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become a billionaire or a vigilante. many Egyptians are beginning to grow anxious about what the uprising has wrought The Brotherhood (World) Is the uprising changing the Islamist group so feared in both Egypt and the West? LETTERS Inbox (Inbox) ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT Great Performances They may lose an arm or a spouse.Table of Contents: February 21. 2011 IN THIS ISSUE EDITION: U. it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history ESSAY Road Map for Reform (Commentary / In the Arena) What the U. by pouring self into story. 7 COVER 2045: Singularity (Cover) n: The moment when technological change becomes so rapid and profound. 177 No. can do to encourage democratization in Egypt and other countries in the Middle East The Asian Experience (Commentary / Viewpoint) What the region can — and cannot — teach the Arab world about democracy through revolution Scent of a Nerd (Commentary) Want to be a writer or just smell like one? Introducing my celebrity fragrance NATION Just Don't Call Him Lucky (The Well / Nation) Antiterrorism czar John Brennan is Obama's secret weapon WORLD Postcard from Copiapó Under the Chilean desert. The risks and rewards of life as a pirquinero Revolution. but the actors we celebrate here are sorcerers who.S. Vol. created indelible characters worth admiring or reviling — and always worth treasuring BUSINESS .S. thousands of independent gold miners trade safety for the slim chance of hitting a mother lode. Delayed (World) After the high drama of the first wave of antigovernment protests.
social media are reprogramming our children's brains. Jim Parsons will now take your questions BRIEFING The Moment 2|8|11: Cairo Can Hatch Tame The Tea Party? (Washington: The Politics Page) The World 10 ESSENTIAL STORIES The Big Questions: By Mark Halperin (Washington: The Politics Page) Lab Report: Health.) Dow Chemical wants to put hard numbers on exactly how much the environment is worth to business PEOPLE 10 Questions for Jim Parsons (10 Questions) The actor stars as Sheldon Cooper in The Big Bang Theory. consumers leave their wallets at home Wired for Distraction? (Life / Technology) Like it or not.S. What's a good parent to do? SPECIAL SECTION Paying for Nature (Global Business / Sustainability Inc. Science and Medicine Verbatim Brief History: The Sun The Skimmer When Movie Sex Was Art (Milestones) Milestones (Milestones) Milestones (Milestones) .The Groupon Clipper (Business) Andrew Mason runs the hottest website in social commerce. Will it make investors rich? SOCIETY Pay Phone (Life / Money) A new chip embedded in smart phones could let U.
usurped by a computer built by a 17-year-old is to watch a line blur that cannot be unblurred. which he built himself — a desk-size affair with loudly clacking relays. 10. Creating a work of art is one of those activities we reserve for humans and humans only. Kurzweil then demonstrated the computer. To see creativity. a diffident but self-possessed high school student named Raymond Kurzweil appeared as a guest on a game show called I've Got a Secret. But Kurzweil would spend much of the rest of his career working out what his demonstration meant. It's an act of self-expression. and back in 1965 nobody guessed it. you're not supposed to be able to do it if you don't have a self. the exclusive domain of humans. not yet.COVER 2045: The Year Man Becomes Immortal By LEV GROSSMAN Thursday. Kurzweil believes that we're approaching a moment when computers will become intelligent. But now. They were ready to move on to Mrs. Calif. humanity — our . hooked up to a typewriter. 1965. 15. Chester Loney of Rough and Ready. then he played a short musical composition on a piano. 46 years later. When that happens. whose secret was that she'd been President Lyndon Johnson's first-grade teacher. On the show (see the clip on YouTube). the beauty queen did a good job of grilling Kurzweil. The panelists were pretty blasé about it. That was Kurzweil's real secret. Feb.. and not just intelligent but more intelligent than humans. but the comedian got the win: the music was composed by a computer. He was introduced by the host. 2011 Photo--Illustration by Phillip Toledano for TIME On Feb. they were more impressed by Kurzweil's age than by anything he'd actually done. Steve Allen. Kurzweil got $200. the line between organic intelligence and artificial intelligence. The idea was that Kurzweil was hiding an unusual fact and the panelists — they included a comedian and a former Miss America — had to guess what it was. Maybe not even him.
but suppress it if you can. Maybe the artificial intelligences will help us treat the effects of old age and prolong our life spans indefinitely.bodies. Maybe we'll merge with them to become super-intelligent cyborgs. There's an intellectual gag reflex that kicks in anytime you try to swallow an idea that involves super-intelligent immortal cyborgs. Maybe we'll scan our consciousnesses into computers and live inside them as software. It's impossible to predict the behavior of these smarter-than-human intelligences with which (with whom?) we might one day share the planet. no more than a weather forecast is science fiction. According to his calculations. because if you could. you'd be as smart as they would be. preposterous. It's not a fringe idea. Everybody knows that. which offers inter-disciplinary courses of study for graduate students and executives. So if computers are getting so much faster. it's a serious hypothesis about the future of life on Earth. computers are getting faster faster — that is. using computers to extend our intellectual abilities the same way that cars and planes extend our physical abilities. Their rate of development would also continue to increase. True? True. its CEO and co-founder Larry Page spoke there last year. making ethical decisions. like an intellectual freak show. It would work incredibly quickly. making witty observations at cocktail parties. This transformation has a name: the Singularity. From that point on. then all bets are off. appreciating fancy paintings. but they stay because . there might conceivably come a moment when they are capable of something comparable to human intelligence. the rate at which they're getting faster is increasing. because they would take over their own development from their slower-thinking human creators. Also. Probably. He believes that this moment is not only inevitable but imminent. writing books. Computers are getting faster. on the face of it. careful evaluation. All that horsepower could be put in the service of emulating whatever it is our brains are doing when they create consciousness — not just doing arithmetic very quickly or composing piano music but also driving cars. our minds. it's an idea that rewards sober. the end of human civilization as we know it is about 35 years away. there's no reason to think computers would stop getting more powerful. so incredibly fast. If you can swallow that idea. is hosted by NASA. Artificial intelligence. The one thing all these theories have in common is the transformation of our species into something that is no longer recognizable as such to humanity circa 2011. The difficult thing to keep sight of when you're talking about the Singularity is that even though it sounds like science fiction. Maybe the computers will turn on humanity and annihilate us. People are attracted to the Singularity for the shock value. It could draw on huge amounts of data effortlessly. The three-year-old Singularity University. virtually. People are spending a lot of money trying to understand it. It wouldn't even take breaks to play Farmville. Imagine a computer scientist that was itself a super-intelligent computer. But there are a lot of theories about it. our civilization — will be completely and irreversibly transformed. They would keep on developing until they were far more intelligent than we are. and Kurzweil and a lot of other very smart people can. Google was a founding sponsor. it isn't. because while the Singularity appears to be. forever.
" and the intelligence of man would be left far behind." In real life. In 1999 President Bill Clinton awarded him the National Medal of Technology. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make. N. "So it's like skeet shooting — you can't shoot at the target. Tony Robbins and Alan Dershowitz. technology was moving quickly enough that the world was going to be different by the time you finished a project. His manner is almost apologetic: I wish I could bring you less exciting news of the future. and you can still hear a trace of it in his voice. starring Kurzweil. almost hypnotic calm of someone who gives 60 public lectures a year. Even great inventions can fail if they arrive before their time. He needed ways to measure and track the pace of technological progress. At a NASA symposium in 1993. most recently in The Singularity Is Near. Good described something he called an "intelligence explosion": Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Shortly after. But Kurzweil was also pursuing a parallel career as a futurist: he has been publishing his thoughts about the future of human and machine-kind for 20 years. Now 62. so what else can I tell you? Kurzweil's interest in humanity's cyborganic destiny began about 1980 largely as a practical matter. The Singularity isn't a wholly new idea. The word singularity is borrowed from astrophysics: it refers to a point in space-time — for example. The other one. He'd been busy since his appearance on I've Got a Secret. the timing was right.) Bill Gates has called him "the best person I know at predicting the future of artificial intelligence. In the 1980s the science-fiction novelist Vernor Vinge attached it to Good's intelligence-explosion scenario. the transcendent man is an unimposing figure who could pass for Woody Allen's even nerdier younger brother. in the event that it turns out to be real. he has heard all the questions and faced down the incredulity many. less authorized but more informative. many times before. he speaks with the soft.there's more to it than they expected. and this is what they say. including music synthesizers and speech recognition. Vinge announced that "within 30 years. and he wanted to make sure that when he released his. He went on to build the first print-to-speech reading machine for the blind — Stevie Wonder was customer No. which was a best seller when it came out in 2005.Y. And of course. he founded and then sold his first software company while he was still at MIT. was released in January." He ." By that time Kurzweil was thinking about the Singularity too. 1 — and made innovations in a range of technical fields. there would then unquestionably be an "intelligence explosion. is called The Transcendent Man. the human era will be ended. Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities. just newish. inside a black hole — at which the rules of ordinary physics do not apply. As the Singularity's most visible champion. He'd made several fortunes as an engineer and inventor. A documentary by the same name." he says. In 1965 the British mathematician I. "Even at that time. He's good-natured about it. He holds 39 patents and 19 honorary doctorates..J. it will be the most important thing to happen to human beings since the invention of language. but I've looked at the numbers. (Kurzweil is actually the subject of two current documentaries. we will have the technological means to create super-human intelligence. an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines. among others. Kurzweil grew up in Queens.
"It's not intuitive. war and peace. they believe in the power of technology to shape history. he estimates. Once you decide to take the Singularity seriously. The curves held eerily steady. They think in terms of deep time. that you can buy for $1. Drawn as graphs. the plummeting price of dynamic RAM. they have little interest in the conventional wisdom about anything. By the end of that decade.knew about Moore's law. They doubled every couple of years. The Singularity isn't just an idea. Then he extended the curves into the future. "Through thick and thin. then rocket skyward toward infinity. In that year. According to Kurzweil. Kurzweil's numbers looked a lot like Moore's. and they cannot believe you're walking around living your life and watching TV as if the artificial-intelligence revolution were not about to erupt and change absolutely everything. We will successfully reverse-engineer the human brain by the mid-2020s." Here's what the exponential curves told him. But Singularitarians share a worldview. you will find that you have become part of a small but intense and globally distributed hive of like-minded thinkers known as Singularitarians. He looked even further afield at trends in biotech and beyond — the falling cost of sequencing DNA and of wireless data service and the rising numbers of Internet hosts and nanotechnology patents. Not all of them are Kurzweilians. They have no fear of sounding ridiculous. Kurzweil then ran the numbers on a whole bunch of other key technological indexes — the falling cost of manufacturing transistors. Exponential curves start slowly. As it turned out. and Singularitarians have no truck with irrationality. Kurzweil calls it a community." Kurzweil calls it the law of accelerating returns: technological progress happens exponentially. of course. a subculture. it created cognitive resistance in his mind. He kept finding the same thing: exponentially accelerating progress. Kurzweil tried plotting a slightly different curve: the change over time in the amount of computing power. your ordinary citizen's distaste for apparently absurd ideas is just an example of irrational bias. measured in MIPS (millions of instructions per second). boom times and recessions. That is actually hardwired in our brains. given the vast increases in computing power and the vast reductions in the cost of same. the rising clock speed of microprocessors. Our built-in predictors are linear. we pick the linear prediction of where it's going to be in 20 seconds and what to do about it. When you enter their mind-space . the quantity of artificial intelligence created will be about a billion times the sum of all the human intelligence that exists today. It's a surprisingly reliable rule of thumb. with their value increasing by multiples of two instead of by regular increments in a straight line. and the growth they predicted was so phenomenal. it attracts people. not linearly. even when Kurzweil extended his backward through the decades of pretransistor computing technologies like relays and vacuum tubes. we're not evolved to think in terms of exponential growth. Together they form a movement. computers will be capable of human-level intelligence.000." he says. not by a long chalk. which states that the number of transistors you can put on a microchip doubles about every two years. they both made exponential curves. When we're trying to avoid an animal. There's room inside Singularitarianism for considerable diversity of opinion about what the Singularity means and when and how it will or won't happen. Kurzweil puts the date of the Singularity — never say he's not conservative — at 2045. "It's really amazing how smooth these trajectories are. and those people feel a bond with one another. all the way back to 1900.
a hard ontological shear that separates Singularitarians from the common run of humanity. For example." he says. but the closer you get to it. The human body is a machine that has a bunch of functions. This is why we have vintage cars. a professor of emergency medicine. and it accumulates various types of damage as a side effect of the normal function of the machine. an expert on cognition in gray parrots and the professional magician and debunker James "the Amazing" Randi. Expect turbulence. but the sessions also cover the galloping progress of. Every time a cell divides. The mice didn't just get better. researchers at Harvard Medical School announced in Nature that they had done just that. Death is one of them. which took place in August in San Francisco. The damage went away. The whole of medicine consists of messing about with what looks pretty inevitable until you figure out how to make it not inevitable. Aubrey de Grey is one of the world's best-known life-extension researchers and a Singularity Summit veteran. molecular biologists. a specialist in wearable computers. Like a lot of Singularitarian ideas. the most talked-about topic at the 2010 summit was life extension. its telomeres get shorter. a former CEO of PayPal and an early investor in Facebook. At the 2010 summit. He views aging as a process of accumulating damage. it's well known that one cause of the physical degeneration associated with aging involves telomeres. and what do you do with illnesses? You cure them. it sounds funny at first. among other fields. They administered telomerase to a group of mice suffering from age-related degeneration. nanotechnologists. The institute holds an annual conference called the Singularity Summit. of establishing politically autonomous floating communities in international waters — handed out pamphlets. The atmosphere was a curious blend of Davos and UFO convention.) Because of the highly interdisciplinary nature of Singularity theory. It's really just a matter of paying attention. "It's just childish. Therefore in principal that damage can be repaired periodically. the less funny it seems. "People have begun to realize that the view of aging being something immutable — rather like the heat death of the universe — is simply ridiculous. de Grey runs a foundation called SENS. An android chatted with visitors in one corner. there's actual science going on here. they got younger. Proponents of seasteading — the practice. (Kurzweil co-founded that too. which are segments of DNA found at the ends of chromosomes. It counts among its advisers Peter Thiel. So why not treat regular non-cancerous cells with telomerase? In November. it can't reproduce anymore and dies. or Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence. It's not just wishful thinking. there's also a Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence. But there's an enzyme called telomerase that reverses this process. Old age is an illness like any other. it's one of the reasons cancer cells live so long. After artificial intelligence. which Kurzweil co-founded." . based in San Francisco. and once a cell runs out of telomeres. genetics and nanotechnology. Biological boundaries that most people think of as permanent and inevitable Singularitarians see as merely intractable but solvable problems. it attracts a diverse crowd. so far mostly theoretical.you pass through an extreme gradient in worldview. there were not just computer scientists but also psychologists. Artificial intelligence is the main event. In addition to the Singularity University. A British biologist with a doctorate from Cambridge and a famously formidable beard. which he has divided into seven categories. each of which he hopes to one day address using regenerative medicine. neuroscientists.
It's an attempted handoff. Yeats describes mankind's fleshly predicament as a soul fastened to a dying animal. People invested a lot of personal effort into certain philosophies dealing with the issue of life and death. "There are people who can accept computers being more intelligent than people. . Kurzweil inherited his father's genetic predisposition. It's an idea that's radical and ancient at the same time. or AI. I mean. For Kurzweil. But his goal differs slightly from de Grey's. The biologist Dennis Bray was one of the few voices of dissent at last summer's Singularity Summit. Actual AIs tend to be able to master only one highly specific domain. The kind of intelligence Kurzweil is talking about." "they are set apart by the huge number of different states they can adopt. he estimates that his biological age is about 20 years younger. wishful thinking. He says his diabetes is essentially cured. But AI doesn't currently produce the kind of intelligence we associate with humans or even with talking computers in movies — HAL or C3PO or Data.Kurzweil takes life extension seriously too. The entire field of artificial intelligence. His father. "Although biological components act in ways that are comparable to those in electronic circuits. which involves taking up to 200 pills and supplements a day. it's about staying alive until the Singularity. with whom he was very close. a doctor who specializes in longevity medicine. he also developed Type 2 diabetes when he was 35. "But the idea of significant changes to human longevity — that seems to be particularly controversial. They're intelligent. but only if you define intelligence in a vanishingly narrow way. they'll really be able to wrestle with the vastly complex. a lot of people think the Singularity is nonsense — a fantasy. a Silicon Valley version of the Evangelical story of the Rapture. like interpreting search queries or playing chess. that's the major reason we have religion. Why not unfasten it and fasten it to an immortal robot instead? But Kurzweil finds that life extension produces even more resistance in his audiences than his exponential growth curves. and although he's 62 years old from a chronological perspective." he argued. died of heart disease at 58." Of course. armed with advanced nanotechnology. In "Sailing to Byzantium. Working with Terry Grossman. systemic problems associated with aging in humans. Once hyper-intelligent artificial intelligences arise.B. Multiple biochemical processes create chemical modifications of protein molecules. Kurzweil has published two books on his own approach to life extension. The neurochemical architecture that generates the ephemeral chaos we know as human consciousness may just be too complex and analog to replicate in digital silicon. But it's also possible that there are things going on in our brains that can't be duplicated electronically no matter how many MIPS you throw at them. it's not so much about staying healthy as long as possible. They operate within an extremely specific frame of reference. He and many other Singularitarians take seriously the proposition that many people who are alive today will wind up being functionally immortal. Why not? Obviously we're still waiting on all that exponentially growing computing power to get here. by then we'll be able to transfer our minds to sturdier vessels such as computers and robots. spun by a man who earns his living making outrageous claims and backing them up with pseudoscience. Most of the serious critics focus on the question of whether a computer can truly become intelligent. which is called strong AI or artificial general intelligence. is devoted to this question. Alternatively. doesn't exist yet. in a talk titled "What Cells Can Do That Robots Can't. They don't make conversation at parties." W. further diversified by association with distinct structures at defined locations of a cell." he says.
will our lives still have meaning? By beating death." he says. point by point. omniscience and omnipotence. "It wouldn't work. "the core of a disagreement I'll have with a critic is. finding itself a newly created inhabitant of the planet Earth. would choose to do.) Would that mean that the computer was sentient. He relishes it. One of the goals of the Singularity Institute is to make sure not just that artificial intelligence develops but also that the AI is friendly. He defies biologists to come up with a neurological mechanism that could not be modeled or at least matched in power and flexibility by software running on a computer. Take the question of whether computers can replicate the biochemical complexity of an organic brain. I think they're underestimating the power of exponential growth. you're still staring at a thicket of unanswerable questions. It's called the . If I can scan my consciousness into a computer. He's tireless in hunting down his critics so that he can respond to them. Since 2005 the neuroscientist Henry Markram has been running an ambitious initiative at the Brain Mind Institute of the Ecole Polytechnique in Lausanne. will we have lost our essential humanity? Kurzweil admits that there's a fundamental level of risk associated with the Singularity that's impossible to refine away. Plenty of people make more-extreme predictions. Suppose we did create a computer that talked and acted in a way that was indistinguishable from a human being — in other words. It would just drive these technologies underground.The resulting combinatorial explosion of states endows living systems with an almost infinite capacity to store information regarding past and present conditions and a unique capacity to prepare for future events." This position doesn't make Kurzweil an outlier. If the Singularity is coming. at least among Singularitarians. simply because we don't know what a highly advanced artificial intelligence. Kurzweil is underestimating the complexity of reverse-engineering of the human brain or the complexity of biology. Underlying the practical challenges are a host of philosophical ones." Kurzweil is an almost inhumanly patient and thorough debater. "It would require a totalitarian system to implement such a ban. It might not feel like competing with us for resources. am I still me? What are the geopolitics and the socioeconomics of the Singularity? Who decides who gets to be immortal? Who draws the line between sentient and nonsentient? And as we approach immortality. they'll say. such a computer would be able to pass as human in a blind test. these questions are going to get answers whether we like it or not. He does not see any fundamental difference between flesh and silicon that would prevent the latter from thinking. (Very loosely speaking. But I don't believe I'm underestimating the challenge. the way a human being is? Or would it just be an extremely sophisticated but essentially mechanical automaton without the mysterious spark of consciousness — a machine with no ghost in it? And how would we know? Even if you grant that the Singularity is plausible. a computer that could pass the Turing test. "Generally speaking. Switzerland. carefully and in detail. You don't have to be a super-intelligent cyborg to understand that introducing a superior life-form into your own biosphere is a basic Darwinian error." That makes the ones and zeros that computers trade in look pretty crude. He refuses to fall on his knees before the mystery of the human brain. Oh." he says. and Kurzweil thinks that trying to put off the Singularity by banning technologies is not only impossible but also unethical and probably dangerous. Kurzweil yields no ground there whatsoever. where the responsible scientists who we're counting on to create the defenses would not have easy access to the tools.
at the molecular level. people die only if they choose to. biotechnology and nanotechnology give us the power to manipulate our bodies and the world around us at will. Kurzweil hopes to bring his dead father back to life. from unexpected directions. Within a matter of centuries. Now we have Facebook. This month a game show will once again figure in the history of artificial intelligence. coyly. using IBM's Blue Gene super-computer. and it's an attempt to create a neuron-by-neuron simulation of a mammalian brain. We ditch Darwin and take charge of our own evolution." In Kurzweil's future. We can scan our consciousnesses into computers and enter a virtual existence or swap our bodies for immortal robots and light out for the edges of space as intergalactic godlings. and who knows how long that would take?) By definition. deep inside the black silicon brains of the computers. and in a practice match in January it finished ahead of two former champions. Markram has said that he hopes to have a complete virtual human brain up and running in 10 years. the future beyond the Singularity is not knowable by our linear. Kurzweil believes. This is. There are more than 2. So far. which will either bloom bit by bit into conscious minds or just continue in ever more brilliant and powerful iterations of nonsentience. Or it isn't. human intelligence will have re-engineered and saturated all the matter in the universe. Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter. If it worked. he points out. they're already being decided all around us and in plain sight. but they fall off the horse at some point because the implications are too fantastic. Now we have iPhones. Indefinite life extension becomes a reality. Five years ago you didn't see people double-checking what they were saying and where they were going. I've tried to push myself to really look.000 robots fighting in Afghanistan alongside the human troops. "So you get people who really accept. "When people look at the implications of ongoing exponential growth. But as for the minor questions. He positively flogs himself to think bigger and bigger. our destiny as a species. which contains about 10. The human genome becomes just so much code to be bug-tested and optimized and.000 patients with Parkinson's disease have neural implants. but this time the computer will be the guest: an IBM super-computer nicknamed Watson will compete on Jeopardy! Watson runs on 90 servers and takes up an entire room. Google is experimenting with computers that can drive cars. you can see him kicking against the confines of his aging organic hardware. the more you start to see it peeking out at you. Five years ago we didn't have 600 million humans carrying out their social lives over a single electronic network. yes.000 neurons. and every hour brings a century's worth of scientific breakthroughs. you'd then have to educate the brain. Is it an unimaginable step to take the iPhones out of our hands and put them into our skulls? Already 30. It got every question it answered right. Markram's team has managed to simulate one neocortical column from a rat's brain. it gets harder and harder to accept. strictly . Death loses its sting once and for all. things are progressing exponentially. if necessary. Progress hyperaccelerates. The more you read about the Singularity. animal brains." he says. it didn't need help understanding the questions (or. but much more important. rewritten. but Kurzweil is teeming with theories about it. a lot of the action will happen where no one can see it. using handheld network-enabled digital prosthetics. When the big questions get answered. even as they were saying it and going there. chemical. (Even Kurzweil sniffs at this.Blue Brain project.
the answers). they'll still be alive to get credit — or their ideas could look as hilariously retro and dated as Disney's Tomorrowland. they're right about the present. You may reject every specific article of the Singularitarian charter. Singularitarianism is grounded in the idea that change is real and that humanity is in charge of its own fate and that history might not be as simple as one damn thing after another. and this will have been one of the bits.speaking. They're taking the long view and looking at the big picture. Or maybe you have to think further inside it than anyone ever has before. Flip that forward 40 years and what does the world look like? If you really want to figure that out. Kurzweil and de Grey and the others could be the 22nd century's answer to the Founding Fathers — except unlike the Founding Fathers. . but if strong AI happens. Watson isn't strong AI. but you should admire Kurzweil for taking the future seriously. which were phrased in plain English. it will arrive gradually. But even if they're dead wrong about the future. a millionth the price of and a thousand times more powerful than the computer he had at MIT 40 years ago. A hundred years from now. Kurzweil likes to point out that your average cell phone is about a millionth the size of. you have to think very. bit by bit. Nothing gets old as fast as the future. very far outside the box.
Desert: Brooke Whatnall — National Geographic / Getty Images The battle lines were clear as Egypt's revolution devolved into trench warfare in its third week. there was Wael Ghonim. Should Support Middle East Reform By JOE KLEIN Thursday. 10.S. powered by these new information technologies. was not ready for democracy." The U. and within the U." Senator John Kerry told me." he said. "We have to recognize that there is a strong. Two new leaders had emerged." a Middle Eastern diplomat said. that he would remain a figurehead in a government led. government. that this was a reasonable plan. it was not just the Mubarak kleptocracy that was ending.S. "That era is over. that Mubarak could survive. The government would have to lift the 30-year state of emergency.S. 2011 Photo-Illustration by Stephen Kroninger for TIME. It would take time to organize those elections. outside Egypt. who seemed intent on slow-walking the pro-democracy protesters into oblivion. change its decidedly awful image in the region? For 60 years we had supported any autocrat willing to take our side against the Soviet Union. Feb. On the government side. And on the protesters' side." But how could the U. fresh wind blowing. Indeed. but an era in American diplomacy. stood somewhere between these two sides. There was general agreement in the region. The plan involved compromises by both sides. in effect. There was no pretense. There was a coherent middle path — a gradual transition to democracy — and the Obama Administration was trying hard to sell it. by Suleiman until the next elections. which Suleiman seemed loath to do. And the protesters would have to accept that President Hosni Mubarak would not be humiliated by public defenestration. Egypt's "culture. and we stuck with them after the Soviets . the passionate Google executive — how perfect! — who tweeted as he was released from prison: "Freedom is a bless that deserves fighting for it. which actually was not a bad place to be.S. they would certainly occur no sooner than September. there was Vice President Omar Suleiman. "It will be increasingly difficult for dictators to impose their will through sheer brutality.ESSAY IN THE ARENA Joe Klein: How the U.
"Fayyad's impressive.S. which doesn't need our financial support: King Abdullah has overhauled the educational system. and Israel. Of course. illegal under international law. should also support democracy demonstration projects under way in Iraq and the West Bank. and Israel is far more significant. But we should be clear about this: Israel's illegal behavior in the occupied territories stands at odds with the values the U." Which raises the question of our unflinching support for Israel. to the young people in Tahrir Square — but only if Israel respects the territory and democratic rights of the Palestinians. It probably won't even abstain. Israeli Ambassador Michael Oren speaks about the "strategic alliance" between the U.S. profitably. shifting the curriculum from religious dogmatism toward intellectual freedom." Pollack adds. they are congenitally delusional about their own indispensability. No longer could the autocrats' trump card — the fear of an Islamist takeover — be dispositive. who saw him challenge other Arab leaders on the need for democracy in a private meeting recently. is trying to promote in the region. This is not an issue in Tahrir Square. "We should offer financial support to programs in education and economic development that move the system in the right direction. won't support the resolution. It is an alliance undertaken. The moral alliance between the U. whose book A Path Out of the Desert is an essential road map for the reform of basic Middle Eastern institutions — crony-ridden economies.S. "But it is precisely the sort of thing we should be encouraging. "The best way to do this is through incentives." said Kerry. But it soon will be when the U.S. the absence of rational justice systems. which we need to bolster any way we can. although a major argument in favor of doing just that is taking place within the Administration. Dictating to dictators doesn't work. schools that emphasize rote learning. Both were intensely unpopular positions on the so-called Arab street." The U. And we had backed Israel unequivocally against the claims of the Palestinians. not threats. The U. our leverage is not exactly overwhelming. But support for Israel is more a strategic liability than a strength.S. Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad has supervised major advances in security and economic freedom that are threatened by the Israeli settler movement..N. despite the disadvantages to the U. "It doesn't make headlines like Tahrir Square. But the Administration's efforts in Egypt — clumsy and tentative as they sometimes were — pointed the way forward: our allies in the region would have to be nudged toward democratization.S.disappeared. . to support a democracy and redress a historic wrong. Neither could be modified easily. This is an argument that can be made. Security Council votes on a resolution to condemn Israel for its West Bank settlements." Pollack cites Saudi Arabia. "He did it with a boldness that I've not seen before in the Arab world." says Kenneth Pollack.
Asia's fledgling democracies can be forgiven for indulging in a moment of nostalgia. Wells / Corbis How. Other popular uprisings against authoritarianism followed. including those of a couple of foreign journalists. my overseas friends asked me. While revolutionary zeal may have toppled the region's strongmen. South Korea and Taiwan to Mongolia and Indonesia. Thai ballots are cast. most dramatically. 2011 March 1986. with its gilded temples and hedonistic spas. when a sea of yellow-clad demonstrators peacefully overthrew a dictator in the Philippines. it is true: last year. Friends complained of bullet holes pockmarking the facades of their office towers. faith in this ritual is so stunted. too few of their successors have bothered to build the institutions needed to sustain democracy beyond its first flush. Since then. 21. after months of antigovernment protests that paralyzed the business district. the mayhem of April and May claimed around 90 lives. however. While my children napped at home. A motorcycle-taxi driver who worked near my home was among the dead. Yemen and. Democracy through revolution is heady stuff. Asia gave birth to people power in 1986. I drove 10 minutes to cover the clashes between security forces and so-called Red Shirt demonstrators. the Thai capital convulsed in violence. Egypt. but it's not always a template for building lasting freedom and justice. But Thailand's political crisis — the result of a bloody deadlock between two bitterly opposed political camps that shows no sign of abating — is no model of democratic rebellion. Feb. Manila People power alone isn't enough David H. Life in Bangkok. Back in 1992. Every few years. out-of-touch government. had I survived living in a battleground? Given that some of my journalistic colleagues were living in real war zones. however. It is a mockery of it.The Asian Experience By HANNAH BEECH Monday. the plotlines of Bangkok and Cairo seem similar: thousands of brave souls potentially sacrificing their lives to crusade against a rigid. while other buildings were reduced to burned-out carcasses. And yet. the question was almost embarrassing. the country has failed to nurture its newfound democracy. protesters in Thailand did indeed overthrow a military regime. from Thailand. . Watching the events unfold in the Arab world. I've been thinking about the Thai protests as civil unrest has flared halfway across the globe in Tunisia. All told. shouldn't have been worthy of commiseration. At first glance. that many dissenters prefer to unleash their anger on the streets.
was ousted by a populace that rallied. Politics is dominated by the same old families. (Then it was radio. 21. Feb. spent the past few years in Thailand Scent of a Nerd By JOEL STEIN Monday. but vote buying taints the results. with the son of people-power heroine Corazon Aquino now serving as President. Without the crucial check of a free press — or independent legislatures and courts. strongman Suharto was forced out by massive street protests. a corrupt. for instance.) But a quarter-century later.S. Across Asia. for that matter — democracy exists in name only. the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. But Egypt could do a lot worse than to follow the model of this moderate. In 1998. U. cronyism and nepotism that provoked the 1986 protests. who is now TIME's Beijing bureau chief. Perfume bottle: Sean Brosmith . as does sectarian conflict. Economic growth often rewards the few rather than the many. which overthrew a U.-backed dictator. Those following the events in Egypt will find many parallels. Ferdinand Marcos. but it works. There's South Korea. not Facebook or Twitter. Since then. The country's problems are still immense: graft and poverty persist. And from Malaysia and East Timor to Taiwan and Thailand. I have met local journalists who passed information on to me because they felt it was too dangerous to write about the issues themselves. in part.-backed military dictatorship. This month. Asia also offers heartening lessons for the Arab world.The withered potential of people power is best examined on its home turf. and its civil society is flourishing. the Philippines will celebrate the 25th anniversary of the start of its historic uprising. Muslim-majority democracy. after 32 years in power. aging. thanks to technology. then carefully constructed a prosperous democracy. That may not sound sexy. And then there's Indonesia. elections are held. 2011 Photo-Illustration by John Ueland for TIME. These failings are not the Philippines' alone. the Philippines is still beset by the poverty. Indonesia has now peacefully cycled through several secular-minded leaders.S. change in Indonesia has occurred not in one cataclysmic jolt but instead through years of brick-by-brick nation building. Still. Beech.
I tried on one each day and made Cassandra smell me. smelled a bunch of cologne and reported back to Coby. I asked Kim Kardashian for help. and a dry down of tobacco accord. we talked to Lisa Popoli. "Fragrance is such a personal thing--it took me two years to develop my scent. This was tough. who has one of the top-selling celebrity perfumes in the country. "The idea is to create something that's a true reflection of yourself. For more than a month. I called Kecia Coby. Kim Kardashian's perfume smells sexy because she is sexy. my readers would tend to be soapy. I eventually settled on one with top notes of plum-and-citrus bouquet. like Elizabeth Taylor. Gwen Stefani's Harajuku Lovers Sunshine Cuties Lil' Angel. For our third meeting. a senior account executive at Givaudan. Coby had a way of making being famous seem a lot less fun. since that seemed a little more playful than my first choice. very pretty. . Apparently. I wanted her to make the cologne and for me to go on talk shows and tell people about how I made the cologne. If I didn't truly know my cologne. But now there are hundreds of celebrity fragrances. asking for heavier caps. to call my cologne Snarky. the only scalable one was to create my own fragrance. coming up with names. tobacco flower and heliotrope. was not how celebrities did things. I needed to act quickly. we had to decide what to call my cologne. I like soapy. a heart of plum. unable to decide. This. Next. Lady Gaga's upcoming perfume will smell like blood and semen because Lady Gaga is trapped in a male prison." "juicy melon" or "skin musk. after much discussion. she said that if I'd been honest in my career. I was pretty sure." "T-shirt accord. She sent me five sample bottles.The ultimate goal of any career is to have other people smell like you." because I didn't know what those things were. the wife of English soccer player Wayne Rooney and Japanese Vogue editor-at-large Anna Dello Russo. to pull this off you had to be seriously famous. But she insisted that both Kim Kardashian and 50 Cent were very involved. And while I contemplated many methods of accomplishing this. the largest fragrance company in the world. I went to Sephora with my lovely wife Cassandra. I could tell just by looking at Coby that she was very. all of which smelled great. amber and musk. After nearly two decades of reporting. Mariah Carey's Lollipop Bling. Until a decade ago. I met Coby at her office in Los Angeles. it reminds them of you. since all the good ones were taken: Kimora Lee Simmons' Fabulosity. Joel Stein by Joel Stein. so when you share it with people. rejecting scents. This went on for months until. I wouldn't be convincing when I talked about it. Coby and I decided. a consultant who has guided the personal scents of celebrities such as 50 Cent and Kim Kardashian. but Snarky disagrees. woodsy people too." Looking at the list of ingredients in the samples. It's probably just weeks before TIME readers can choose to smell like Nancy Gibbs instead of me. I wasn't sure if my true reflection smelled like "clean aldehydes. Sophia Lauren or Cher." she told me. woodsy scents and for Cassandra not to wander off through the rest of the store while our baby knocked over bottles. When I asked Coby why I was smelling stuff instead of market testing my readers' preferences. Coby told me it would be the first of several meetings we'd have to create my cologne. You might not think people want to smell like cigarettes. including ones from reggaeton singer Daddy Yankee. pretending to listen to her comments but really just recording whether she had sex with me that night.
" Brosmith said. chief creative officer of Maesa Studio. You pull open the top of the die to reveal the little spray thing. which is used to determine damage from a battle-ax. so it's a pretty cool die. "What does nerd smell like?" After I suggested a 20-sided die from Dungeons & Dragons. when I was telling him about my interests.000 people interested in me. Snarky will retail for about $79 for 3.4 oz. . At one point. we met with Sean Brosmith. Brosmith went to work. Which only sounds challenging until you think about all the people who want to smell like Kim Kardashian. (100 ml) and will be sold at high-end stores once I've found 15. He came up with a design that looked just like a really swank 12-sided die.For Snarky's bottle. he very earnestly asked me. "There's a humor element to that. Dungeons & Dragons and smelling like cigarettes. The bar to clear for humor in fragrance bottles is even lower than it is in TIME magazine.
with his broad shoulders. It is an extra-secure enclave within one of the world's most secure buildings." says Deputy National Security Adviser Denis McDonough. during Obama's tenure that came close to killing countless innocents. which could scoop up some of America's most sensitive secrets. Brennan is often the first to notify Obama when something terrible has happened — he delivered the news that Arizona Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords had been shot in Tucson — or when word surfaces of a particularly alarming new threat. President Obama's top adviser on homeland security and counterterrorism mostly works in the shadows. "I will not disagree with that view. such as BlackBerrys and cameras. appearing in the Oval Office doorway for an unscheduled meeting. with a keypad lock on its outer door. Then he turns serious again: "The issues that I speak to [Obama] about are life-and-death." Brennan's portfolio covers a hair-raising spectrum of horribles. including everything from cyberattacks to earthquakes and pandemics. a career intelligence professional. His basement office in the White House has low ceilings and no windows. 2011 Andrew Cutraro / Redux John Brennan works underground. He has also become something of a folk hero among Obama aides. . 28. The location makes sense. a gleaming steel safe in its anteroom and a prohibition on electronic devices. a muted grin breaking through his poker face. "He is the most effective person I've seen in the government. Brennan's is a world of spycraft and special operations. The job involves some grim conversations with the President. Feb. who lavish praise on his skills and work ethic. But his top priority is the continuing threat of radical Islamists who have mounted a series of attacks on the U. You can imagine that Obama clenches a little when he sees Brennan. at least on terrorism issues." says Brennan.S. one requiring a delicate balance between protecting American lives and upholding American values." says Bruce Riedel. "He has become the de facto head of the intelligence community. a former CIA officer and Brennan colleague.NATION Obama's Counterterror Czar Steps Out of the Shadows By MICHAEL CROWLEY Monday. thick hands and stern face.
Clad in black and white hats and trench coats. (See pictures of the history of the CIA." Sometimes the news is good. sitting in his office on a January afternoon. Brennan's role during this period. is "to stay vigilant for the potential for a terrorist dimension to develop as the situation unfolds. "I don't know that John ever sleeps. The autocratic regimes in Arab countries like Egypt. So on any given day. And he knows who will be the first one grilled if terrorists strike: "Next time something happens. you know. "Anytime I need to see the President. 55.S. In Brennan's line of work." says a friend. "It is intensely. partners in the fight against Islamic extremism. says a White House spokesman. the ones in which the world seems safe and calm. . "It's impossible to have downtime. the cartoon pair endlessly battle away. Brennan was spotted in a suit and tie. and causing it. the margin for error is almost zero. "Is this just an inebriated passenger? You're trying to make sure that you understand the nature of the threat. Brennan was cooking dinner when he got a call reporting that a Nigerian man named Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab had tried to blow up a Detroit-bound plane with explosives sewn into his underwear. Spy feature." Even on the quiet days.S. On a shelf above his office desk." says National Security Council staffer Ben Rhodes. U. we didn't do enough." says Brennan. city or help plan drone strikes in the tribal areas of Pakistan or learn that several of his former colleagues were killed in a December suicide bombing at a CIA base in Khost. dealing with death — preventing death." he says. always living to fight another day." It takes a wry sense of humor to stay sane in the world of counterterrorism. But the constant possibility of something worse means that Brennan might be the hardest worker in a White House of workaholics. if imperfect. "But there are also opportunities. He might dash in to tell him that a terrorism suspect has been captured. has spent much of his career. The hours take their toll: "He was dead tired the last time I saw him. a bomb defused. Afghanistan. Brennan worked through New Year's Day.The political turmoil spreading across the Middle East may complicate Brennan's job. Brennan's world is not so benign. "I just run up the stairs. On Christmas Day in 2009. "We had a couple this morning. Sometimes he just e-mails.) The alarms — real and false — never stop going off. nonstop." he says. Brennan might lead an exercise simulating a nuclear bomb in a U. When Scandinavian authorities arrested suspected Islamist militants in late December." The passenger is almost always a drunk. a former counterterrorism adviser to three Presidents. Jordan. 24 hours a day." he says. Saudi Arabia and Yemen are all crucial. Brennan speaks to Obama several times. for instance." he says. It's just the nature of the work. he notified the President by e-mail with a Shakespearean reference in the subject line: "Something is rotten in Denmark no more. Brennan constantly gets alerts about suspicious airline passengers." says Richard Clarke. "There are certainly risks. As Obama golfed on Martha's Vineyard last August. A vacation means following the President to some sunny clime and working there. the former CIA operative keeps two small figurines of the dueling secret agents from Mad magazine's classic Spy vs." Yet Brennan himself strikes a hopeful note. where Brennan. I'm sure I'm going to be blamed by some of the folks in Congress [who will say] that.
Obama is moving ahead with military trials for terrorism suspects. said Brennan "has lost my confidence." he explained in a May speech. Last month. In Yemen. citizen based in Yemen. Brennan says simply that any U. Brennan wrote a combative response that accused Republicans of fearmongering that "serve[s] the goals of al-Qaeda. a legitimate tenet of Islam meaning to purify oneself or one's community." he says of the peaceful demonstrations. "I think it's going to have profound implications across the region in terms of moving ahead with political reforms that are overdue. on the grounds that a President has no power to target a fellow American for assassination. when federal officials read Miranda rights to Abdulmutallab. Then. women and children." says CIA Director Leon Panetta. for example. gets invaluable assistance from friendly Arab states. "Jihad is a holy struggle." as he puts it. I think it's a refutation of bin Laden and al-Qaeda's agenda of violence. response. Much of U. citizen plotting terrorist attacks abroad "will face the full brunt of a U. South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham. Brennan is watching events in the Middle East. for one. Such talk has not endeared him to hard-line conservatives. "I can't tell you how important it is to have someone at the White House who understands what the hell we're doing. After an editorial in USA Today questioned whether Obama was tough enough on terrorists. And he has fans in more surprising places. Though pessimists warn of Iran-style revolutions that could leave Islamists in power in many countries. and there is nothing holy or legitimate or Islamic about murdering innocent men." Brennan has long thought that the U. he has multiplied the rate of drone strikes against suspected terrorists in Pakistan.S.S.S. the underwear bomber — only after he stopped cooperating with interrogators — Republicans howled that terrorists should not be treated like ordinary criminals. And Brennan doesn't take their criticism lightly. The U." That led some GOP stalwarts — including House Homeland Security Committee chairman Peter King.For all those reasons. no less than former Vice President Cheney told the Today show he thinks Obama "has learned that what we did was far more appropriate than he ever gave us credit for while he was a candidate. must show a more benevolent face to the Muslim world. And he has toned down the rhetoric. Brennan has pressed to close the Guantánamo Bay detention camp. who dubbed Brennan an "egomaniac" — to call for his ouster. there's a liberal who sees him as Obama's Dick Cheney. Obama's Justice Department has fended off multiple lawsuits challenging its practices — including one from the American Civil Liberties Union contesting reported efforts to kill the radical cleric Anwar al-Awlaki.S. counterterrorism policy remains largely unchanged since the second Bush term. "In many respects. a fragile government has turned its army against radical Islamists.S. abandoning phrases like "the war on terrorism" and the word jihad to describe the mission of Islamic terrorists." The embattled CIA certainly loves him. and Guantánamo is still open. He emphasizes the ways in which the Obama Administration has broken with Bush-era policies like waterboarding and secret prisons — "a way to signal to the world that America is a country of values." Yet for every conservative who thinks Brennan is too soft. which civil libertarians call unconstitutional. Brennan sees a bright side." Sunrise in the Desert .S. a U.
But there may have been an element of destiny in his career choice: his birthday is the day the British hanged Nathan Hale. And sometimes Brennan would go off and explore the desert alone on camelback." he says." but he was frustrated by a belief that the Iraq war and other Bush-era counterterrorism policies were making America less safe. "Hello. he walked up to the car of a senior Iranian intelligence operative and knocked on the window." he says. lacked a seasoned intelligence pro in his inner circle. Brennan says he is "neither Democrat nor Republican. browsing through the neighborhood's stores. Brennan makes for an unlikely John of Arabia. Brennan returned to the region. in the hope of enlisting a double agent. as a graduate student at the University of Texas at Austin." Born in North Bergen. "That's where I spent a lot of my time. just as anti-Western religious fundamentalism was exploding from Iran to Saudi Arabia. In another.S. Once." Brennan recalls. By 1996. He claims the Bush White House resented him enough to block him from two different high-level job appointments for which he was being considered." Brennan insists he was not responsible for crafting interrogation and detention policies during the Bush Administration and that he opposed extreme interrogation methods like waterboarding. "That's why I take very personally what al-Qaeda has done. he called the definition of torture debatable: "I think it's torture when I have to ride in the car with my kids and they have loud rap music on. Obama liked him enough to consider making Brennan his CIA director.J. N. he spent a year studying at the American University in Cairo. But when that word leaked in November 2008. When. had to "take off the gloves in some areas" with terrorists. The candidate quickly grew to appreciate Brennan's vast knowledge of dark secrets and concise. liberal bloggers who scoured Brennan's public record turned up quotes suggesting sympathy for aggressive interrogation techniques. Brennan was the CIA's station chief in Saudi Arabia. . telling stories and jokes. and Brennan took himself out of consideration. But the incoming Obama team was not interested in a fight involving the CIA's past. "It was sitting around the campfire. A few years later. meanwhile." he said. the Iranian stammered and sped away. Brennan agreed that the U. he signed up. As a junior at Fordham University. and I've got something to tell you. Brennan has fond memories of Cairo's Tahrir Square. no-nonsense briefing style. As a young CIA agent based in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. whose main campus was then just a few blocks from the square. where he proved his mettle. Brennan spotted a CIA recruitment ad in the New York Times. embassy. After exiting government in 2005. In 1980 the CIA sent Brennan to the Middle East. I'm from the U. a clearinghouse of intelligence data. Brennan climbed the pyramids and watched the sun rise over the desert. Sometimes there were goat roasts. and he admired Obama's promise of a fresh start in the fight against radical Islam. Obama.) In what would be a fateful tenure at the agency's top levels. In 2003 he left to set up the Terrorist Threat Integration Center. In one 2006 interview.S.As the world watches the drama in Egypt unfold. Brennan became CIA Director George Tenet's chief of staff in 1999.. and then the CIA's deputy executive director. the first American spy. On New Year's Eve in 1976. he loved camping in the desert with Saudi tribesmen. (Disappointingly. "They have besmirched the image of Arab hospitality. Brennan was earning a high-six-figure salary at a security consulting firm when he was approached by Obama's campaign.
overshadowing the Director of National Intelligence position that Congress created in 2005 to oversee the entire intelligence community. a Republican." And with that. 'They're just lucky. Obama officials sharply bat down such talk. such critiques are overshadowed by his overriding priority: preventing another catastrophe. "He's the President's guy." says Senator Susan Collins. he is not subject to congressional oversight under the Constitution. One former government official with counterterrorism experience in more than one Administration calls Brennan a micromanager who calls intelligence analysts outside the official chain of command. "And so what comes out of that pipeline." then-Senator Kit Bond. Others say Brennan hoards power. Several terrorist attacks have come close. "It's very ironic that a guy who they thought could not get confirmed as CIA director and who they stuck in a windowless room in the White House basement has all the power. To some critics. Neither did Abdulmutallab's underwear. complained last May. days before he planned to detonate bombs in the New York City subway. in the White House. "It does concern me that Mr.S. the most important thing to him is that al-Qaeda hasn't successfully struck the U. And I rarely ever curse. For Brennan. But nothing shakes Brennan from his calm quite like the word luck. Director of National Intelligence James Clapper calls Brennan "assiduous in not overstepping bounds. 10. is a much less capable. but his improvised bomb didn't detonate. "That's bulls___.Brennan "was disappointed" not to get the CIA post. the materials that went into it — all were less efficient. says one friend. under his watch. ranking Republican on the Senate Homeland Security Committee. these near misses are evidence that America's defenses are not strong enough. "We cannot depend on dumb luck. It's because the training he got. The embittered Pakistani American Faisal Shahzad managed to light the fuse on his explosives-laden SUV in Times Square last spring. Dennis Blair. The U. just steps down the hall from the underground office he didn't want but where he now seems quite comfortable. "He is involved in the tactical details of every current threat. he argues.S. incompetent terrorists and alert citizens to keep our families safe. the person who provided him the IED. I think. Brennan is clearly the point person and yet is not accountable to Congress. he excuses himself." But it's no secret that Brennan clashed with Clapper's predecessor. He is due for a meeting on Pakistan in the White House Situation Room. . If their underwear doesn't explode the way it's supposed to. Some members of Congress want to know more about this dynamic but can't call Brennan to testify because. The al-Qaeda-trained Najibullah Zazi was apprehended on the George Washington Bridge last Sept. And yet by most accounts he is more powerful today." says a senior member of Congress who deals with intelligence issues.'" Brennan says. much less expert terrorist. as a White House staffer. For now. it's not just because the guy was incompetent. than he would have been at CIA headquarters in Virginia." The Point Person Some critics complain that's true to a fault. who was forced out after friction with the White House." says the former official. has severely weakened al-Qaeda's ability to recruit and train. I take strong issue with somebody saying. less suitable to the challenge.
Aladino Olivares crawls down a crude mine shaft little more than 3 ft." After softening the rock by blasting two sticks of dynamite inside the wall. (91 m). that's the vein. It's also a big part of the problem. the world's leading copper producer. "That's where we find gold. 58. It became one of the largest in the Americas and helped make the Atacama region a mining powerhouse. (60 m) down.WORLD Postcard from Copiapó By AARON NELSEN Monday. Olivares shrugs off the news. the drama of "Los 33" also sparked a call to fix Chile's shameful mine-safety record. the self-employed. At 300 ft.000 miners." Olivares. or small-time independent miner." That freedom is part of the allure of being a Chilean pirquinero." says Liver Rojas. Feb. The only ceiling supports are rocks that he's stacked over the years. "It's just a little bit farther. But many Chileans feel the 40. takes in its mining industry. (1 m) high inside a mountain near Copiapó in Chile's northern Atacama Desert. buried under several tons of collapsed rock. He sells about 50 g (1. (40 kg) of material that will yield flecks of gold. He does this so often that he doesn't wear a helmet anymore. only a stocking cap holding a pack of cigarettes and two lighters. "Right there. ever since the most famous of them. President Sebastián Piñera has made a push for reforms in larger company operations.75 oz. Still." he says of the dangers he faces every day. in northern Chile Tomas Munita Armed with only a lantern and basic tools. which employ some 140.000 or so pirquinero ventures need just as much. 21. earning some $1. Juan Godoy. he learns that another solo miner was recently found dead in a similar shaft nearby. discovered in 1832 the Chañarcillo silver mine. says about 200 ft. pointing to a red strip along the cave's wall. "But nobody tells me what to do in my mine. 2011 A pirquinero walks out of a small-scale mine near Copiapó. "It's a sacrifice. But when Olivares emerges on this day. he slides into a parallel shaft. Olivares chips away and fills his bag with 90 lb. "The pirquineros are like [something out of] the California gold rush. a mineralogy professor at the University of Atacama.) each month on the black market.200." he says. self-reliant Chilean pirquineros held a special place in South American mining lore. But long before that. if not . The miraculous rescue of 33 company-employed miners trapped far below the Atacama last year showcased the pride that Chile. more than three times Chile's monthly minimum wage.
10. says Fernando Pinto. Says Rojas: "The pirquinero doesn't have a plan other than extracting gold and selling it. says Pinto. In that sense too. But more commonly. In addition. Olivares." he says. been a largely peaceful protest into something bloodier? Tahrir Square has been a barometer of anti-regime feeling for more than two weeks now. head of operations in northern Chile for the state-run mining firm Enami. which exports the pirquinero product in bulk. What else could they do short of turning what has.more. dying as destitute as he was before his magnificent discovery. Most pirquineros work in groups of four or five. hard work and a bit of luck pay off with a mother lode. 10. "I'm my own boss. as TIME reports: . This is odd as well as tragic." Egypt: What Happens When the Revolution Is Delayed By Bobby Ghosh Thursday. Usually. "After everything. Egyptians were expressing both hopes and anxieties. pays the Chilean government an annual license fee of 30. "the percentage of fatalities in those smaller mines is higher. 10. since in many cases the government rents out the mine tracts in which pirquineros work." That's why even when a pirquinero does strike it rich. it doesn't always last. for example. Even so. Feb. will anger swell the streets with protest again? Or will the failure to get Mubarak out only increase anxieties over instability and economic stagnation (the crucial tourist industry. 2011 On Feb. in another meandering and legalistic speech. Godoy's story is sadly emblematic: apparently he cashed in his find and quickly squandered it. is a shell of its former self. some of whom had come from as far away as Aswan in the south. reiterated his intention of staying in office until a new President is elected in September. so they sell it either on the black market or to Enami. their fortunes inexorably tied to the vagaries of commodity prices. targeting older Egyptians frustrated that life was not getting back to normal. on their part. regular companies often find pirquineros unemployable because they are unpredictable or have poor health or legal troubles. The people in Tahrir. regulatory scrutiny. the amount of gold or copper they find isn't enough to be sold directly. Occasionally.000 pesos (about $60).) There was speculation that Mubarak's latest speech was an attempt to divide public opinion even further. enormous crowds gathered in Tahrir Square to cheer the hoped-for resignation of President Hosni Mubarak. Indeed." Chilean authorities rarely if ever visit tiny mine camps like Olivares'. were furious — but also at a crossroads. the numbers who gather rising and falling with public support. and some prospectors can make a decent living. pirquineros like Olivares make it clear what they think is most important. The question now is. Those hopes were quashed when Mubarak. for example. Even before Feb. using beat-up air compressors to blast holes into the mountainsides and rudimentary winches to haul up buckets of rock. pirquineros languish in poverty.
" she says. 10th. she says: "Otherwise. It's a tough sell. She remembers the first week of protests only for the violence and looting they unleashed. kept her teahouse open. Calls for caution. The lawyer and father of three says he marveled at the valor and steadfastness of the mostly young protesters. "They secured very big concessions. wishes the kids would just go home. are frequently drowned out. too. how were we going to eat?" That pragmatic outlook informs her politics as well: Mubarak is the devil she knows. for the divorced mother of five. "We don't know how a new President will treat us. But as Egypt. the challenge now is to persuade Egyptians like Abdel-Mohsin and Abdel-Salem to set aside their misgivings. But now Abdel-Mohsin. enters its third week of political upheaval. Nor is there a Mikhail Gorbachev.It's been barely a fortnight since the first demonstrations broke out in Cairo's Tahrir Square. who manages a small teahouse in the Agouza neighborhood. an insider . Despite the risk — and the scarcity of customers — Abdel-Salem. a society weaned on the absolute certainties that come with authoritarianism. many feel a mounting anxiety about what lies ahead." he says. Mona Abdel-Salem. he twice visited the square to witness their heroism for himself. she feels no sympathy. Suhaib Salem / Reuters Revolutions are often a contest between yes and no. in the uprising's first heady week. so let's stick with the old one. She had no choice. reassuring leader among the protesters — the revolution is missing a Vaclav Havel or Corazon Aquino. is impatient for a return to normality. and they should let things return to normal and life to continue. but Mohammad Ibrahim Abdel-Mohsin already refers to the revolution in the past tense. sacrifice short-term economic interests and get behind the push to topple the regime. much less admiration. The unease is heightened by the absence of a charismatic. For the political activists and amateur protesters who have brought the revolution this far. 2011. also 45. the ifs and buts. 45. for the Tahrir Square youths. in Cairo Feb. Opposition supporters gather in their stronghold of Tahrir Square. Unlike the lawyer. And he was delighted when a plainly rattled President Hosni Mubarak pledged he wouldn't stand for re-election in September. revolution is bad for business.
(His new Cabinet also announced a 15% raise for all state employees. "Egypt is not going to go back to what it was. 36. Vice President Omar Suleiman. the lawyer. Suleiman has shown great reluctance to drop the emergency powers Mubarak has used for three decades to curb dissent. So what is going to happen after Mubarak leaves?" he asks. "It doesn't help to create a power vacuum now. a State Department spokesman says. But he must also protect the interests of the institution that commands the loyalty of both men: the military. That leaves the White House with a fine line to walk. advising restraint and providing assurance that democratic freedoms are on the way." Mubarak's Man Suleiman. The Administration has reached out. It must reassure Suleiman and the Egyptian military. Egypt's armed forces need the $1. But. has anxieties of his own. things would be very difficult now. is keen to give the impression of business as usual: he met with the Foreign Minister of the United Arab Emirates and with Russia's envoy to the Middle East. having nudged Mubarak toward the exit. an unsubtle attempt to curry favor with the 6 million people on the government payroll. "The best thing that [Mubarak] did was that he didn't leave. "The Muslim Brotherhood have their ideas. it also sows a sense of apprehension in Washington. the regime's new center of power. will not stampede them into a messy democracy — like. Mubarak's resignation would trigger an election in 60 days — a challenging amount of time.'s nuclear-watchdog agency Mohamed ElBaradei. But to many others. as much as the respect they enjoy among ordinary Egyptians. that the U.happy to shake the system up. Russia's under Boris Yeltsin — while simultaneously restraining them from cracking the heads of protesters. say. And he has sought to undermine the uprising by blaming it on old bogeymen: unnamed foreign forces and the Muslim Brotherhood. sudden shifts can be a frightening prospect.S. a rug repairman who attended several pro-Mubarak rallies.3 billion annual stipend they receive from the U. naturally. is now trying to help manage Egypt's change to a more democratic system. through Ambassador Margaret Scobey and special envoy Frank Wisner. they are an assurance of stability and continuity. Although he has opened negotiations with opposition groups." says Abdel-Mohsin. as President Obama told Fox News. worries that opposition groups have disparate agendas — a recipe for chaos." Mubarak. Mubarak's photo ops are a provocation. Under Egypt's constitution. to opposition leaders like Nobel Peace Prize laureate and former head of the U. If he had. perhaps the country's true arbiter of power. is no reformist. Both those considerations rule out the use of military force against the revolution." Yasser Salaheddine.N. . If all this feeds the fears of anxious Egyptians. 74. Besides. In a country where there had been no political change for a generation. The other opposition groups have ideas. The former general and Egypt's top spymaster hopes to engineer a face-saving exit for his boss and friend. where the Obama Administration.S. for the country to prepare for its first-ever free and fair elections. gradual transition. many ordinary soldiers have shown sympathy for the protesters. "We must have a slow.) For the young Egyptians at the vanguard of the uprising.
described Suleiman as a "pragmatist with an extremely sharp analytical mind. The President relied on Suleiman for delicate international tasks as well. embassy in Cairo obtained and released by WikiLeaks show the esteem in which he was held: one letter. since they may threaten the military's vast business interests." That sort of history means that Suleiman is nobody's idea of an honest broker. In his first interview to state TV after being made Vice President. embassy in Tel Aviv suggest that the Israelis. Suleiman has formed committees to consider constitutional amendments — a key demand of the opposition — but also has said he doesn't think Egyptians are ready for democracy. too. and regards the protesters as dangerous rabble.-Egypt cooperation in the Middle East peace process. "there is no question that Israel is most comfortable with the prospect of Omar [Suleiman].") This is Suleiman's stock-in-trade: as head of the Egyptian General Intelligence Service (GIS) since 1993. including a network of military-owned factories that produce everything from olive oil to Jeep Cherokees. held Suleiman in the highest regard." The top brass are also leery of calls for economic reforms. . A 2008 cable noted that of the likely successors to Mubarak. (This earned him a sharp rebuke from Washington: White House spokesman Robert Gibbs described that comment as "unhelpful. from Scobey. But he remained loyal nonetheless.S. As secretive as any other spymaster. and his negotiations with opposition groups may have been doomed to failure even if he'd been sincere in promising reforms. including mediating between Israelis and Palestinians. ensuring that the National Democratic Party routinely won huge majorities in elections." U. Since being named Vice President on Jan. Suleiman's intelligence agency and the Interior Ministry are generally credited with undermining the Muslim Brotherhood after the Islamist group won one-fifth of the vote in elections in 2005. One WikiLeaks document detailed how an ambassador described Suleiman's "long history of threatening us with the [Muslim Brotherhood] bogeyman. human-rights activists and journalists. however. Dispatches from the U. diplomats." A cable from 2006 labeled him "the most successful element" of U.The military leadership comes from more conservative stock. But GIS was also responsible for the repression of secular opposition groups. Suleiman has talked a good game about reforms. he described Mubarak as "father and leader. his rival for the presidency. Even including the Muslim Brotherhood in the talks brought him little credit — opposition parties and unaffiliated protesters alike see him as just an extension of the Mubarak regime and suspect he's merely stalling for time. hoping public opinion will turn against the revolution or that the protesters will simply tire and go home. But the emergency law remains in force." Yet other cables suggest Suleiman didn't always agree with his political master: he was said to detest Mubarak's son Gamal. could see through some of Suleiman's games. allowing police and intelligence officials to harass and detain opposition figures. How can Suleiman protect the military and Mubarak? By conceding as little as possible to the protesters. Suleiman has described them as working for "foreign agendas. Successive Administrations in Washington regarded him as a friend. Suleiman is something of a mystery to most Egyptians. investigations into abuses and negotiations with the opposition.S.S. 29.S. he has been the enforcer of the emergency law's most draconian statutes. Leaked letters from the U. to be sure.
The rally — and Ghonim's speech at it — was a reaffirmation for Mustafa Nabil. 2. 25. Moved by the determination of the protesters. Large crowds also gathered in Alexandria. Even if Ghonim resists the pressure to take the reins of the revolution. 1. he joined their cause.000 people have already joined a Facebook group called I Delegate Wael Ghonim to Speak in the Name of Egypt's Revolutionaries. 7. Ghonim was greeted as a superstar but made no claim to leadership. he alternated between throwing stones at them and attending to the injured. a Google executive who had created a Facebook page titled We Are All Khaled Said. belying the regime's claim that the protests were limited to Tahrir Square. who were vehemently opposed to his joining the protests.) The unexpected success of the protest inspired others across the country and spiraled into the revolution. Ghonim's TV appearance was the moment she stopped being fearful of the uprising: he represented its human face." Gaber and her mother made their way to the square on Feb. Shown a montage of images of some of the 300 protesters who had died since his arrest. He talks excitedly about three couples who got married there "because they feel that this is the only place in Cairo that is free.Stars and Stalwarts But they haven't yet. have . About 130. tweeted a powerful rallying cry: "Freedom is a bless that deserves fighting for it. 8." That evening he gave an interview to a popular Egyptian satellite station. in Tahrir Square. is a medical doctor who first went to Tahrir Square on Jan. just when the regime seemed to be succeeding at waiting out the protesters. allowing Nabil to bask in the square's convivial atmosphere. Released on Feb. Tahrir Square once again filled to the brim as the protesters found a new hero: Wael Ghonim. "But when I saw Wael Ghonim. the day Mubarak pledged he would step down in the fall. on Feb. which is the departure of the regime. 16. There's been little violence since. "This is a real." he said to even more raucous cheers. "The media had said there were fights and things. (Khaled Said was a 28-year-old businessman brutally killed by police in Alexandria last June. The turnout on Feb." His parents and sister. I really got affected by his words and understood that a lot of people suffered in this revolution. 30. honest Egyptian. into the revolution's poster child. sleeping in the cold every night. 29 to treat people hurt in clashes with police and has hardly been home since. The mild-mannered executive now finds himself burdened with the expectations of millions. previously known only to a handful of activists. Nabil. 8 to hear Ghonim speak. Ghonim." she says. Dream TV. For Fatma Gaber. and when armed pro-Mubarak mobs stormed the square on Feb. he broke down in tears and walked off the set. Suez and Asyut. the display of raw emotion touched a nerve among viewers and turned Ghonim. "I'm not a hero. In Tahrir Square. I really wanted to be part of it. 29. his performances on TV and in the square have reinvigorated the uprising. Ghonim was arrested two days later by state security and held for 12 days." he said. on Jan. "We will not abandon our demand. not even his family knew where he was. and the crowd roared with approval. on which he had called for the first protest. one of the Tahrir Square stalwarts. In fact. and I'm proud of him like I'm proud of everyone I've seen [in the square]." he says. but those who were martyred are the heroes. 8 easily matched that of Feb. Such modesty is rare in a political culture of bombast and self-promotion.
Rania Abouzeid and Yasmine El Rashidi/Cairo and Michael Scherer and Massimo Calabresi/Washington The Brotherhood By Abigail Hauslohner. unimpressed. "They are outlining their demands before the people. "I will go down to the square myself to protect them. hails from the working-class factory sprawl of the Nile Delta — sort of Egypt's Midwest — . Feb." Mohammed says." Abdel-Salem says. says Mohammed. — With reporting by Abigail Hauslohner. A father of four. "We don't know — [but] this is our territory of freedom." Having driven some protesters to the square." Wherever the revolution goes from here. Given her difficulty in making ends meet. its police and plainclothes thugs having failed to dislodge the protesters. he says. Many fear that the regime. may try some underhanded tactic. Andrew Lee Butters / Cairo Monday. that has been a powerful argument.recently visited him in the square." It's the sort of claim that young. she reasons that the protesters must be receiving money and food from an unknown power. is for the revolution to maintain its momentum." State media have indeed portrayed the protesters as spoiled brats from the upper middle class who have little concern for the difficulties their actions place on working-class Egyptians like Abdel-Salem. 2011 Fathi Mohamed Hassan doesn't stand out among the thousands upon thousands who have gathered in Cairo's Tahrir Square to demand the ouster of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. He worries that if they disperse. "We don't know what will happen tomorrow or anytime. Mohammed feels protective of them. a taxi driver who refuses to give his full name and who has had little income since the uprising began. and I work until it's late. Hassan. "They are staying there for things we believe in. so be it. The alternative is too grim to consider: "I'm afraid that these people will leave [the square] and things will return to the old ways or be even worse. remains firmly on the side of the protesters. the police and intelligence agencies will be able to pick them off for imprisonment and torture. Thousands of people have arrived to check out the scene. Yet exultant though they sound when describing their revolution. "They're being paid and fed for doing nothing. the teahouse manager. but not everyone is buying it. If their continued presence in Tahrir Square messes up Cairo traffic for weeks on end. 43.) "They're not like us — I get up early. And it leaves Abdel-Salem. there's plenty more anxiety to come. 21." The most important thing. (Suleiman's propaganda to that effect has not been in vain. If the regime attacks the young people again." Nabil says. In similar circumstances elsewhere. Mohammed. idealistic men and women have been making on the barricades for more than 200 years. and many have chosen to stay on. even Tahrir Square veterans like Nabil feel a sense of uncertainty.
then go home and come back. and Omar Abdel Rahman. They are very committed. who had him executed in 1966. Qutb fell afoul of the popular and secular regime of Gamal Abdel Nasser. which he does. the Brotherhood assassinated Egypt's Prime Minister. now Osama bin Laden's deputy in al-Qaeda. A network of cells took on paramilitary capabilities. becoming the second largest bloc after the ruling National . though still banned. came up with an ideology of jihad against non-Islamic entities. Anwar Sadat and Mubarak. The government persecution of the Brotherhood continued under Nasser's successors. In late 1948. "I'm here because who likes a dictatorship?" Hassan says as the two men with him chuckle. some will come for two days. Members of the Muslim Brotherhood in Tahrir Yuri Kozyrev / Noor for TIME In the 1950s. "The Muslim Brotherhood has a good sense of organization and work ethic. it combined nationalism and anticolonialism with the belief that Islam and its tenets were the solution to the challenges facing Egypt and the rest of the Arab world. founded the year before. In 2005 it won 88 out of 454 seats in parliament." Persistence has been at the heart of the Brotherhood since its birth in 1928. Individuals may not stand out in the massive protests. But he's also a rank-and-file member of the Muslim Brotherhood. as well as other terrorist groups. They are strangers to him but also members of the Brotherhood. bearded face and blue-plaid flannel shirt. "For example. Qutb's work inspired firebrands like Ayman al-Zawahiri. a theoretician of the Brotherhood. the "Blind Sheik" who inspired the first bombing of the World Trade Center.and with his round." Hassan explains. but clumps of them do. It channeled its energies into social reform. Hassan and his comrades do not disguise the fact that there is planning behind their presence. it was professing nonviolent opposition to the regime. and by the 1980s. and the government retaliated by killing the group's founder a couple of months later. education and political representation by making informal alliances with legal parties and fielding independent candidates. "It's all organized by province and district. Taking some inspiration from Cairo's Young Men's Muslim Association. Sayyid Qutb. he looks like the kind of guy who sells computer parts." He adds. an Islamist political group banned in Egypt — one with a reputation that many in the country as well as the West find foreboding. The pressure changed the Brotherhood.
Democratic Party. Brotherhood leaders in Tahrir Square consistently speak of their commitment to the nonsectarian nature of Egypt. "The Muslim Brotherhood takes Islam as a template, but we don't have a religious state or God-ordained rule," says Ibrahim Zakaria, a Brotherhood official and former member of parliament. "We believe in democracy and all its rules. We believe in the principle that the people are the origin and source of sovereignty and that the people choose their leaders in free and secret ballots." In November 2010, however, after elections that were widely seen as rigged, the Brotherhood was not able to win a single seat. That disenfranchisement helped send individual members into the streets when the uprising began on Jan. 25, even though their leadership at first kept a polite, if not cool, distance. "Why didn't the Muslim Brotherhood go in at the beginning?" Hassan asks rhetorically. "They didn't because then the whole world would have thought that the Muslim Brotherhood was leading the revolution." But members were willing to shed their own blood. "The Brotherhood was here in the middle of the people," Hassan says of that first day of rebellion. "Some of them died, and some of them were injured." The Brotherhood's peaceableness over the past three decades, however, has not made it reputable among some Egyptians who still view it as an enemy within that continues to preach bilious intolerance, as some members indeed do. Yasser Salaheddine, a 36-year-old supporter of the President who repairs rugs for a living, says, "When you speak of the Brothers, you have to speak of Hizballah, of Hamas and of Iran. They are all tied together." Mohammad, 38, a cabdriver, sees a threat to his livelihood. Egypt, he says, "cannot be ruled by people who will tell you that ... a taxi driver can't pick up a female who doesn't have a male guardian." Other Egyptians point out that Shari'a has been the constitutional basis of legislation since 1982, that Islam is the state religion and that all the Brotherhood wants is a stricter adherence to it. Speaking of the Brothers, Osama Hussein Hafiz, a 40-year-old lawyer, says, "Some of them are very good, and some of them, I'm not so sure about. Just like any party, there is good and bad in it." As Hassan sees it, "the main goal of the Brotherhood is to raise individual Muslims" — with emphasis on individual. The diversity of the crowds in Tahrir may also have an effect on the Brotherhood, exposing members to the breadth of opinion now freely visible. The square buzzes not just with chants against the government but also with conversations among Egyptians of all types. Hassan sounds just like any one of them. "I'm protesting for freedoms — political freedom, freedom of expression, freedom for people to be able to do and say what they want, for rights," he says. Elsewhere in the square, Mohammed Chalabi, an Arabic teacher, surveys the strange, singular amalgam of Tahrir. "It was the government that created false enemies because it had no legitimacy," he says. "When we are a free country, we won't need any enemies."
Monday, Feb. 21, 2011
Opposites Attract You couldn't just do a story about the legacy left by Ronald Reagan on the 100th anniversary of his birth, could you ["The Role Model," Feb. 7]? Instead, your cover implies some sort of symbolic embrace of President Obama by Reagan. Where in your liberal minds did you come up with that one? Do you honestly think Reagan, a man who made his place in history by cutting the size of government, would embrace the policies of a man who thinks bigger government will solve everything? Ann Craig-Cinnamon, GREENWOOD, IND. When I first saw your cover, I thought in disgust, How could they Photoshop together two such diametrically opposed people? But the article was a well-written, enlightening read on the lessons our political leaders can learn from one another behind the scenes. Kudos to Obama and Reagan for taking notes on political style from their predecessors: Obama from Reagan and Reagan from another diametric opposite, Franklin Roosevelt. Adam Scott Kunz, WASHINGTON Seeing Presidents Reagan and Obama on your cover sent me back to my 1980s childhood. As the daughter of a public-school teacher, I remember the look of ever increasing worry on my parents' faces while we tried to survive Reaganomics. The glorification of his presidency mystifies me. Mary Pirkl, KAMPSVILLE, ILL. Arizona's Struggles Thanks for putting a spotlight on the many ways in which Arizona is trying to push itself back to the Stone Age, politically and socially ["Arizona's Great Divide," Feb. 7]. Most of us here love our state, and we're perpetually embarrassed by the legislature and the governor. They've just passed a bill allowing them to violate the property rights of the sovereign Tohono O'odham nation. One hopes national attention would put a damper on these things, but Governor Jan Brewer, state senator Russell Pearce and the rest seem to have no sense of shame. Jeffrey J. Mariotte, DOUGLAS, ARIZ. I was offended by Nathan Thornburgh's reference to the courageous man who saved Representative Giffords' life as "gay and Hispanic." Here is a man who showed courage and levelheaded thinking amid chaos, and Thornburgh chose to label him. If I had been the hero, would he have written "straight and white"? Jeffrey Parenteau, WEST GREENWICH, R.I.
In the article on Arizona, the terms documented and undocumented are used. Surely, legal and illegal were meant. Charles E. Stanford, LIVERPOOL, N.Y. Sizing Up SOTU I have read at least a dozen reports and reviews of the State of the Union address, and none of them nailed it as Joe Klein did ["Hello, Sunshine," Feb. 7]. Kudos. Gene Davis Reese, WESTPORT, KY. Trivial anecdotes do nothing to answer the hard policy questions the Administration faces. Was Obama's speech a political success? Yes. A policy outline? By no means. Brady Sharp, CONWAY, ARIZ. When will journalists like Klein stop using phrases like "the stranglehold of teachers'-union work rules"? In addition to keeping conditions reasonable, the union protects students, as it did when a fellow teacher was recently forced to accept 37 kids in her class, many of whom were struggling. After the union stepped in, the district hired another teacher. Susan Keeney, SAN JOSE, CALIF. Beep Beep Concerning "Traffic Gem" [Feb. 7], on the diverging-diamond interchange: Why couldn't the approach leg on each side elevate earlier (or later) than the oncoming traffic lane, crossing over the oncoming traffic and thereby eliminating the need for traffic lights? In this case, it seems more traffic lights would only create more hazards while gumming up traffic flow. Haskell Small, WASHINGTON Please recycle this magazine and remove inserts or samples before recycling
10. the 14-year-old heroine of True Grit. They may lose an arm or a spouse. become a billionaire or a vigilante." she recalls. She remembers no jitters. created indelible characters worth admiring or reviling — and always worth treasuring Hailee Steinfeld True Grit Fictional characters don't come much more self-assured than Mattie Ross. When the Coens called. only the surreal elation of her very first take with co-stars Matt Damon and Jeff Bridges. and the young actress who plays her in the Coen brothers' remake shares some of that moxie. Cinching a man's belt over her thick wool coat helped her get into Mattie's mind-set: "When she straps on that belt. but the actors we celebrate here are sorcerers who. "How are you doing? It's fun. right?" Truly. "Cut. "you can tell she feels ready." Steinfeld felt ready too." says Steinfeld. . Bridges turned to her with a twinkle and asked. Feb. 2011 A king and a terrorist. by pouring self into story.ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT Great Performances By Richard Corliss and Mary Pols Thursday. A tattooed hacker and a crazy mama.
"He didn't want to lose himself." Tilda Swinton I Am Love Possibly the supreme film actress of our time. In I Am Love. often plays wild or haughty women. gave a singular performance as trapped hiker Aron Ralston in 127 Hours. 32." she says. glam and romantic as a timid wife liberated by adultery. Swinton. she went demure. But when you get to the end of the tightrope. trying to make sure the balance is right. you're just glad to be able to kick the box. 50." . it's partly because he had the best research material of his career: Ralston showed him the videos he made when he thought he was going to die. with a 2008 Oscar for Michael Clayton. Nurturing the project for 11 years meant "going across a very long tightrope.James Franco 127 Hours If Franco." Franco says of the footage. I knew that if I captured that somehow. "We were aiming for all-out operatic drama and fantasy. because that would make it harder for his mother to watch. "He's not an actor giving a Shakespeare death soliloquy. it would feel very authentic and powerful.
and Lionel. But this was the one she couldn't wait to film: when Nic tries desperately to be fun at a dinner with her wife. Rush was startled by Firth in action. He "made me better. the future King. and Rush." . spent three weeks together rehearsing. the commoner who teaches him not to stammer. 52. "I loved that scene.Annette Bening The Kids Are All Right Bening. Even so. dining and socializing. when filming began. turns out to have been pretty special for the actors playing them as well." she says." Geoffrey Rush and Colin Firth The King's Speech The extraordinary relationship between Bertie. the crabby. 50." Rush says. "It was hard in the way you want things to be when you are trying to find something. "I didn't have to act listening. Firth. her bemused kids and their hot sperm-donor dad. I was mesmerized by the hidden areas of truth he was uncovering. had plenty of standout scenes in Kids as Nic. cuckolded half of a lesbian couple. 59. So she breaks — awkwardly — into a Joni Mitchell song.
" he says." Michelle Williams Blue Valentine Williams. Eisenberg perfected the laser gaze. who broke out in 2005's The Squid and the Whale. "and once I captured it. the investigation of a character's mysteries is never complete." . won raves for her performance as one half of an unraveling young couple." she muses." For her. "There's a sort of aloof stare that I tried to develop. Does she count it among the best of the year? "No." she says after a pause. "but I appreciate you feeling that way. Gotcha.Jesse Eisenberg The Social Network To get inside The Social Network's fictionalized Mark Zuckerberg. is pleased with his Best Actor Oscar nomination but says. "I'll have moments of deep connectedness. "then I would be done. it feels strange to receive so much attention for this. but I've never thought. I felt more comfortable. 27. 30. "It's more challenging to work on a character that's not as rich as the one Aaron Sorkin wrote. In a way." Eisenberg." So don't expect her to rest on her laurels. "Maybe if I ever thought I had done something great.
but it'd be a shame if Hollywood let this 21st century Garbo stay in Sweden. "You've been in there a while now. Noomi. "I feel very privileged to portray the life of such a complex man. remake. she says. was the great new face of 2010. 31. "You must discover a character like Carlos conflict by conflict." . so much of herself. Édgar Ramírez Carlos With his electrifying performance as Carlos the Jackal in Olivier Assayas' 5½-hour docudrama. she poured such fury and craft. I was sick for a week. into Lisbeth Salander — the tattooed hacker in the three Swedish films of Stieg Larsson's best sellers — that friends told her. The Bourne Ultimatum and Che.S. and Rapace." And when the shoot was over. Maybe it's time to come out. the Venezuelan actor vaulted to stardom from supporting roles in Domino. says of the terrorist mastermind whose brute brilliance and sexual charisma he incarnates so fiercely. "my body just threw her out from me. 33.Noomi Rapace The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo For a year and a half." Ramírez." The trilogy was a worldwide hit. She won't reprise Lisbeth in the U. Otherwise you kill the life of what you're trying to accomplish.
" . she coddles and disciplines her drug-dealing. but that's the nature of the beast.Jacki Weaver Animal Kingdom She's quite a mother. film and TV since the '60s. 63. this blond tornado they call Smurf: Ma Barker meets Medea. The matriarch of a Melbourne crime family. "I found some of my scenes intense and emotionally draining. A staple of Australian theater. splendid time imbuing Smurf with charm and menace. none of whom is as ruthless as she. I enjoy that. sociopathic sons. had a tough. Weaver.
. the Web's next big honeypot. "We have a lot of options. a cooking class. offers its subscribers—who number more than 50 million and are growing at a clip of 3 million a month—discounts on goods and services. Social commerce.BUSINESS The Groupon Clipper By Bill Saporito / Chicago Thursday. stupid money. an investment-banking firm. Equally astonishing. the merchant gets a guaranteed slug of added business and potential new customers. Feb. dental work or just about any product or service available in the 500 cities and 35 countries where Groupon operates. but only if a critical mass of people agree to buy the deals that are e-mailed to them each day. Mason and his partners turned the Googleplexers down." Maybe. "Every decision we make starts from this core of an idea that there will be a company that transforms the way people buy from local business." A company with Google-like potential? No wonder Google felt compelled to buy Groupon. but Groupon has attracted. as somebody who likes to come up with ideas. the category leader. "To me. it's kind of stupid. as investors rush in like a school of tuna hitting a chum slick to get a piece of the Web segment known as social commerce. We can be one of the great defining brands of the 21st century. "Long term." says Mason. 2011 Groupon CEO Andrew Mason. making an astonishing offer of $6 billion for it last December." says James Slavet. this is a business that will do for retail what Google's done to search and search advertising." . way cooler ideas. according to Needham & Co." he explains. The company has been hiring more than 100 real employees each month Ryan Pfluger for TIME Andrew Mason says he's had better ideas than Groupon. I've had way better ideas. a restaurant meal. has a three-way payoff: you get a better price. "Groupon has cracked the code on a model for local advertising and local commerce. Groupon. and Groupon takes a cut. a partner at Greylock Partners. like. So have rivals such as LivingSocial. a venture-capital firm in Silicon Valley and a Groupon investor. 10. It's a segment that has grown wildly in the past year: some 200%. The discount could be up to 90% off on a car wash. "Like. in a room built for an imaginary employee.
It worked—spectacularly. he displays magazine covers that feature famous Web flameouts — Friendster." he says. but they still whip up an amazing fish curry. The place is overflowing with new hires—150 to 200 a month in Chicago alone—yet on one floor. to the point of overwhelming some merchants who were early participants: think of a flash mob that gets hungry for Greek food or decides to go bowling. One of their jobs will be to build on what is a deceptively simple business model. Facebook was a better product. serial entrepreneur Eric Lefkofsky offered him $1 million in funding to develop an idea Mason had created called the Point. The business had gone from zero to $500 million in sales in 18 months. Singapore. the uselessness of which served as a chief inspiration to not be useless. His sense of humor can backfire. nobody would believe me. Merchants across Chicago. And the majority of the time." Mason knows all about getting it wrong. but true to Mason's activist instincts." It all plays to the beat of Mason's slightly trippy leadership.com.. Pets. Mason has constructed a space decorated like a schoolboy's bedroom. I thought I had seen hypergrowth. and then in neighboring cities and states. protests. Today it's in 35 countries—having recently added the Philippines. stay-home-from-work days. The point of the Point was to herd people into collective social action: marches. Groupon is sponsoring a link on its website to the Tibet Fund. virally.. which is reserved for an imaginary employee." Silliness is almost a core value at Groupon. dabbling in Internet start-ups along the way. public-policy wonk and social activist (hey. By late 2008." says Lefkofsky. "If I told people that I knew what I was doing. One day. we're each getting $30 of Tibetan food for just $15. His official bio reports that "Andrew graduated with a degree in music. 30. but this is hypergrowth squared. One of Groupon's Super Bowl commercials starred actor Timothy Hutton archly mocking Tibet as a political cause before delivering the product message: "The people of Tibet are in trouble. It's as simple as that. who isn't?) is as much provocateur as Web entrepreneur. "I think a lot about those companies and what went wrong. Mason isn't silly enough to think he can run Groupon solo. "Groupon hasn't been like anything we've seen. "If you look at Myspace. He majored in music at Northwestern and worked at a Chicago recording studio but found out that he was a better composer of computer codes.com—next to his own cover appearance in Forbes. Groupon was launched. Fortunately. Napster. a musician. lined up to get in. It didn't take Mason and Lefkofsky long to realize that shopping was more profitable than social action. And since 200 of us bought at Groupon. Mason decided to buy all his employees blue exercise balls to sit on. it's extremely scalable." Critics scorned its way-too-hip approach. Groupon appears to be an online version of the coupons you get in . which paid the rent. etc. a charity that helps Tibetan exiles. At the company's Chicago headquarters. No start-up had grown as fast. "I've been involved with high-growth tech companies. Taiwan and Hong Kong. meaning Groupon can be replicated around the world using the same model. programmer. It's not competitors that beat them. The VCs got bug-eyed about Groupon's financials. More important. Lefkofsky served as temporary CFO until the company hired Jason Child from Amazon for that role in December. Within a year." Mason says. it's those companies losing to themselves.Mason. "so why even try and fake it?" The company brought in former Yahoo! exec Rob Solomon as COO. Three months into the term. Groupon had 1 million adherents. By 2006 he had veered into the University of Chicago's graduate school of public policy. so the place looks like a romper room for 20-somethings.
"They must know something that I don't know to turn down that amount of dough. A small shop can't acquire customers or advertise with the efficiency of a chain that has a number of locations in town. which is easily copied.S. Why? Because tactically speaking. In fact. such as search (Google). A lot of that money is wasted. Dominance pays. The first phase of social commerce was connecting local merchants with the locals—shotgun blasts of discounts that were targeted generally. it recently got a $175 million infusion from Amazon." says Mason. called Google Offers. Groupon has held the top spot with both first-mover advantage and extremely robust technology. "Very few companies can emerge like Facebook has. Think about other winner-takes-most businesses. Think of yourself walking around with a locationally aware smart phone and Groupon knowing not just what you like but also what might pique your curiosity. is worth $327 billion (it has twice Google's sales) but only $4. no matter how good. curating their commercial experiences and sharing with friends. Mason doesn't see much of a threat yet. the headline of the press release read." says Scott Munro. Groupon is poised to fix that broken model. Yet that's a huge market in itself. he is developing what he calls Groupon 2. a hugely successful but low-market-share company. Says Slavet: "The data is the defensibility of their model. The company is trying to line up China. says Slavet. a VC company that isn't in the deal. LivingSocial.the mail from local merchants or find in the Yellow Pages.70 for each dollar of sales. These are the algorithms that conjure perfect deals at perfect times. "So you have this awareness stream of interesting deals as they've been introduced to people and popularized through Twitter and Facebook. social shopping is going to be a "winner takes most" business: one in which a single brand takes command of a piece of turf and it becomes increasingly difficult for rivals. To get there will require the kind of data massaging that's well beyond the average social-shopping site. "Groupon raises. Battery Ventures." Groupon is going to get a test of that defensibility as it plants its flag around the globe. The next phase is hyper-local: knowing where subscribers live and what their interests are. a partner at Pagemill Partners. Groupon's biggest rival. to make inroads. Groupon's investors believe its strength is in its data mining and not necessarily in its consumer interface. or roughly $6. The need for speed is essential because hundreds of competing sites have cropped up globally. because local commerce is highly segmented and inefficient. and that fix could be worth billions. But to hold off that herd. the Google turndown has left some bankers shaking their heads. About $100 billion is spent annually on local advertising in the U. social networking (Facebook) and operating systems (Microsoft). Google is worth $198 billion.25 for each dollar of sales. That's clearly what Groupon's funders are counting on. is taking the other tack. Apple. and we think what we're doing at Groupon lives at the intersection of those two. Google is no longer a buyer—it's a competitor. "One of the challenges of . a billion dollars. like.") Still. The linkup provides LivingSocial with a technology platform from which to expand its base of 10 million subscribers. alone. including Andreessen Horowitz. It has plans for its own social-commerce site." In any case. although that goofball Tibet ad isn't going to help much.0. (In typical Mason cheek. Greylock Partners and Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. the company is still gaining market share. The company has accepted $950 million from a Who's Who of VCs.
the next coolest idea. like. It's out there looking for. "and not having a religious attachment to what's gotten you there thus far. .innovation is figuring out how to wipe your mind clean about what you should be doing at any given moment. but that's how Mason's mind works." His investors might quibble with the sentiment." says Mason.
e.SOCIETY Pay Phone By DOUG AAMOTH Saturday. is security. the device may route mobile payments through Apple's iTunes store. Google unveiled its Nexus S smart phone. In December. as are several BlackBerry models that are due out this year. cellular-service providers may try to muscle their way into the point-of-sale market. Mar. everyone except Sprint) have formed a joint venture that is set to roll out over the next 15 months. Meanwhile." is hardly a subtle shot at Visa and MasterCard.S. T-Mobile and Verizon — i. The other big NFC issue. 05. "to lead the U. Three of the big four providers (AT&T. 2011 Illustration by Brown Bird Design for TIME Which are you more likely to have with you at any given moment — your cell phone or your wallet? Soon you may be able to ditch your billfold altogether and pay for things with a quick wave of your smart phone over an electronic scanner. Although Visa and MasterCard have been experimenting with wave-and-pay systems that use NFC-enabled credit or debit cards. Starbucks announced that customers could start using a bar-code app on their phone to buy coffee in some 6. a few kinks need to be worked out. Google claims it will be content to partner with payment processors to handle purchases made with its smart phones — even though the company has its own payment platform. And who knows? If the next iPhone does come with NFC.S. but we're likely to see more wireless payment options as something called near field communication (NFC) gets embedded into America's consumer electronics.800 of its stores. This is the first big pay-by-phone initiative in the U.. which contains an NFC chip. but the consortium also seems to have hedged its bets by making Discover part of the venture. For instance.S. payments industry from cards to mobile phones. Its goal. aside from how payments will be processed.. NFC allows shoppers to wave their phones a few inches above a payment terminal — a contact-free system built for speed and simplicity. Already in use in parts of Asia and Europe. what's to stop a sophisticated thief with a concealed payment terminal from digitally pickpocketing you? "We're still .. Google Checkout. In January. The next iPhone is rumored to have one too. like who will get to collect the lucrative transaction fees from retailers. But before NFC becomes widely adopted in the U.
they "tend to require the attacker to play the man in the middle between your NFC-enabled phone and the cash register. poking and surfing. as a sociobiologist. Plus. Wired for Distraction? By DALTON CONLEY Monday. he says. Still uneasy about this digital-wallet business? Keep in mind that if you lose your smart phone. Although NFC-eavesdropping devices exist. text while watching TV — they are logging almost 11 hours of media usage a day. . Your wallet isn't. NFC apps can encrypt data transmissions. for example. And if you count each content stream separately — a lot of kids." says Jimmy Shah. For starters. Feb. We know the dangers of texting or talking on the phone while operating a motor vehicle — but what about when forming a brain? A Kaiser Family Foundation report released last year found that on average. amid all the texting. your phone can be password protected.not at the point where an attacker can just brush against you in a crowd and steal all the money out of your phone. 21. 2011 Ghiotti / Getty Images Most parents who worry about their kids' online activity focus on the people or content their children might encounter: Are they being cyberbullied? Do they have access to age-inappropriate material? Can sexual predators reach them? What I worry about. there is the problem of what some researchers refer to as continuous partial attention. Users may be able to set transaction limits as well. a term coined by former Microsoft executive Linda Stone. is not what my kids are doing on the Internet but what all this connectivity is doing to their brains. Scientific evidence increasingly suggests that. our children's digital lives are turning them into much different creatures from us — and not necessarily for the better. it can be located on a map and remotely deactivated." To protect consumers. a mobile-security researcher for McAfee. children ages 8 to 18 spend 7 hours and 38 min. perhaps requiring a pass code to be entered for larger purchases. a day using entertainment media.
The heavy media multitaskers were wrong more often — because. it turns out. competition for attention. . Multitaskers fire up their striatum. And if they get an SMS. which is at the heart of the declarative memory circuit that comes into play. "our dopamine reward circuits probably get activated. a trio of Stanford University researchers showed college students an image of a bunch of rectangles in various orientations and asked them to focus on a couple of red ones in particular. but our saturated media universe has perhaps privileged the latter form and is wiring our kids' brains differently. But a 2009 study found that when extraneous information was presented. The upshot of the study was that the focusers could apply the new skill more broadly but the multitaskers could not.' " Perhaps this is a sign that our kids will be better than we are at learning how to prioritize tasks — something that will come in handy when they become workers and spouses and parents. but then they list off all of the things that make doing so impossible" — like their overscheduled after-school lives or parents' fears of kids navigating the streets alone. say. they won't answer their cell phone. UCLA scientists showed that multitaskers and focused learners deploy different parts of the brain when they learn the same thing. L8R. when our brain reflexively tunes in to novel stimuli. participants who (on the basis of their answers to a study questionnaire) did a lot of media multitasking performed worse on a test than those who don't do much media multitasking.You (or your children) might think the people who have had the most practice dealing with distractions would be the most adept at multitasking. Some technology observers. — now goes on around the clock. but to do the kind of high-level thinking that experts agree will be key to getting well-paying jobs. or what's known as procedural memory. 'BZ. speculates. one of the Stanford study's co-authors. for top-down focus — i. School-lunchroom behavior — gossipy whispers. the study concluded. like Danah Boyd. There's no downtime. etc. another text! — at the expense of focus. We obviously need both for survival. those who were allowed to focus on the task without distraction relied on the hippocampus. Multitaskers' reliance on rote habit would be all well and good if we want our offspring to work on assembly lines.e. could be a forward-feeding cycle in which we pay more and more attention to environmental stimuli — Hey. whether in the wilds of prehistory or while crossing a street today. they are more sensitive to distracting stimuli than light media multitaskers are. no alone time for him to develop his sense of self. "Over and over. claim that social media are getting a bum rap and that the real problem lies in the hyperprotective way we parent today." Anthony Wagner. We have separate circuits. But I am still concerned about the effect that 24/7 connectivity has on my kids — and on my 11-year-old son in particular. he suggests. "Each time we get a message or text. since the desire for social connection is so wired into us. Stone has observed something similar in technology use among adolescents: "When they're with friends. they will just answer. In the test. Meanwhile. Then the students were shown a second.. In 2006. Constant distraction affects not only how well kids learn but also how their brains absorb the new information. she says. very similar image and asked if the red rectangles had been rotated. a fellow at Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet and Society. when we set our mind to concentrate on something — and reactive attention. which encodes the learning more like habit. we'd better exercise our collective hippocampus." The result. kids tell me that they'd rather get together in person. in math class when you need to apply abstract rules to novel problems.
Even if kids get nine to 10 hours of sleep but sustain multiple interruptions — from. according to some studies." says B.So what's a good dad to do? I've set some rules that are designed to aid his social and cognitive development: no Facebook during school. not as I do. is when our brains prune connections among neurons. a buzzing iPhone next to the pillow — they will suffer cognitively and feel tired the next day.J. the new modes of communication and hours spent using them are preventing already sleep-deprived teens from getting any. Casey. and no electronic devices after 9:30 p. "Unfortunately. Hence my 9:30 rule. preserving and speeding up the ones that matter and flushing out the ones that don't.m. director of Cornell's Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology. . which. The latter prohibition is designed to help him get more sleep. say. which falls into that age-old parenting category: Do as I say. which affects memory consolidation and behavioral regulation.
the concept of ecosystem services was mentioned only in obscure scientific journals. cold dollar figures. nature provides "ecosystem services" — from clean water to carbon sequestration — whose benefits for business are increasingly measurable in hard. A virgin forest is pleasant to look at. including giants like Coca-Cola. 2011 A Dow plant in the Netherlands recycles city water Siebe Swart / Hollandse Hoogte / Redux How much are the birds of heaven worth? How about the lilies of the field? Or clean air and water. which can pollinate plants in surrounding cropland — a vital function if you run a coffee plantation nearby.SPECIAL SECTION Paying for Nature By BRYAN WALSH Monday. verdant forests and untouched grassland. Feb. of course. Last month. The Michigan-headquartered company will look to make environmental factors part of its profit-and-loss statements — a move that could signal to other companies that nature can no longer be ignored. By this reckoning. 21. $10 million collaboration with TNC to eventually tally up the ecosystem costs and benefits of every business decision. the province of a few ecologists trying to figure out the dollar value of the atmosphere. But to business. to examine their ecological numbers just as closely as they would any other part of their balance sheets. chief scientist for the Nature Conservancy (TNC)." says Peter Kareiva. Until now. "All the things that nature does for us fuel our prosperity. insistent shareholder pressure on green issues and growing concern over limited natural resources have prompted an increasing number of companies. they're invaluable because nature has a worth all its own. but it also prevents soil erosion and improves water quality at no cost — valuable if you happen to own a beverage plant downstream that depends on clean water. Dow Chemical took the trend to a new level. healthy coral reefs and lush mangroves? By the environmentalist's accounting. a Washington-based environmental group. Many greens — and a growing chorus of corporate suits — are arguing that nature in its own right provides economically valuable services that underpin business. announcing a five-year. "Our . untouched nature typically hasn't had a value — at least not one that could be put in a ledger. But the threat of government action on carbon emissions (which now have a price of about $20 a ton on the European market). Until recently. That same forest might provide a habitat for bees.
creating turbid water that requires more intensive and expensive treatment downstream.000 a year. biodiversity analysis and ecosystem-services estimates to assess Dow's business decisions. (Deforestation can lead to soil erosion." have drilled down to find hard numbers on specific natural services. The partnership will begin with pilot . and few greens wanted to see the nature they loved tainted by consideration of dollar figures. New York City did this in the 1990s. Some 9 million people in the city get their drinking water from the nearby Cantareira system in Brazil's Atlantic Forest.planet's natural resources are more and more under threat. which helped lay the groundwork for their new partnership. In exchange. generate carbon credits and create green jobs for locals living near Cachoeira.) The Flowers of the Forest More recently. "There's a library of similar case studies that show the economic impact of nature conservation. The details of the larger collaboration between TNC and Dow are still being worked out. air and climate regulation.000 acres (28." says Taylor Ricketts.N. Not only will that money protect biodiversity. scientists working for the U. WWF's director of conservation science.) Conserving the upstream land is a cheaper way of protecting downstream water quality than building costly treatment plants. The forest has been under pressure from logging." Historically. Yet as climate change emerged as a concern in the 1990s — and. purchasing or protecting over 70. even cultural and recreational benefits. "The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity. That will benefit people and businesses in São Paulo — including Dow. Scientists from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) looked at a coffee plantation in Costa Rica and found that flowers near forests received twice as many bee visits and twice as much pollen as flowers far from trees — meaning that extra bee pollination was worth an additional $62. with it. So Dow donated $1. and the resulting deforestation harms both water quality and the wildlife that depends on the forest. "But protecting nature can be a profitable corporate priority and a smart global business strategy. TNC will be able to advise the company about the economic value of the ecosystem impacts of those plans. A 1997 study in the journal Nature attempted to estimate the value of the planet's ecosystem services: forests and oceans.'s Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and a just published study. If Dow decides to build or expand a plant." says Dow CEO Andrew Liveris. but it should also cut the amount of sediment flowing into the water system by over 60%. (The authors came to that calculation in part by estimating the public's willingness to pay for certain ecosystem services like waste treatment and pollution cleanup. agriculture and ranching for decades. positive and negative.000 hectares) of its watershed upstate to avoid the need for a $6 billion treatment plant. conservationists and corporations were usually on opposite sides of the environmental debate. "We only value something when we measure it.000 a year. the accounting of carbon dioxide emissions — even the deepest green began to understand that nature's value would really be understood only once it was quantified. or 7% of the farm's income." Dow and TNC have already been involved in a smaller ecosystem-services project in São Paulo.5 million through its charitable foundation to support a joint effort with TNC and São Paulo water utilities to restore 865 acres (350 hectares) of forest surrounding the Cachoeira reservoir. Razing those trees to allow cattle grazing — a common way to monetize forests in the developing world — would earn only $24. The researchers came up with a very rough figure of $33 trillion — nearly twice the global gross national product at the time. but Dow will donate $10 million to TNC over the next five years. TNC scientists will apply scientific models.
Since 2007. "If you have insufficient water. Goldman Sachs released a landmark report showing that companies that were considered leaders in environmental. SABMiller is working with TNC in Bogotá to protect the basin that provides the Colombian capital with much of its drinking water. But in a world with a growing population and demand for resources. Dow's vice president of sustainability and environment. Other major international companies have begun experimenting with ecosystem services. has begun paying to protect the watershed and ensure a supply of clean water.8 million L) of municipal wastewater a day for its operations — cheaper and greener than tapping river water. a city in the southwestern Netherlands. — but the ultimate aim is to make ecosystem services an essential part of Dow's entire business model. water is the closest to actually being part of a market — although its low price rarely reflects its true value. and it can cause production problems. "The economy and the environment are interdependent. has recycled 2. In 2007." The Dow-TNC collaboration is just the latest piece of business news to suggest that environmental responsibility and corporate success aren't always opposed. social and governance policies tended to outperform the general stock market and their peers." he says. "I think that in 10 years we'll look back and wonder why we didn't do this earlier. As ecosystem services go. "Understanding those impacts can help us make better decisions. and corporations won't stop pushing back against government environmental regulations they consider onerous. and estimates are that the investment will pay off — through reduced water-treatment costs — in four to five years. Services beyond water — like biodiversity — are harder to price. "The difference is now they can look at nature as a source of business values. SABMiller's Colombian subsidiary." And they're united by one color: green. "It's not a choice to play a zero-sum game anymore.000.6 million gal. it can stress the ecosystem." says Neil Hawkins. So far they've spent about $700. Both Dow and TNC expect water to be the initial focus of the collaboration." If it all sounds too good to be true — or too fuzzy — it's because ecosystem services are just being defined as a concept. smart companies will learn to value ecosystem services. Coca-Cola has invested nearly $30 million in watershed programs around the world. Numbers are hard to come by. along with several other Bogotá businesses. replenishing for communities and nature the equivalent of 31% of the water used in its finished beverages in 2010. TNC's chief external-affairs officer and the point person for the Dow deal.S." says Liveris. the big concern for companies on the environment was just to avoid risk. (9." says Glenn Prickett. in part because the collaboration is meant to generate fresh data on ecosystem services. the Dow production plant in Terneuzen. but Liveris sees that $10 million as an investment in Dow's future — one he expects will pay off by preparing the company for the prospect of tighter environmental regulations and scarcer natural resources. . And Dow's chemical plants are unusually dependent on water — a fact the company's leadership has begun to recognize.programs at three Dow manufacturing plants — at least one of which will be in the U. "In the past. not just exploit them.
I lived on the Gulf Coast. N.PEOPLE 10 Questions for Jim Parsons Monday. I didn't have an interest in the particulars — but what a wonderful basis for a show. VA. I can prrrrr like he does. BRICK TOWNSHIP. OHIO . BROOKLYN. a lot of times the point is to irritate. but we need to be able to move away from it if we want to. 2011 Maarten De Boer / Contour by Getty Images Has playing a physicist on television changed how you regard science? —Wen Zhang. Feb. I have a tendency to rattle like he does. MADERA. I asked the writers. That is the class I failed in college: meteorology. We had already shot and aired several episodes before I was ever asked the Asperger's-or-autism question. and they were like. he doesn't have it. well. I don't try to soften it. OHIO I was very fascinated with meteorology at a young age. Sheldon clearly has some degree of Asperger's or autism. 21. That will sometimes carry over into my own speech. I didn't. But I'm not watching more Nova. To what extent do you learn about the science in a particular episode before taping? —Rachelle Haynik. and hurricanes blew through there. Although it hasn't been addressed on the show.K. FALLS CHURCH. ATHENS. I think it's one of the greatest things we have going for us [on The Big Bang Theory]. That translates to the audience as. No. Frankly. Do you find yourself inadvertently mimicking Sheldon's odd qualities? —Michelle Lacy. CALIF. The other thing is the way the characters are reacting to him — with exasperation and a resignation that they're going to put up with it. But which came first? Was I doing that before I did this part? I'm not entirely sure.J. Oh. There's a musicality to the way he talks. they're saying it's O. How did you prepare to play such a character? —Michelle Shea. [The writers] are careful to soften the edges of the harsher words. How do you manage to make an easily unlikable character a likable one? —Julia Hall. It's been useful to us to utilize some of those "Aspergian" traits.
It's because I am probably a little too dumb to get it. I was a huge Star Wars fan as well — but Close Encounters. You know what? I'm going to leave the notepad. It doesn't bother me. There's also a light blue T-shirt with the test-color bars from TV. SEATTLE Yes and no. A piano. Vargas. What else? This is hard. TV shows or movies? —Suzi Beerman. what three things would you bring? —Marc Bigras. If you were stranded on an island with no technology. I love. . Do Sheldon's jokes ever go over your head? —Rick Morgan. and I'm going to take both my dogs. David Saltzberg. That's not because it's not funny. keep auditioning. There is life out there. ONT. ATHENS. Every once in a while they write a joke in plain English that I don't understand how to make work. STURGEON FALLS.J. A notepad. keep talking to people — and whatever it takes to show other colors. I like that one a lot. But they'd die. BERLIN It already happens to a certain degree. NEWCASTLE. WASH. even after explanation. I try to get a cursory knowledge — to understand what's apropos in the conversation. I love playing this part. With certain theories.Enough to get by. I just don't find it funny. What are some of your favorite sci-fi books. All I can do is keep working. That's been blessedly rare. And sometimes. GREECE There's a black Batman shirt I really like. our science consultant. My favorite sci-fi movie of all time is Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Are you worried about being typecast? —F. will [sometimes] put a written joke in formula form on the whiteboard that I don't get. and I will find out that I have missed the boat on their intent.) Which one of Sheldon's T-shirts would you keep? —Natalia Capel. (See the top 10 TV episodes of 2010. It creeped me out and made me feel comforted at the same time.
I am a very ordinary person.500 GOP delegates have the power to pick the party's nominee--and they're an unforgiving bunch. earmarks and the Dream Act. O. 21. Last May. center) addressed a huge rally in Tahrir Square Can Hatch Tame The Tea Party? By ALEX ALTMAN Monday. Feb. which would give citizenship to some illegal immigrants. 21. another conservative who had cast some heretical votes. Feb. . Bob Bennett. following his release from jail. in the movement's first victory. 2011 Alex Wong / Getty Images Before the Tea Party emerged. he flunks the Tea Party purity test. Ghonim (above. the next day. 2011 'I am not a hero. Now Hatch. He's partnered with Democrats like the late Ted Kennedy. the Google exec who helped organize Egypt's initial protests. in favor of a young rebel from their ranks.? I am not a hero.K.BRIEFING The Moment Monday. is scrambling to defuse tensions with the movement that unseated his closest colleague in 2010. His state's political process worsens his plight. who faces re-election next year.' WAEL GHONIM. it was unthinkable that a solid conservative like six-term Senator Orrin Hatch would have to fret about losing a Republican primary. Utah's 3. The heroes are the ones in the street. those activists dumped the state's junior Senator. By any standard. It won't be easy. Hatch has backed the bank bailouts.
Taking no chances. Hatch invited Kirkham to his office for a long meeting. The World By Harriet Barovick.5 million. says his campaign manager. and the two have since spoken regularly. Hatch is off to his earliest start ever in a re-election bid." But even if the Tea Party hasn't fully warmed to Hatch. Feb. ruling determined that the long-disputed temple complex sits on Cambodian soil. It was no lovefest. dropped his support for the Dream Act and backtracked from his TARP vote. Hatch's recent voting record suggests he's sipping the tea. When Hatch asked to speak at the Utah Tea Party's first gathering in the spring of 2009. Kayla Webley. 8 Tea Party Express town hall in Washington alongside movement stars like Representative Michele Bachmann. "we basically told him to drop dead. 21. Austin Ramzy. Hatch has already hired campaign advisers and built up his war chest to $2. Dave Hansen. who tend to exploit popular resentment over the UNESCO World Heritage site when waging their own political battles in Bangkok. Undeterred. Alexandra Silver. New Battle An uneasy lull settled over Preah Vihear.N. after four days of fighting between troops on both sides led to six reported deaths and dozens of injuries to soldiers as well as civilians caught in the cross fire." says the group's founder. That's why he turned up at a Feb. 2 | Tunisia . Could he finagle an endorsement from a group founded in part to end his career? "No chance. Senator Rand Paul and Mike Lee. Claire Suddath. 2011 1 | Cambodia Ancient Temple." says Kirkham. Better to be tolerated than targeted.Hatch is determined to avoid the same fate. David Kirkham. The crowd's response was muted. He's given up earmarks. but the decision still rankles some Thai nationalists. Ishaan Tharoor. the guy who took Bennett's job. Josh Sanburn Monday. the Senator's persistent efforts are thawing the frost. When Hatch mentioned his 34 years in the Senate. Hatch thanked the Tea Party for its work and laced his remarks with jabs at last year's health care reform law and bromides about taking America back. Frances Romero. A 1962 U. one activist muttered that it was time to "move on. Tolerance is another. an 11th century Hindu temple on the Thai-Cambodian border. It's not yet clear what sparked the current clashes--this militarized patch of jungle has seen its fair share of violence in recent years--but the confrontation has accentuated hostilities on either side of the border. "An endorsement is one thing. At the same time. Tea Party Express chairwoman Amy Kremer welcomed Hatch with all the enthusiasm of a sports-arena announcer introducing the visiting team." Hatch will take it. with few signs pointing toward peace.
consulate in Lahore. whose activities Washington has yet to clarify. 8. who denies any wrongdoing. though promising reform and open elections. some suggest the two men were intelligence agents monitoring Davis. While Berlusconi. 4 | Italy Sex Scandal May Go to Trial Prosecutors in Milan announced they would seek to immediately take Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi to trial on charges of criminal prostitution and abuse of office. Many remain wary of the interim government. The offices of Ben Ali's party. 3 | Pakistan Not So Innocent Abroad Raymond Davis. 74. Berlusconi. operations in the region that have killed civilians. may have to rely more heavily on imports this year. he says--two Pakistanis he claims were armed and pursuing him on motorbikes. a level that signals even higher global food costs. the world's biggest wheat producer. has lost some political support. China. 14. further stoking global food prices. More than a third of China's wheat crop is at risk 5. wheat futures hit 30-month highs. an American diplomat employed by the U. which the FAO said last month were at a historic peak.Ruling Party Shut Down Tunisia's interim government paved the way for the eventual dissolution of the political party that had held a viselike grip on the nation until Jan. 5 | China Drought Hits Wheat Crop A punishing drought in China prompted the U. The Obama Administration insists Davis is entitled to diplomatic immunity. While events in Tunisia have inspired similar revolts against authoritarian regimes elsewhere in the region (like Egypt).S. On Feb.N. Karima El Mahroug (left). having become the target of long-standing Pakistani frustrations over CIA drone attacks and other U. the Democratic Constitutional Rally. which. and using his office to cover up the deed. protests and clashes with police continue.16 MILLION HECTARES . when a popular uprising chased President Zine el Abidine Ben Ali into exile. Among a multitude of murky reports. was at the center of a political storm after killing--in self-defense.'s Food and Agriculture Organization to issue a special alert about the threat to the country's winter wheat crop. is accused of paying for sex in 2010 with a then minor. were shuttered and its members barred from meeting. his party maintains a slim parliamentary majority.S. has prominent figures from the old regime in its ranks. but he remains behind bars in Lahore.
8 | Indonesia Wave of Islamic Anger Hundreds of Muslims in central Java set fire to two churches and attacked a court. He is said to have tenuous links with al-Qaeda. Omar al-Bashir. claiming that a five-year prison sentence given to a Christian who had allegedly blasphemed Islam was too lenient. a Chechen warlord whom Russian state news had previously reported dead. In recent clashes.79 MILLION LIVESTOCK SOURCE: U. The new nation.N. 24 suicide bombing of Moscow's largest airport. the world's most populous Muslim country. Sitting next to him in one of the videos is the man Russian investigators suggest may have carried out the airport attack. but disputes remain over oil rights and political boundaries. is expected to declare its independence July 9. but officials say the show must go on. appeared in two Internet videos in which he claimed to be the mastermind of the Jan.The drought affects man and beast 2. Umarov styles himself as a protector of Muslims in Russia. 9 | Brazil Carnaval Costumes Ablaze A month before Rio de Janeiro's streets are due to be filled with the dancers. FAO 6 | Sudan IT'S OFFICIAL Ninety-nine percent of the nearly 4 million southern Sudanese voted in last month's referendum to secede from Sudan. Sudan's President. 7 | Russia Chechen Terrorist Emerges Doku Umarov. Indonesia. a fierce fire burned through a warehouse complex known as Samba City. particularly those living in the restive republics of the North Caucasus. often promotes its pluralism and diversity as an example for the Islamic world. some 50 people were killed in a border region. where Chechnya is located. which killed 36 people. The attacks followed an incident in which a mob assaulted members of a minority Islamic sect deemed heretical by more orthodox Muslims. including 8.400 costumes. .57 MILLION PEOPLE 2. drummers and glittering floats of the annual Carnaval. At least three samba schools may no longer be able to participate. accepted the final results. likely to be called South Sudan. destroying a year's worth of festival preparations.
The Big Questions: Deficit Reduction Thursday. 2011 Mark Halperin's answers in this week of TIME. and little can get done on domestic policy until the deficit monster is tamed.10 | Washington Electronics Not to Blame in Toyota Probe A 10-month U. they do not repair the damage done by the recalls. government investigation concluded that mechanical problems and in some cases user error. especially Tea-infused members who made cutting government the centerpiece of their campaigns. no issue is more pressing. “Then why are the two parties playing chicken?” Leaders on both sides know that real deficit reduction will mean cuts in Social Security. Medicare. Many congressional GOPers want deficit reduction too. Other than job creation. may have caused the sudden unintended acceleration of some Toyota vehicles. While the findings offer Toyota some consolation. The defects plunged the automaker into international crisis and led to the recall of millions of cars and trucks last year. February 10. and he wants to strike a deal with Republicans. “Is Washington serious about deficit reduction?” Yes. Democrats worry that Medicare and Medicaid reductions could involve revisions in their brand-new health care law (but they can’t acknowledge that as they fend off . Medicaid and the Pentagon. President Obama truly believes that stemming the flow of red ink is good policy and good politics.S. Honest Republicans understand that tax increases will also be required (but they can’t say so out loud). which hurt the once peerless company's prestige as well as its sales. not electronics flaws.
Lab Report: Health. Then the unlikely team of Barack and Mitch will sell the deal to the Hill — with enough Social Security and health care cuts to make many liberals balk and enough revenue increases (maybe a gas-tax hike) to get conservatives grousing. Researchers at the University of New South Wales in Australia reviewed 83 studies and found that pot smokers who developed psychotic disorders did so 2. Mitch McConnell. A new meta-analysis sought to settle the matter. But the use of any illegal drug accelerated the onset of those diseases by two years. Feb. the apparent causal link is merely coincidence. however. “What is the most likely path to a megadeal?” Despite a timid start to this year’s budget process. . as research suggests that it can hasten the onset of the disorder.7 years earlier than nonsmokers. strategists on both sides predict that months of quiet consultation by the White House with the GOP. 2011 Robert Yager / Getty Images MENTAL HEALTH Pot and Schizophrenia: A Dangerous Mix A mind is a terrible thing to scramble. 21. Science and Medicine By JEFFREY KLUGER Monday. But nobody wants to cry uncle first.conservative repeal efforts). Doctors studying schizophrenia have long warned that one of the worst things someone at risk for the disease can do is smoke marijuana. business leaders and moderate Democrats will produce a historic compromise with the Republican Senate leader. Skeptics. point out that because males are more likely than females both to smoke pot and to develop schizophrenia early. But if the center holds because of the sheer too-big-to-fail size of the deal — voila. so pot's effect was only a bit worse. Any agreement that can pass Congress will require each side to speak hard truths.
The five-year survival rates for both groups were similar--about 92%. or bad cholesterol. risks include infection and later pain and mobility problems in the arm. kids who ate a healthy diet (lots of fruits. doctors and women must balance the risks and benefits in making a treatment choice. The average difference was slight--less than two IQ points--but that can add up. One rule is that if there is any involvement in the lymph nodes under the arm. Now. researchers assigned half to a group that had standard surgery. For them. The explanation may lie in the brain's endocannabinoid receptors. Japanese investigators have found that polyphenols in cocoa attach to genes in the liver and intestines. BREAST CANCER Less-Extensive Surgery May Be O.9% of the women who had the extensive node surgery. radiation and chemo as well as extensive node removal. but it didn't change their intelligence scores. In a study of nearly 900 breast-cancer patients with early-stage disease (known as T1 or T2 tumors). pot sped up the onset of the disease by three years and worsened symptoms too. The findings clearly apply only to women with T1 or T2 tumors--about 20% of breast-cancer patients--but even in those cases. all those nodes must go. sugars and processed foods. The other half had only the sentinel nodes removed--the ones that were tested for the presence of the cancer--but their treatment was otherwise the same. activating the ones that produce HDL. improving the kids' diets after age 3 could boost their overall health. which respond to the active chemicals in pot and play a role in dopamine regulation. For the ones who had the limited surgery. The Long-Ago Roots of Cancer . possibly increasing the likelihood of psychotic episodes. Breast-Cancer surgery may never be routine. research funded by the National Cancer Institute calls that protocol into question.K. or good cholesterol. DIET AND IQ In a British study of children and nutrition. one study found. the rate was a slightly lower 82. but researchers now know why it works that magic. but there are standard ways to go about it.2%--a statistically insignificant difference. rice and pasta) at age 3 had higher IQs at age 8½ than kids who ate meals made up of a lot of fats. There was no recurrence of cancer at that point in 83. FROM THE LABS Late-Breaking Chocolate Bulletin Good news for chocolate lovers: not only can your favorite indulgence improve your overall cholesterol levels. For those who opt for the traditional surgery. veggies. as well as those that help suppress LDL. Disturbingly.The greater risk may be to people with a family history of psychosis.
Prime Minister. muscular liberalism.' MICHELLE OBAMA. doctors found that performing the operation in utero reduces complications--including the need to divert fluid away from the brain--and improves children's mental and motor function.K. after he was stabbed in the calf by a cockfighting bird wearing a blade 'I'm not a big fan of young kids' having Facebook. 2011 'The Taliban are part of the Afghan society. Corrective surgery is typically done after birth. Feb.Our most feared disease may be a billion years old. commenting on the death of Jose Luis Ochoa.S. saying he would like to reconcile with members of the Taliban "as soon as possible. saying he should have resigned from the post in 2004 after the release of photos showing abuse at Abu Ghraib prison 'I'm surprised it doesn't happen more often. A new paper says the rapid cell division that defines cancer may have originated in single-cell organisms battling for supremacy of the ancient planet. U. a birth defect in which the spinal bones do not fuse properly. FETAL-SURGERY BOON Researchers report a better way to help babies with spina bifida. Verbatim Monday. arguing that Britain's policy of "multiculturalism" has led to segregated communities in which Islamic extremism can thrive 'The country would have been better off if I had. during an appearance on the Today show.' JOHN GOODWIN.' HAMID KARZAI. Defense Secretary. It's not something they need. former U. of the Humane Society." as long as they part ways with al-Qaeda and are willing to swear allegiance to the Afghan constitution '[We need] a lot less of the passive tolerance of recent years and much more active. Studying the genes of their one-celled descendants may give scientists new clues about how to stop or control the disease. considering the knives they put on those birds. but in the first study of its kind. a 35-year-old California resident. 21. Afghan President.' DONALD RUMSFELD. on why she doesn't allow First Daughters Sasha and Malia to join the popular social-networking site .' DAVID CAMERON.
where he will host a prime-time news program TALKING HEADS Tim Wu Urging the U.' KEITH OLBERMANN.. loses its shock value early.. New York Times. Or they are murdered. The WikiLeaks case endangers the reputation of the United States as a defender of free speech and an open Internet globally .. At a time when the Internet is increasingly recognized as a medium of global resistance to authoritarian rule . UPI. the Obama administration and the United States must make sure that they stand on the right side. Today (2). former MSNBC star.. After 15 or 20 minutes. mother of 6-year-old Max. joking about his next gig.." --2/7/11 Ben Brantley Reviewing the much maligned Spider-Man musical in the New York Times: "The sheer ineptitude of this show . in the Wall Street Journal: "Why does a similar rebellion against five decades of repression there still appear to be a far-off dream? . star of a Volkswagen Super Bowl commercial in which the boy dressed as a mini Darth Vader. in Foreign Policy: "Pressing forward with efforts to prosecute an Internet publisher at home while standing up for an open Internet in Egypt and the world at large is an increasingly tenuous position.'He had his first surgery when he was 3 months old... rapid response brigades enforce the party line . NPR. to drop its pursuit of WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange.. the central question you keep asking yourself is likely to change from 'How can $65 million look so cheap?' to 'How long before I'm out of here?'" --2/7/11 Sources: Washington Post.S." --2/4/11 Mary Anastasia O'Grady Contrasting the power of the people in Egypt with the stasis that exists in Cuba. they are eventually exiled. If peaceful dissidents with leadership skills can't be broken. Twitter .. Max was born with a congenital heart defect 'I've signed with the Yankees.. In Cuba there are no opposition political parties or nonstate media.' JENNIFER PAGE. Olbermann will actually head to cable's Current TV.
though.6 billion-year-old ball of gas. For many centuries after that.) But we still believed our solar system to be at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. It was here yesterday. the first spacecraft to travel in polar orbit around the star. there is still relatively little known about the 4. A thousand years later.C. "than that from which it can light up the whole thing at the same time?" In 1610. Feb. It will be here tomorrow. Nothing has commanded our attention so completely as the sun. Such a life span is but a flicker to the sun. the space age allowed us to try to touch it back. 1954 Hulton-Deutsch Collection / Corbis It guides our calendars. We know now that it's actually located many light-years off to the side. And yet for all our thousands of years of study and worship. dark patches on the sun's surface. launched in 1990 and stayed active for almost 20 years. it was believed that the earth was at the center of everything. Galileo Galilei used the newly invented telescope to confirm this theory as well as the existence of sunspots--cooler. scientists began to realize the myriad effects that solar activity could have on our planet. Sometimes we have even mistaken it for a god. "Who would place this lamp in another or better position. By the 1870s.Brief History: The Sun By CLAIRE SUDDATH Monday. NASA released the first 360-degree image of the star. 21. Ulysses. On Feb. We seem to have gotten one step closer. And after we spent millennia being touched by the sun." he reasoned. (Flares and sunspots are connected to magnetic storms on earth. It was only in 1543 that astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus theorized that the earth revolves around the sun. nourishes our crops and provides us with light and warmth. . the Egyptians invented the sundial. The earliest recorded observations of the sun date back to Chinese astronomers in 2300 B. 6. 2011 London Residents gaze at a solar eclipse on June 30. It will continue to blaze bright long after we have gone dim.
and you may not want to anyway. not the best but the worst years of their lives generally lie ahead. you'll live practically forever. 10.The Skimmer By ANDREA SACHS Monday. 21. Feb. 2011 Never Say Die: The Myth and Marketing of the New Old Age By Susan Jacoby Pantheon. 2011 . But here comes scholar Susan Jacoby bearing a jarring message: No. Never Say Die is a call for boomers to look at what Jacoby. as opposed to fantasyland. "We need to face reality and base both our individual planning and social policy on the assumption that by the time men and women reach their eighties and nineties. right? But Jacoby's tough-minded refusal to buy the rosy image painted by advertisers and the "anti-aging industry"--a greedy crowd that includes bogus health gurus. 65. pill pushers and other medical hucksters--is empowering." Bummer. calls "real old age. Feb. "Anyone who lives beyond 85 has about a 50-50 chance of winding up in a nursing home--just as he or she has close to a 50 percent chance of developing dementia." READ [X] SKIM TOSS Dead Sex Kittens: Farewell to Three Icons of Movie Eroticism By RICHARD CORLISS Thursday. 332 pages It is a baby-boomer article of faith that if you go to the gym religiously. you won't." she writes in her cogent new book. watch your weight and avoid stress.
sexually liberated woman — from the perspective. controlling men behind the camera and in the audience. Jerry Lewis and Elvis Presley and handing out Oscars to the likes of The Sound of Music and Oliver! But in corners of the cinema world some directors threw out the playbook that had held since the coming of talking pictures in the 1920s. 72 (or maybe 75). confrontational. movies could spout obscenities. jurisdictions had banned films showing an unseemly amount of skin. operate under the same freedoms that applied to artists in any other medium. when suddenly everything could be said and shown. except that the films they starred in — Satana in Russ Meyer's 1965 Faster. Just a few years before. which saw the toppling of so many social standards. Lenny Bruce was convicted of obscenity. in Paris on Thursday.to late 1960s. and hard-core pornography was both public and chic. that is.A trio of movie actresses died within a day of one another last week: Maria Schneider. Nyman in Vilgot Sjöman's 1967 I Am Curious (Yellow) and Schneider in Bernardo Bertolucci's 1972 Last Tango in Paris — stand today as monuments to cinema's wildest and most adventurous decade. Lena Nyman. They provided a view of the bold. 66. In the Vietnam era. in Reno on Friday. . a cultural revolution was brewing in movies. in 1964. every movie outrage that had been a crime became the Hollywood norm. Within a decade. in Stockholm and Tura Satana. In the mid. and the three could be written off as one-hit wonders. worldwide change in movies. show nudity and copulation. 58. Pussycat! Kill! Kill!. The Hollywood factory was still grinding out family films starring Doris Day.S. of the avid. U. as young America exploded in opposition to the Vietnam engagement and French youth shut down their country in the manifestations of May '68. Each was known mainly for a single film. The new rule was that there were no rules. these actresses gave face and especially form to a seismic.
a combat cameraman in World War II and then a cheesecake photographer (his portrait of his wife Eve was used as an early Playboy centerfold). Pussycat! Kill! Kill! — the title encapsulates Meyer's tripartite vision of movies: speed.Tura Satana The filmmakers who shattered the old icons came from two different directions: up from the grind house and over from the art house." Meyer's films are filled with bosomy. Dressed in black. graduated to feature films with the 1959 nudie-cutie The Immoral Mr. which was made for $24. Meyer. they quickly found adherents among film critics and proto-fanboys." And when one of the other strippers is worried about whether she can fool the old man. Born Tura Luna Pascual Yamaguchi in Hokkaido. Seeing Satana here. She wasn't a sex object called upon to act. with gloves to match. babes and violence — has plenty of those commodities. no nudity. Varna gives her Lesson No. When a randy gas-station attendant stares at her cleavage and chirps. her figure a series of dangerous curves. from a Japanese-Filipino father and a Cheyenne-Scots-Irish mother. She played bits as strippers and whores in such Hollywood films as Irma La Douce and Who's Been Sleeping in My Bed? before getting her big chance in Pussycat and making the most of it. all right. Columbus. Japan. who love racing their cars on the California salt flats. "Now that's what I believe in. seeing America first. is lurid to the max. 1 in the Russ Meyer Performance Manual: "You don't have to believe it. her deep voice clipped and authoritative. But the old man is accurate enough in his appraisal of Varna. ripe dialogue and riper starlets. her long stride that of a wartime general masquerading as a runway model. Roger Ebert. though. she scowls at the world and spits emasculating aphorisms in its face. Deemed disposable drive-in fodder on their first release. Just act it. you'll wonder why she didn't find a deep Hollywood niche." Satana had the biography to back up her grit. surprise. Varna and the three women pay him a visit. Within a few years Meyer had ditched the color comedy genre for mad melodrama in monochrome: epics like Common Law Cabin. There's too much for one man to handle. in 1938 (or 1935). and in 1969 Meyer was hired by a major studio. But neither . at least as a character actress. she was the total package of commanding movie presence and acting chops. but. über-tough Varna gets into a fight with the guy. Tura Satana in Faster Pussycat! Kill! Kill! Faster. They race one guy who's brought his girlfriend along. to direct Beyond the Valley of the Dolls from a script by one of his young critical admirers. Her face is a rigid Kabuki mask of predatory sensuality. honey. only to discover that he's as crazy and ruthless as they are. The movie follows three strippers. she was interned with other Japanese-Americans in a California camp during World War II.000 and grossed more than $1 million. all featuring convoluted plots. Teas. "You won't find it down there. dominating women. Its narrative tone. and Satana might be the prototype ad apotheosis. 20th Century Fox. Mudhoney and Motor Psycho. "More stallion than mare." she snaps." the coot says. led by Satana as Varna. and sporting a tight top with a V or W neckline. snaps his spine and kills him and takes the girl as a hostage. Hearing of a rich coot (Stuart Lancaster) with a hidden fortune. "She's a cold one.
wrote that the film "is not merely not erotic. Between sex talk with a girl . strays from her lover Sjöman for a tryst with a young actor. who had acted in his previous film. and pretty much ended with. nonetheless titled his review "Dubious Yellow. gave him 100. and here would appear as the director's mistress. but liked developing an idea I had invented that same morning. His producing studio. exhibitionist vitality of Nyman. then 22. In both she plays. on a balustrade of the Royal Palace and in bedrooms hither and yon." TIME's Jay Cocks. scenes of coitus and fellatio do. "So I began to look for actors who thought it would be fun not to have a written manuscript.S. What's of interest today is the relationship of director to actress and the elfin.Meyer nor any director of his stature used her again. Released at home in 1967 and 1968. for the colors of the Swedish flag. Customs." Generally. The ruckus created a must-see aura for Curious (Yellow). Two hours of this movie will drive thoughts of sex out of your mind for weeks. Made for less than $100. the two I Am Curious films — the first called Yellow.S. muse and plaything. a docu-portrait of his homeland and interlace it with the sexual and political adventures of Nyman. was later assassinated). "I had been taught to let every whim and idea pop up. the second Blue. She also quizzes Martin Luther King Jr. The reels were immediately seized as obscene by U. reviewing for the Chicago Sun-Times. and Olof Palme." Trailed by Sjöman's small crew.S. who goes by her own name in the films. the sex scenes that raised the ire of the Customs Department stirred little tumescence among U.000 meters of black-and-white film stock and the intoxicating license to do as he wished. Sandrews. And all for a movie with some vivid simulated sex encased in a screed about the Swedish welfare state. It is anti-erotic. and it is they who make love everywhere: up a tree. until a Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that they could be shown. Lena Nyman She enjoyed a 50-year career in Swedish movies and theater. a movie can be not erotic. on the fly." Sjöman recalled in 1992. Curious (Yellow) grossed $20 million in the States — the equivalent of at least $100 million today. Well. as well as Soviet poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko. Nyman. Since Ahlstedt remains flaccid through the ardor. with enthusiasts paying up to $4. but Nyman's notoriety sprang from.000.50 for a ticket when the average price was $1. and still worth watching. or anti-erotic. including a good role as Liv Ullmann's damaged sister (and Ingrid Bergman's daughter) in Ingmar Bergman's 1978 Autumn Sonata. Lena Nyman in I Am Curious (Yellow) Sjöman's idea was to create.50. herself. Nyman interviews passers-by about government policies and sexual equality. See the picture and buy twin beds. the films were acquired by Barnet Rosset's Grove Press in the U. Ebert. Pussycat was her one shot at immortality. 491. the film was seen as a swindle. who gave the film a more measured notice. viewers and critics. more or less. A movie on the subject of whether Sweden is socialist enough does not attract the raincoat brigade. Börje Ahlstedt. the Education Minister who became Sweden's Prime Minister (and like King. and her aim was true.
taking men and women as . She played Jeanne. Pauline Kael proclaimed: "The movie breakthrough has finally come . right?" She feels manipulated by her master — and he by her: "She's using me. and she knows it. swank visual style. meets a middle-aged man there (Brando's Paul) and enters into an intense. In the storm of agitation. boy. when other critics referred to Last Tango. "Put dieting posters up on your wall instead. And. Maria Schneider In their big films. might have been a movie first — but because Brando was doing it. all the better. with such empty grand gestures as door punching and floor rolling and a few acting arias that show more bravado than behavioral truth. The daughter of actor Daniel Gélin and model Marie Christine Schneider. which may begin in erotic attraction and end in a who's-using-whom catfight. for the master class Brando gives in character improvisation — particularly in one four-minute closeup in which Paul recalls the indignities of his youth — and for the beguiling mixture of kewpie doll and sex toy that was Maria Schneider. This must be the most powerfully erotic movie ever made. Last Tango doesn't deserve either extreme response. And if we take the movie at its word that Sjöman and Nyman were bedmates when Curious was made. "You want a girl in your film and a girl in your bed.) But Tango exerts an enduring fascination: for its ruthless intimacy. "This movie is her chance. There's an ill-fitting subplot involving Jean-Pierre Léaud as Jeanne's filmmaker fiancé.chum (they discuss using shower nozzles. exactly — though a scene in which Paul sodomizes Jeanne." and drives away with a dismissive "I don't want those tits in my MG. "That was Pauline's film. "And if you can combine the two. but it reflects the familiar synergy and abrasion of a director and his leading lady. Last Tango was a '70s sensation not for what it showed. does she take advantage of it!" All this may be fiction. at the man's insistence. claustrophobic affair in which.") The movie's event status was certified by a TIME cover story. so incendiary was the article's judicious description of the sex scenes that an unprecedented number of outraged readers canceled their subscriptions. living in communes. Maria spent her teens vagabonding through Montparnasse and Marrakech. vibrators and vacuum cleaners) and asking each of her 23 lovers to answer a questionnaire on their sexual experiences and political affiliations. Her beau too grows alienated: he glances at a bedroom ornamented with Che and Marx photos and snarls. fresh from The Godfather. for the elegance of its spare. who wants to make a documentary about her life (the exact same notion that informed I Am Curious." (The review would become nearly as famous as the picture. Schneider's onscreen partner in her first prominent role was Marlon Brando. we're left with the odd spectacle of a director filming his girlfriend having sex with another man. no names or biographical details will be exchanged. that damned girl." Lena tells Sjöman. a young bride-to-be who goes scouting for an apartment." Sjöman complains. the pudgy star eventually tires of Börje. dreaming of castrating him with a knife. the rhetoric of both the movie's defenders and its detractors ascended to operatic heights." Behind these sexual skirmishes is a standard movie-set romance. using butter as a lubricant. they'd say.. Writing in The New Yorker. in subsequent years. having sex and talking about sex. The movie is long and lumpy.. At heart a movie about two people in a room. Schneider was the woman he did it to. Satana and Nyman were acting with unknowns. and it may turn out to be the most liberating movie ever made.
saying that they "manipulated me. Taking Schneider to a bar. Quoting Schneider from the TIME story: " 'He's almost 50. she bore both men grudges. Brando said he wanted her not to talk. saying she wanted to be known as an actress." he says in their postcoital bliss. I love you") and taking her on the last tango that will lead to his death. Her final words: "I don't know him . drug-addled life throttled her career. Brando's character. "she became much more natural. Undressed. She managed the trick. won the job by the ease with which she disrobed at Bertolucci's request. you dummy. literally . "I'm much more free sexually than Bernardo or Brando. She walked off one film to enter a mental institution to be with her girlfriend of the moment. The director originally cast the blond. Schneider fit the bill. onscreen or off. Stripped naked. Bertolucci made his mea culpa. 20 at the time. "From then on he was like a daddy. "Maria accused me of robbing her of her youth. he said. intimacy was in large part simple voyeurism. and large breasts on an otherwise boyish frame. using me without thinking about me. Anyway. But her wild. and Schneider. defiled and then deified by her goat lover. With curly hair ringing a puffy." Since Jeanne would be naked in much of the movie — Brando too.' " The Paul-Jeanne affair begins in animal passion (they have sex within moments of meeting). not a sex performer. Buñuel puckishly replaced her with two actresses alternating in the same part.. and Schneider recalled. I took years to forgive them. just stare at him as hard as she could. and an actress's first casualty was her modesty. The Conformist.. before I could re-embrace her tenderly and tell her that I still felt close to her. who had illuminated his previous film. Bob Guccione offered Schneider the female lead in his 1979 porno-epic Caligula. though. but I'm still a good stickman .." We do well to remember that. "and my hap-penis"). A blasé exhibitionist. Schneider got another big role in a 1975 film (The Passenger) by a major director (Michelangelo Antonioni) and with an American superstar (Jack Nicholson). That wasn't the image that Bertolucci had hoped to set against the rutting desperation of Paul. blossoms in moments of erotic caprice ("That's your happiness.. Schneider telegraphed the try-anything spirit of a sexually swashbuckling age. you know." Nearly 40 years later. But Sanda got pregnant (by Brando's old pal Christian Marquand). and who in Last Tango could represent a kind of modern virgin goddess. sours as they swap insults (she telling him he's old. she rejected it. and in 1977 she was fired from Luis Buñuel's That Obscure Object of Desire. and' — she runs her hand down her torso to her midriff— 'he's only beautiful to here. Suddenly he's all charm." Schneider boasted during the Last Tango furor. pouty face." She said they never had sex. but only metaphorically — the director needed an actress who didn't feel violated every time she had to take her clothes off. and ask her at least once for her forgiveness.lovers. Later. "Her death arrived too soon. he responding. in the great movie revolution of the mid-'60s to mid-'70s." An instant celebrity. upon Schneider's death." he told the Ansa news agency. and only today I ask myself if she wasn't perhaps right. The idea was for Paul to drag Jeanne down sexually to his level — not for him to dive into the lower depths and find her waiting for him. Now she had to convince the star she was worthy of spending a film with him. "In 10 years you're gonna be playin' soccer with your tits") and reaches its brutal nadir in the sodomy scene. When Jeanne accepts her fiancé's proposal of marriage. seraphic Dominique Sanda. gushing with details of his life ("I've got a prostate like an Idaho potato. Paul realizes that she means more to him than a vessel of anonymous sex.
all-encompassing Huffington Post Media Group. of a war over the movies that was won in the '60s and is largely forgotten today. like Tura Satana. feel they're the victims of cinematic rape. were soldiers in the battle for a free and mature movie culture. Shane Bauer and Josh Fattal.S. others. in September after being released on $500. enjoy the attention. The three. this is its biggest acquisition since its ill-fated merger with Time Warner (TIME's parent company) ended in 2009. "This moment will be for HuffPost like stepping off a fast-moving train and onto a supersonic jet. All actors are in a sense exhibitionists. are accused of illegal entry and espionage. As president and editor in chief of the new. on the front lines. 6 in Iran. "Now that the court has heard their testimony firsthand. Milestones Monday. she'll also be in charge of AOL's wide-ranging content. we hope and pray that truth and justice will at long last prevail. take it in stride. vulnerable selves they expose. though. A not-guilty plea was also entered for Sarah Shourd. like Lena Nyman. While noting this in a joint statement. All. parading themselves. who returned to the U. Milestones By ALEXANDRA SILVER Monday. 2011 ACQUIRED Net stalwart AOL will pay $315 million in cash and stock for the Huffington Post. still others. like Schneider. Masoud Shafii. who are in their late 20s and have been jailed in Tehran's Evin prison for 18 months. the flourishing news site that launched in 2005 with a $1 million investment. Schneider. said he had been denied access to the men before the trial. 2011 PLEADED A closed-door trial of three Americans charged as spies began Feb. Bauer's fiancée. who were arrested while hiking along the nation's border with Iraq in 2009. the more of their secret. Feb. Arianna Huffington--a co-founder and the editor in chief of the eponymous website--said of the Feb. whether eager volunteers or reluctant draftees.000 bail. the families of Bauer and Fattal also said. she lived out the fantasies and compulsions of the man directing her.and often emotionally." . Some women. As for AOL. pleaded not guilty in court. 6 deal. Satana and Nyman deserve our respect for fighting in the vanguard." It's a jet that Huffington will have a significant role in piloting. costumed only by the characters they play. 21. The hikers' attorney. but the more private the parts they reveal. 21. Feb.
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