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PUMPED-UP GRAMMAR!

GEE, KIDS, ITD BE JUST SUPER IF YOU WOULD USE WORDS CORRECTLY!
Fragments and Run-Ons classconnect.bcp.org/.../Lecture %20Powerpoints/Grammar%2 0Powerpoints.../RunOns.ppt/.../Run-Ons.ppt?...

Writing Effective Sentences


A complete sentence must include at least one full independent clause, with a subject and verb, that can stand on its own. A complete sentence must also express a complete thought.

What is a fragment?
A fragment looks like a sentence because it has a period and begins with a capital letter. It cannot stand alone because it lacks on of the three required elements of a sentence: a subject, a verb, and a sense of completeness.

Examples
A fear of the outside world. (no verb) Dying to see the show. (no subject) Because the dramatic rise in temperature killed the plants. (begins with a subordinating wordnot a complete thought, so not an independent clause)

Examples of Fragments
Francis arrived at his new school in Rome. Where he was to spend the summer learning Italian.

Which part is a fragment, and how can it be fixed?

Francis arrived at his new school in Rome. Where he was to spend the summer learning Italian.
fragment

Correction: Francis arrived at his new

school in Rome, where he was to spend the summer learning Italian.

He talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off his notes. Like other teachers in that department, he did not encourage students' questions.

Which part is a fragment, and how can it be fixed?

He talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off his notes. Like other teachers in that department, he did not encourage students' questions.

Trick question: both parts are complete sentences.

They were all having a good time. Until one of Joe's oldest and best friends accidentally jumped on Joes Xbox.

Which part is a fragment, and how can it be fixed?

They were all having a good time. Until one of Joe's oldest and best friends accidentally jumped on Joes Xbox.
fragment

They were all having a good time until one of Joe's oldest and best friends accidentally jumped on Joes Xbox.

Grammar Warm-Ups
You have TWO minutes to write THREE fragments.

Grammar Warm-Ups
Switch with a neighbor. You have THREE minutes to convert the three fragments into complete sentences by adding or subtracting words.

What is a run-on sentence?


Two or more independent clauses run together with no conjunction between them or improper or no punctuation. One specific kind of run-on is a comma splice: two independent clauses joined by nothing but a comma.

Run-on example
Mosquitoes arrived at dusk they whined about our ears as we huddled in our sleeping bags.
Correct by adding a comma and conjunction: Mosquitoes arrived at dusk, and they whined about our ears as we huddled in our sleeping bags.

Or by using a semi-colon: Mosquitoes arrived at dusk; they whined about our ears as we huddled in our sleeping bags. Or by making two sentences: Mosquitoes arrived at dusk. They whined about our ears as we huddled in our sleeping bags.

Comma splice example


Sir Richard Burton failed to trace the source of the Nile, John Hanning Speke discovered it in 1862.
Correct by adding a conjunction: Sir Richard Burton failed to trace the source of the Nile, but John Hanning Speke discovered it in 1862.

Or by using a semi-colon: Sir Richard Burton failed to trace the source of the Nile; John Hanning Speke discovered it in 1862. Or by making two sentences: Sir Richard Burton failed to trace the source of the Nile. John Hanning Speke discovered it in 1862.

What have we here?


In God we trust was not the first motto on the first coin minted in the United States the first motto was Mind your own business.

Is there anything wrong with the above sentence, and if so, how can it be fixed?

In God we trust was not the first motto on the first coin

minted in the United States the first motto was Mind your own business.

Correction: In God we trust was not

the first motto on the first coin minted in the United States; on the contrary, the first motto was Mind your own business.

What have we here?


In 1948 Russian defectors wrote about life under Stalin thus the West learned of his ruthless purges.

Is there anything wrong with the above sentence, and if so, how can it be fixed?

In 1948 Russian defectors wrote about life under Stalin thus the West learned of his ruthless purges.

Correction:

In 1948 Russian defectors wrote about life under Stalin, and thus the West learned of his ruthless purges.

Correction:

In 1948 Russian defectors wrote about life under Stalin; thus the West learned of his ruthless purges.
In 1948 Russian defectors wrote about life under Stalin. Thus the West learned of his ruthless purges.

Correction:

What have we here?


A figure known as the Trickster has

a major role in the myths of many peoples, several North American tribes, for example, have tales featuring Coyote.

Is there anything wrong with the above sentence, and if so, how can it be fixed?

Correction: A figure known as

the Trickster has a major role in the myths of many peoples; several North American tribes, for example, have tales featuring Coyote.

Correction: A figure known as

the Trickster has a major role in the myths of many peoples. Several North American tribes, for example, have tales featuring Coyote.

Grammar Warm-Ups
In pairs, take TEN minutes to write

a paragraphas long as possible containing as many run-ons, comma splices and fragments as possible. Go for varietymake them tricky and hard to recognize!

Count up how many run-ons/comma splices you have and how many fragments you have. When ten minutes are up, switch with another pair. You have FIVE minutes to rewrite the paragraph with NO runon or fragment errors.

Sites with more information


Worksheets on fragments and runons: www.lrc.centennialcollege.ca Free grammar worksheets: www.superteacherworksheets.com/gr ammar.html Ppt. fragments: www.xnet.rrc.mb.ca/leshanson