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Agama Islam adalah agama rasmi tetapi kebebasan amalan agama-agama lain dibenarkan.
(c). Bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan (d). Kedudukan setiap rakyat adalah sama di sisi undang-undang (e).
Yang Di-Pertuan Agung memelihara kedudukan istimewa orang Melayu dan bumiputera.
The gender variant child may well wish to transition to his/her affirmed gender role and this needs particularly sensitive treatment by the school. sponsored by the United Kingdom Home Office gives a number of case studies of transsexual children and provides a toolkit for schools to deal with the issues that arise . School shootings have focused attention on student bullying. A recent publication. The studies also revealed that bullies themselves are likely to suffer problems as children and adults. with shooters in several of the worst shootings reporting they were bullied. and providing support and protection for victims. Many educational institutions have implemented anti-bullying campaigns.School bullying School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in connection with education. Studies in Norway and England confirm these programs can be effective. or emotional and is usually repeated over a period of time. Types of bullying and what it means to bully School bullying is behavior intended to harm or disturb the victim. verbal. The programs usually focus on increasing awareness and supervision. Studies prompted by the shootings have shown long-lasting emotional harm to victims. electronically. or indirectly. It can be physical or emotional and can occur in person. Physical school bullying Examples of physical bullying include:  • • • • • • • • Punching Shoving Slapping Other acts that hurt people physically and emotionally Wedgies [of all types] Attacking Pranks Teasing and abusing . Bullying can be physical. Children who are gay or gender variant are particularly vulnerable to bullying. either inside or outside of school. establishing clear rules.
Causes of school bullying Some children bully because they have been isolated. Insults etc Harassment Provocation Electronic bullying: (cyber-bullying) Bullying also can happen on-line or electronically. mobile phones or other electronic means. Lying to hurt internally and externally. Examples include: • • • • Sending mean-spirited text. or instant messages. Posting inappropriate pictures or messages about others in blogs or on Web sites. and they have a deep need for belonging. e-mail. but they do not possess the social skills to effectively keep friends (see social rejection). Using someone else's user name to spread rumors or lies about someone. This form of harassment is known as Cyber-bullying.Emotional school bullying Examples of emotional bullying include:  • • • • • • • • Spreading bad rumors about people Keeping certain people out of a "group" Teasing people in mean ways Getting certain people to "gang up" on others Name calling Taunts. . It occurs when someone bullies through the Internet.
was among the main architects of the Holocaust. and declared a major war criminal. . and they may thus not see a reason to prevent it if it brings them joy on some level. Notable school bullies in history Heinrich Himmler Himmler's father was a school principal who set him as a bully to spy and punish other pupils. People like that also feel insecure about themselves by putting others down.Who bullies One student or a group can bully another student or a group of students.even while maintaining overt commitments to antibullying policies. Bystanders may participate or watch. Later. he became head of the infamous SS in Nazi Germany. there is some research suggesting that a significant proportion of "normal" school children may not evaluate school-based violence (student-on-student victimization) as negatively or as being unacceptable as much as adults generally do. and may even derive enjoyment from it. humiliation. However. sometimes out of fear of becoming the next victim. People that bully other people are the types of kids that enjoy putting other people down and that makes them feel better about themselves. Bullying can also be perpetrated by teachers and the school system itself: there is an inherent power differential in the system that can easily predispose to subtle or covert abuse. or exclusion .
or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. physical assault. Although the UK currently has no legal definition of bullying. Bullying in school and the workplace is also referred to as peer abuse.verbal and physical. repeatedly and over time. or bullying adults who are abused by their colleagues). Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus defines bullying as when a person is "exposed. This includes school.g. bullying often describes a form of harassment perpetrated by an abuser who possesses more physical and/or social power and dominance than the victim. Bullying can be defined in many different ways." He defines negative action as "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person. a bullying child who is abused at home.the workplace. There are many reasons for that. physical and/or emotional. home and neighborhoods. It is even a common push factor in migration. through physical contact. Many programs have been started to prevent bullying at schools with promotional speakers. social classes and even between countries . One of them is because the bullies themselves are or have been the victim of bullying  (e. to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons. Bullying consists of two types . Sometimes bullies will pick on people bigger or smaller than their size. The harassment can be verbal. Bullies hurt people verbally and physically. through words or in other ways. through verbal harassment. Bullying can exist between social groups. In colloquial speech. The victim of bullying is sometimes referred to as a target. Bullying is usually done to coerce others by fear or threat.Bullying Bullying is the act of intentionally causing harm to others." Bullying can occur in any setting where human beings interact with each other. some US states have laws against it.
stabbing. staring. laughing at the victim. USA National Center for Education Statistics suggests that bullying can be broken into two categories: Direct bullying. the silent treatment. gossip/ false gossip.Definition Bullying is an act of repeated aggressive behavior in order to intentionally hurt another person. 2004). He also suggests that social aggression or indirect bullying is characterized by threatening the victim into social isolation. bullying other people who wish to socialize with the victim. 1989). exclusion from social situations. They may bully out of jealousy or be acting out because they themselves are bullied (Crothers & Levinson. rumors/ false rumors. etc). lies. 2003. Children's charity Act Against Bullying was set up in 2003 to help children who were victims of this type of bullying by researching and publishing coping skills. giggling. 2005). and mocking. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person (Besag. and criticizing the victim's manner of dress and other socially-significant markers (including the victim's race. and indirect bullying which is also known as social aggression. disability. This isolation is achieved through a wide variety of techniques. such as name calling. or coercion (Carey. slapping. including spreading gossip. throwing things. scratching. Bullies may behave this way to be perceived as popular or tough or to get attention. beating. manipulation. exclusion from activities. . religion. saying certain words that trigger a reaction from a past event. scraping and pinching. biting. Whitted & Dupper. physical abuse. Ross states that direct bullying involves a great deal of physical aggression such as shoving and poking. refusing to socialize with the victim. Ross (1998) outlines other forms of indirect bullying which are more subtle and more likely to be verbal. physically or mentally. Behaviors may include name calling. arguing others into submission. choking. punching and kicking. pulling hair. verbal or written abuse.
said." .Effects The effects of bullying can be serious and even fatal. The National Conference of State Legislatures said: "In 2002. anxiety. whether child or adult who are persistently subjected to abusive behavior are at risk of stress related illness which can sometimes lead to suicide".  Victims of bullying can suffer from long term emotional and behavioral problems. Bullying can cause loneliness. Mona O’Moore Ph. "There is a growing body of research which indicates that individuals. Secret Service concluded that bullying played a significant role in many school shootings and that efforts should be made to eliminate bullying behavior. depression. lead to low self-esteem and increased susceptibility to illness. a report released by the U.S. D of the AntiBullying Centre. Trinity College Dublin.
For example. Further studies have shown that while envy and resentment may be motives for bullying. there is a danger that it may become habitual. Researchers have identified other risk factors such as quickness to anger and use of force. Indeed. It has also been suggested that a prejudicial view of subordinates can be particular a risk factor. Bullying may also be "tradition" in settings where an age group or higher rank feels superior than lowerclassmen." Bullying does not necessarily involve criminality or physical violence. the abuser him/herself feels empowered. combined with a strong need to control or dominate.  there is little evidence to suggest that bullies suffer from any deficit in self esteem (as this would make it difficult to bully). bullying often operates through psychological abuse or verbal abuse. Bullying can often be associated with street gangs. addiction to aggressive behaviors. such as in the Russian Army where conscripts in their second year of service typically bully and control first year conscripts. concern with preserving self image. However. It is often suggested that bullying behavior has its origin in childhood: "If aggressive behaviour is not challenged in childhood. to indicate that bullying during childhood puts children at risk of criminal behaviour and domestic violence in adulthood. there is research evidence. and engaging in obsessive or rigid actions. . mistaking others' actions as hostile. especially at school. bullying can also be used as a tool to conceal shame or anxiety or to boost self esteem: by demeaning others.Characteristics of bullies Research indicates that adults who bully have personalities that are authoritarian.
surely be described as "lethal hazing". 2005). . at Aylesbury Assizes. parents and guardians and authority figures (Whitted & Dupper. The Fifth Volume of the Newgate Calendar  contains at least one example where Eton Scholars George Alexander Wood and Alexander Wellesley Leith were charged. has only in recent years started to be addressed by researchers. Ashley Cooper on February 28. while not as distinct.History of bullying High-level forms of violence such as assault and murder usually receive most media attention. 1825 in an incident that would now. with killing and slaying the Hon. but lower-level forms of violence such as bullying. but there have been well documented cases that were recorded in a different context. F. could be considered indicative of situations of bullying. The Newgate calendar contains several other examples that. It is only in recent years that bullying has been recognised and recorded as a separate and distinct offence.
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