# Basic Mathematics

Prepared by Prof. Jairus. Khalagai
African Virtual university
Université Virtuelle Africaine
Mathematics I
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Notice
This document is published under the conditions of the Creative Commons
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_Commons
License (abbreviated “cc-by”), Version 2.5.
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I. Mathematics1,BasicMathematics_____________________________3
II. PrerequisiteCourseorKnowledge _____________________________3
III. Time ____________________________________________________3
IV. Materials_________________________________________________3
V. ModuleRationale __________________________________________4
VI. Content__________________________________________________5
6.1 Overview____________________________________________5
6.2 Outline _____________________________________________6
VII. GeneralObjective(s)________________________________________8
VIII. SpecificLearningObjectives__________________________________8
IX. TeachingandLearningActivities______________________________10
X. KeyConcepts(Glossary)____________________________________16
XII. CompulsoryResources_____________________________________19
XIV. LearningActivities_________________________________________23
XV. SynthesisOfTheModule ___________________________________48
XVI. SummativeEvaluation______________________________________49
XVII.References ______________________________________________66
XVIII.MainAuthoroftheModule_________________________________67
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I. Mathematics 1, basic Mathematics
By Prof. Jairus. Khalagai, University of Nairobi
II. Prerequisite Courses or Knowledge
Unit 1: (i) Sets and Functions (ii) Composite Functions
Secondary school mathematics is prerequisite.
This is a level 1 course.
Unit 2: Binary Operations
Basic Mathematics 1 is prerequisite.
This is a level 1 course.
Unit 3: Groups, Subgroups and Homomorphism
Basic Mathematics 2 is prerequisite.
This is a level 2 course.
III. Time
120 hours
IV. Material
The course materials for this module consist of:
Study materials (print, CD, on-line)
(pre-assessment materials contained within the study materials)
Two formative assessment activities per unit (always available but with spe-
cifed submission date). (CD, on-line)
References and Readings from open-source sources (CD, on-line)
ICT Activity fles
Those which rely on copyright software
Those which rely on open source software
Those which stand alone
Video fles
Audio fles (with tape version)
Open source software installation fles
Graphical calculators and licenced software where available
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V. Module Rationale
The rationale of teaching Basic mathematics is that it plays the role of flling up
gaps that the student teacher could be having from secondary school mathematics.
For instance, a lack of a proper grasp of the real number system and elementary
functions etc. It also serves as the launching pad to University Mathematics by
introducing the learner to the science of reasoning called logic and other related
topics.
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VI. Content
6.1 Overview
This module consists of three units which are as follows:
Unit 1: (i) Sets and Functions (ii) Composite Functions
This unit starts with the concept of a set. It then intoroduces logic which gives
the learner techniques for distinguishing between correct and incorrect argu-
ments using propositions and their connectives. A grasp of sets of real numbers
on which we defne elementary functions is essential. The need to have pictorial
representations of a function necessitates the study of its graph. Note that the
concept of a function can also be viewed as an instruction to be carried out on a
set of objects. This necessitates the study of arrangements of objects in a certain
order, called permutations and combinations.
Unit 2: Binary Operations
In this unit we look at the concept of binary operations. This leads to the study
of elementary properties of integers such as congruence. The introduction to
algebraic structures is simply what we require to pave the way for unit 3.
Unit 3: Groups, Subgroups and Homomorphism
This unit is devoted to the study of groups and rings. These are essentially sets of
numbers or objects which satisfy some given axioms. The concepts of subgroup
and subring are also important to study here. For the sake of looking at cases of
fewer axiomatic demands we will also study the concepts of homomorphisms
and isomorphisms. Here we will be refecting on the concept of a mapping or a
function from either one group to the other or from one ring to the other in order
to fnd out what properties such a function has.
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6.2 Outline
Unit 1: (i) Sets and Functions (ii) Composite Functions (50 hours)
Level 1. Priority A. No prerequisite.
Sets (4)
Elementary logic (8)
Number systems (6)
Complex numbers (4)
Relations and functions (8)
Elementary functions and their graphs (8)
Permutations (7)
Combinations (5)
Unit 2: Binary Operations (35 hours)
Level 1. Priority A. Basic Mathematics 1 is prerequisite.
Binary operations. (7)
Elementary properties of integers. (7)
Congruence. (7)
Introduction to Algebraic structures. (7)
Applications (7)
Unit 3: Groups, Subgroups and Homomorphism (35 hours)
Level 2. Priority B. Basic Mathematics 2 is prerequisite.
Groups and subgroups. (7)
Cyclic groups. (2)
Permutation groups. (5)
Group homomorphisms. (4)
Factor groups. (3)
Automorphisms. (3)
Rings, sub-rings, ideals and quotient rings. (7)
Isomorphisms theorems for groups and rings. (4)
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This diagram shows how the different sections of this module relate to each
other.
The central or core concept is in the centre of the diagram. (Shown in red).
Concepts that depend on each other are shown by a line.
For example: Set is the central concept. The Real Number System depends on
the idea of a set. The Complex Number System depend on the Real Number
System.

Homomorphisms
and
Isomorphisms
Groups and
Rings
Algebraic
Structure
Permutations
and
combinations
Binary
Operation
SE T
Propositional
Logic
Real Number
System
Functions and
their graphs
Trigonometry
Complex
number
system
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VII. General objective(s)
You will be equipped with knowledge of elementary mathematical logic, sets,
numbers and algebraic structures required for effective teaching of mathematics
in secondary schools.
VIII. specifc learning objectives
(Instructional objectives)
By the end of this module, the learner should be able to…”
• Construct mathematical arguments.
• make connections and communicate mathematical ideas effectively and
economically.
• Examine patterns, make abstractions and generalize.
• Understand various mathematical structures and the similarities and dif-
ferences among these structures.
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IX. Teaching and learning activities
Module 1: Basic Mathematics, Pre-assessment
Unit 1: Sets and Functions
Assessments and Solutions
Pre-assessment Questions
1. Given the quadratic equation:

2
2 6 0 x x − − =
The roots are
a. { } 4, 3 −
b. { } 4, 3 −
c.
3
2,
2
⎧ ⎫

⎨ ⎬
⎩ ⎭
d.
3
2,
2
⎧ ⎫

⎨ ⎬
⎩ ⎭
2. The value of the function ( )
2
2 3 1 f x x x = + + at 3 x = is
a. 19
b. 28
c. 46
d. 16
3. Which of the following diagrams below represents the graph of y=3x(2-x)
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a.

b.

c.

d
.
4. The solution of the equation
1
sin
2
x = −

in the range 0 360 x ≤ ≤
o
is:
a.
{ }
150 , 210
o o
b.
{ }
30 ,150
o o
c.
{ }
210 , 330
o o
d.
{ }
30 , 330
o o
5. Given the triangle ABC below

√5
a
o

A
B
C
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Which of the following statements is correct?
a) Cos a =
2
15
b) Sin a=
5
2
c) Tan a= 2
d) Sec a =
1
5
Unit 1: Pre-assessment Solutions
The following are the answers to the multiple choice questions.
Q 1 c Q 2 b Q 3 b Q 4 c Q 5 c
Unit 2: Binary Operations
1. The inverse of the function
( )
1
1
f x
x
=

is
(a) ( )
1
1 f x x

= −
(b) ( )
1
1 x
f x
x

=
(c) ( )
1
1 x
f x
x

+
=
(d) ( )
1
1
1 f x
x

= −
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2. If sin
2 2
x a
= then
sin x in terms a is:
(a)
2
4
a
a −
(b)
2
4 a a −
(c) a
(d)
2
4
2
a −
3. A girl has 3 skirts, 5 blouses and 4 scarves. The number of different outfts
consisting of skirt, blouse and scarf that she can make out of these is:
a. 220
b. 60
c. 12
d. 150
4. Given the complex number
1 z i = − we have that Arg z is:
(a) 45
0
(b) 135
0
(c) 225
0
(d) 315
0
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5. If
2
1, a b a ab ∗ = + − then
5 3 ∗

is
(a) 39
(b) 41
(c) 23
(d) 25
Unit 2: Pre-assessment Solutions
Q1. c Q2. b Q3. b Q4. b Q5. a
Unit 3: Groups, Subgroups and Homomorphism
1. Which of the following is a binary operation?
(a) Squaring a number.
(b) Taking the predecessor of a natural number.
(c) Taking the successor of a natural number.
(d) Finding the sum of two natural numbers
2. Recall the defnition of a homormorphism and state which one of the following
is a homomorphism on a group G of real numbers under either multiplication
(a) ( ) 2
x
x f =
(b) ( ) 6 x x f =
(c) ( )
2
x x f =
(d) ( ) 5 x x f = +
3. For a group G if a x a b = in G, then x is
(a) b
(b)
1
ba

(c)
1
a b

(d)
1 1
a ba
− −
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4. If an element a is a ring R is such that
2
a a = then a is called
(a) nilpotent
(b) characteristic
(c) idempotent
(d) identity
5. Let R be a ring and x R � if there exists a unique element a R ∈

such that
, x a x = then a x is:
(a) e
(b) a
(c)
– x
(d) x
Unit 3: Pre-assessment Solutions
1. d 2. c 3. d 4. c 5. d
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Title of Pre-assessment : Pedagogical comment for learners
The questions in this pre-assessment are designed to test your readiness for stu-
dying the module.
The 5 questions preparing you for unit 1 require high school mathematics. If you
make any errors, this should suggest the need to re-visit the high school mathe-
matical topic referred to in the question.
The questions for unit 2 and unit 3 test your readiness after having completed
the learning activities for unit 1 and unit 2.
If you make errors in the unit 2 pre-assessment, you should check through your
work on unit 1 in this module. Likewise, If you make errors in the unit 3 pre-as-
sessment, you should check through your work on unit 2 in this module.
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X. Key concepts (glossary)
1. Abelian group: This is a group 〈G, *〉 in which a * b = b * a for a,b,∈G.
2. Algebraic structure: This is the collection of a given set G together with a
binary operation * that satisfes a given set of axioms.
3. Binary operation: This is a mapping which assigns to each ordered pair of
elements of a set G, exactly one element of G.
4. Composite Function: This is a function obtained by combing two or more
other simple functions in a given order.
5. Function: This is a special type of mapping where an object is mapped to a
unique image.
6. Group: This is a non-empty set say G with a binary operation
*
such that:
(i) a b G ∗ ∈ for all , . a b G ∈
(ii) ( ) ( ) a b c a b c ∗ ∗ = ∗ ∗

for all , , . a b c G ∈
(iii) There exists an element e in G such that e a a a e ∗ = = ∗ for all a G ∈

where e is called identity.
(iv) For every a G ∈

there exists

1
a G

such that
1 1
a a e a a
− −
∗ = = ∗
Where
1
a

is called the inverse of a
7. Homomorphism: This is a mapping f from a group G into another group H
such that for any pair a,b,∈G. We have f(ab) =f(a) f (b).
8. Isomorphism: This is a homorphism which is also a bijection.
9. Mapping: This is simply a relationship between any two given sets.
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10. Proposition: This is a statement with truth value. Thus we can tell whether
it is true or false
11. Ring: This is a non-empty set say R with two binary operations + and *
called addition and multiplication respectively such that:
(i) , R + is an Abelian group.
(ii) 〈 R, * 〉 is a multiplicative semigroup.
12. Semigroup: This is a non-empty set S with a binary operation such * that:
(i) a b S ∗ ∈ for all , . a b S ∈
(ii) ( ) ( ) a b c a b c ∗ ∗ = ∗ ∗

for all , , . a b c S ∈
(iii) For all , , . a b c S ∈

we have:
( ) a b c a b a c ∗ + = ∗ + ∗

and ( ) a b c a c b c + ∗ = ∗ + ∗
13. Set: This is a collection of objects or items with same properties
14. Subgroup: This is a subset H of a group G such that H is also a group with
respect to the binary operation in G.
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A Textbook for High School Students Studying Maths by the Free High School
Science Texts authors, 2005, pg 38-47 (File name on CD: Secondary_School_
Maths)
Elements of Abstract and Linear Algebra by E. H. Connell, 1999, University of
Miami, pg. 1-13 (File name on CD: Abstract_and_linear_algebra_Connell)
Sets relations and functions by Ivo Duntsch and Gunther Gediga methodos pu-
blishers (UK) 2000. (File name on CD: Sets_Relations_Functions_Duntsch)
Abstract Algebra: The Basic Graduate Year, by Robert B. Ash (Folder on CD:
Abstract_Algebra_Ash)
General Abstract and Rationale
All of the compulsory readings are complete open source textbooks. Together
they provide more than enough material to support the course. However, the text
contains specifc page references to activities, readings and exercises which are
referenced in the learning activities.
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XII. Compulsory Resources
Wolfram MathWorld (visited 29.08.06)
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/
• A complete and comprehensive guide to all topics in mathematics. The
students is expected to become familiar with this web site and to follow
up key words and module topics at the site.
Wikipedia (visited 29.08.06)
http://www.wikipedia.org/
• Wikipedia provides encyclopaedic coverage of all mathematical topics.
Students should follow up key words by searching at wikipedia.
Alr|car v|rlua| ur|vers|ly 20
Set Theory (visited 29.08.06)
http://www.mathresource.iitb.ac.in/project/indexproject.html
• Read through any of the sections by clicking on the slices of the pie.
• Especially work through the section called ‘functions’.
• Click the NEXT link at the bottom of the page to move forward.
• Click on double arrow 8 buttons to see things move!
Wolfram MathWorld (visited 29.08.06)
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SetTheory.html
• Read this entry for Set Theory.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Wikipedia (visited 29.08.06)
http://www.wikipedia.org/
• Type ‘Set Theory’ into the search box and press ENTER.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
MacTutor History of Mathematics
http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Beginnings_of_set_theory.
html
• Read for interest the history of Set Theory
Composite Functions (visited 06.11.06)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/asguru/maths/13pure/02functions/06composite/
index.shtml
• Read through the frst page
• Use the arrow buttons at the bottom of the page to move to the next
page
• Page 2 is an interactive activity. Work through it carefully.
• Read page 3 for details on notation.
• Test your understanding on page 4.
Alr|car v|rlua| ur|vers|ly 21
Wolfram MathWorld (visited 06.11.06)
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Composition.html
• Read this entry for Composite Functions.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Wikipedia (visited 06.11.06)
http://www.wikipedia.org/
• Type ‘Composite Functions’ into the search box and press ENTER.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Binary Color Device (visited 06.11.06)
http://www.cut-the-knot.org/Curriculum/Algebra/BinaryColorDevice.shtml
• This is a puzzle involving binary operations and group tables. Use the
puzzle to develop your understanding.
Wolfram MathWorld (visited 06.11.06)
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BinaryOperation.html
• Read this entry for Binary Operations.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Wolfram MathWorld (visited 06.11.06)
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Group.html
• Read this entry for Group Theory.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Wikipedia (visited 06.11.06)
http://www.wikipedia.org/
• Type ‘Binary Operations’ into the search box and press ENTER.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Wikipedia (visited 06.11.06)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_Theory
• Read this entry for Group Theory.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Alr|car v|rlua| ur|vers|ly 22
MacTutor History of Mathematics
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Development_group_
theory.html
Read for interest the history of Group Theory
Alr|car v|rlua| ur|vers|ly 23
XIV. learning activities
Module 1: Basic Mathematics
Unit 1, Activity 1: Sets and Functions
Specific Learning Objectives
By the end of this activity, the learner should be able to:
• Distinguish between a function and a general mapping
• Demonstrate relationship between sets and functions
• Give examples of sets of real numbers and some functions defned on
such sets
Overview
The notions of a set and a function are the most fundamental concepts which
together constitute the foundations of Mathematics. Indeed, different branches
of Mathematics start with these two fundamental concepts.
In this activity, we are simply demonstrating how sets of objects are easily ex-
tracted from our surroundings. In particular, we are going to motivate the learner
to be able to easily come up with examples of general mapping and functions
defned on sets of real numbers.
We note that it is of great importance for the learner to be able to distinguish
between a general mapping and a function diagrammatically. This will help the
learner in grasping many properties about functions in higher courses.
Key Concepts
Function: This is a special type of mapping where an object is mapped to a
unique image.
Mapping: This is simply a relationship between any two given sets
Proposition: This is a statement with truth value. Thus we can tell whether it is
true or false
Set: This is a collection of objects or items with same properties
Alr|car v|rlua| ur|vers|ly 21
All of the readings for the module come from Open Source text books. This
means that the authors have made them available for any reader to use them
without charge. We have provided complete copies of these texts on the CD
accompanying this course.
1. A Textbook for High School Students Studying Maths by the Free High
School Science Texts authors, 2005, pg 38-47 (File name on CD: Secon-
dary_School_Maths)
2. Elements of Abstract and Linear Algebra by E. H. Connell, 1999, Uni-
versity of Miami, pg. 1-13 (File name on CD: Abstract_and_linear_alge-
bra_Connell)
Internet Resources
Set Theory (visited 29.08.06)
http://www.mathresource.iitb.ac.in/project/indexproject.html
• Read through any of the sections by clicking on the slices of the pie.
• Especially work through the section called ‘functions’.
• Click the NEXT link at the bottom of the page to move forward.
• Click on double arrow 8 buttons to see things move!
Wolfram MathWorld (visited 29.08.06)
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SetTheory.html
• Read this entry for Set Theory.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Wikipedia (visited 29.08.06)
http://www.wikipedia.org/
• Type ‘Set Theory’ into the search box and press ENTER.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
MacTutor History of Mathematics
http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Beginnings_of_set_theory.
html
• Read for interest the history of Set Theory
Alr|car v|rlua| ur|vers|ly 25
Introduction
a) Story of Maize Grinding Machine
Jane walks in a village to a nearby market carrying a basket of maize to be ground
into four. She puts the maize into a container in the grinding machine and starts
rotating the handle. The maize is then ground into four which comes out of the
machine for her to take home.
Question
What relation can you make among the maize, the grinding machine and the
four?
b) Story of children born on the Christmas day in the year 2005
It was reported on the 25
th
of December 2005 in Pumwani Maternity Hospital
which is in Nairobi the Capital City of Kenya that mothers who gave birth to
single babies were a total of 52. This was the highest tally on that occasion. As
it is always the case each baby was given a tag to identify him or her with the
mother.

Questions
1. In the situation above given the mother how do we trace the baby?
2. Given the baby how do we trace the mother?

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Activity
Note that we can now represent the story of the maize grinding machine dia-
grammatically as follows:
A B

f
A = Set of some content (in this case maize) to be put in the grinding
machine.
f = The mapping or function representing the process in the grinding
machine
B = Set of the product content (in this case four) to be obtained
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Example 1
In this example we defne two sets and a relation between them as follows:
Let A = {2, 3, 4}
B = {2, 4, 6, 8}
f is a relationship which says “is a factor of”
e.g. 3 is a factor of 6
In this case we have the following mapping:

2

3

4
2

4

6

8
A
B
Alr|car v|rlua| ur|vers|ly 28
Example 2
Think of a number of such situations and represent them with a mapping diagram
as shown above.
In our second story of each mother giving birth to only one child can be repre-
sented in a mapping diagram as follows:
A B

X

X

X

X
f
A = Set of babies
B = Set of mothers
f = Relation which says “baby to”
Alr|car v|rlua| ur|vers|ly 29
Remarks 3
i. Notice that in this mapping each object is mapped onto a unique image. In
this case it is a function. We write f: A→ B
ii. Note also that in the mapping above even if we interchanged the roles of sets
A and B we still have that each object has a unique image. Thus we have…
B A

X

X

X

X

g
In this case we have
B = Set of mothers
A = Set of babies
g = Relation which says “is mother of ”

In this case we say that the function f has an inverse g. We normally denote this
inverse g as f
-1
Thus for f: A → B we have f
-1:
B → A
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Example 4
Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
B = {2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12}
f : x → 2x + 1
Then we have the mapping as follows: f:x → 2x+ 1

1

2

3

4

5

2
3
5
7
9
11
12
For notation purposes in this mapping we can also write:
f(1) = 3, f(2) = 5 etc
In general f(x) = 2x + 1
The set A is called the domain of f and the set B is called the co domain of f.
The set { 3, 5, 7, 9, 11} within 13 on which all elements of A are mapped is calle
range of f. Note that here the inverse of f is given by
1
1
( )
2

=
x
f x

and is also
a function.
African Virtual University 31
Exercise 5
Starting with the set
A = {2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12} as the domain fnd the range for each of the following
functions.
a) f(x) = 3x – 2
b) g(x) = 2x
2
+ 1
c) ( )
1
=

x
h x
x

Exercise 6
State the inverse of the following functions:
a)

f (x) = 3−
2
x

b)

g(x) =
1
1− x

c)

h(x) = 3x
2
− 2
Exercise 7
Using as many different sets of real numbers as domains give examples of the
following:
a) A mapping which is not a function
b) A mapping which is a function
c) A function whose inverse is not a function
d) A function whose inverse is also a function
Demonstrate each example on a mapping diagram. If you are in a group each
member should come up with an example of his or her own for each of the cases
above.
African Virtual University 32
Module 1: Basic Mathematics
Unit 1, Activity 2: Composite functions
Specific Objectives
By the end of this activity, the learner should be able to:
• Demonstrate a situation in which two consecutive instructions issued in
two different orders may yield different results.
• Verify that two elementary functions operated (one after another) in two
different orders may yield different composite functions.
• Draw and examine graphs of different classes of functions starting with
Overview
Composite functions are about combinations of different simple mappings in order
to yield one function. The process of combining even two simple statements in
real life situations in order to yield one compound statement is important. Indeed
the order in which two consecutive instruction are issued must be seriously consi-
dered so that we do not end up with some embarrassing results.
In this activity we are set to verify that two elementary functions whose formulae
are known if combined in a certain order will yield one composite formula and
if order in which they are combined is reversed then this may yield a different
formula.
We note here that it is equally important to be able to represent a composite
function pictorially by drawing its graph and examine the shape. Indeed, the
learner will be able to draw these graphs starting with linear functions quadratic
and even trigonometric functions etc.
Key Concepts
Composite Function: This is a function obtained by combing two or more other
simple functions in a given order.
African Virtual University 33
All of the readings for the module come from Open Source text books. This
means that the authors have made them available for any reader to use them
without charge. We have provided complete copies of these texts on the CD
accompanying this course.
1. Sets relations and functions by Ivo Duntsch and Gunther Gediga, Metho-
dos publishers (UK) 2000. (File name on CD: Sets_Relations_Func-
tions_Duntsch)
Internet Resources
Composite Functions (visited 06.11.06)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/asguru/maths/13pure/02functions/06composite/
index.shtml
• Read through the frst page
• Use the arrow buttons at the bottom of the page to move to the next
page
• Page 2 is an interactive activity. Work through it carefully.
• Read page 3 for details on notation.
• Test your understanding on page 4.
Wolfram MathWorld (visited 06.11.06)
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Composition.html
• Read this entry for Composite Functions.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Wikipedia (visited 06.11.06)
http://www.wikipedia.org/
• Type ‘Composite Functions’ into the search box and press ENTER.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
African Virtual University 34
Introduction
a) A Story of Nursery School Children
Two Children brother and sister called John and Jane go to a Nursery school
called Little Friends.
One morning they woke up late and found themselves in a hurry to put on clothes
and run to school, Jane frst put on socks then shoes. But her brother John frst
put on shoes then socks. Jane looked at him and burst into laughter as she run to
school to be followed by her brother.
Question
Why did Jane burst into laughter?
b) Story of a visit to a beer brewing factory
A science Club in a secondary school called Nabumali High
School in Uganda, one Saturday made a trip to Jinja town
to observe different stages of brewing beer called Nile Beer.
It was noted that of special interest was the way some equi-
pment used in the process would enter some chamber and
emerge transformed. For example an empty bottle would
enter a chamber and emerge transformed full of Nile Beer
but without the bottle top. Then it would enter the next
chamber and emerge with the bottle top on.

Chamber
(1)
Chamber
(2)
filled with
top on
filled with
Nile
Beerwithout
top
empty
bottle
Question
Can you try to explain what happens in each chamber of the brewing factory?

African Virtual University 35
Activity
We note that in our story of the Nursery school Children what is at stake is the
order in which we should take instruction in real life situations. Jane laughed at
her brother because she saw the socks on top of the shoes. In other words her
brother had ended up with composite instruction or function which was untenable.
We can also look at other such cases through the following example.
Example 1
I think of a number, square it then add 3 or I think of a number add 3 then square
it. If we let the number to be x, then we will end up with two different results
namely
2
3 x + and ( )
2
3 x + respectively.
Example 2
Can you now come up with a number of examples similar to the one above?
If we now consider our story on the brewing of Uganda Warangi we note that
each Chamber has a specifc instruction on the job to perform. This is why wha-
tever item passes through the chamber must emerge transformed in some way.
We can also look at an example where instructions are given in functional form
with explicit formulae as shown below.
Example 3
Consider the composition of the functions.
: 2 f x x →

and : 5 g x x → +
Here if we are operating f followed by g then we double x before we add 5. But
if operate g followed by f then we add 5 to xbefore we double the result.
For notation purposes
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
f g x f g x = o means g then f. While ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
g f x g f x = o means
f then g
Thus we have:

: 2 g x x →
: 5 g x x → +
4 8 11

African Virtual University 36
Representing the composite function ( ) ( )
2 5 g f x x = +
While:

: 5 g x x → +
: 2 f x x →
4 9 18

representing the composite function ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 5 f g x x = +
Exercise 4
Given : 3 1 : 2 f x x g x x → + → −
Determine the following functions:
(a) f g o
(b) g f o
(c) ( )
1
f g

o
(d) ( )
1
g f

o
Taking x = 3 draw a diagram for each of the composite functions above as is the
case in example 3 above.
Exercise 5
Sketch the graph for each of the following function: assuming the domain for
each one of them is the whole set ℜ of real numbers.
b) ( ) 2 3 f x x = −
c) ( )
2
4 12 g x x x = −
d) ( )
3
3 1 h x x x = − +
e) ( ) 2 sin k x x =
African Virtual University 37
Module 1: Basic Mathematics
Unit 2: Binary Operations
Specific Learning Objectives
By the end of this activity, the learner should be able to:
• Give examples of binary operations on various operations
• Determine properties of commutativity or associativity on some binary
operations.
• Determine some equivalence relations on some algebraic structures
Overview
The concept of a binary operation is essential in the sense that it leads to the
creation of algebraic structures.
The well known binary operations like + (addition) and x (multiplication) do
constitute the set ℜ of real numbers as one of the most familiar algebraic structu-
res. Indeed the properties of commutativity or associativity can easily be verifed
with respect to these operations on ℜ.
However, in this activity we defne and deal with more general binary operations
which are usually denoted by*.
For example for any pair of points x, and y, in a given set say G, x * y could
even mean pick the larger of the two points. It is clear here that x * y = y * x.
Consequently we will exhibit examples of more general algebraic structures that
arise from such binary operations.
Key concepts
Algebraic structure: This is the collection of a given set G together with a binary
operation * that satisfes a given set of axioms.
Binary operation: This is a mapping which assigns to each ordered pair of ele-
ments of a set G, exactly one element of G.
African Virtual University 38
All of the readings for the module come from Open Source text books. This
means that the authors have made them available for any reader to use them
without charge. We have provided complete copies of these texts on the CD
accompanying this course.
1 Sets of relations and functions by Ivo Duntsch and Gunther Gediga,
Methodos Publishers, UK, 2000 pp 30-34 (File name on CD: Sets_Rela-
tions_Functions_Duntsch)
Internet Resources
Binary Color Device (visited 06.11.06)
http://www.cut-the-knot.org/Curriculum/Algebra/BinaryColorDevice.shtml
• This is a puzzle involving binary operations and group tables. Use the
puzzle to develop your understanding.
Wolfram MathWorld (visited 06.11.06)
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BinaryOperation.html
• Read this entry for Binary Operations.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Wikipedia (visited 06.11.06)
http://www.wikipedia.org/
• Type ‘Binary Operations’ into the search box and press ENTER.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
African Virtual University 39
Introduction: The Story of the Reproductive System
In a real life situation among human beings, you will fnd that an in-
dividual gets into a relation with another individual of opposite sex.
They then reproduce other individuals who constitute a family. We
then have that families with a common relationship will constitute a
clan and different clans will give rise to a tribe etc…
We note that even in ecology the same story can be told. For example
we can start with an individual like an organism which is able to re-
produce other organisms of the same species that will later constitute
a population. If different populations stay together then they will
constitute a community etc…
Question:
What is the mechanism that can bring together two individuals (human beings
or organisms of ecology) in order to start reproduction?
Activity
We note that in the case of human beings in our story above we could say that
it is marriage that brings together a man and woman to later constitute a family
after reproduction. In mathematics the concept of marriage could be looked at as
a binary operation between the two individuals. If we can refect on our mapping
diagram we have the following:

*
x y
A B
Where A = set of men wedding in a given time
B = set of women getting marriage at the same time
* = operation which says x weds y
African Virtual University 40
Clearly x * y = y * x
In this case this particular binary operation is commutative. If we denote the
relation implied by the binary operation * by R then we write. xRy to mean x is
related to y or yRx to mean y is related to x.
If xRy ⇒ yRx then the relation is said to be symmetric.
Question
Can you try to defne some relations on sets of your choice and check whether
they are symmetric?
In general we note that if a binary operation * gives rise to a relation R then:
a) R is refexive if xRx
b) R is symmetric if xRy ⇒ yRx
c) R is transitive if xRy and yRz ⇒ xRz
For all elements x,y,z in a given set
We also note that a relation R satisfying all the three properties of refexive,
symmetric and transitive above is said to be an equivalence relation.
Example 1
Let U be the set of all people in a community.
Which of the following is an equivalence relation among them?
i. is an uncle of
ii. is a brother of
We note that in part (i) if R is the relation “is an uncle of” then xRy does not
imply yRx.
Thus R is not symmetric in particular. Hence R is not an equivalence relation.
However in part (ii) if R is the relation “is a brother of” then xRx is valid.
Also xRy ⇒ yRx and fnally xRy and yRz ⇒ xRz.
Hence R is an equivalence relation.
African Virtual University 41
Exercise 2
Which of the following is an equivalence relation on the set of all human
beings?
i. is a friend of
ii. is a relative of
Exercise 3
a) Determine whether the binary operation * on the set ℜ of real numbers is
commutative or associative in each of the following cases
i. x * y = y
2
x
ii. x * y = xy+ x
b) Defne a relation ~ on the set of integers as follows
a~ b if and only if a+ b is even.
Determine whether ~ is an equivalence relation on ℜ.
c) Give an example of an equivalence relation on the set ℜ of real numbers.
If you are working in a group each member of the group should give one such
example.
d) Complete exercise 2.4.1 p 34 in Sets, Relations and Functions by Duntsch
and Gediga (solutions on pp. 48 – 49)
African Virtual University 42
Module 1: Basic Mathematics
Unit 3: Groups, Subgroups and Homomorphism
Specific Objectives
By the end of this activity, the learner should be able to:
• State axioms for both a group and a ring.
• Give examples of groups and subgroups.
• Give examples of rings and subrings.
• Give examples of homomorphisms between groups and isomorphisms
between rings.
• Prove some results on properties of groups and rings.
Overview
Recall that in our Unit 2 activity 2 we looked at the case of an individual organism
being able to reproduce and give rise to a population. Note that a population here
refers to a group of individuals from the same species. In this activity we are
going to demonstrate that a general algebraic structure can give rise to a specifc
one with well stated specifc axioms.
We will also refect on the notion of relations between sets using mappings,
whereby we will defne a mapping between any two given groups. It is at this
stage that the concept of a homomorphism will come into play. The situation
of looking at the properties of a mapping between two sets which are furnished
with algebraic structure as the groups are can be of great interest and indeed it is
the beginning of learning proper Abstract Algebra.
African Virtual University 43
Key Concepts
Abelian group: This is a group , G ∗

in which a b b a ∗ = ∗

for
, , . a b G ∈
Group: This is a non-empty set say G with a binary operation * such that:
(i) a b G ∗ ∈ for all , . a b G ∈
(ii) ( ) ( ) a b c a b c ∗ ∗ = ∗ ∗

for all , , . a b c G ∈
(iii) There exists an element e in G such that e a a a e ∗ = = ∗

for all a G ∈

where e is called identity.
(iv) For every a G ∈ there exists

1
a G

such that
1 1
a a e a a
− −
∗ = = ∗ .

Where
1
a

is called the inverse of a
Homomorphism: This is a mapping f from a group G into another group H
such that for any pair , . a b G ∈ We have ( ) ( ) ( ). xy x y f f f =
Isomorphism: This is a homorphism which is also a bijection.
Ring: This is a non-empty R set say with two binary operations + and * called
addition and multiplication respectively such that:
(i) , R + is an Abelian group.
(ii) , R ∗

is a multiplicative semigroup.
Semigroup: This is a non-empty set S with a binary operation * such that:
(i) a b S ∗ ∈

for all , . a b S ∈
(ii) ( ) ( ) a b c a b c ∗ ∗ = ∗ ∗

for all , , . a b c S ∈
(iii) For all a,b,c∈ R we have:

( ) a b c a b a c ∗ + = ∗ + ∗

and ( ) a b c a c b c + ∗ = ∗ + ∗
African Virtual University 44
Subgroup: This is a subset H of a group G such that H is also a group with
respect to the binary operation in G.
All of the readings for the module come from Open Source text books. This
means that the authors have made them available for any reader to use them
without charge. We have provided complete copies of these texts on the CD
accompanying this course.
Abstract Algebra: The Basic Graduate Year, by Robert B. Ash (Folder on CD:
Abstract_Algebra_Ash)
Internet Resources
Wolfram MathWorld (visited 06.11.06)
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Group.html
• Read this entry for Group Theory.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
Wikipedia (visited 06.11.06)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_Theory
• Read this entry for Group Theory.
• Follow links to explain specifc concepts as you need to.
MacTutor History of Mathematics
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Development_group_
theory.html
• Read for interest the history of Group Theory
African Virtual University 45
Introduction: Story of a Cooperative Society
In 1990, one hundred workers of a certain Institution in Kenya decided to form
a cooperative society called CHUNA in which they were contributing shares on
a monthly basis. They set up rules for the running of the society which included
terms for giving out loans. It was decided after they had run the society for some-
time that the offcials should pay regular visits to other well established cooperative
societies in the country to see how they are run in comparison to there own.
It was noted after those visits to other societies that there was need to moderate
some of there rules of running the society in order to create consistency.
Questions
1. Why did they set up rules after forming the cooperative society?
2. What signifcance could you attach to their visits to other cooperative
societies?
Activity
In our story above we note that a cooperative society requires rules to create an
operating structure. This is equivalent to having axioms that are satisfed by
elements of a non-empty set as is the case with the group G.
Question
Can you now think of other situations where a group of people or objects could
have sets of rules among them, which resemble the axioms of a group?
Example 1
Consider the set ¢ of integers in order the operation of addition (+). We have
that
(i) a + b in ¢ for all a, b, ∈ ¢
(ii) a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c for all a, b, c ∈ ¢
(iii) there is 0 ∈ ¢ such that
a + o = a = o + a for all a ∈ ¢
(iv) for every a∈¢ there is – a such that
a + -a = o = -a + a
Hence, { ¢ ,+ } is a group

African Virtual University 46
Exercise 2
Verify that the set R of real numbers is also a group under addition.
Note that if for any group {G, ∗} we have that for any pair of points x, y ∈ G,
x ∗ y = y ∗ x
Then G is called Abelian group.
In this case the group {R
+
, +} is Abelian.
The second question coming out of our story of the cooperative society above is
mainly for comparison purposes. This is to fnd out whether the structure set up
by CHUNA compares well with those of other societies. Similarly the structures
of groups are easily compared using mappings. Thus for any two given groups
say G and H a mapping can be defned between them in order to compare their
structures. In particular a homomorphism f: G ➝H is a mapping that preserves
the structure. In other words G and its image under f (denoted by f(G) in H are
the same group structurally. Note that if a homomorphism is an onto mapping
then it is called an isomorphism.
Example 3
Let G and H be any two groups and e
1
be the identity of H. Then the mapping
f:G ➝H given by
f(xy) = e

is a homomorphism.
Indeed for any pair x, y ∈ G,
f(xy) = e

= e

e

= f(x)f(y)
Exercise 4
Let G be the group {R
+
, x} of positive real numbers under multiplication and let
H be the additive group{R
+
, +} of real numbers. Show that the mapping:
f:G➝H given by
f(xy) = log
10
x
is a homomorphism.
African Virtual University 47
Remarks 5
1. Note that a subgroup H of G is a subject of G written H ⊂ G which is also
a group with respect to the binary operation G.
2. Note also that the identity element of a given subgroup say H of a group
G is the same as the identity of the group G.
3. Note therefore that all the considerations can also be pulled down on
subgroups to fnd out what results can follow.
4. Note also that the theorem stated below is useful in determining
subgroups.
Remarks 6
Let G be a group. A non-empty subset H of G is a subgroup of G if and only if
a, b ∈ H implies ab
-1
∈ H
Exercise7
a. Let H and K be subgroups of a group G. then show that H∩K is also a
subgroup of G.
b. Let H be a subgroup of a group G. Show that Ha = H if and only if a ∈H.
c. Let G and H be groups and : G ➝H be a homomorphism. Show that Ker
( ) is a subgroup of H.
Where Ker( ) = {x in G: (e) = e
1
}
Im = { (x) in H: x ∈ G}
Exercise 8
Read chapter 1 of Basic Algebra by Ash (from pp 1-18) and complete the exercise
on p.19. Mark your own work from the answers chapter.
African Virtual University 48
XV. SynthesisoftheModule
Synthesis Of The Basic Mathematics Module
We note that having gone through this module you should now be fully equipped
with the concepts involved in the following contents.
In Unit 1 the most basic concepts are those of a set and function, followed by
logic in which you are introduced to the science of reasoning. A good grasp of the
real number system is also necessary for easy defnition of elementary functions.
Permutations and combinations together with trigonometric functions complete
the most signifcant topics in this unit. These concepts are given great exposition
in this unit.
In Unit 2 you have been introduced to algebraic structures in which the concept of
a binary operations played a pivotal role. The concept of equivalence relation is
essential. This leads to partitioning of sets into equivalence classes that facilitates
deeper studies on sets or collections of spaces.
Finally Unit 3 brings out study on two particular examples of algebraic structures
namely groups and rings. It is important here to stress both their similarities and
main differences. Indeed one similarity that the learner should have noticed is
that in the structure of a group we can fnd a subgroup just as it is the case with
a ring and a subring. However, the main difference between the two algebraic
structures is that a group thrives only on one binary operation whereas a ring th-
rives on two binary operations. These facts are well exposed in the two learning
activities in this unit. You should as a fnal consideration in this unit look at the
defnition of mappings from one group to another or from one ring into another
ring. In particular a homomorphism which is known to preserve the structure of
a given group is essential in this study.
African Virtual University 49
XVI. SummativeEvaluation
Module 1: Basic Mathematics
Unit 1: Summative Assessment Questions
Question 1
a. Write the negation of the following statement:
If l receive a salary increase l will buy a plot.
b. Use truth tables to show that

A ∨ (B ∧ C)≡ (A ∨ B) ∧ (A ∨ C)
c. Determine the truth tables for the following propositions.
i.
(A ⇒ B) ⇒ (A ∨ B)

ii. ∼
Question 2
a. Give the defnition of a function. In the diagram below state with reasons
whether the mapping represents a mapping or not.

A
B
b. Let A = { } : 2 2 x x − ≤ ≤ . Let

: f A R →

and : g A R →

be defned by
(A ⇒ B) ∨ (∼ A ∧ ∼ B)
African Virtual University 50
( )
( ) ( )
2
3 4
1
f x x
g x x
= +
= −
Determine the range of each of the functions f and g.
c. State the inverse of each of the following functions
i. ( )
1
1 f x
x
= +
ii. ( )
2
3 g x x = +
Question 3
a. Let two functions f and g be defned on the whole set of real numbers by
( ) 1 f x x = −
( )
2
2 g x x =
Find the composite functions (i) f g o and (ii) g f o
b. Given ( ) 1 h x x = + and ( )
2
4 g x x = + where each of these functions is
defned on R fnd
I. ( )
1
h g

o
II. The ranges of h g o and g h o
c. In part (b) above fnd the value of a such that ( )( ) ( )( ) h g a g h a = o o
Question 4
a. In how many ways can 6 boys be chosen from a class of 30 boys if the class
captain is to be included?
b. A committee of six people is to be chosen from a group of 8 women and fve
men.
i. In how many ways can this be done?
ii. If one particular man must not be in the team how many of these teams
will have more women than men?
African Virtual University 51
c. A box contains 15 balls, 5 of which are red, 4 are green and 6 are blue. In
how many ways can three balls be chosen if
i. There is no restriction?
ii. The balls must be of the same colour?
iii. Only two balls are of the same colour?
Question 5
a) Simplify sin 4 sin 3 sin 2 θ θ θ − +
b) Solve for x,
0 ≤ x
o
≤ 360
o
i.
2
sec 5(tan 1) 0 x x − − =
ii.
2
2cos 2 sin 2cos x x x + =
c) Express 3 in the form r ( ) cos θ α +
Hence solve for θ in the range 0 180 θ ≤ ≤ the equation
3 cos sin 0 θ θ − =
African Virtual University 52
Unit 1: Summative Assessment Solutions
Q1. (a) If I do not recieve a pay increase I will not buy a plot.
(b)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
A B C B C ∧

A B ∨

A C ∨

( ) ( ) A B A C ∨ ∧ ∨

( ) A B C ∨ ∧
T T T T T T T T
T T F F T T T T
T F T F T T T T
T F F F T T T T
F T T T T T T T
F T F F T F F F
F F T F F T F F
F F F F F F F F
(c). (i)
A B A B ∨ A B → ( ) ( ) A B A B → → ∨
T T T T T
T F T F F
F T T T T
F F F T F

(ii)
A ∼A B ∼B A→B ∼(A→B) ∼ A∧∼ B ∼ (A→ B)∨(∼ A∧∼ B)
T F T F F T F F
T F F T T F F T
F T T F F T F F
F T F T T F T T
African Virtual University 53
Q2
(a) A function is a mapping where each object is mapped onto a unique image.
The diagram does not represent a function because there is an object mapping
onto two different images.
(b) Given { } : 2 2 A x x = − ≤ ≤
( ) 3 4 f x x = +
( ) ( )
2
1 g x x = −
Range of { } : 2 10 f y y = − ≤ ≤
Range of { } : 0 9 g y y = ≤ ≤
(c)
i. If ( )
1
1 f x
x
= + then ( )
1
1
1
f x
x

=

ii. If ( )
2
3 g x x = + then ( )
1 2
3 g x x

= −
Q 3
(a) Given ( ) 1 f x x = −
( )
2
2 g x x =
i. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 1 f g x f g x f x x x = = = = − o
ii. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2 1 g f x g f x g x x = = − = − o
(b) Given ( ) 1 h x x = +
( )
2
4 g x x = +
i. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
4 h g x h g x h x = = + o

2
4 1 x = + +

2
5 x = +
( ) ( )
1
5 h g x x

= − o
African Virtual University 54
ii. Range of { } : 5 h g y y = ≥ o
Also ( )( ) ( ) ( )
g h x g h x = o
( ) 1 g x = +

( )
2
1 4 x = + +
Range of

{ } : 4 g h y y = ≥ o
(a) ( )( )
2
5 h g a a = + o
( )( ) ( )
2
1 4 g h a a = + + o
Therefore ( )
2
2
1 4 5 a a + + = +
2 5 5 a + =
2 0 a =
0 a =
Q 4
(a) If the captain is to be included them we are selecting 5 boys from a class of
25. Hence we have
25
5
25!
5!20!
C =
(b) (i) This can be done in
13
6
13!
6!7!
13 12 11
1716 ways
C =
= × ×
=
(i) We exclude the man who should not be in the committee leaving us with
four men and eight women to choose from. Given that women have to be
more than the men we have the following three options:
Either to select 4 women and 2 men giving us
8 4
4 2
C x C ways
Or to select 5 women and 1 man giving us
8 4
5 1
C x C
African Virtual University 55
Or to select 6 women and no man giving us
8
6
C ways
In total we have

8 4 8 4 8
4 2 5 1 6
C x C C x C C + +
= 420+224+28=672 ways
(c)
i.
15
5
C ways
ii.
5 6 4
1 1 1
120 C x C x C ways =
iii. We have either 2G and 1R or 2G and 1B and 1G or 2B and 1R or 2R and
1G or 2R and 1B.
Q5
(a) We frst note that sin 4 sin 2 2sin cos θ θ θ θ + =
Therefore sin 4 sin3 sin 2sin3 cos sin3 z θ θ θ θ θ θ − + = −
= ( ) sin 3 2 cos 1 θ θ −
(b) (i) ( )
2
sec 5 tan 1 0 x x − − =
( )
2
1 tan 5 tan 1 0 x x + − − =

tan
2
x − 5tan x + 6 = 0
Let tan y x =
2
5 6 0 y y − + =
( )( ) 3 2 0 y y − − =
Therefore 3 y =
2 y =
tan 3 x = or tan 2 x =
1
tan 3 x

= or
1
tan 2 x

=
African Virtual University 56
(ii)
(c)
( )
2 2
2 cos 1 1 cos 2cos x x x − + − =

3 cos sin cos( )
cos sin sin cos
r
r r
θ θ θ α
θ α θ α
− = +
= −

sin 3 and cos 1
1
2 and tan 30
3
r r
r
α α
α α
= =
∴ = ± = ∴ =
o

2cos( 30 ) 0
cos( 30 ) 0
30 180
150 for 0 180
θ
θ
θ
θ θ
± + =
⇒ + =
∴ + =
∴ = ≤ ≤
o
o
o o
o o
African Virtual University 57
Unit 2: Summative Assessment Questions
1. Determine whether the binary operation
*
on the set ℝ of real numbers is
commutative or associative in each of the following cases
(a)
2
x y x y ∗ =
(b) x y x y y ∗ = +
2. (a) Let S be a non empty set with an associative binary operation
*
on it. For
, x y z S ∈ suppose that x commutes with y and z. Show that x also commutes
with y z ∗ .
(b) Prove that if a,b ∈ ℤ such that a b and a c then a mb nc + for
m,n ∈ ℤ . Where a b means a divides b.
3. Give the defnition of an equivalence relation. Defne a relation ~ on the set
¢of integers as follows:
~ a b if and only if a b + is even. Show that ~ is an equivalence relation on
¢.
4. (a) The relation congruence modulo n on the set ¢of integers is defned as
follows:
For any pair x,y ∈ ℤ x is said to be congruent to y modulo n written
( ) mod xy n ≡ if n divides x – y.
Show that this is an equivalence relation.
(b) Show that the relation ~ defned on ℕ x ℕ by ( ) ( ) , ~ , a b c d iff a+ d =
b + c is an equivalence relation. Where ℕ is the set of natural numbers.

African Virtual University 58
Unit 2: Summative Assessment Answers
1. (a) Let x,y,z ∈ ℝ Then ( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2 2 4 2
. x y z x y z x y z x y z ∗ ∗ = ∗ = =
Also ( )
( )
2
2 2 4 2
x y z x y z x y z x y z ∗ ∗ = ∗ = =
Thus ( ) ( ) x y z x y z ∗ ∗ = ∗ ∗
Hence * is associative.
We also have that:

2
x y x y ∗ =

and
2
y x y x ∗ =
Thus x y y x ∗ ≠ ∗
Hence
*
is not commutative.
(b) Let x,y,z ∈ ℝ Then

( ) ( ) ( ) x y z x yz z x yz z yz z
xyz zx yz z
∗ ∗ = ∗ + = + + +
= + + +

Also
( ) ( )
( )
x y z xy y z
xy y z z
xyz yz z
∗ ∗ = + ∗
= + +
= + +
( ) ( ) x y z x y z ∗ ∗ ≠ ∗ ∗ ∴

Hence
*
is not associative.
We also have that:
x y xy y ∗ = +

and y x yx x ∗ = +

x y y x ∗ ≠ ∗ ∴
Hence * is not commutative.
African Virtual University 59
2. (a) Given that:
x y y x ∗ = ∗ and x z z x ∗ = ∗
We have by associativity of
*
that
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
x y z x y z
y x z
y x z
y z x
y z x
∗ ∗ = ∗ ∗
= ∗ ∗
= ∗ ∗
= ∗ ∗
= ∗ ∗
Hence x also commutes with y * z .
(b) Now a b b k a ⇒ =

and a c b ha ⇒ = for some k,h ∈ ℤ
( ) mb nc mka nha a mk nh
a mb nc
+ = + = +
⇒ +

3. An equivalence relation is one which is refexive symmetric and transitive.
Given the relation:
~ a b iff a b + is even.
we have:
(i) 2 ~ a a a a a + = ⇒

refexive
(ii) ~ 2 2
~ symmetric
a b a b k b a k
b a
⇒ + = ⇒ + =

(iii)
( )
~ and ~ 2 and 2
2 2
2 2 2 .
2 ~ .
a b b c a b m b c n
a c m b n b
m n b
m n p a c
⇒ ⇒ + = + =
⇒ + = − + −
= + −
= + − ⇒

transitive
Hence ~ is an equivalence relation.
African Virtual University 60
4. (a) For any pair x,y ∈ ℤ we have:
(i) n divides refexive ( ) 0 modn x x x x − = ⇒ ≡
(ii) Let n divide x – y. Then also n divides y – x which is symmetric pro-
perty.
(iii) Let n divide x – y and also y –z. Then n also divides ( ) ( ) . x y y z x z − + − = −
which is transitive property. Hence congruence modulo in an equivalence
relation.
(b) We note that:
(i) ( ) ( ) ~ ~ , a b a b since a b b a + = + which is refexive property.
(ii) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
, ~ ,
, ~ ,
a b c d a d b c
d a c b
c d a b
⇒ + = +
⇒ + = +

which is symmetric property.
(iii) Now suppose ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , ~ , and , ~ , a b c d c d e f
Then we have that:
a d b c + = + and c f d e + = +
a d c f b c d e ⇒ + + + = + + +
( ) ( ) , ~ , a f b e a b e f ⇒ + = + ⇒
Hence ~ is an equivalence relation
African Virtual University 61
Unit 3: Summative Assessment Questions
1. (a) Let G be a group such that
2
a e = for all a∈ G Show that G is Abe-
lian.
(b) Let G be a group such that ( )
2
2 2
ab a b = for all a,b,∈ G. Show that G
is Abelian.
2. Given the matrices
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
, , and
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
− − ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
− −
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
verify that they form a multiplicative group.
2. (a) Show that if G is a group of even order then there are exactly an odd
number of elements of order 2.
(b) If a and b are any two elements of a group G, show that the order of ab
is the same as the order of ba.
3. (a) If ϕ is an isomorphism of a group G into a group H, prove that
( ) ( )
n
a e f = iff
n
a e = .
(b) Prove that the multiplicative group of the n
th
root of unit is a cyclic group
of order n.
4. (a) Let £ denote the complex number feld.
Defne { } : , A a ib a b = + ∈¢
where 1 . i = −
Show that A is a subring of £.
(b) If a and b are nilpotent elements of a commutative ring, show that a+ b
is also nilpotent.
Give an example to show that this may fail if the ring is not commutative.
African Virtual University 62
Unit 3: Summative Assessment Solutions
1 (a) We note that for all a,b,∈ G, we have that:
a,b,∈ ⇒ a,b,∈ GGand
2
b e = since
2
a e = since
2
a e = for all a∈ G.
( )
2
. ab e = ∴

Thus
( )
( )
2
2 2
ab aeb
a ab b
a ab ab b
a b ab
ebae
ba
=
=
=
=
=
=

Hence G is Abelian.
(b) Given that:
( ) ,
2
2 2
.
ab a b
ab ab aa bb
=
=
Apply cancellation law to give . ba ab =
Hence G is Abelian.
2. Letting
1 0
0 1
e
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
a
b
c
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
− ⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
− ⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

African Virtual University 63
We have:

2 2 2
a b c e
ab c ba
bc a cb
ca b ac
= = =
= =
= =
= =
Thus { } , , , G e a b c = is closed under multiplication. Now e is the identity on G
and each member of G is an inverse of itself.
We also note that matrix multiplication is associative and therefore G is a mul-
tiplicative group.
3. (a) Suppose x∈ G is not an element of order 2. Then
2 1
x e x x

≠ ⇒ ≠

It now follows that there is an even number of elements x such that
2
. x e ≠
Thus there is an even number of elements x in G such that
2
x e =
Now since e also satisfes
2
e e = we have that there is an odd number of
elements x in G which are of order 2.
(b) Suppose for the element ab in G order . ab m = i.e. ( ) O . ab m =
Then we have:
( ) ( )
1
1
............
m
ba a a ba m
a a ba ba ba

=
=

m times
( )
1
.............. a ab ab ab a

=

m times
( )
1
m
a ab e

= =
This implies ( ) O ba divides ( ) m = O . ab
Similarly ( ) O ab divides ( ) ( ) ( ) O O O ba ab ba ⇒ =
African Virtual University 64
4. (a) Suppose ( ) .
n
a e ψ = Then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ................ .
n
a a a a a e ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ = =

n times
Thus
n
a e = since Ψ is an isomorphism. Conversely suppose .
n
a e =
Then we have that:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
2
................
n
n
n
n
e e a
a a
a a a a
ψ ψ
ψ ψ
ψ ψ ψ ψ

= =
=
=

Hence the proof.

(b) We frst note that the roots of the equation
1
n
z = where z is a complex variable are found by use of DeMoivre’s theorem
to be
2 2
cos sin
k k
i
n n
π π
+
for 0,1, 2, ..............., 1 k n = −
these roots form a cyclic group order n generated by
2 2
cos sin . w i
n n
π π
= +
5. (a) Let a bi A + ∈ and . c d i A + ∈ Then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . a bi c di a c b d i A + − + = − + − ∈

Also
( )( ) ( ) ( ) . a bi c di ac bd cb bc i A + + = − + + ∈ Hence A is a subring of
the ring £ of complex numbers.
African Virtual University 65
(b) Let 0
m
a = and 0.
n
b = Also let { } max , . k m n = Then
( )
2
2
2
1
2
0.
k
k
k r r
r
k
a b a b
r

=
⎛ ⎞
+ = =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠

Hence a b + is also nilpotent.
Example
Consider a 2 x 2 matrix ring over a feld F if
0 1 0 0
.
0 0 1 0
a b
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
Clearly this ring is not commutative. We also have
2 2
0 0
0 0
a b
⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
. But
a b + is not nilpotent.
African Virtual University 66
XVII. References
Free High School Science Texts authors, A Textbook for High School Students
Studying Maths, 2005, pg 38-47 (File name on CD: Secondary_School_
Maths)
E. H. Connell, Elements of Abstract and Linear Algebra, 1999, University of Mia-
mi, pg. 1-13 (File name on CD: Abstract_and_linear_algebra_Connell)
Ivo Duntsch and Gunther Gediga, Sets relations and functions, methodos publishers
(UK) 2000. (File name on CD: Sets_Relations_Functions_Duntsch)
Robert B. Ash, Abstract Algebra: The Basic Graduate Year, (Folder on CD:
Abstract_Algebra_Ash)
African Virtual University 67
XVIII. MainAuthoroftheModule
The Author
The author of this module on Basic Mathematics was born in 1953 and went
through the full formal education in Kenya. In particular he went to University
of Nairobi from 1974 where he obtained Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) degree in
1977. A Master of Science (M.Sc.) degree in Pure Mathematics in 1979 and a
Doctor of Philosophy (P.HD) degree in 1983. He specialized in the branch of
Analysis and has been teaching at the University of Nairobi since 1980 where
he rose through the ranks up to an Associate Professor of Pure Mathematics.
He has over the years participated in workshop on development of study materials
for Open and Distance learning program for both science and arts students in
which he has written books on Real Analysis, Topology and Measure Theory.

Prof. Jairus M. Khalagai
School of Mathematics
University of Nairobi
P. O. Box 30197 – 00100
Nairobi – KENYA
Email: khalagai@uonbi.ac.ke

African Virtual University 

Notice
This document is published under the conditions of the Creative Commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_Commons Attribution http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/ License (abbreviated “cc-by”), Version 2.5.

African Virtual University 

I. II. Mathematics 1, Basic Mathematics _____________________________ 3 Prerequisite Course or Knowledge _____________________________ 3

III. Time ____________________________________________________ 3 IV. Materials _________________________________________________ 3 V. Module Rationale __________________________________________ 4

VI. Content __________________________________________________ 5 6.1 6.2 Overview ___________________________________________ 5 _ Outline _____________________________________________ 6

VII. General Objective(s) ________________________________________ 8 VIII. Specific Learning Objectives __________________________________ 8 IX. Teaching and Learning Activities _____________________________ 10 _ X. Key Concepts (Glossary) ____________________________________ 16

XI. Compulsory Readings ______________________________________ 18 XII. Compulsory Resources _____________________________________ 19 XIII. Useful Links _____________________________________________ 20 XIV. Learning Activities ________________________________________ 23 _ XV. Synthesis Of The Module ___________________________________ 48 XVI. Summative Evaluation _____________________________________ 49 _ XVII. References ______________________________________________ 66 XVIII. Main Author of the Module _________________________________ 67

basic Mathematics Prerequisite Courses or Knowledge By Prof. Khalagai. 120 hours Time Material IV. II. Subgroups and Homomorphism Basic Mathematics 2 is prerequisite. on-line) References and Readings from open-source sources (CD. (CD. University of Nairobi Unit 1: (i) Sets and Functions (ii) Composite Functions Secondary school mathematics is prerequisite. Unit 2: Binary Operations Basic Mathematics 1 is prerequisite. The course materials for this module consist of: Study materials (print. Jairus. III. on-line) ICT Activity files Those which rely on copyright software Those which rely on open source software Those which stand alone Video files Audio files (with tape version) Open source software installation files Graphical calculators and licenced software where available .African Virtual University  I. This is a level 1 course. This is a level 1 course. This is a level 2 course. Unit 3: Groups. on-line) (pre-assessment materials contained within the study materials) Two formative assessment activities per unit (always available but with specified submission date). Mathematics 1. CD.

. For instance. It also serves as the launching pad to University Mathematics by introducing the learner to the science of reasoning called logic and other related topics.African Virtual University  V. a lack of a proper grasp of the real number system and elementary functions etc. Module Rationale The rationale of teaching Basic mathematics is that it plays the role of filling up gaps that the student teacher could be having from secondary school mathematics.

Here we will be reflecting on the concept of a mapping or a function from either one group to the other or from one ring to the other in order to find out what properties such a function has. Unit 2: Binary Operations In this unit we look at the concept of binary operations. .African Virtual University  VI. For the sake of looking at cases of fewer axiomatic demands we will also study the concepts of homomorphisms and isomorphisms. These are essentially sets of numbers or objects which satisfy some given axioms. This leads to the study of elementary properties of integers such as congruence. A grasp of sets of real numbers on which we define elementary functions is essential. Unit 3: Groups. Content 6. Subgroups and Homomorphism This unit is devoted to the study of groups and rings. Note that the concept of a function can also be viewed as an instruction to be carried out on a set of objects. The need to have pictorial representations of a function necessitates the study of its graph. The concepts of subgroup and subring are also important to study here. called permutations and combinations. It then intoroduces logic which gives the learner techniques for distinguishing between correct and incorrect arguments using propositions and their connectives.1 Overview This module consists of three units which are as follows: Unit 1: (i) Sets and Functions (ii) Composite Functions This unit starts with the concept of a set. The introduction to algebraic structures is simply what we require to pave the way for unit 3. This necessitates the study of arrangements of objects in a certain order.

(7) Elementary properties of integers. Basic Mathematics 1 is prerequisite.African Virtual University  6. (3) Rings. Binary operations. (7) Isomorphisms theorems for groups and rings. No prerequisite. Basic Mathematics 2 is prerequisite. (7) Introduction to Algebraic structures. (4) Factor groups. Groups and subgroups. Priority A. (7) Applications (7) Unit 3: Groups. (3) Automorphisms. Sets (4) Elementary logic (8) Number systems (6) Complex numbers (4) Relations and functions (8) Elementary functions and their graphs (8) Permutations (7) Combinations (5) Unit 2: Binary Operations (35 hours) Level 1. sub-rings. (7) Cyclic groups. (2) Permutation groups. (5) Group homomorphisms. (4) . Priority A.2 Outline Unit 1: (i) Sets and Functions (ii) Composite Functions (50 hours) Level 1. (7) Congruence. ideals and quotient rings. Priority B. Subgroups and Homomorphism (35 hours) Level 2.

(Shown in red). For example: Set is the central concept. The central or core concept is in the centre of the diagram.African Virtual University  This diagram shows how the different sections of this module relate to each other. The Real Number System depends on the idea of a set. Concepts that depend on each other are shown by a line. Propositional Logic Homomorphisms and Isomorphisms Groups and Rings Real Number System SE T Algebraic Structure Complex number system Functions and their graphs Binary Operation Trigonometry Permutations and combinations . The Complex Number System depend on the Real Number System.

General objective(s) You will be equipped with knowledge of elementary mathematical logic. Understand various mathematical structures and the similarities and differences among these structures. the learner should be able to…” • • • • Construct mathematical arguments. sets. VIII. Examine patterns. numbers and algebraic structures required for effective teaching of mathematics in secondary schools. . make connections and communicate mathematical ideas effectively and economically. make abstractions and generalize.African Virtual University  VII. specific learning objectives (Instructional objectives) By the end of this module.

Given the quadratic equation: 2 x2 − x − 6 = 0 The roots are a. d. − ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ 3⎫ ⎧ ⎨ − 2. 3} {4. The value of the function f ( x ) = 2 x 2 + 3 x + 1at x = 3 is a. Teaching and learning activities Module 1: Basic Mathematics. b. ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ 2. d. Which of the following diagrams below represents the graph of y=3x(2-x) . c. c. b. 19 28 46 16 3. {− 4. Pre-assessment Unit 1: Sets and Functions Assessments and Solutions Pre-assessment Questions 1. − 3} 3⎫ ⎧ ⎨ 2.African Virtual University  IX.

d. The solution of the equation sin x = − a.African Virtual University 0 b. c. b. 210 } 30 { . d .150 } {210 . c. 1 in the range 0 ≤ x o ≤ 360 is: 2 o o 150 { . a.330 } 30 { .330 } o o o o o o C 5. 4. Given the triangle ABC below √5 ao A B .

The inverse of the function f (x) = 1 is x −1 (a) f −1 ( x ) = x − 1 (b) f −1 ( x ) = (c) (d) f −1 (x ) = f −1 (x ) = 1− x x x +1 x 1 x −1 .African Virtual University  Which of the following statements is correct? a) b) c) d) Cos a = Sin a = 2 15 5 2 Tan a = 2 Sec a = 1 5 Unit 1: Pre-assessment Solutions The following are the answers to the multiple choice questions. Q1c Q2b Q3b Q4c Q5c Unit 2: Binary Operations 1.

b. blouse and scarf that she can make out of these is: a. c. Given the complex number z = 1 − i we have that Arg z is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 450 1350 2250 3150 . d. 220 60 12 150 4.African Virtual University  2. If sin x a then = 2 2 sin x in terms a is: (a) a 4 − a2 (b) a 4 − a 2 (c) a (d) 4 − a2 2 3. 5 blouses and 4 scarves. The number of different outfits consisting of skirt. A girl has 3 skirts.

b Q5. then 5 ∗ 3 is (a) (b) (c) (d) 39 41 23 25 Unit 2: Pre-assessment Solutions Q1. Taking the predecessor of a natural number. Finding the sum of two natural numbers 2. b Q3. Recall the definition of a homormorphism and state which one of the following is a homomorphism on a group G of real numbers under either multiplication or addition? (a) f ( x ) = 2 x (b) f ( x ) = 6 x (c) f ( x ) = x2 (d) f ( x ) = x + 5 3. Subgroups and Homomorphism 1. c Q2. Which of the following is a binary operation? (a) (b) (c) (d) Squaring a number. If a ∗ b = a 2 + ab − 1. Taking the successor of a natural number. For a group G if a x a = b in G.African Virtual University  5. then x is (a) b (b) ba −1 (c) a − 1 b (d) a − 1 b a − 1 . b Q4. a Unit 3: Groups.

African Virtual University  4. d 2. d 4. d . c 5. c 3. then a x is: (a) (b) (c) (d) e a –x x Unit 3: Pre-assessment Solutions 1. If an element a is a ring R is such that a 2 = a then a is called (a) (b) (c) (d) nilpotent characteristic idempotent identity 5. Let R be a ring and x � R if there exists a unique element a ∈ R such that x a = x.

African Virtual University  Title of Pre-assessment : Pedagogical comment for learners The questions in this pre-assessment are designed to test your readiness for studying the module. If you make any errors. you should check through your work on unit 2 in this module. The 5 questions preparing you for unit 1 require high school mathematics. If you make errors in the unit 2 pre-assessment. The questions for unit 2 and unit 3 test your readiness after having completed the learning activities for unit 1 and unit 2. you should check through your work on unit 1 in this module. Likewise. this should suggest the need to re-visit the high school mathematical topic referred to in the question. If you make errors in the unit 3 pre-assessment. .

4. 3. c ∈ G .b. 9. b.∈ G. (iii) There exists an element e in G such that e ∗ a = a = a ∗ e for all a ∈ G where e is called identity. Key concepts (glossary) 1. Homomorphism: This is a mapping f from a group G into another group H such that for any pair a. Mapping: This is simply a relationship between any two given sets. b ∈ G . Group: This is a non-empty set say G with a binary operation * such that: (i) a ∗ b ∈ G for all a . 8. Binary operation: This is a mapping which assigns to each ordered pair of elements of a set G.∈ G.b. (ii) a ∗ (b ∗ c ) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c for all a . *〉 in which a * b = b * a for a. (iv) For every a ∈ G there exists a − 1 ∈ G such that a ∗ a −1 = e = a −1 ∗ a Where a − 1 is called the inverse of a 7. We have f (ab) = f (a) f (b). Abelian group: This is a group 〈G. . Algebraic structure: This is the collection of a given set G together with a binary operation * that satisfies a given set of axioms. Composite Function: This is a function obtained by combing two or more other simple functions in a given order.African Virtual University  X. exactly one element of G. 5. Isomorphism: This is a homorphism which is also a bijection. 2. 6. Function: This is a special type of mapping where an object is mapped to a unique image.

. Thus we can tell whether it is true or false 11. + is an Abelian group. c ∈ S . (ii) a ∗ (b∗ c ) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c for all a . b. 12. (ii) 〈 R. (iii) For all a . we have: a ∗ (b + c ) = a ∗ b + a ∗ c and (a + b ) ∗ c = a ∗ c + b ∗ c 13.African Virtual University  10. Semigroup: This is a non-empty set S with a binary operation such * that: (i) a ∗ b ∈ S for all a . b ∈ S . c ∈ S . Proposition: This is a statement with truth value. b. Set: This is a collection of objects or items with same properties 14. * 〉 is a multiplicative semigroup. Ring: This is a non-empty set say R with two binary operations + and * called addition and multiplication respectively such that: (i) R. Subgroup: This is a subset H of a group G such that H is also a group with respect to the binary operation in G.

Ash (Folder on CD: Abstract_Algebra_Ash) General Abstract and Rationale All of the compulsory readings are complete open source textbooks. However. 1999. the text contains specific page references to activities. pg 38-47 (File name on CD: Secondary_School_ Maths) Reading #2 Elements of Abstract and Linear Algebra by E. 1-13 (File name on CD: Abstract_and_linear_algebra_Connell) Reading #3 Sets relations and functions by Ivo Duntsch and Gunther Gediga methodos publishers (UK) 2000. 2005. readings and exercises which are referenced in the learning activities. pg. . Together they provide more than enough material to support the course. H.African Virtual University  XI. Connell. Reading #1 Compulsory Readings A Textbook for High School Students Studying Maths by the Free High School Science Texts authors. by Robert B. (File name on CD: Sets_Relations_Functions_Duntsch) Reading #4 Abstract Algebra: The Basic Graduate Year. University of Miami.

06) http://mathworld.wikipedia. Wikipedia (visited 29.com/ • A complete and comprehensive guide to all topics in mathematics.org/ • Wikipedia provides encyclopaedic coverage of all mathematical topics. Students should follow up key words by searching at wikipedia.08. .06) http://www. Compulsory Resources Wolfram MathWorld (visited 29.08.wolfram.African Virtual University  XII. The students is expected to become familiar with this web site and to follow up key words and module topics at the site.

African Virtual University  MacTutor History of Mathematics http://www-groups.dcs.uk/~history/HistTopics/Development_group_ theory.html Read for interest the history of Group Theory .ac.st-and.

the learner should be able to: • • • Distinguish between a function and a general mapping Demonstrate relationship between sets and functions Give examples of sets of real numbers and some functions defined on such sets Overview The notions of a set and a function are the most fundamental concepts which together constitute the foundations of Mathematics. different branches of Mathematics start with these two fundamental concepts.African Virtual University  XIV. This will help the learner in grasping many properties about functions in higher courses. In this activity. Thus we can tell whether it is true or false Set: This is a collection of objects or items with same properties . In particular. Indeed. We note that it is of great importance for the learner to be able to distinguish between a general mapping and a function diagrammatically. Activity 1: Sets and Functions Specific Learning Objectives By the end of this activity. we are going to motivate the learner to be able to easily come up with examples of general mapping and functions defined on sets of real numbers. we are simply demonstrating how sets of objects are easily extracted from our surroundings. Mapping: This is simply a relationship between any two given sets Proposition: This is a statement with truth value. Key Concepts Function: This is a special type of mapping where an object is mapped to a unique image. learning activities Module 1: Basic Mathematics Unit 1.

the grinding machine and the flour? b) Story of children born on the Christmas day in the year 2005 It was reported on the 25th of December 2005 in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which is in Nairobi the Capital City of Kenya that mothers who gave birth to single babies were a total of 52. Questions 1. 2. Question What relation can you make among the maize. The maize is then ground into flour which comes out of the machine for her to take home.African Virtual University  Introduction a) Story of Maize Grinding Machine Jane walks in a village to a nearby market carrying a basket of maize to be ground into flour. In the situation above given the mother how do we trace the baby? Given the baby how do we trace the mother? . As it is always the case each baby was given a tag to identify him or her with the mother. This was the highest tally on that occasion. She puts the maize into a container in the grinding machine and starts rotating the handle.

The mapping or function representing the process in the grinding machine Set of the product content (in this case flour) to be obtained .African Virtual University  Activity Note that we can now represent the story of the maize grinding machine diagrammatically as follows: A B f A f B = = = Set of some content (in this case maize) to be put in the grinding machine.

8} f is a relationship which says “is a factor of” e. 6.African Virtual University  Example 1 In this example we define two sets and a relation between them as follows: Let A = {2. 3. 4} B = {2.g. 4. 3 is a factor of 6 In this case we have the following mapping: A B 2 2 4 6 3 4 8 .

African Virtual University  Example 2 Think of a number of such situations and represent them with a mapping diagram as shown above. In our second story of each mother giving birth to only one child can be represented in a mapping diagram as follows: A f • X • • • X X X B A B f = = = Set of babies Set of mothers Relation which says “baby to” .

Notice that in this mapping each object is mapped onto a unique image. We write f: A→ B ii. Thus we have… B A g • • • • X X X X In this case we have B A g = = = Set of mothers Set of babies Relation which says “is mother of ” In this case we say that the function f has an inverse g. Note also that in the mapping above even if we interchanged the roles of sets A and B we still have that each object has a unique image. In this case it is a function.African Virtual University  Remarks 3 i. We normally denote this inverse g as f-1 Thus for f: A → B we have f-1: B → A .

7. 4. 3. 11} within 13 on which all elements of A are mapped is calle range of f.African Virtual University 0 Example 4 Let A = {1. The set { 3. 7. 9. 5. 11. 3. f(2) = 5 etc In general f(x) = 2x + 1 The set A is called the domain of f and the set B is called the co domain of f. Note that here the inverse of f is given by f − 1 ( x ) = a function. 12} f : x → 2x + 1 Then we have the mapping as follows: f:x → 2x+ 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 5 7 9 11 12 For notation purposes in this mapping we can also write: f(1) = 3. 2. x −1 2 and is also . 9. 5. 5} B = {2.

African Virtual University 31 Exercise 5 Starting with the set A = {2. 7. If you are in a group each member should come up with an example of his or her own for each of the cases above. a) b) c) f(x) = 3x – 2 g(x) = 2x2 + 1 h( x ) = x 1− x Exercise 6 State the inverse of the following functions: a) f (x) = 3 − b) g(x) = c) 2 x 1 1− x h(x) = 3x 2 − 2 Exercise 7 Using as many different sets of real numbers as domains give examples of the following: a) A mapping which is not a function b) A mapping which is a function c) A function whose inverse is not a function d) A function whose inverse is also a function Demonstrate each example on a mapping diagram. 11. 9. 4. 12} as the domain find the range for each of the following functions. .

the learner should be able to: • • • Demonstrate a situation in which two consecutive instructions issued in two different orders may yield different results. . Verify that two elementary functions operated (one after another) in two different orders may yield different composite functions.African Virtual University 32 Module 1: Basic Mathematics Unit 1. We note here that it is equally important to be able to represent a composite function pictorially by drawing its graph and examine the shape. Activity 2: Composite functions Specific Objectives By the end of this activity. In this activity we are set to verify that two elementary functions whose formulae are known if combined in a certain order will yield one composite formula and if order in which they are combined is reversed then this may yield a different formula. the learner will be able to draw these graphs starting with linear functions quadratic and even trigonometric functions etc. Indeed the order in which two consecutive instruction are issued must be seriously considered so that we do not end up with some embarrassing results. Key Concepts Composite Function: This is a function obtained by combing two or more other simple functions in a given order. Overview Composite functions are about combinations of different simple mappings in order to yield one function. The process of combining even two simple statements in real life situations in order to yield one compound statement is important. Draw and examine graphs of different classes of functions starting with linear. Indeed. quadratic etc.

Then it would enter the next chamber and emerge with the bottle top on. But her brother John first put on shoes then socks.African Virtual University 34 Introduction a) A Story of Nursery School Children Two Children brother and sister called John and Jane go to a Nursery school called Little Friends. empty bottle Chamber (1) filled with Nile Beerwithout top Chamber (2) filled with top on Question Can you try to explain what happens in each chamber of the brewing factory? . Question Why did Jane burst into laughter? b) Story of a visit to a beer brewing factory A science Club in a secondary school called Nabumali High School in Uganda. Jane looked at him and burst into laughter as she run to school to be followed by her brother. It was noted that of special interest was the way some equipment used in the process would enter some chamber and emerge transformed. One morning they woke up late and found themselves in a hurry to put on clothes and run to school. Jane first put on socks then shoes. one Saturday made a trip to Jinja town to observe different stages of brewing beer called Nile Beer. For example an empty bottle would enter a chamber and emerge transformed full of Nile Beer but without the bottle top.

While (g o f ) (x ) = g ( f (x )) means Thus we have: 4 g : x → 2x 8 g: x→ x+5 11 . If we let the number to be x. Example 1 I think of a number. We can also look at an example where instructions are given in functional form with explicit formulae as shown below. We can also look at other such cases through the following example. In other words her brother had ended up with composite instruction or function which was untenable. But if operate g followed by f then we add 5 to x before we double the result. Jane laughed at her brother because she saw the socks on top of the shoes.African Virtual University 35 Activity We note that in our story of the Nursery school Children what is at stake is the order in which we should take instruction in real life situations. then we will end up with two different results 2 namely x 2 + 3 and (x + 3) respectively. This is why whatever item passes through the chamber must emerge transformed in some way. Example 2 Can you now come up with a number of examples similar to the one above? If we now consider our story on the brewing of Uganda Warangi we note that each Chamber has a specific instruction on the job to perform. square it then add 3 or I think of a number add 3 then square it. f : x → 2 x and g : x → x + 5 Here if we are operating f followed by g then we double x before we add 5. Example 3 Consider the composition of the functions. For notation purposes f then g (f o g ) (x ) = f (g (x ) )means g then f.

b) c) d) e) f (x ) = 2 x − 3 g ( x ) = 4 x2 − 12 x h ( x ) = x3 − 3 x + 1 k ( x ) = 2 sin x .African Virtual University 36 Representing the composite function g f (x ) = 2 x + 5 While: 4 g:x→ x+5 ( ) 9 f : x → 2x 18 representing the composite function f g (x ) = 2 (x + 5 ) Exercise 4 ( ) Given f : x → 3 x + 1 g:x→ x−2 Determine the following functions: (a) f og −1 −1 (b) g o f (c) (d) (f og) (g o f ) Taking x = 3 draw a diagram for each of the composite functions above as is the case in example 3 above. Exercise 5 Sketch the graph for each of the following function: assuming the domain for each one of them is the whole set ℜ of real numbers.

in this activity we define and deal with more general binary operations which are usually denoted by*. exactly one element of G. Determine some equivalence relations on some algebraic structures Overview The concept of a binary operation is essential in the sense that it leads to the creation of algebraic structures. and y. . in a given set say G. Consequently we will exhibit examples of more general algebraic structures that arise from such binary operations. Binary operation: This is a mapping which assigns to each ordered pair of elements of a set G. x * y could even mean pick the larger of the two points. It is clear here that x * y = y * x. However.African Virtual University 37 Module 1: Basic Mathematics Unit 2: Binary Operations Specific Learning Objectives By the end of this activity. The well known binary operations like + (addition) and x (multiplication) do constitute the set ℜ of real numbers as one of the most familiar algebraic structures. Key concepts Algebraic structure: This is the collection of a given set G together with a binary operation * that satisfies a given set of axioms. For example for any pair of points x. the learner should be able to: • • • Give examples of binary operations on various operations Determine properties of commutativity or associativity on some binary operations. Indeed the properties of commutativity or associativity can easily be verified with respect to these operations on ℜ.

African Virtual University 38 Readings All of the readings for the module come from Open Source text books. This means that the authors have made them available for any reader to use them without charge. Follow links to explain specific concepts as you need to. Wikipedia (visited 06.org/ • • Type ‘Binary Operations’ into the search box and press ENTER. We have provided complete copies of these texts on the CD accompanying this course.11.06) http://www.org/Curriculum/Algebra/BinaryColorDevice. Methodos Publishers.shtml • This is a puzzle involving binary operations and group tables. UK.cut-the-knot.com/BinaryOperation. Follow links to explain specific concepts as you need to.wolfram.11.11. 1 Sets of relations and functions by Ivo Duntsch and Gunther Gediga. Use the puzzle to develop your understanding.06) http://www.html • • Read this entry for Binary Operations. 2000 pp 30-34 (File name on CD: Sets_Relations_Functions_Duntsch) Internet Resources Binary Color Device (visited 06.06) http://mathworld. . Wolfram MathWorld (visited 06.wikipedia.

you will find that an individual gets into a relation with another individual of opposite sex. For example we can start with an individual like an organism which is able to reproduce other organisms of the same species that will later constitute a population. They then reproduce other individuals who constitute a family. If different populations stay together then they will constitute a community etc… Question: What is the mechanism that can bring together two individuals (human beings or organisms of ecology) in order to start reproduction? Activity We note that in the case of human beings in our story above we could say that it is marriage that brings together a man and woman to later constitute a family after reproduction. We then have that families with a common relationship will constitute a clan and different clans will give rise to a tribe etc… We note that even in ecology the same story can be told.African Virtual University 39 Introduction: The Story of the Reproductive System In a real life situation among human beings. If we can reflect on our mapping diagram we have the following: A B x * y Where A = set of men wedding in a given time B = set of women getting marriage at the same time * = operation which says x weds y . In mathematics the concept of marriage could be looked at as a binary operation between the two individuals.

Hence R is an equivalence relation. Thus R is not symmetric in particular.z in a given set We also note that a relation R satisfying all the three properties of reflexive. is a brother of We note that in part (i) if R is the relation “is an uncle of” then xRy does not imply yRx. Hence R is not an equivalence relation. Example 1 Let U be the set of all people in a community. Also xRy ⇒ yRx and finally xRy and yRz ⇒ xRz.y.African Virtual University 40 Clearly x * y = y * x In this case this particular binary operation is commutative. xRy to mean x is related to y or yRx to mean y is related to x. However in part (ii) if R is the relation “is a brother of” then xRx is valid. symmetric and transitive above is said to be an equivalence relation. If xRy ⇒ yRx then the relation is said to be symmetric. . Question Can you try to define some relations on sets of your choice and check whether they are symmetric? In general we note that if a binary operation * gives rise to a relation R then: a) R is reflexive if xRx b) R is symmetric if xRy ⇒ yRx c) R is transitive if xRy and yRz ⇒ xRz For all elements x. Which of the following is an equivalence relation among them? i. If we denote the relation implied by the binary operation * by R then we write. is an uncle of ii.

d) Complete exercise 2. Relations and Functions by Duntsch and Gediga (solutions on pp. c) Give an example of an equivalence relation on the set ℜ of real numbers. x * y = xy + x b) Define a relation ~ on the set of integers as follows a ~ b if and only if a + b is even.1 p 34 in Sets. 48 – 49) . ii. Determine whether ~ is an equivalence relation on ℜ.4. If you are working in a group each member of the group should give one such example. is a friend of is a relative of Exercise 3 a) Determine whether the binary operation * on the set ℜ of real numbers is commutative or associative in each of the following cases i. x * y = y2x ii.African Virtual University 41 Exercise 2 Which of the following is an equivalence relation on the set of all human beings? i.

Note that a population here refers to a group of individuals from the same species. . In this activity we are going to demonstrate that a general algebraic structure can give rise to a specific one with well stated specific axioms. The situation of looking at the properties of a mapping between two sets which are furnished with algebraic structure as the groups are can be of great interest and indeed it is the beginning of learning proper Abstract Algebra. Prove some results on properties of groups and rings. Give examples of rings and subrings.African Virtual University 42 Module 1: Basic Mathematics Unit 3: Groups. Overview Recall that in our Unit 2 activity 2 we looked at the case of an individual organism being able to reproduce and give rise to a population. whereby we will define a mapping between any two given groups. We will also reflect on the notion of relations between sets using mappings. It is at this stage that the concept of a homomorphism will come into play. Give examples of groups and subgroups. the learner should be able to: • • • • • State axioms for both a group and a ring. Subgroups and Homomorphism Specific Objectives By the end of this activity. Give examples of homomorphisms between groups and isomorphisms between rings.

∗ in which a ∗ b = b ∗ a for a ∗ (b ∗ c ) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c for all a . ∈ G . b. R . c ∈ G . We have f ( xy ) = f ( x ) f ( y ). b ∈ S . Where a − 1 is called the inverse of a Homomorphism: This is a mapping f from a group G into another group H such that for any pair a . Semigroup: This is a non-empty set S with a binary operation * such that: (i) a ∗ b ∈ S for all a .African Virtual University 43 Key Concepts Abelian group: This is a group a . (iii) For all a. b. c ∈ S . Group: This is a non-empty set say G with a binary operation * such that: (i) a ∗ b ∈ G for all a .c ∈ R we have: a ∗ (b + c ) = a ∗ b + a ∗ c and (a + b ) ∗ c = a ∗ c + b ∗ c .b. b. (ii) G. Ring: This is a non-empty R set say with two binary operations + and * called addition and multiplication respectively such that: (i) (ii) R. (iii) There exists an element e in G such that e ∗ a = a = a ∗ e for all a ∈ G where e is called identity. ∗ is a multiplicative semigroup. b ∈ G . + is an Abelian group. (iv) For every a ∈ G there exists a − 1 ∈ G such that a ∗ a −1 = e = a −1 ∗ a . b ∈ G . Isomorphism: This is a homorphism which is also a bijection. (ii) a ∗ (b∗ c ) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c for all a .

2. Why did they set up rules after forming the cooperative society? What significance could you attach to their visits to other cooperative societies? Activity In our story above we note that a cooperative society requires rules to create an operating structure. which resemble the axioms of a group? Example 1 Consider the set ¢ of integers in order the operation of addition (+). ∈ ¢ (ii) a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c for all a. Question Can you now think of other situations where a group of people or objects could have sets of rules among them. We have that (i) a + b in ¢ for all a. Questions 1. It was noted after those visits to other societies that there was need to moderate some of there rules of running the society in order to create consistency. one hundred workers of a certain Institution in Kenya decided to form a cooperative society called CHUNA in which they were contributing shares on a monthly basis.African Virtual University 45 Introduction: Story of a Cooperative Society In 1990. They set up rules for the running of the society which included terms for giving out loans. { ¢ . b. c ∈ ¢ (iii) there is 0 ∈ ¢ such that a + o = a = o + a for all a ∈ ¢ (iv) for every a∈ ¢ there is – a such that a + -a = o = -a + a Hence.+ } is a group . It was decided after they had run the society for sometime that the officials should pay regular visits to other well established cooperative societies in the country to see how they are run in comparison to there own. This is equivalent to having axioms that are satisfied by elements of a non-empty set as is the case with the group G. b.

In this case the group {R+. Indeed for any pair x. ∗} we have that for any pair of points x. Note that if a homomorphism is an onto mapping then it is called an isomorphism. Show that the mapping: f:G➝H given by f(xy) = log10x is a homomorphism. The second question coming out of our story of the cooperative society above is mainly for comparison purposes. y ∈ G.African Virtual University 46 Exercise 2 Verify that the set R of real numbers is also a group under addition. Similarly the structures of groups are easily compared using mappings. Example 3 Let G and H be any two groups and e1 be the identity of H. In other words G and its image under f (denoted by f(G) in H are the same group structurally. x∗y=y∗x Then G is called Abelian group. x} of positive real numbers under multiplication and let H be the additive group{R+. Thus for any two given groups say G and H a mapping can be defined between them in order to compare their structures. Then the mapping f:G ➝ H given by f(xy) = e’ is a homomorphism. y ∈ G. f(xy) = e’ = e’ e’ = f(x)f(y) Exercise 4 Let G be the group {R+. Note that if for any group {G. +} is Abelian. This is to find out whether the structure set up by CHUNA compares well with those of other societies. . +} of real numbers. In particular a homomorphism f: G ➝ H is a mapping that preserves the structure.

Note therefore that all the considerations can also be pulled down on subgroups to find out what results can follow. . Note also that the identity element of a given subgroup say H of a group G is the same as the identity of the group G. b ∈ H implies ab-1 ∈ H Exercise7 a. 3.African Virtual University 47 Remarks 5 1. A non-empty subset H of G is a subgroup of G if and only if a.19. Let H be a subgroup of a group G. Let H and K be subgroups of a group G. Note that a subgroup H of G is a subject of G written H ⊂ G which is also a group with respect to the binary operation G. Show that Ker (e) = e1} Exercise 8 Read chapter 1 of Basic Algebra by Ash (from pp 1-18) and complete the exercise on p. Remarks 6 Let G be a group. then show that H∩K is also a subgroup of G. Show that Ha = H if and only if a ∈H. Where Ker( ) = {x in G: Im = { (x) in H: x ∈ G} : G ➝H be a homomorphism. 4. 2. Let G and H be groups and ( ) is a subgroup of H. c. b. Note also that the theorem stated below is useful in determining subgroups. Mark your own work from the answers chapter.

This leads to partitioning of sets into equivalence classes that facilitates deeper studies on sets or collections of spaces. Synthesis of the Module Synthesis Of The Basic Mathematics Module We note that having gone through this module you should now be fully equipped with the concepts involved in the following contents. These facts are well exposed in the two learning activities in this unit. You should as a final consideration in this unit look at the definition of mappings from one group to another or from one ring into another ring. followed by logic in which you are introduced to the science of reasoning. The concept of equivalence relation is essential. A good grasp of the real number system is also necessary for easy definition of elementary functions. In Unit 2 you have been introduced to algebraic structures in which the concept of a binary operations played a pivotal role. It is important here to stress both their similarities and main differences. Finally Unit 3 brings out study on two particular examples of algebraic structures namely groups and rings. In Unit 1 the most basic concepts are those of a set and function. .African Virtual University 48 XV. In particular a homomorphism which is known to preserve the structure of a given group is essential in this study. These concepts are given great exposition in this unit. Indeed one similarity that the learner should have noticed is that in the structure of a group we can find a subgroup just as it is the case with a ring and a subring. However. Permutations and combinations together with trigonometric functions complete the most significant topics in this unit. the main difference between the two algebraic structures is that a group thrives only on one binary operation whereas a ring thrives on two binary operations.

Write the negation of the following statement: If l receive a salary increase l will buy a plot. Give the definition of a function. Summative Evaluation Module 1: Basic Mathematics Unit 1: Summative Assessment Questions Question 1 a. In the diagram below state with reasons whether the mapping represents a mapping or not.African Virtual University 49 XVI. Use truth tables to show that b. Determine the truth tables for the following propositions. Let A = {x : − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2}. A B • • • • b. (A ⇒ B) ⇒ (A ∨ B) ii. i. ∼ (A ⇒ B) ∨ (∼ A ∧ ∼ B) Question 2 a. A ∨ (B ∧ C)≡ (A ∨ B) ∧ (A ∨ C) c. Let f : A → R and g : A → R be defined by .

(h o g ) −1 II. ii. i. The ranges of h o g and g o h c.African Virtual University 50 f (x ) = 3 x + 4 g ( x ) = ( x − 1) 2 Determine the range of each of the functions f and g. c. State the inverse of each of the following functions i. 1 x g (x ) = 3 + x 2 f (x ) = 1 + Question 3 a. Let two functions f and g be defined on the whole set of real numbers by f (x ) = x − 1 g (x ) = 2 x 2 Find the composite functions (i) f o g and (ii) g o f b. Given h (x ) = x + 1 and g (x ) = x 2 + 4 where each of these functions is defined on R find I. In how many ways can 6 boys be chosen from a class of 30 boys if the class captain is to be included? b. A committee of six people is to be chosen from a group of 8 women and five men. ii. In part (b) above find the value of a such that (h o g )(a ) = (g o h )(a ) Question 4 a. In how many ways can this be done? If one particular man must not be in the team how many of these teams will have more women than men? .

ii. There is no restriction? ii. 4 are green and 6 are blue. 5 of which are red.African Virtual University 51 c. The balls must be of the same colour? iii. Only two balls are of the same colour? Question 5 a) Simplify sin 4θ − sin 3θ + sin 2θ o o b) Solve for x. sec 2 x − 5(tan x − 1) = 0 2 cos 2 x + sin 2 x = 2 cos x 3 in the form r cos (θ + α ) c) Express Hence solve for θ in the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ 180 the equation 3 cos θ − sin θ = 0 . In how many ways can three balls be chosen if i. A box contains 15 balls. 0 ≤ x ≤ 360 i.

(a) If I do not recieve a pay increase I will not buy a plot.African Virtual University 52 Unit 1: Summative Assessment Solutions Q1. (b) 1 A T T T T F F F F 2 B T T F F T T F F 3 C T F T F T F T F 4 5 6 7 8 A ∨ (B ∧ C ) T T T T T F F F B ∧C A∨ B A∨C (A ∨ B )∧ (A ∨ C ) T T T T T F F F T F F F T F F F T T T T T T F F T T T T T F T F (c). (i) A T T F F B T F T F A∨ B T T T F A→ B (A → B ) → (A ∨ B ) T F T F T F T T (ii) A ∼A B T T F F F F T T T F T F ∼B F T F T A→B F T F T ∼(A→B) ∼ A∧ ∼ B T F T F F F F T ∼ (A→ B)∨(∼ A∧ ∼ B) F T F T .

African Virtual University 53

Q2 (a) A function is a mapping where each object is mapped onto a unique image. The diagram does not represent a function because there is an object mapping onto two different images. (b) Given A = {x : − 2 ≤ x ≤ 2}

f (x ) = 3 x + 4 g ( x ) = ( x − 1)
2

Range of f = {y : −2 ≤ y ≤ 10} Range of g = {y : 0 ≤ y ≤ 9} (c) i. ii. Q3 (a) Given f ( x ) = x − 1 If f (x ) = 1 +

1 1 then f −1 ( x ) = x x −1
x2 − 3

If g (x ) = 3 + x 2 then g − 1 ( x ) =

g (x ) = 2 x 2
i. ii.

( f o g )( x ) = f (g ( x )) = f (2 x2 )= 2 x2 = 2 x2 − 1 ( g o f )( x ) = g ( f ( x )) = g ( x − 1) = 2 ( x − 1)
2

(b) Given h (x ) = x + 1

g (x ) = x 2 + 4
i.

(h o g )(x ) = h (g (x )) = h (x 2 + 4 )
= x2 + 4 + 1 = x2 + 5
−1 (h o g ) ( x ) = x − 5

African Virtual University 54

ii. Range of h o g = {y : y ≥ 5} Also (g o h )(x ) = g h (x )

(
2

)

= g (x + 1) = (x + 1) + 4
Range of g o h = {y : y ≥ 4}

(a)

(h o g )(a ) = a 2 + 5 (g o h )(a ) = (a + 1)
2 2

+4

Therefore (a + 1) + 4 = a 2 + 5

2a + 5 = 5 2a = 0 a=0
Q4 (a) If the captain is to be included them we are selecting 5 boys from a class of 25. Hence we have
25

C5 =

25! 5!20!
13

C6 =

13!

(b) (i) This can be done in

6!7! = 13 × 12 × 11 = 1716 ways

(i) We exclude the man who should not be in the committee leaving us with four men and eight women to choose from. Given that women have to be more than the men we have the following three options: Either to select 4 women and 2 men giving us 8 C4 x 4C2 ways Or to select 5 women and 1 man giving us 8 C5 x 4C1

African Virtual University 55

Or to select 6 women and no man giving us 8 C6 ways In total we have
8

C4 x 4C2 +8 C5 x 4C1 +8 C6

= 420+224+28=672 ways
(c) i.
15

C5 ways

ii. 5 C1 x 6C1 x 4C1 = 120 ways iii. We have either 2G and 1R or 2G and 1B and 1G or 2B and 1R or 2R and 1G or 2R and 1B. Q5 (a) We first note that sin 4θ + sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ Therefore sin 4θ − sin 3θ + sin zθ = 2sin 3θ cos θ − sin 3θ = sin 3θ (2 cos θ − 1)

(b) (i) sec 2 x − 5 (tan x − 1) = 0

1 + tan 2 x − 5 (tan x − 1) = 0 tan 2 x − 5tan x + 6 = 0
Let y = tan x

y2 − 5 y + 6 = 0

( y − 3)( y − 2 ) = 0
Therefore y = 3

y=2
tan x = 3 or tan x = 2
x = tan − 1 3 or x = tan − 1 2

African Virtual University 56 (ii) (c) 2 cos 2 x − 1 + 1 − cos 2 x = 2 cos x ( ) 3 cos θ − sin θ = r cos(θ + α ) = r cos θ sin α − r sin θ cos α r sin α = 3 and r cos α = 1 1 ∴ r = ±2 and tan α = ∴α = 30o 3 ±2 cos(θ + 30o) = 0 ⇒ cos(θ + 30o) = 0 ∴θ + 30o = 180o ∴θ = 150o for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 180o .

(a) The relation congruence modulo n on the set ¢ of integers is defined as follows: For any pair x. Give the definition of an equivalence relation.African Virtual University 57 Unit 2: Summative Assessment Questions 1. For x .n ∈ ℤ . . Define a relation ~ on the set ¢ of integers as follows: a ~ b if and only if a + b is even. y z ∈ S suppose that x commutes with y and z. (b) Show that the relation ~ defined on ℕ x ℕ by (a. (a) Let S be a non empty set with an associative binary operation * on it. Show that x also commutes with y ∗ z .b ∈ ℤ such that a b and a c then a mb + nc for m. 4. (b) Prove that if a. b )~ (c. d ) iff a + d = b + c is an equivalence relation. Show that ~ is an equivalence relation on ¢. Where ℕ is the set of natural numbers. 3.y ∈ ℤ x is said to be congruent to y modulo n written xy ≡ (mod n ) if n divides x – y. Show that this is an equivalence relation. Where a b means a divides b. Determine whether the binary operation * on the set ℝ of real numbers is commutative or associative in each of the following cases (a) x ∗ y = x 2 y (b) x ∗ y = x y + y 2.

(a) Let x. We also have that: x ∗ y = x 2 y and y ∗ x = y 2 x Thus x ∗ y ≠ y ∗ x Hence * is not commutative. We also have that: x ∗ y = xy + y and y ∗ x = yx + x ∴x∗ y ≠ y∗ x Hence * is not commutative.z ∈ ℝ Then x ∗ ( y ∗ z ) = x ∗ ( yz + z ) = x ( yz + z ) + yz + z = xyz + zx + yz + z Also ( x ∗ y ) ∗ z = ( xy + y ) ∗ z = ( xy + y ) z + z = xyz + yz + z ∴ x ∗ ( y ∗ z ) ≠ (x ∗ y )∗ z Hence * is not associative.African Virtual University 58 Unit 2: Summative Assessment Answers 1. 2 ( ) z = x4 y 2 z 2 ( x ∗ y )∗ z Hence * is associative. . (b) Let x.y.z ∈ ℝ Then x ∗ ( y ∗ z ) = x2 ( y ∗ z ) = x2 Also ( x ∗ y ) ∗ z = x2 y ∗ z = x2 y Thus x ∗ ( y ∗ z ) = ( ) y2 z = x4 y2 z.y.

.h ∈ ℤ mb + nc = mka + nha = a (mk + nh) ⇒ a mb + nc 3. An equivalence relation is one which is reflexive symmetric and transitive.African Virtual University 59 2. Given the relation: a ~ b iff a + b is even. = 2 (m + n − p) ⇒ a ~ c. we have: (i) a + a = 2 a ⇒ a ~ a reflexive (ii) a ~ b ⇒ a + b = 2k ⇒ b + a = 2k ⇒b~ a symmetric (iii) a ~ b and ⇒ b ~ c ⇒ a + b = 2m and b + c = 2n ⇒ a + c = 2m − b + 2n − b = 2m + 2n − 2b. transitive Hence ~ is an equivalence relation. (b) Now a b ⇒ b = k a and a c ⇒ b = ha for some k. (a) Given that: x ∗ y = y ∗ x and x ∗ z = z ∗ x We have by associativity of * that x ∗ ( y ∗ z ) = (x ∗ y )∗ z = ( y ∗ x )∗ z = y ∗ (x ∗ z ) = y ∗ (z ∗ x ) = ( y ∗ z )∗ x Hence x also commutes with y * z .

f Then we have that: ) a + d = b + c and c + f = d + e ⇒ a + d + c + f = b+ c + d + e ⇒ a + f = b + e ⇒ (a . b) which is symmetric property. d ) and (c . b) ~ (e. (iii) Now suppose (a . b) ~ (c.y ∈ ℤ we have: (i) n divides reflexive x − x = 0 ⇒ x ≡ x (modn ) (ii) Let n divide x – y. d ) ⇒ a + d = b + c ⇒d + a = c+b ⇒ (c .African Virtual University 60 4. d ) ~ (e. d ) ~ (a . which is transitive property. (ii) (a . Then also n divides y – x which is symmetric property. Then n also divides ( x − y ) + ( y − z ) = x − z. Hence congruence modulo in an equivalence relation. (iii) Let n divide x – y and also y – z. (a) For any pair x. b ) ~ (c. f ) Hence ~ is an equivalence relation . (b) We note that: (i) (a ~ b ) ~ (a. b ) since a + b = b + a which is reflexive property.

b. ⎜ 1⎠ ⎝ 0 0 ⎞ ⎛ −1 0 ⎞ ⎛ −1 ⎟.African Virtual University 61 Unit 3: Summative Assessment Questions 1. (a) Show that if G is a group of even order then there are exactly an odd number of elements of order 2. 4. b ∈ ¢ where i = − 1 . Give an example to show that this may fail if the ring is not commutative. Show that A is a subring of £ . show that the order of ab is the same as the order of ba. (b) Prove that the multiplicative group of the nth root of unit is a cyclic group of order n. prove that (f (a )) n = e iff a n = e . Given the matrices 2 ⎛1 ⎜ ⎝0 0 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎟. (b) Let G be a group such that (ab ) = a 2 b 2 for all a. (b) If a and b are any two elements of a group G. 2. (b) If a and b are nilpotent elements of a commutative ring. Define A = { a + ib : a . Show that G is Abelian. (a) If ϕ is an isomorphism of a group G into a group H. (a) Let £ denote the complex number field. show that a + b is also nilpotent. } . (a) Let G be a group such that a 2 = e for all a ∈ G Show that G is Abelian. 3.∈ G. 2. ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ − 1⎠ ⎝ 0 1⎠ ⎝ 0 0⎞ ⎟ − 1⎠ verify that they form a multiplicative group.

b. 2. Letting e = ⎜ ⎛1 ⎝0 0⎞ ⎟ 1⎠ 0⎞ ⎛1 a=⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0 − 1⎠ 0⎞ ⎛ −1 b= ⎜ ⎟ 1⎠ ⎝ 0 0⎞ ⎛ −1 c=⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0 −1⎠ .∈ G. ∴ (ab )2 = e.b.b.∈ G Gand b 2 = e since a 2 = e since a 2 = e for all a ∈ G. Apply cancellation law to give ba = ab. Hence G is Abelian.∈ ⇒ a. Thus ab = a e b = a (ab ) b = a (ab ab )b = a 2 b ab 2 = eb a e = ba 2 Hence G is Abelian. ab ab = aa bb . (b) Given that: (ab ) 2 = a 2b2 .African Virtual University 62 Unit 3: Summative Assessment Solutions 1 (a) We note that for all a. we have that: a.

.e.. ab) a m times = a −1 (a b) = e This implies O (ba ) divides m = O (ab ). (a) Suppose x ∈ G is not an element of order 2.... Similarly O (ab ) divides O (ba ) ⇒ O (ab ) = O (ba ) m . b.. Then x 2 ≠ e ⇒ x ≠ x − 1 It now follows that there is an even number of elements x such that x 2 ≠ e. 2 Thus there is an even number of elements x in G such that x = e Now since e also satisfies e2 = e we have that there is an odd number of elements x in G which are of order 2..African Virtual University 63 We have: a 2 = b2 = c2 = e ab = c = ba bc = a = cb ca = b = ac Thus G = {e.. Then we have: m (ba ) = a −1 a (ba ) m = a −1 a ba ba .....ba m times = a −1 ( ab ab. 3.. a. Now e is the identity on G and each member of G is an inverse of itself. O (ab ) = m..... i. c}is closed under multiplication.. We also note that matrix multiplication is associative and therefore G is a multiplicative group.. (b) Suppose for the element ab in G order ab = m......

Then the ring £ of complex numbers... Hence A is a subring of ......ψ (a ) = ψ (a n ) = ψ (e). (b) We first note that the roots of the equation to be z n = 1 where z is a complex variable are found by use of DeMoivre’s theorem 2kπ 2kπ + i sin n n cos for k = 0.1.... (a) Let a + bi ∈ A and c + d i ∈ A........ n − 1 these roots form a cyclic group order n generated by w = cos 2π 2π + i sin ...African Virtual University 64 4......... (a + bi ) − (c + di ) = (a − c ) + (b − d )i ∈ A.. Conversely suppose a n = e.ψ (a ) = ψ (a )ψ a n−1 Hence the proof... n times Thus a n = e since Ψ is an isomorphism.. (a) Suppose ψ (a ) = e.. Then we have that: e = ψ (e) = ψ (a n ) ( ) n = ψ (a )ψ (a )ψ (a n−2 ) ... n n 5... Then n ψ (a ) ψ (a ) ψ (a )....... 2..... Also (a + bi )(c + di ) = (ac − bd ) + (cb + bc )i ∈ A.

Also let k = max {m. But 0⎠ ⎛0 Clearly this ring is not commutative. . Then 2k (a + b) = ∑ ⎜ ⎟ a 2k −r br = 0. 0⎠ 0⎞ ⎟ . r =1 ⎝ r ⎠ 2 k ⎛ 2k ⎞ Hence a + b is also nilpotent. Example Consider a 2 x 2 matrix ring over a field F if ⎛0 a=⎜ ⎝0 1⎞ ⎛0 ⎟ b= ⎜ 0⎠ ⎝1 0⎞ ⎟. n}. We also have a 2 = b2 = ⎜ ⎝0 a + b is not nilpotent.African Virtual University 65 (b) Let a m = 0 and b n = 0.

A Textbook for High School Students Studying Maths. (Folder on CD: Abstract_Algebra_Ash) . 1-13 (File name on CD: Abstract_and_linear_algebra_Connell) Ivo Duntsch and Gunther Gediga. pg 38-47 (File name on CD: Secondary_School_ Maths) E. H. Sets relations and functions. Abstract Algebra: The Basic Graduate Year. (File name on CD: Sets_Relations_Functions_Duntsch) Robert B. methodos publishers (UK) 2000. Connell. References Free High School Science Texts authors. Ash. University of Miami.African Virtual University 66 XVII. pg. 1999. Elements of Abstract and Linear Algebra. 2005.

Khalagai School of Mathematics University of Nairobi P. O. He has over the years participated in workshop on development of study materials for Open and Distance learning program for both science and arts students in which he has written books on Real Analysis.ke . He specialized in the branch of Analysis and has been teaching at the University of Nairobi since 1980 where he rose through the ranks up to an Associate Professor of Pure Mathematics. Jairus M. Address: Prof. Main Author of the Module The Author The author of this module on Basic Mathematics was born in 1953 and went through the full formal education in Kenya. Box 30197 – 00100 Nairobi – KENYA Email: khalagai@uonbi.African Virtual University 67 XVIII. In particular he went to University of Nairobi from 1974 where he obtained Bachelor of Science (B. Topology and Measure Theory. A Master of Science (M.Sc.Sc) degree in 1977.HD) degree in 1983.) degree in Pure Mathematics in 1979 and a Doctor of Philosophy (P.ac.