi c dn vo b


theo chiu t tm ra thnh b v c thu v mng tp trung ri dn ra ngoi.
B lng ct lm thong: trnh lng cht hu c ln trong ct v tng hiu qu x
l, ngi ta lp vo b lng ct thng thng mt dn thit b phun kh. Dn ny c
t st thnh bn trong b to thnh mt dng xon c qut y b vi mt vn tc
trnh hin tng lng cc cht hu c, ch c ct v cc phn t nng c th lng.
2.1.5. B lng:
Lng l phng php n gin nht tch cc cht bn khng ha tan ra khi nc thi. Da
vo chc nng v v tr c th chia b lng thnh cc loi:
B lng t 1: c t trc cng trnh x l sinh hc, dng tch cc cht rn,
cht bn l lng khng ha tan.
B lng t 2: c t sau cng trnh x l sinh hc dng lng cc cn vi sinh,
bn lm trong nc trc khi thi ra ngun tip nhn
Cn c vo chiu dng chy ca nc trong b, b lng cng c chia thnh cc loi ging
nh b lng ct trn: b lng ngang, b lng ng, b lng tip tuyn (b lng radian).
2.1.6. Lc
Lc c ng dng tch cc tp cht phn tn c kch thc nh khi nc thi, m cc b
lng khng th loi c chng. Ngi ta tin hnh qu trnh lc nh cc vt liu lc, vch
ngn xp, cho php cht lng i qua v gi cc tp cht li.
Vt liu lc c s dng thng l ct thch anh, than cc, hoc si, thm ch c than nu,
than bn hoc than g. Vic la chn vt liu lc ty thuc vo loi nc thi v iu kin a
phng.
C nhiu dng lc: lc chn khng, lc p lc, lc chm, lc nhanh, lc chy ngc, lc chy
xui
2.6.2. Tuyn ni, vt du m
Phng php tuyn ni thng c s dng tch cc tp cht ( dng ht rn hoc lng)
phn tn khng tan, t lng km ra khi pha lng. Trong mt s trng hp qu trnh ny
cng c dng tch cc cht ha tan nh cc cht hot ng b mt. Qu trnh nh vy
c gi l qu trnh tch hay lm c bt.
Trong x l nc thi v nguyn tc tuyn ni thng c s dng kh cc cht l lng
v lm c bn sinh hc.
Qu trnh tuyn ni c thc hin bng cch sc cc bt kh nh (thng l khng kh) vo
trong pha lng. Cc kh kt dnh vi cc ht v khi lc ni tp hp cc bng kh v ht
ln s ko theo cc ht cng ni ln b mt, sau chng tp hp li vi nhau thnh cc lp
bt cha hm lng cc ht cao hn trong cht lng ban u.
Bng . ng dng cc cng trnh c hc trong x l nc thi
Cc cng trnh
ng dng
Li chn rc
Tch cc cht rn th v c th lng
Nghin rc
Nghin cc cht rn th n kch thc nh hn ng nht
B iu ho
iu ha lu lng v ti trng BOD v SS
Lng
Tch cc cn lng v nn bn
Lc
Tch cc ht cn l lng cn li sau x l sinh hc hoc ha hc
Mng lc
Tng t nh qu trnh lc, tch to t nc thi sau h n nh
Vn chuyn kh
B sung v tch kh
Bay hi v bay kh
Bay hi cc hp cht hu c bay hi t nc thi
2.2. TNH TON THIT K CC CNG TRNH C HC
2.2.1. Song chn rc
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Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

SCR l cng trnh x l s b nhm loi b mt lng rc bn th chun b cho x l nc


thi sau . SCR bao gm cc thanh an sp xp cnh nhau. Khong cch gia cc thanh gi
l khe h (mt li) v k hiu l b.

Song chn rc tinh

Song chn rc th
Ta c th phn bit cc loi SCR nh sau:
SCR th: b = 30 200mm.
SCR c tinh: b = 5 25mm.
SCR c nh v di ng.
SCR th cng v c gii.

Cc tit din ca thanh an:

8 - 10

TNH TON
A-A

h1

Bs

Bk

l1

lS

l2

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Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Khong cch gia cc thanh b = 16 25mm.


Gc nghing = 60 - 900.
Vn tc trung bnh qua cc khe: v = 0,6 - 1 m/s
S khe h gia cc thanh

n=

q max
kz
b.h1 .v

+ kz: h s tnh n s thu hp dng chy: 1.05


+ qmax : lu lng ln nht
Chiu di tng cng ca SCR: Bs = s (n - 1) + b.n
(s: chiu dy song chn : 8 10 mm)
Chiu di on knh m rng trc SCR:

B s Bk
(
2tg
l2 = 0,5l1 (m)

l1 =
Chiu di on thu hp sau:
Tn tht p lc qua SCR:

2
v max
2 g

0
=15-20 )

.K

+ : h s tn tht cc b: = (s/b)4/3sin.
+ : h s ph thuc hnh dng thanh an:

= 2,42
1,83
1,67
1,97
0,92
+ K: h s tnh ti s tng tn tht p lc do rc mc vo SCR: K = 3.
Lng rc c gi li:
Wr = a.Ntt /365.1000 (m3/ng.).
+ a: lng rc tnh cho 1 ngi/nm : 5 6 l/ngi.nm.
+ Dn s tnh ton: N = Q/q.
+ q: tiu chun thot nc:
Mt s c tnh ca SCR:
+ m rc: 80%.
+ tro : 7 8 %.
+ Trng lng th tch 750 kg/m3.
V d p dng: Tnh ton thit k song chn rc ca mt cng trnh x l nc vi cc thong s nh sau:
lu lng trung bnh QTBng = 300 m3/ngy.
-

Lu lng nc thi theo gi ln nht:


Qmaxh = QTBh . kh = 12,5 * 2,2 = 31,25 (m3/h)

Trang 30

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


Vi kh l h s vt ti theo gi ln nht (k = 1,5 3,5), chn k=2,5.
-

Chn loi song chn c kch thc khe h b =16 mm.

Tit din song chn hnh ch nht c kch thc: s x l = 8 x 50 mm.

a) S lng khe h

n=

Qmax
8,68 10 3
kz =
1,05 = 9,498(khe )
v s b hl
0,6 0,016 0,1

Chn s khe l 10 s song chn l 9.


Trong :

n : s khe h.

Qmax : lu lng ln nht ca nc thi, (m/s).

vs : tc nc qua khe song chn, chn vs = 0,6 m/s.

kz : h s tnh n hin tng thu hp dng chy, chn kz = 1,05

b) B rng thit k song chn rc

Bs = s (n 1) + (b n ) = 0,008 (10 1) + (0,016 10) = 0,232(m )


Chn Bs = 0,3 m.
Trong :

c)

s : b dy ca thanh song chn, thng ly s = 0,008

Tn tht p lc qua song chn rc

hs =

v max
k
2g

Trong :

vmax :vn tc nc thi trc song chn ng vi Qmax , vmax = 0,6.

k :h s tnh n s tng tn tht p lc do rc bm, k = 2-3. Chn k = 2.

: h s tn tht p lc cc b, c xc nh theo cng thc:


s
b

=
Vi:

3/ 4

0,008
sin = 2,42

0,016

3/ 4

: gc nghing dt song chn rc, chn

= 600.

: h s ph thuc hnh dng thnh an,

= 2,42

hs = 0,83

(0,6)2
2 9,81

sin 60 0 = 0,83

3 = 0,05(m ) = 5(cm )

d) Chiu di phn m rng trc SCR

L1 =

Bs Bk 0,3 0,2
=
= 0,13(m )
2tg
2tg 20 0

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Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


Chn L1 = 0,2
Trong :

e)

Bs : chiu rng song chn.

Bk : b rng mng dn, chn Bk = 0,2m.

: gc nghin ch m rng, thng ly

= 200.

Chii di phn m rng sau SCR

L2 = 0,5 L1 = 0,5 0,2 = 0,1(m )


f)

Chiu di xy dng mng t SCR

L = L1 + L2 + Ls = 0,2 + 0,1 + 1,5 = 1,8(m )


Trong :

Ls : chiu di phn mng t song chn rc, L = 1,5m

g) Chiu su xy dng mng t SCR

H = hmax + hs + 0,5 = 0,65(m )


Trong :

hmax = hl : y ng vi ch Qmax.

hs : tn tht p lc qua song chn.

0,5 : khang cch gia ct sn nh t SCR v mc nc cao nht.


Tm tt thng s thit k mng v song chn rc
STT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Tn thng s
Chiu di mng (L)
Chiu rng mng (Bs)
Chiu su mng (H)
S thanh song chn
S khe (n)
Kch thc khe (b)
B rng thanh (s)
Chiu di thanh (l)

n v
m
m
m
Thanh
Khe
mm
mm
mm

S lng
1,8
0,3
0,7
9
10
16
8
50

2.2.2. B lng ct
B lng ct thng dng lng gi nhng ht cn ln c cha trong nc thi (chnh l ct).
C nhiu loi b lng ct.
2.2.2.1. B lng ct ngang
B lng ct ngang nc chy thng thng c h thu cn u b. Ct c co v h thu
bng co st v ly ra bng bm phun tia.

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Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Tnh ton:
Chiu di ca b:

L = vmax.t (t = 30 - > 60s)


1000v m h1
=
k
uo
-

Vmax : vn tc khi Qmax: 0,3 m/s.


k: h s ly ph thuc u0.
o
u0 = 18mm/s: k = 1,7.
o
u0 = 24 m/s: k = 1,3. (ng knh ht ct thng 0,2 0,25 mm).
- h1: chiu su cng tc ca b: 0,25 1 m.
- u0 = ln thu lc ca ht ct vi ng knh 0,2 0,25 gi li trong b: u0
= 18 24 mm/s.
Q
- Tit din t ca b : F = max
vm
q
- Chiu rng ca b :. b =
v.h1
F
S ngn trong b: n =
b.h1
Vn tc ln nht: vmax 0,15 m/s.
N . p.T
Th tch ct trong b: Wc = tt
1000
- Ntt dn s tnh ton.
- p: lng ct vi m 60%, 0,02 l/ngi. ng..
- T: thi gian gia 2 ln x ct khi b : 2 4 ngy.
W
Chiu su lp cn ct: h2 = c
L.b.n
Trang 33

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Chiu su tng cng: H xd = h1 + h2 + h3. (h3 = 0,2 0,4 m: chiu cao bo v t nc


n tng).
2.2.2.2. B lng ct ng: Nc chy t di ln dc theo thn b:
Tnh ton:
Din tch tit din ngang: F =

Qmax
n.v

Chiu cao cng tc: h1 = v.t.


Chiu su tng cng: H = h1+ h2 + h3 + h4.
= h1+ 0,5+ h3 + h4.

Nu trn : D =

4F

Nu vung : D = F
Tc nc : v = 0,4 m/s.
Thi gian lu: t = 2 3,5 pht.
2.2.2.3. B lng ct tip tuyn:
C mt hnh trn. Mng dn nc vo tip tuyn vi b. Chu tc dng ca 2 lc, lc bn thn
P, v lc ly tm.
Ti trng nc b mt : 100m3/m2.h.
Tc nc trong mng: 0,8 0,6 m/s.
Hiu qu gi ct: 90%.
h D/2.
2.2.2.4. B lng ct lm thong:
L bc pht trin ca b lng ct tip tuyn. Nh thi kh m dng chy nc thi trong b
va quay va tnh tin to nn chuyn ng xoc c.

Tnh ton
Hiu sut 90 95%.
ng knh ng thi kh: 2,5 6 mm.
Q
Din tch tit din ngang: F = max .
n.vt
Trang 34

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

vt: vn tc thng: 0,01 0,1 m/s.


n: s ngn ca b.
b.u o
u
h
1 = o
Chiu su cng tc: h1 =
vt
b vt

Chiu rng b b.
uo : ln thu lc u0 ph thuc vo kch thc d ca ht ct theo bng di
y:

d(m)

0.1

0.12

0.15

0.2

0.3

0.4

uo(mm/s)

5.12

7.27

11.2

17.2

29.1

40.07

b
vv
(vv: vn tc vng theo chu vi tit din ngang: 0,25 0,3 m/s.)
Thi gian nc lu li: t = 1,1 .m.t1.

Thi gian lu 1 vng: t1 = 1.2

(m: s vng nc trong 1 b: m = 1/ lg(1 2h/H).)


Chiu di ca b L = vt . t.
Lng khng kh cn thit: Lk = I .F.
(I: cng kh: 25m3/m2.h.)
V d p dng: Tnh b lng ct ngang cho mt cng trnh x l nc thi vi cng sut 4000m3/ngy, hm
lng SS = 254mg/l, COD
~ Chiu di ca b lng ct ngang c xc nh theo cng thc:

L=

1000 * K * H * v max
Uo

Trong :
-

K: h s ph thuc v loi b lng ct v th thy lc ca ht ct, K = 1,3

H: su tnh ton ca b lng ct, H = 0,25 1m, chn H = 0,3m

vmax: tc ln nht ca nc thi trong b lng ct ngang, vmax = 0,3 m/s.

Uo = th thy lc ca ht ct, Uo = 18,7 24,2 mm/s. ng vi ng knh ca ht ct d = 0,25 mm.


Chn Uo = 24,2 mm/s.

Vy:

L=

1000 * 1,3 * 0,3 * 0,3


=4,83m
24,2

~ Chiu rng ca b lng ct ngang:

B=

Qmax
v max * H

Trong :
-

Qmax: Lu lng ln nht giy, Qmax = 417 m3/h = 116 l/s = 0,116 m3/s

vmax = 0,3 m/s

H = 0,3 m

Chn 4 b lng ct ngang dng mng.

Trang 35

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


Vy :
Chiu rng mi ngn l:

0,116
=0,3m
0,3 * 0,3 * 4

B=
~ Chiu rng mng:

Bv
b=
m 2g

Bv 1 K 2 / 3

Qmax 1 K

3/ 2

Trong :
-

B = 1,3m

v = 0,3m

m : h s lu lng ca ca trn ph thuc v gc ti. Chn g ti

= 450 , cot ag = 1 , chn m =

0,352.
-

Qmax = 0,116 m3/s.

K = 1,3.

Vy:

1,3 * 0,3 1 1,3 2 / 3

b=
0,352 2 * 9,81 0,116 1 1,3
1,3 * 0,3

3/ 2

=0,2m

~ chnh y:

P =

Qmax K K 2 / 3
.
Bv 1 K 2 / 3

Trong :
-

Qmax = 0,116 m3/s

B = 1,3.

v = 0,3m/s.

K = Qmin/Qmax = 167/417 = 0,4

Vy:

P =

0,116 1 0,4 1 / 3
= 0,2m
.
1,3 * 0,3 1 0,4 2 / 3

~ Th tch phn cha cn ca b lng ct ngang:

W =

Qtb * q o
1000

Trong :
-

Qtb = 4000 m3/ng

q0: lng ct trong 1000 m3 nc thi, q0 = 0,15 m3 ct/1000 m3 nc thi

Vy:

W =

4000 * 0,15
= 0,6 m3/ngay.d
1000

Phn lng ct c b tr pha trc ca b lng ct ngang. Trn mt bng c dng hnh vung, kch thc
1,1 x 1,1m, su H + 0,64m = 0,3 + 0,64 = 0,94m

Trang 36

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


Phn lp m rt nc c su 0,64m.

~ Hm lng cht l lng, COD v BOD ca nc thi sau kh qua b lng ct gim 5% v cn li
-

CSS2 = CSS1 (100 5)%

CSS1 = 245 mg/l, hm lng cht l lng khi qua chn rc


CSS2 = 245 (100 5)% = 233 mg/l

CCOD2 = CCOD1 (100 5)%

CCOD1 =540 mg/l, hm lng COD ban u


CCOD2 = 540 (100 5)% =513 mg/l

CBOD2 = CBOD1 (100 5)%

CBOD1 = 259 mg/l, hm lng BOD khi qua chn rc


CBOD2 = 259 (100 5)% = 246 mg/l

2.2.3. B vt du m
Nc thi ca mt s x nghip n ung, ch bin b sa, cc l m, x nghip p du...
thng c ln du m. Cc cht ny thng nh hn nc v ni ln trn mt nc. Nc thi
sau x l khng c ln du m mi c php cho chy vo cc thy vc. Hn na, nc thi
c ln du m khi vo x l sinh hc s lm bt cc l hng vt liu lc, phin lc sinh hc
v cn lm hng cu trc bn hot tnh trong aerotank...
Ngoi cch lm cc gt n gin bng cc tm si qut trn mt nc, ngi ta ch to ra cc
thit b tch du, m t trc dy chuyn cng ngh x l nc thi.

Hnh Thit b tch du, m lp mng


1. Ca dn nc ra; 2. ng gom du, m; 3. Vch ngn; 4. Tm cht do x
5. Lp du; 6. ng dn nc thi vo; 7. B phn lng lm t cc tm gn
8. Bn cn

Tnh ton:
Chiu di cng tc: L = K.(v/umin).h.
-

K: h s ph thuc dng chy, ph thuc (v/umin).

Trang 37

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

v/umin

10

15

20

1.5

1.65

1.75

Cng thc Stock xc nh umin: u m =

1
( h n )g.d h2
18

9 d: ng knh du.
9 pn, pd: t trng ring ca du v nc. (g/cm3).
9 : nht nc thi ( 200c: =0,01).
Din tch tit din ngang: f = Q/v.
Chiu su cng tc: h = f/B. (B: b rng b)
Dung tch: W = B. L .h.
Thi gian lng: t = L/v.

V d p dng: Hy tnh ton b vt du m cho h thng x l nc thi c cng sut 200 m3/ngy,
Chn thi gian lu nc l 2h (1.5 3h )
Ti trng b mt 40 (m3/m2.ng.)
Chn kiu thit k di : rng l 1 : 4
Th tch ca b lng:
V = Q*T = 200*2 = 400 (m3/m2.ng.) = 16.67 (m3/h)
Din tch b mt:

F=

( )

Q 200
=
= 5 m2
Uo
40

Chiu rng b mt:

( )

F = B * L = B * 4 * B = 4 * B2 = 5 m2
B = 1.12(m )
Ly B = 1.2 m
Chiu di L = 4*B = 4.8 m
Din tch F = 5.76 m2
Ti trng b mt

Uo =

Q 200
=
= 34.72 (nm trong gii hn cho php bng 4-3 sch tnh ton thit k cc cng trnh
F 5.76

XLNT)
Chiu cao b:

h=

V 16.67
=
= 2.98 m
F
5.76

Chn h = 2.9m
Th tch b lng:
V = F*h = 5.76*2.9 = 16.7 m3
Thi gian lu nc trong b

T=

V 16.7
=
= 2h
Q 200
24

Vn tc nc chy trong vng lng:

v=

Q
200
=
= 0.0007(m / s )
B * h 86400 * 1.2 * 2.9

Hiu qu kh BOD

R BOD =

2
t
=
= 34.48 %
a + bt 0.018 + 0.02 * 2

Hm lng BOD cn li sau khi qua b lng 1

BOD = BODdv * (100 34.48)% = 480(100 34.48)% = 314.5(mg / l )

Trang 38

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


Hm lng COD cn li sau khi qua b lng 1:
BOD = BODv*( 100 34.48)% = 672*( 100-34.48)% = 440.3( mg/l)

2.2.4. X l bng phng php lng


2.2.4.1. C s l thuyt lng
Lng l qu trnh tch khi nc cn l lng hoc bng cn hnh thnh trong giai on keo t
to bng hoc cc cn bn sau qu trnh x l sinh hc
Trong cng ngh x l nc thi qu trnh lng c ng dng :
Lng ct, sn, mnh kim loi, thu tinh, xng, ht st,.. b lng ct.
Loi b cht l lng b lng t 1.
Lng bn hot tnh hoc mng vi sinh vt b lng t 2.
Hai i lng quan trng trong vic thit k b lng chnh l tc lng v tc chy trn.
thit k mt b lng l tng, u tin ngi ta xc nh tc lng ca ht cn c loi
v khi t tc chy trn nh hn tc lng.
Tnh cht lng ca cc ht c th chia thng 3 dng nh sau :
Lng dng I: lng cc ht ri rc. Qu trnh lng c t trng bi cc ht lng mt cch ri
rc v tc lng khng i. Cc ht lng mt cch ring l khng c kh nng keo t,
khng dnh bm vo nhau sut qu trnh lng. c th xc nh tc lng dng ny c
th ng dng nh lut c in ca Newton v Stoke trn ht cn. Tc lng dng ny
hon ton c th tnh ton c.
Lng dng II: lng bng cn. Qu trnh lng c t trng bi cc ht ( bng cn) kt dnh
vi nhau trong sut qu trnh lng. Do qu trnh bng cn xy ra trn cc bng cn tng dn
kch thc v tc lng tng. Khng c mt cng thc ton hc thch hp no biu th
gi tr ny. V vy c cc thng s thit k v b lng dng ny, ngi ta th nghim xc
nh tc chy trn v thi gian lng hiu qu kh bng cn cho trc t ct lng th
nghim, t nhn vi h s quy m ta c tc chy trn v thi gian lng thit k.
Lng dng III: lng cn tr. Qu trnh lng c t trng bi cc ht cn c nng cao (>
1000mg/l). Cc ht cn c khuynh hng duy tr v tr khng i vi cc v tr khc, khi c
khi ht nh l mt th thng nht lng xung vi vn tc khng i. Lng dng ny thng
thy b nn bn.

Trang 39

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

M HNH TH NGHIM

VI

10

II
8

III

V
V
VI

CC BC TIN HNH.

Chun b thng cha nc thi v khuy trn u nc thi.


Chun b ct lng hnh hp
Bm nc th vo ct lng : V
lng 1 pht. Ly mu nc kim tra c (SS) cc su khc nhau ng vi
thi im khc nhau (5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 90 pht, cho n khi SS = 0) cc su
khc nhau: 1.8, 1.4, 1.0, 0.6, 0.4 m
Sau khi o c ta tnh ton hiu qu lng theo cng thc sau:
R% =( 1 - C1 / C0 ) x 100%.
9 R% :hiu qu mt chiu su tng ng vi mt thi gian lng%.
9 C1
:hm lng SS thi gian t su h, mg/L.
9 C0
:hm lng SS ban u, mg/L.
Lp bng kt qu o SS
Cao Co
(m)
(mg/l)
0.2
0.6
1.0
1.4
1.8

5 (pht) 10

15

20

40

60

90

Trang 40

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Lp bng hiu qu sau khi lng tnh ra % (R)


Cao
5 (pht) 10
15
20
40
60
90
(m)
0.2
0.6
1.0
1.4
1.8
KT QU TH NGHIM
Dng th vi trc honh biu th thi gian ly mu, trc tung biu th chiu su. V biu
hiu qu lng.
Ni suy cc ng cong hiu qu lng bng cch ni cc im c cng hiu qu lng nh m
hnh gi sau:
BIU HIU QU LNG NI SUY NG CONG

su
(m)
0.0 m

He

0.2 m

Hd
Hc

0.4 m
0.6 m

100%

h
Hb

0.8 m
1.0 m
1.2 m
1.4m

25

H1 =

35

1.6 m

40

Ra = 55%

H a + Hb
2

Rb = 65%

80

95

1.8 m
2.0 m

t1 = 18

t3 = 37.5

t4 = 50

t2 = 30

5.

10 15 20

Ha

40

t5 = 62.5

60

t6 = 82.5

t7 = 100

90

100

pht

T giao im gia ng cong hiu qu lng v trc honh, xc nh tc chy trnV0 = H /


ti . Trong H l chiu su ct (2m), ti l thi gian ly mu c xc nh t giao im ng
cong hiu qu lng v trc honh.
V ng thng ng t ti . chiu cao H1,H2 . Tng ng vi cc trung im on thng
gia ng thng ti v cc ng cong hiu qu. Hiu qu lng tng cng thi gian ti c
tnh nh sau:
RTi = Ra + H1 / H ( Rb - Ra ) + H2 ( Rc - Rb )

+ ..

Trang 41

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

T cc s liu tnh ton trn xy dng biu hiu qu lng theo thi gian lu nc v hiu
qu lng theo tc chy trn.
T hai biu trn vi hiu qu lng yu cu c th xc nh thi gian lu nc v tc
chy trn thit k.
o th bie u die n mo i quan he gi a hie u qua la ng va to c o cha y tra n

o th bieu dien moi quan he gia hieu qua lang va thi gian lang
100

100

80

Hieu qua lang (%)

Hieu qua lang (%)

80

60

40

60

40

20

20

0
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

20

40

60

80

100

Thi gian lang (phut)

Van toc lang (van toc chay tran) (m/p)

2.2.4.2. Cc loi b lng


2.2.4.2.1. B lng hnh trn
Trong b lng hnh trn, nc chuyn ng theo hng bn knh. Tu theo cch chy ca
dng nc vo v ra m ta c cc dng b lng trn khc nhau.
a) B lng trn phn phi nc vo bng bung phn phi trung tm

Nc ra

X cn

Nc vo

b) B lng trn phn phi vo bng mng quanh chu vi b v thu nc ra bng mng
trung tm

Nc vo
Nc ra

X cn

Trang 42

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

c) B lng trn phn phi nc vo v thu nc ra bng mng t vng quanh theo chu vi b.
Nc vo

Nc vo

Nc ra
Nc ra

X cn

Tuy nhin, trng hp a thng dng hn v ngi ta thch dng hn.


Trong trng hp a c th a nc t y hay t thnh b.
Bung trung tm c d= 15-20% Db.
Chiu cao tr: 1-2,5m.
y b c dc : 1/12.
2.2.4.2.2. B lng ngang (HCN)
Nc thi i vo vng phn phi nc t u b lng, qua vch phn phi, nc
chuyn ng u nc vo vng lng, thng cu to dng mng c l.

Nc ra

h2

Cn

h3

h1

h4

Nc vo

i
L

Tm chn dng

Mng phn phi

Mng dn nc ra
Thu nc
Thu x cht ni

Vi:
- h1: chiu su lm vic.
- h2: chiu cao lp cha cn.
- h3: chiu cao lp nc trung ho (=0,4m).
- h4: chiu cao thnh b cao hn mc nc (0,25-0,4m).
Hxd = h1 + h2 + h3 + h4
- i = 0,01-0,001.
- dc h thu khng nh hn 45o.
- B lng t 1 c chiu cao p lc x cn >=1,5m.
- Tm chn cao hn mt nc 0,15-0,2m v su hn so vi mc nc <=0,25m. t
cch mng phn phi (0,25-0,5m).

2.2.4.2.3. Cch tnh ton chung b lng 1


a. Cc thng s tnh ton b lng 1
Trang 43

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Tn thng s
1/ Thi gian lu nc
2/ Ti trng b mt
_ h trung bnh
_ h cao im
3/ Ti trong mng thu

n v o

Gi tr thng s
Khong dao ng
Tiu biu
Nc thi trc tip vo lng 1
(h)
1.5-2.5
2

m3/m2.ngy
31-50
m3/m2.ngy
81-122
m3/m di ngy
124-490
Nc thi + bn hot tnh Lng 1
1/ Thi gian lu nc
(h)
1.5-2.5
2/ Ti trng b mt
_ h trung bnh
m3/m2.ngy
25-32
_ h cao im
m3/m2.ngy
48-69
3
3/ Ti trong mng thu
m /m di ngy
124-490

40
89
248
2
28
61
250

b. Thng s thit k b lng 1

Thng s
_ B ngang
+ Su
+ Di
+ Rng
+ Tc my gt cn
_ B trn
+ Su
+ ng knh
+ dc y
+ Tc gt cn

n v o

Gi tr

m
m
m
m/pht

3-4.8
15-90 (25-40)
3-25 (5-10)
0.6-1.2

m
m
m/m di
v/pht

3-4.8
3-60 (12-45)
1/10-1/13
0.02-0.05

c. Vn tc ti a trong vng lng

VH =

2 8k( - 1)gd
f

Vi:
- VH : vn tc gii hn trong bung lng.
- K = 0,05 (BL1): h s ph thuc tnh cht cn
- : trng lng ht: 1,2-1,6 (chn = 1,25).
- g: gia tc trng trng.
- d: ng knh tng ng ca ht (10-4 m).
- f: h s ma st (ph thuc vo Re) 0,02-0,03 (ly f = 0,025).
d. Hiu qu kh SS, BOD5 b lng 1 c tnh theo CT thc nghim sau
t
Rt = a+ b.t .100%
Vi:
- t: thi gian lu.
- a, b: hng s thc nghim
+ BOD5: a = 0,018 (h), b = 0,02
+ SS: a = 0,075 (h), b = 0,014

Trang 44

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


V d p dng 1 : Tnh ton b lng ng cho cng trnh x l nc thi cng sut 150m3/ngy, cc ch tiu nh
BOD = 5956 mg/l , SS = 640 mg/l
-

Din tch tit din t ca b lng ng

F1 =

s
Qmax
0,0035
=
= 7,3(m 2 )
v
0,000475

Trong :

V: Tc chuyn ng ca nc thi trong b lng ng,


V = 0,0285 (m/pht) = 0,000475 (m/s)

Din tch tit din t ca ng trung tm

F2 =

s
Q max
0,0035
=
= 0,175(m 2 )
Vtt
0,02

Vtt: Tc chuyn ng ca nc thi trong ng trung tm, ly khng ln hn 30

Trong :

(mm/s) (iu 6.5.9 TCXD-51-84).


Chn Vtt = 20 (mm/s) = 0,02 (m/s)
-

Din tch tng cng ca b lng:


F = F1 + F2 = 7,3 + 0,175 = 7,475 (m2)

ng knh ca b lng:

D=
-

4 * 7,475
= 3,085(m)
3,14

ng knh ng trung tm:


d=

4F

4 * F2

4 0,175

= 0,47 m

Chiu cao tnh ton ca vng lng trong b lng ng:


htt = V*t = 0,000475*114*60 = 3,25 (m)

Trong :

t: Thi gian lng, t = 114 pht (Thc nghim)


V: Tc chuyn ng ca nc thi trong b lng ng,
V = 0,0285 (m/pht) = 0,000475 (m/s)

Chiu cao phn hnh nn ca b lng ng c xc nh:


h n = h 2 + h3 = (

Trong :

D dn
3,085 0,5
) tg = (
) tg50o = 1,54 (m)
2
2

h2: chiu cao lp trung ha (m)


h3: chiu cao gi nh ca lp cn lng trong b
D: ng knh trong ca b lng, D = 3,085 (m)
dn: ng knh y nh ca hnh nn ct, ly dn = 0,5 m

: gc ngang ca y b lng so vi phng ngang, khng nh hn 500, chn


= 50o
-

Chiu cao ca ng trung tm ly bng chiu cao tnh ton ca vng lng v bng 3,25 m.
. ng knh phn loe ca ng trung tm ly bng chiu cao ca phn ng loe v bng 1,35 ng

knh ng trung tm:


D1 = hl = 1,35

d = 1,35 * 0,47 = 0,6345 (m), chn D1 = 0,65 (m)

. ng knh tm chn: ly bng 1,3 ng knh ming loe v bng:

Trang 45

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


Dc = 1,3 * Dl = 1,3 * 0,65 = 0,845 (m)
. Gc nghing gia b mt tm chn so vi mt phng ngang ly bng 17o
- Chiu cao tng cng ca b lng ng s l:
H = htt + hn + hbv = htt + (h2 + h3) + hbv = 3,25 + 1,54 + 0,3 = 5,1 (m)
trong :

hbv- khong cch t mt nc n thnh b, hbv = 0,3 (m)

thu nc lng, dng h thng mng vng chy trn xung quanh thnh b. Thit k mng thu nc
t theo chu vi vnh trong ca b, ng knh ngoi ca mng chnh l ng knh trong ca b.
-

ng knh mng thu: Dmng = 80% ng knh b


Dmng = 0,8*3,085 = 2,468 2,5 (m)

Chiu di mng thu nc:


L=

Dmng = 3,14 * 2,5 = 7,85 (m)

Ti trng thu nc trn 1m di ca mng:


aL =

Q 150
=
= 19,1 (m3/mdi.ngy)
L 7,85

# Hiu qu x l: Sau lng, hiu qu lng t 64% (thc nghim)

Hm lng SS cn li trong dng ra:


SSra = 640 * (100% 64%) = 230 (mg/l)

Hm lng COD cn li sau b lng:


CODra = 1160 (mg/l)

Hiu qu x l COD t: H =

10830 1160
= 89,3%
10830

Hm lng BOD cn li trong dng ra:


BODra = 5956 (100% - 89,3%) = 637 (mg/l)

Lng bn sinh ra mi ngy


M = 0,64*640*150 = 61,44 (Kg/ng)
Gi s bn ti c m 95%
Khi lng ring bn = 1053 Kg/m3
T s MLVSS : MLSS = 0,75

Lng bn cn x l:

G=
-

M
61,44
=
= 1,2 (m3/ng)
(1 0,95) * 1053 0,05 * 1053

Lng bn c kh nng phn hy sinh hc


Mti = 0,75*61,44 = 46, (Kg/ngy)
Cc thng s thit k b lng I

STT

Tn thng s

S liu dng thit k

n v

0,175

(m2)

Din tch tit din t ca ng trung tm (f)

Din tch tit din t ca b lng (F)

7,3

(m2)

ng knh ng trung tm (d)

0,47

(m)

Trang 46

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


4

ng knh ca b lng(D)

3,085

(m)

Chiu cao b (H)

5,1

(m)

Thi gian lng (t)

1,9

gi

ng knh mng thu

2,5

(m2)

V d p dng 2 : Tnh ton b lng ngang cho cng trnh x l nc thi cng sut 1500m3/ngy, cc thong s
cho nh sau:
- Thi gian lng:
t = 72 (pht).
-

Chiu cao vng lng: H = 2 (m).

Uo = 0,03 (m/pht) = 0,5 (mm/s).

Gii :
Vng lng.
Th tch nc.
tb
Vn = Q gio
t

Vi
-

t : thi gian lu nc theo kt qu th nghim lng. Theo sch Tnh Ton Thit K Cc Cng Trnh
XLNT Cng Nghip V Th do Lm Minh Trit (ch bin) th thi gian lu nc tng 1,5

2 ln so

vi thc nghim

chn t = 1,5 tTN = 1,5 72 = 108 ( pht)


-

tb

gi:

Lu lng tnh ton trung bnh theo gi, Qtbgi = 62,5(m3/h).

62 , 5 108
112 ( m 3 )
60
Din tch mt bng ca b lng.
Vn =

F =

Vn
112
=
56 ( m 2 )
H
2

Kch thc ca b:
Ta c B

L = 56(m2) (*)

M theo iu 6.5.4 TCXD -51-84, chiu rng b lng ly trong khong


(2

5) H (**)

T (*) v (**) B = 4(m).


L = 14(m).
Chiu cao xy dng ca b
Hxd = hbo v + hcngtc+ hcn + htrungha
Trong :
hbov = 0,5
hcngtc =
hcn =

1, vy chn hbov = 0,5 (m)

Vn 112
=
= 2 (m),
F
56

Vc
B L

Vi Vc : th tch cn ti (m3)

Trang 47

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


Vc =

G
SP

Trong :
- G : khi lng cn ti (kg/ ngy).
G=Q

Rss SS

Vi:
+ Q : lu lng nc thi, Q = 1500 (m3/ngy).
+ R : hiu sut kh SS, R = 75%
+ SS : hm lng cn, SS = 202 (mg/l).

G = 1500 0,75 202 = 227,25(kg/ngy) = 0,227(tn/ngy).


- S : t trng cn ti, ly S = 1,02 (tn / m3) (bng 13.1), (1).
- P : nng b lng I, ly P = 5% = 0,05( bng 13.5 ), (1).

Vc =

0,227
= 4,45 (m3/ngy)
1,02 * 0,05

Vy hcn =

Vc
4,45
=
= 0,08(m)
L B 14 4

Chn h2 = 0.1(m)
vi : D = 14 m : chiu di b
R = 4 m : chiu rng b
htrungha,

chn htrungha = 0,4 (m), (2).

Chiu cao xy dng b.


H = 2 + 0,1 + 0,4 + 0,5 = 3 (m)
Tnh ton h thng phn phi nc vo v thu nc ra.
H thng phn phi nc vo : chn tm phn phi khoan l
- Bpp = B = 4 (m).
- hpp: chiu cao tm phn phi, h = H htrung ha = 3 0,5 = 2,5 (m).
- Khong cch gia tm cc l l : 0,25
-

0.45 chn 0,3 m

Khong cch ngn phn phi ly Ln = 1(m) phn phi nc u trong b, vch ngn phn phi c
cc l, tc nc phn phi qua cc l theo quy phm 0,2 0,3 ( m/s) chn vl = 0,3 ( m/s).

Tit din ng phn phi, ng dn nc vo, tit din ng ln hn lu lng tnh ton t 20%

30%

chn tit din ng phn phi nc ln hn lu lng nc tnh ton l 20%.


Lu lng tnh ton.

Qtt =

tb
Q gio
20

100

tb
+ Q gio
=

62 ,5 20
+ 62 ,5 = 75 ( m 3 / h )
100

Tng tit din l

phn phi nc.

S pp =

Qtt
75
=
= 0,069(m 2 )
Vl
0,3 3600

ng knh ng dn nc vo ngn phn phi.

D=

4 S pp

4 0,069
0 ,3 ( m )
3,14
Trang 48

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


Chn cc l phn phi hnh trn c d = 30(mm)
Tit din l:

Sl =

S l cn thit.

n=

S pp

Sl

v 8 hng ngang.

d2
4

3,14 0,032
= 7,065 10 4 (m 2 )
4

0 ,069
= 98 (lo )
7 ,065 10 4

B tr cc lo ngn phn phi thnh 12 hng dc

Khong cch gia cc trc l theo hng dc

ed =

B
4
=
= 0,33 ( m ) = 330 ( mm )
12 12

Khong cch gia cc trc l theo

hng ngang.
Theo quy phm hng l cui cng nm cao hn mc cn tnh ton l
0,3m 0,5m, chn 0,5 (m).

en =

H 0 ,5 3 0 ,5
=
= 0 ,31( m ) = 310 ( mm )
8
8

H thng phn phi nc ra.

Ta c tng chiu di mp mng :


L>

Q
5 H Vlang

Trong
- Qtbngy: lu lng tnh ton trung bnh theo ngy.
- hcng tc : chiu cao cng tc, hcng tc = 2(m).
- Vlng : vn tc vng lng (m/s)
Vlng =

Q
1500
=
= 0.0003 (m/s)
L B 14 4 86400

1500
= 5,7(m)
5 2 0.0003 86400
Theo gio trnh TTTKXLNT-TXLai, th : L = 2 n l

L > L

(*)
(**)

Vi n : s mng trong b.
l = 4(m) : chiu di mng.
T (*) & (**) : 2 n l > 5,7
n>

5,7
= 0,71 chn n = 1
8

Th tch mng:
Chn s b : D R C = 4 0,5 0,3 = 0,6 (m3)
Ti trng mng :

Q 1500
=
= 375 (m3/m ngy )
l
4
Tha k qmng = 124 490 (m3/m ngy)
qmng =

Vn tc nc chy vo mng : Vmng (m/s)

Trang 49

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Q
F

Vmng =
Vi

F: din tch mng, F = D

Vmng =

R = 4 0.5 = 2 (m2)

1500 = 0,0086 (m/s)


2 86400

Theo (1), trang 50 th Vmng < VH : vn tc ti hn

8 K ( 1) g d
M V H =

1/ 2

Vi
- K : hng s thuc tnh cht cn, nc thi cng nghip vi K = 0,06
-

: t trng ca ht, chn = 1,25

- g : gia tc trng trng, g = 9,8 (m/s2)


- d : ng knh ht cn, d = 10-4(m)
- f : h s ma st, f = 0,025

8 0,06 (1,25 1) 9,8 10 4


VH =

0,25

1/ 2

= 0,0685 (m/s)

Vng nn cn.
Th tch vng nn cn.

Wc =

Vi:

tb
T Q gio
(C v C )

tb
T Q gio
H Cv

100

T : thi gian gia hai ln x cn, ( theo quy phm 6 24 h) chn T = 8 h.

C : hm lng cn cn li sau khi lng, (theo quy phm 10

12 mg/l),

chn C = 10 (mg/l).
-

: nng trung bnh ca cn nn, tra bng 3.3/78 sch XLNC ca PTS Nguyn Ngc Dung

chn

= 25.000( mg/m3)

Cv: hm lng cn trong nc a vo b lng, Cv = 194 (mg/l) ( theo tnh ton phn b tuyn ni).

H : hiu qu lng, H = 75%.

Wc =

8 62 ,5 75 194
= 2 ,91 ( m 3 )
25 . 000 100

Chiu cao vng nn cn.

hc =

Wc
2 ,91
=
0 , 05 ( m )
F
56

H thng x cn.

Th tch cn cn x sau 8h.


Vx = Wc = 2,91 (m3).
Lng nc cn c pha long trong khi x.
V=K
-

Vx

Theo quy phm lu lng x = 30% 60% Vx,

Trang 50

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


Chn lu lng x l 50%Vx
-

Theo quy phm thi gian x = 20 40 pht,

Chn thi gian x l 20 pht.


-

K : h s pha long khi x cn bng thu lc ( iu 6.5.4 TCXD -51-84)

K =0,5.
V = 0,5 2,91 =1,455( m3).
Lu lng cn x.

Qx =

V
1,455
=
= 0,0012 ( m 3 / s )
t 60 20

Tng tit din ng x.


Chn vn tc nc qua l vx = 1,5 (m/s).

Sx =

Q x 0,0012
=
= 0,0008 ( m 2 )
vx
1,5

Dx =

4 Sx

4 0,0008
= 0,032 ( m )
3,14
Chn ng x c ng knh D

ng knh ng x.

= 35(mm).

dc y b chn i = 0,02.
H thng thu nc b mt.
Tit din ng thu.
Chn
-

Tit din ng thu ln hn lu lng tnh ton t 20

30% chn tit din ng thu ln hn lu

lng tnh ton 20%.


-

Vn tc nc chy qua ng thu vo theo quy phm 0,6

0,8 m/s

vo = 0,6 (m/s).

So =

S 20
0,0174 20
+S =
+ 0,0174 = 0,021(m 2 )
100
100

ng kinh ng thu.

Do =

4 So

4 0,021
= 0,164(m) = 164(mm)
3,14

Chn Do = 200 (mm).

Cc thng s ca b.
Chiu di b.
Lb = L + Lpp = 14 + 1 = 15 (m)
Vi
-

Ll : chiu di vng lng, Ll = 14 (m)

Lpp : chiu di t u b n vch phn phi.

Chiu cao b: H = 3(m).


Chiu rng b: B = 4(m).

Trang 51

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

2.2.5. X l bng phng php lc


2.2.5.1. Nguyn l ca qu trnh lc
2.2.5.1.1. Khi nim
Lc l qu trnh tch cc cht lng l lng ra khi nc khi hn hp nc v cht rn l
lng i qua lp vt liu l ( lp vt liu lc), cht rn l lng s c gi li v nc tip tc
chy qua.
y l giai on (cng trnh) cui cng lm trong nc.
2.2.5.1.2. Phn loi b lc
Theo tc :
9 B lc chm: c tc lc 0.1 0.5 m/h
9 B lc nhanh: vn tc lc 5 15 m/h
9 B lc cao tc: vn tc lc 36 100 m/h
Theo ch lm vic:
9 B lc trng lc: h, khng p.
9 B lc c p lc : lc kn,
Ngoi ra cn chia theo nhiu cch khc nhau theo chiu dng chy, lp vt liu lc, theo c
ht vt liu lc, cu to ht vt liu lc,
2.2.3.1.3. Vt liu lc
9 Ct thch anh nghin.
9 Than antraxit (than gy)
9 Si,
9 Polime
xc nh vt liu lc phi da vo mt s ch tiu:
bn c hc
bn ho hc: trnh tnh xm thc.
Kch thc ht
Hnh dng ht.
H s khng ng nht:K= d80/d10 (Trong : d80, d10 : kch thc c ht sng
lt qua 80%, 10% tng s ht).

Biu thnh phn vt liu lc qua sng


2.2.5.2. Tnh ton cc loi b lc
2.2.5.2.1. B lc
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

B lc
Ngun nc
p ly nc
Ca a nc vo
Ca thu nc ra
B cha bc sch
Ct lc
Si
Sn thu nc
Van iu chnh tc lc

S v nguyn tc lm vic ca b lc chm


Trang 52

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Nc t mng phn phi i vo b, qua lc (nh hn 0.1 0.5 m/h). lp ct lc


trn lp si , di lp si l h thng thu nc lc.
Lp ct lc : thch anh c chiu dy ph thuc vo c ht:
0.3 1 mm => h = 800 mm
1 2 mm => h = 50 mm
Ngoi ra cn dng si hoc dm:
2 20 mm => h = 100 mm
20 40 mm => h = 150 mm
Tm li: c 6 lp:
Chiu cao lp vt Tn vt liu lc
liu lc (mm)
800
Ct thch anh
50
Ct thch anh
100
Si hoc dm
100
Si hoc dm
100
Si hoc dm
100
Si hoc dm

Kch thc vt
liu lc (mm)
0.3 1
1 2
2 5
5 10
10 20
20 -40

Lp nc trn lp ct : 1.5 m
u im :
To lp mng gip lc tt.
Dng x l nc khng phn
Khng dng my mc.
Qun l n gin
Nhc im:
Din tch ln
Vn tc lc thp
B lc chm s dng vi cng sut nh hn hoc bng 1000 m3/ngy m; SS nh
hn hoc bng 50 mg/l; M < 50o
B lc chm c dng hnh vung, n 2; i 5%
TNH TON
1. Din tch b mt b lc chm:
F = Q / v ( m2)
Q : lu lng nc x l (m3/h)
V : vn tc lc ph thuc vo SS vo b:
SS 25 mg/l v = 0.3 0.4 m/h
SS 25 mg/l v = 0.2 0.3 m/h
Nc ngm v = 0.5 m/h
2. S b lc c xc nh theo phng trnh sau:
Trong : Vtc : vn tc lm vic ca b khi c mt ngn ngng hot ng. (Tc lc
tng cng ph thuc vo SS )
N

v v tc
N

SS 25 mg/l : vtc = 0.4 0.5 m/h


SS 25 mg/l : vtc = 0.3 0.4 m/h
X l nc ngm : vtc = 0.6 m/h
3. Chiu cao:
H = ht + hd + hn + h c + hp
Trang 53

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

ht: chiu dy lp sn y thu nc lc 0.6- 0.5 m


hd : chiu dy lp si 0.45 m
hc: chiu cao lp ct lc 0.85 m
hn : chiu cao lp nc (0.8 1.8 m)
hp : chiu cao d phng (0.3 0.5m)
4. Cng ra lc:

1 qr =

qo n
3.6

(l / s.m )
2

qo: lng nc lc qua 1 m2 b trong 1 gi (m3/m2.h). (qo = Q/F)


n: tng s ngn tp trung.
5. Dung tch nc cho mt ln ra mt ngn:

Wr =

q r . f n .t n
1000

(m 3 )

fn: din tch 1 ngn

( )

b.l
m3
n
(b, l : chiu rng v chiu di ca mt ngn)
6. Thi gian ra: 10 20 pht.
2.2.5.2.2. B lc nhanh
fn =

Hnh : B lc nhanh trng lc


ng dn nc t b lng sang
H thng thu nc lc v phn phi nc
ra lc
3. ng dn nc lc
4. ng x nc ra lc
5. Mng phn phi nc lc v thu nc ra
lc
6. ng dn nc ra lc
7. Mng thot nc
8. Mng phn phi nc lc
9. ng x nc lc u
10. Van iu chnh tc c lc
1.
2.

Nguyn tc hot ng
Nc lc t b lng ngang, qua mng phn phi vo b lc, qua lp vt liu lc, lp si
vo h thng thu nc trong v c a v b cha nc sch.
TNH TON:
B lc phi tnh theo hai ch lm vic, ch bnh thng v tng cng.
Khi n 20 b d tr mt b n 20 b d tr 2 b
1. Tc lc : Ph thuc ng knh ht.
a. B lc 1 lp lc : (ct thch anh)

Trang 54

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

dt
0.7 0.8
8 1.0
1 1.2

H s khng ng
nht K
2 2.2
1.8 -2
1.5 1.7

hlc

vtb

Vtc(m/h)

700 800
1200 1300
1800 2000

5.5 6
7.0 8
8 10

6 7.5
8 10
10 12

b. B lc ct hai lp (ct thch anh v angtraxit)


H s khng ng hlc
nht K
2 2.2
700 800
2 2.2
400 -500

dt
7.0 8.0
1 1.2

vtb

Vtc(m/h)

8 10

10 12

2. Thi gian ca mt chu k lc ch tng cng Ttc( N 20)


Ttc [ N (N1 + a)].t2
N: s b lc
N1: s b ngng sa cha
a: s b lc ra ng thi
t2 : thi gian ngng b lc ra: (t2 = 0.35 gi)
3. Din tch trm x l:
F=

Q
T .vtb 3,6.W .t1 a.t 2 .vtb

(m )
2

T : thi gian lm vic ca trm /ngy (h)


a: s ln ra 1 b / ngy m
t1 : thi gian ra lc (h) (3 7 pht)
W : cng nc ra lc ( l/s.m2)
4. S lng b lc cn thit :
N = 0.5 (F)0.5
5. Ttc lc tng cng:
vtb = vbt

N
N 1

(1)

+ vtc theo (1) vtc cho theo bng


6. Chiu cao b lc:
H = h + hv + hn + hp (m)
h : chiu cao lp : ( ph thuc vo c ht 50 100mm)
hv: chiu dy lp vt liu lc
o 1 lp : 700 2000 mm
o 2 lp : 1100 1300 mm
hn : chiu cao lp nc trn lp vt liu lc (m) (2 m)
hp : chiu cao d phng (m) ( 0.3 m)
7. lng nc ra lc cn thit:

Qr =

f .W
1000

(m 3 / h)

f : din tch b lc f = F/N


W : cng nx ra lc.
Trang 55

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

8. c Qr chn ng knh tnh phn phi s ng


Xc nh tng din tch l, trn c s tit din ngang ca ng: = (30 40%)
Chn ng knh l ng nhnh s l ng nhnh .
2.2.5.2.3. B lc p lc
400
350

400

150

2200

1000

B lc p lc l mt loi b lc khp kn, thng c ch to bng thp c dng hnh


tr ng v hnh tr ngang.
B lc p lc c s dng trong dy chuyn x l nc thi (cui dy chuyn cng
ngh ). Do b lm vic di p lc, nn nc cn x l c a vo trc tip t trm bm
vo b, ri a trc tip vo ngun tip nhn.
Cu to: ging b lc nhanh
Nguyn tc lm vic: Nc a vo b qua 1 phu b tr nh b, qua lp ct lc, lp
vo h thng thu nc trong, i vo y b v vo ngun tip nhn.
Khi ra b, nc t ng ng p lc chy ngc t di ln trn qua lp ct lc v vo
phu thu, chy theo ng thot nc ra xung ng thu nc ra lc
V d p dng: Tnh b lc chm cho cng trnh x l nc cng sut 90m3/ngy
B lc c cu to nh hnh, bao gm

Trang 56

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


3

1
5

1.

Ong dn nc t b lng

2.

Ong x nc ra lc

3.

Mng phn phi nc lc v


thu nc ra lc

4.

Ong dn nc ra lc

5.

Mng tp trung nc

6.

vt liu lc

2
6
4

a.Tnh tan kch thc b lc chm


Theo kt qu th nghim, vn tc nc trong b lc chm ly bng vlc = 0.64m/h
Din tch mt ct ngang ca b

F=

Q
vl

Trong : Q: lu lng nc x l, Q = 3.75 m3/h


vl: tc lc, vl = 0.64m/h

F=

Q
vl

3.75
= 5.86(m 2 )
0.64

Chn b hnh ch nht c kch thc L x B = 2.5m x 2.4m = 6m2.


Vt liu lc l , si, ct thch anh, than hot tnh.
Chiu cao lp vt liu lc
Ct c d = 1-2mm, chiu cao hc = 40cm.
Si c d = 1-2mm, chiu cao hs = 20cm.
c d = 1-2mm, chiu cao h = 20cm.
Than c chiu cao hth = 20cm.
Vy chiu cao tng cng ca lp vt liu:
Hvl = 100cm = 1.0m
Chiu cao lp sn y thu nc lc, h = 0.3m
Chiu cao lp nc pha trn (0.8 1.8m), chn hn = 0.8m
Chiu cao bo v (0.3 0.5m), chn hbv = 0.3m
Vy chiu cao tng cng ca b lc
H = hvl + h + hn + hbv = 1 + 0.3 + 0.8 + 0.3 = 2.4 m
b.Tnh ton h thng phn phi nc ra lc
i vi b lc hai lp th ct v than rt d xo trn ln nhau do ch dng bin php ra bng nc thun
ty.
Cng ra lc: Wr = 15 l/sm2
Thi gian ra lc: tr = 6 pht
Chu k ra lc: T = 45h
Lu lng nc ra lc

Trang 57

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Qr =

F * Wr 5.86 * 15
=
= 0.0879(m 3 / s ) 88(l / s )
1000
1000

Vi: F: din tch mt b lc


Wr: cng ra lc
Chn ng knh ng chnh dc = 300mm bng thp th tc nc chy trong ng chnh l vc = 1.25m/s (nm
trong gii hn cho php 2m/s).
Vi ng knh ng chnh l 300mm th tit din ngang ng chnh l:

fc =

d 2
4

3.14 * 0.3 2
= 0.07(m 2 )
4

Chn khang cch gia cc ng nhnh l 0.25m (quy phm cho php 0.25 0.3m) th s ng nhnh
ca b lc l:

n=

B
2.4
* 2 = 19.2 (ng)
*2 =
0.2.5
0.25

Chn n = 20 ng
Lu lng nc ra lc chy trong mi ng nhnh

q nh =

88
= 4.4(l / s )
20

Chn ng knh ng nhnh dnh= 55mm = 0.055m bng thp th tc nc chy trong ng nhnh vnh =
1.85m/s (nm trong gii hn cho php 1.8 2m/s).
Tng din tch l ly bng 35% din tch tit din ngang ca ng (quy phm cho php 30 35%), tng
din tch l tnh c l

fl = 0.35 * 0.07 = 0.0245 (m2)


Chn l c ng knh 10mm (quy phm 10 12mm), din tch mt l s l
fl =

3.14 * 0.012
= 7.85.10-5 (m2)
4
Tng s l

n0 =

f lo
0.0245
=
= 312 (l)
f lo
7.85.10 5

S l trn mi ng nhnh =

312
= 15.6 (l), chn 16 l.
20

Trn mi ng nhnh, cc l xp thnh hai hng so le nhau, hng xung pha di v nghing mt gc 450 so
vi mt phng nm ngang. S l trn mi hng ca ng nhnh l 8 l.
c.Tnh tan mng thu nc ra lc
B lc c chiu di 2.5m, b tr 2 mng thu nc ra lc c y hnh tam gic.
Khang cch gia cc mng d = 2.5/2 = 1.25m.
Lu lng nc ra thu vo mi mng
qm = Wr*d*l (l/s)
trong : Wr: cng ra lc, Wr = 15 l/sm2
d: khang cch gia cc tm mng, d = 1.25m.
l: chiu di ca mng, l = 1.9m
qm = 15 * 1.25 * 1.9 = 35.625(l/s) = 0.035625 (m3/s)
Chiu rng mng thu nc ra lc

Trang 58

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Bm = K 5

q m2
(m)
(1.57 + a ) 3

Trong : a: t s gia chiu cao phn ch nht (hCN) vi na chiu rng ca mng, ly a = 1.1 (quy phm a =
1 1.5).
K: h s i vi tit din mng hnh tam gic, K = 2.1

0.035625 2
= 0.307(m)
(1.57 + 1.1) 3

Bm = 2.15
a=

B * a 0.307 * 1.1
hCN
h CN = m
=
= 0.16885(m)
Bm
2
2
2

Vy chiu cao phn mng ch nht l: hCN = 0.16885m.


Ly chiu cao phn y tam gic l h = 0.1m.
dc y mng ly v pha mng tp trung nc l i = 0.01.
Chiu dy thnh mng ly l

m = 0.06m.

Vy chiu cao tan phn ca mng thu nc ra l


Hm = hCN + h + m = 0.16885 + 0.1 + 0.06 = 0.3289m
Khang cch t b mt lp vt liu lc n mp trn ca mng nc xc nh theo cng thc

H m =

L*e
+ 0.25(m)
100

Trong : L: chiu dy lp vt liu lc, L = 0.6m.


e: gin n tng i ca lp vt liu lc, ly theo bng (4-5) (sch X l nc cp), e = 50%

H m =

0.6 * 50%
+ 0.25 = 0.253(m)
100

Theo quy phm, khang cch gia y di cng ca mng dn nc ra phi nm cao hn lp vt liu lc ti
thiu l 0.07m.
Chiu cao tan phn ca mng thu nc ra l Hm = 0.3289m, v mng dc v pha mng tp trung i = 0.01,
mng di 2.4m nn chiu cao mng pha mng tp trung l: 0.3289 + 0.024 = 0.353m.
Vy H m = 0.353 + 0.07 = 0.423(m)
Nc r lc t mng thu trn vo mng tp trung nc.
Khang cch t y mng thu n y mng tp trung xc nh theo cng thc

hm = 1.753

q M2
+ 0.2(m)
g * A2

Trong : qM: lu lng nc chy vo mng tp trung nc, qM = 0.088 m3/s.


A: chiu rng ca mng tp trung, chn A = 0.5m.
g: gia tc trng trng, g = 9.81m/s2

hm = 1.75

0.088 2
9.81 * 0.5 2

+ 0.2 = 0.457(m)

d.Tnh tn tht khi ra b lc


Tn tht p lc trong h thng phn phi bng gin ng khoan l

Trang 59

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

hp =

v 02 v n2
+
( m)
2g 2g

Vi: v0: tc nc chy u ng chnh, v0 = 1.25m/s.


vn: tc nc chy u ng nhnh, vn = 1.85m/s.
g: gia tc trng trng, g = 9.81m/s2.

: h s sc cn
=

2.2
+1
kW 2

kW: t s gia tng din tch cc l trn ng hoc mng v din tch tit din ngang ca ng hoc mng
chnh, kW = 0.35.

2.2
+ 1 = 18.96
0.35 2

h p = 18.96

1.25 2
2 * 9.81

1.85 2
2 * 9.81

= 1.68(m)

Tn tht p lc qua lp si

hd = 0.22 * Ls * Wr (m)
Trong : Ls: chiu dy lp si , Ls = 0.4m.
Wr: cng ra lc, Wr = 15l/sm2.

hd = 0.22 * 0.4 *15 = 1.32(m)


Tn tht p lc qua lp vt liu lc

hVL = (a + aWr ) * L * e(m)


Vi kch thc ht d = 1mm, a = 0.76 v b = 0.017

hVL = (0.76 + 0.017 * 15) * 0.6 * 50% = 0.3(m)


Tn tht p lc trong ni b b

h = h p + hd + hVL = 1.68 + 1.32 + 0.3 = 3.3(m)


Thng s thit k b lc chm
STT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Tn thng s
Chiu cao b tng cng
Kch thc b lc
ng knh ng phn phi nc
S mng thu nc ra lc
S ng phn phi nc ra lc
Chiu cao mng thu
Chiu rng mng

S liu dng thit k


2.4
L*B=2.5*1.9
0.05
2
20
0.345
0.337

n v
m
m2
m
mng
ng
m
m

V d p dng 2: Tnh ton b lc p lc cho cng trnh x l nc thi thy sn cng sut 300m3/ngy (thi
gian hot ng ca nh my l 8 gi)
Chn b lc p lc hai lp than Anthracite v ct thch anh.
Cc thng s thit k c chn:
Chiu cao lp ct: h1 = 0,3 (m). ng knh hiu qu ca ht ct de = 0,5 mm, h s ng nht
U = 1,6

Trang 60

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


Chiu cao lp than: h2 = 0,5 (m). ng knh hiu qu ca ht ct de = 1,2 mm, h s ng nht
U = 1,5
Tc lc v = 9 (m/h) v s b lc n = 2.
Din tch b mt lc:

( )

Qtbh 37,5
A=
=
= 4,2 m 2
v
9
ng knh bn lc p lc:

4 A
=
n

D=

4 4,2
= 1,6 (m )
2 3,14

Chn D = 1,6 m
Khong cc t b mt vt liu lc cho n ming phu thu nc ra lc:

h = H vl e + 0,25 = (0,3 + 0,5) 0,5 + 0,25 = 0,65(m)


Trong :
Hvl: chiu cao lp vt liu lc: bao gm chiu cao lp ct v chiu cao lp ct (m)
e: gin n ca vt liu khi ra: e = 0,25 0,5, chn e = 0,5
Chiu cao tng cng ca bn lc p lc
H= h + Hvl + hbv + hthu = 0,65 + 0,8 + 0,25 + 0,3 = 2 (m)
Trong :
hbv: chiu cao bo v t mng thu nc n np y pha trn (m), hbv = 0,25 (m)
hthu: chiu cao phn thu nc (m), hthu = 0,3 (m).
Tnh lu lng kh:
Da vo bng 9 14 (trang 427 XLNT cng nghip v th Lm Minh Trit)
Tc ra nc vn = 0,35 m3/m2.pht
Tc ra kh vk = 1 m3/m2.pht
Ra ngc chia lm 3 giai on
(1) Ra kh vi vk = 1 m3/m2.pht trong 1 2 pht
(2) Ra kh v nc trong 4 5 pht
(3) Ra ngc bng nc trong 4 5 pht vi vn = 0,35 m3/m2.pht.
Lng nc ra lc cn thit cho 1 bn lc/1 ln ra:

Wn = A vn t =

4,2
0,35 10 = 7,35(m 3 / be)
2

Lu lng bm nc ra ngc:

Qn = A vn =

4,2
0,35 60( phut / h) = 44,1(m3 / h)
2

Lu lng my thi kh ra ngc:

Qk = A vk =

4,2
1) = 2,1(m3 / phut) = 126(m3 / h)
2

Tnh tn tht p lc qua lp vt liu lc;

Trang 61

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

L
1
60
h=
2 vh
o
c 1,8 T + 42 d e
Trong :
C: h s nn p, C = 600 1200, chn C = 1000
To: nhit nc (oC)
de: ng knh hiu qu (mm)
vh: tc lc (m/ngy)
L : chiu dy lp vt liu lc (m)
i vi lp ct:

hc =

1
60
0,3
24(h)

2 9
= 0,18(m / ngay)
1000 1,8 25 + 42 0,5
1ngay

i vi lp than:

hth =

1
60
0,5
24(h)

2 9
= 0,052(m / ngay)
1000 1,8 25 + 42 1,2
1ngay

Tn tht qua 2 lp vt liu lc:


htt = hc + hth = 0,18 + 0,052= 0,232 (m/ngy)
Sau b lc p lc hm lng cn l lng SS cn li khong 7 mg/l, tng ng BOD5 ca cn l lng:

BOD5ll = SS sau 0,65 1,42 0,72 = 4,6(mg / l )


Lng BOD5 sau b lc p lc:

BOD5sau = BOD5ht + BOD5ll = 18,37 + 4,6 = 22,97(mg / l )


2.3. B iu ha
2.3.1. B iu ho lu lng v cht lng
9 t sau b lng ct, trc b lng t 1
9 B iu ho c nhim v iu ho lu lng v cht lng nc thi.
9 Trong b c h thng khuy trn m bo ho tan v san u nng , trnh
lng cn.
9 Nng cht bn sau khi ra khi b iu ho tng thi im:

C t .q
C

t +1

1 e

Q t
W t+1

+ C t .Q .e

Q t
W t+1

Vi:
- Q: lu lng TB ca nc thi (m3/h).
- Ct, Ct+1: nng bn ra khi b thi im t v t+1 (mg/l).
- Ct, qt: nng v lu lng chy vo b trong thi gian t (t = 1h).
- Wt+1: dung tch nc trong b thi im t+1.
9 Lu lng khng kh cn: Qkk = n . qkk . L
Vi:
Trang 62

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

- n: s b
- qk: cng thi kh 2-4m3/mh.
- L: chiu di ng thi bng chiu di b (m).
2.3.2. B iu ho ch yu lm nhim v iu ho lu lng
9 t sau SCR, khng i hi c thit b khuy trn.
- Th tch: xc nh nh b cha nc sch.
- Vt liu: BTCT.
V d p dng: Tnh b iu ha lu lng cho cng trnh x l nc thi 4870m3/ngy cho mt th trn
Gii:
Th tch tch lu b iu ho c xc nh da vo th tch tch lu vo b qua cc gi v th tch tch lu bm
i qua tng gi vi lu lng bm bng lu lng trung bnh gi.
Th tch tch lu dng vo gi th I c xc nh:
V
Trong :

v(i)

=V

v(i-1)

+Q

v(i-1)

Th tch tch lu dng vo ca gi trc , m ;


3

Q Lu lng nc thi ca gi ang xt, m /h;


i

Th tch tch lu bm i ca gi th i:
V
Trong :

b(i)

=V

b(i-1)

+Q
V

b(i)

b(i-1)

b(i)

Th tch tch lu bm i ca gi trc


3

Lu lng bm ca gi ang xt, m /h;

Kt qu tnh ton c th hin qua bng sau:


Cc gi
01
12
23
3-4
45
56
67
78
89
9 10
10 11
11 12
12 13
13 14
14 15
15 16
16 17
17 18
18 19
19 20

Q (m /h)

Th tch tch lu

Th tch tch lu

Hiu s th tch

92,8583
92,8583
92,8583
92,8583
106,5995
155,3055
322,233
243,4358
337,611
337,611
337,611
333,1242
289,4175
258,127
277,855
281,78
321,1845
393,0155
335,6735
277,53

vo b (A), m
92,8583
185,7166
278,5749
371,4332
478,0327
633,3382
955,5712
1.199,007
1.536,618
1.874,229
2211,84
2.544,964
2.834.382
3.092,509
3.370,364
3.652,144
3.973,328
4.366,344
4.702,017
4.979,547

bm i (B), m
232,629
465,258
697,887
930,516
1.163,145
1.395,774
1.628,403
1.861,032
2.093,l661
2.326.29
2.558,919
2.791,548
3.024.,177
3.256.,806
3.489,435
3.722,064
3.954,693
4.187,322
4.419,951
4.652,58

(A) (B), m
139,771
279,541
419,312
559,083
685,112
762,436
672,832
662,025
557,043
452,061
347,079
246,584
189,795
164,297
119,071
69,9203
-18,6352
-179,0217
-282,0662
-326,9672

Trang 63

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


20 21
21 22
22 23
23 24

239,302
155,2305
115,162
93,8583

5.218,849
5.374,08
5.489,242
5.583,1

4.885,209
5.117,838
5.350,467
5.583,1

-333.6402
-256,2417
-138,7747
0

Th tch l thuyt b iu ho bng hiu i s gi tr dng ln nht v gi tr m nh nht ca ct hiu s th


tch tch lu:
V

h(lt)

= (762,436) ( -333,6402) = 1.096,076 (m )

Th tch thc t ca b iu ho:


V

= (1,1 1,2)* V

= 1,1 * 1.096,076 = 1.206 (m )

h(tt)

h(tt)

Chn chiu cao ca b l h = 4 (m)


Din tch ca b :

F=

h(lt)

W 1.206
=
= 301.5
h
4

(m )

Chn kch thc b iu ho l : L x B = 20m x 15m


Chiu cao xy dng ca iu ho:
H = h + 0,5 = 4 + 0,5 = 4,5 (m)
Vi 0,5 l chiu cao an ton.
Vy th tch xy dng b iu ho:
3

W = L*B*H = 20 * 15 *4 = 1.200 (m )
Lu lng kh cn cung cp cho b iu ho:
trnh hin tng lng cn v ngn chn mi trong b iu ho cn cung cp mt lng kh thng

xuyn.

Q = q * W = 0,013* 1.200 = 15,6 (m /pht)


kk

kk

Vi q Lng kh cn thit xo trn, q = 0,01 0,015 m /m .pht, chn q = 0,013


kk

kk

kk

m /pht, (Ngun: Tnh ton thit k cc cng trnh x l nc thi Trnh Xun Lai,
2000) ;
Khng kh c phn phi qua h thng ng chm l vi ng knh 4 mm, khong cch gia cc tm
l l 150 mm. Khi , s l phn phi trn mi ng nhnh l:
(l)
Vi din tch y b l 20 m x 15 m, ta cho cc ng sc kh t dc theo chiu di b, cc ng c t
trn cc gi cao 20 cm so vi y b.
Khong cch gia cc ng nhnh l 1,5 m, cc ng cch tng l 0,75 m. Khi , s ng nhnh c
phn b (n ng) l:

Vn tc kh ra khi l thng t 5 20 m/s, chn v = 15 m/s.


lo

Lu lng kh i qua tng ng nhnh:


3

(m /pht)
Lu lng kh i qua cc l sc kh:
3

(m /pht)
Khi ng knh l :

Trang 64

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

(mm)
Chn ng knh ca ng nhnh l 65 mm. Khi , vn tc kh trong ng nhnh l:

(m/pht)
Chn ng knh ng chnh l 170 mm, khi vn tc kh trong ng chnh l:

(m/pht)
p lc cn thit cho h thng kh nn:
H = h + h + h +H
c

Trong :

h Tn tht p lc theo chiu di trn ng ng dn, m;


d

h Tn tht qua thit b phn phi, m;


c

Tn tht h , h khng vt qu 0.4 m.


d

h Tn tht cc b ca ng phn phi kh, m;


f

Tn tht h khng vt qu 0.5 m.


f

Vy p lc tng cng l:
H = 0,4 + 0,5 + 4 = 4,9 (m)
c

p lc kh nn:

Cng sut my nn:


kw
Trong :
3

q Lu lng khng kh cn cung cp, q = 32,76 m /pht = 0,546 m /s;

- Hiu sut ca my bm,

= 0,7;

S h thng sc kh b iu ho
Cc thng s thit k b iu ho
S liu dng thit k

STT

Tn thng s

n v

Chiu di b iu ho (L)

20

Chiu rng b iu ho (B)

15

Chiu cao b (H)

4,5

S ng nhnh phn phi kh

10

ng

ng knh ng nhnh

65

mm

S l phn phn phi trn 1 ng nhnh

132

ng knh ng chnh

170

mm

V d p dng 2: Tnh ton thit k b iu ha cho cng trnh x l nc thi nh my cao su cng sut
12,5m3/gi
-

Th tch b iu ha:

Trang 65

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

( )

h
V = Q max
* t = 12 ,5 * 5 = 62 ,5 m 3

Trong :
-

t: Thi gian lu nc thi trong b iu ha, chn t = 5h

Kch thc b iu ha:


Chn b hnh ch nht.
Chiu di b: Chn D = 6m
Chiu rng b: Chn B = 4m
Chiu cao b:

H =

V
62 ,5
=
= 2 , 6 (m )
B * D 6*4

Chn chiu cao bo v ca b l Hbv = 0,4m

chiu cao tng cng (chiu cao xy dng): 2,6 + 0,4 = 3 (m)

Th tch thc ca b iu ha: D B H = 6 4 3 = 72 (m3)


-

Lu lng kh cn cung cp cho b iu ha:

= q kk *V = 0 ,015 * 60 * 62 ,5 = 56 , 25 m

Trong :

qkk: tc cp kh trong b iu ha, v = 0,01 0,015 m3/m3.pht, chn qkk = 0,015

m3/m3.pht (Theo Tnh ton thit k cc cng trnh x l nc thi -Trnh Xun Lai 1999)
V- dung tch b iu ha
Chn h thng cp kh bng nha PVC c c l, h thng gm 1 ng chnh, 4 ng nhnh vi chiu di
mi ng l 6m, t cch nhau 0,8m.
Hbv = 0,4 m
H = 2,6 m

D=6m

0,8 m
B=4m

ng knh ng chnh dn kh vo b iu ha:

D c

4 * Q kk
=
*V ong * 3600

4 * 56 , 25
= 0 , 0446 (m ) 0 , 045 (m )
3 ,14 *10 * 3600

Chn D c = 0,045m
Trong :

Vng: vn tc kh trong ng, Vng = 10 15m/s,


chn Vng =10m/s

ng knh ng nhnh dn kh vo b iu ha:

Trang 66

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn

Dn =

4 * q ong

4 *14 ,0625
= 0 ,0223 (m ) 0 ,023 (m )
3,14 *10 * 3600

*V ong * 3600
Chn Dn = 0,023m

Trong :

qng: lu lng kh trong mi ng,

3
Q kk
56 , 25
=
= 14 ,0625 m
h
4
4

q ong =

ng knh cc l phn phi kh vo b iu ha: dl = 2 5 mm


Chn dl = 3 mm

Vn tc kh qua l phn phi kh: Vl = 15 20 (m/s)


Chn Vl = 15 mm

Lu lng kh qua 1 l phn phi kh:

q lo = Vlo *

*d 2
4

S l trn 1 ng: N =

3
3,14 * 0,003 2
* 3600 = 15 *
* 3600 = 0,38151 m
h
4

q ong
q lo

14,0625
= 36,86 l
0,38151

Chn N = 36 l
-

S l trn 1 m chiu di ng: n =

N 36
=
= 6 l
6
6
125mm

3 mm

23 mm
1000 mm
N=

Xc nh cng sut thi kh:

34400 ( p 0, 29 1) Qk 34400 (1,34 0, 29 1) 56,25


=
= 0,62( KW / h)
102
102 0,75 3600
Cng sut bm: Nb = 1,2*N = 1,2*0,62 = 0,744 (Kw/h)
1,2: H s an ton.
Chn 2 bm c cng sut 1 Kw/h, 1 bm chy, 1 bm ngh lun phin

Trong :

Qk: Lu lng kh cung cp. Qk = 56,25 (m3/h)

: Hiu sut my bm, chn = 75% = 0,75


p- p lc ca kh nn

Trang 67

Bi ging K thut x l nc thi Thc s Lm Vnh Sn


p=

(10 ,33 + H d ) 10 ,33 + 3,5


=
= 1,34 ( atm )
10 ,33
10 ,33

Vi: Hd: p lc cn thit cho h thng ng kh nn c xc nh theo cng thc:


Hd = hd + hc + hf + H
Trong :
hd: Tn tht p lc do ma st dc theo chiu di ng dn, (m)
hc: Tn tht cc b ca ng phn phi kh
Tn tht hd + hc khng vt qua 0,4(m), chn hd + hc = 0,4
hf: Tn tht qua thit b phn phi, khng vt qu 0,5(m)
Chn hf = 0,5 (m)
H: Chiu cao hu ch. H = 2,6 (m)

Vy: Hd = 0,4 + 0,5 + 2,6 = 3,5 (m)


Cc thng s thit k b iu ha
STT

Tn thng s

S liu dng thit k

n v

Chiu di b (L)

(m)

Chiu rng b (B)

(m)

Chiu cao b (H)

(m)

Thi gian lu nc

gi

Cng sut my nn kh

KW/h

Th tch xy dng b

72

m3

Din tch xy dng

24

m2

Trang 68