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Director: Henri Dieuzeide Editor: Zaghloul Morsy Assistant to the Editor: Alexandra Draxler

Articles appearing in Prospects express the views of their authors and not necessarily those of Unesco or the editorial board. Requests for permission to reproduce articles published in the review should be addressed to the Editor. All correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Prospects, Quarterly Review of Education, Unesco, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris.

T h e Editor welcomes contributions and correspondence motivatedfavourably or unfavourablyby articles in Prospects.

Cover photograph Gsta Glase, Stockholm Prospects is also published in French under the title Perspectives: Revue trimestrielle de l'ducation and in Spanish under the title Perspectivas: Revista trimestral de educacin. Published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris. Printed in France by Presses Universitaires de France, V e n d m e . Unesco 1973 Price and subscription rates [A] Single issue: 4 F .

quarterly review of education


Vol. Ill N o . 4

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Winter//3

O O n t e n t S

Neurosciences and education Robert B. Livingston Toward a national policy on education in Nigeria Otonti Nduka Viewpoints and controversies T w o approaches to educational planning: conflict and complementarity Bikas C. Sanyal Manpower forecasting as a technique, not an approach to planning Mark Blaug

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-^415 438

451 458

Elements for a dossier: The European university in change Introduction Joseph Herman Death or change of the universities? Alain Touraine T h e European university in society Henri Janne T h e university and research A. N. Matveev T h e third reform of higher education in the German Democratic Republic Karl-Heinz Wirzberger T h e Gesamthochschule: a model of mobility Heinz Draheim Self-management in Yugoslav universities Branko Pribicevic and Jovan Gligorijevic Beyond the university to mass higher education Stuart Madure Trends and cases
T h e Free Gymnasium of Copenhagen Out-of-school education in the Ukrainian S . S . R . Leonid Grekov

466 469 482 492 497 504 515 522 531

Notes and reviews


N e w prospects for secondary education; Eighth International Conference on Health Education; Eighth Conference of European Ministers of Education; Book reviews; S o m e recent Unesco publications; Meetings; University news; N e w s from international agencies and foundations

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Index to Volume III, 1973

561

TO THE READER Two years ago Prospects resumed publication with a new formula characterized by a broad diversification of the subject matter, by the contribution of well-known international specialists in the field of education, and by a volume and content at least doubled in size. However, the price of the periodical remained unchanged, despite the rapid inflation and monetary fluctuations affecting Unesco, as well as many of the Organization's Member States. To compensate in part for the effects of thesefinancialphenomena, we are obliged, to our great regret, to revise our prices beginning with the first issue of 1974, by raising the subscription rate to 28 French francs and the single issue price to 8 francs, a change by which Prospects is still comparatively more reasonable than many other national or international journals of similar volume and scope. The prices in other currencies will of course be calculated on the basis of those given above; they are available from our national distributors listed at the end of each issue. We hope that our constant effort to bring out a review of high quality and to meet the needs of a real international audience will enable us to count on the understanding and loyalty of our readers.

Robert B . Livingston

Neurosciences and education1

Robert B . Livingston, M . D . ( United States of America). Professor of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego; former Chairman, Commission on Science Education, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

T h e h u m a n brain is a recent product of evolution. It is still evolving. Genetic evolution is slow because it depends on direct lines of ancestry. Cultural evolution is rapid because any wisdom or k n o w ledge acquired by m e n can be rapidly and widely diffused. Creativity m a y be considered along an extended scale from the humblest individual learning experiences to the catalytic contributions of the greatest geniuses. However, the brain remains an incompletely exploited instrument for further evolution. A s for education, although it is at a crossroad, m u c h can be done, if w e only manifest our will. Social progress has been occurring, but it is uncertain at this time whether m a n ' s knack for tinkering with things, as Homo faber will foreshorten or eliminate long-range opportunities for the flowering of his potential wisdom, for m a n ' s living u p to the promise of becoming truly Homo sapiens. Slavery has generally been diminishing. Racial and religious tolerance was for centuries considered contrary to any reasonable concept of morality. Epileptics and the insane were incarcerated and beaten for their o w n good and society's. Lightning rods were condemned as an impious attempt to defeat the will of G o d by assisting criminals to escape. Vaccination and anaesthesia were abhorred on moral grounds as being contrary to nature. It m a y give us comfort to remember that the only period of history w e are obliged to face is our o w n . It remains to be seen whether w e can meet the main requirement of our daythe resolution of conflicts by means other than war, by means that promote justice and individual self-determination. W a r is the chief stupidity of m a n , seen

I. This article was written for a series of studies prepared for the International Commission on the Development of Education, at Unesco. W e are publishing large extracts of it here.

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from any viewpoint. Creativity is the most promising avenue for continuing to discover constructive alternatives for the resolution of conflicts. These problems are deeply rooted in contemporary processes of perception and judgement. Perceptual skills develop just as do motor skills. O n e is private, the other public. Each takes about as m u c h effort for retraining and adaptation to n e w circumstances. Because perception is private, it is less exposed to the need for its revision. T h e way w e perceive things and the language w e use to communicate with each other concerning our perceptions are interdependently related. If w e better understood the biological and cultural mechanisms affecting perception, judgement and action, w e would probably become more willing to be tentative about our differences, better able to tolerate ambiguous situations with equanimity, better able to sort out constructive means for adapting to change, more empathie and cherishing toward differences of individual and cultural experiences and interpretations. W e would become more adept at grasping features of the world that do not n o w correspond to our still limited world view. W e would better realize that processes essential to maturation of the individual, group and societyprocesses essential to the evolution of mankind in the direction of wisdomdepend on our working out, against whatever difficulties confront us, improved, more inclusive, but always tentative views of the physical, biological and social world around us. Education is at present designed mainly to help us k n o w better h o w to live in a narrow part of the world, locally perceived. Education needs to be cultivated on a truly international scale, to help us learn better h o w to be creatively and constructively adaptive on spaceship earthhow to conceive, test and utilize n e w , more comprehensive assumptions about the world and about the questing, probing, venturesome h u m a n brain. Education is indispensable for the next steps for m a n .

What sort of thing is the human brain?

T h e h u m a n brain weighs one and one-half kilogrammes (3.3 pounds) of which more than 80 per cent is water. Half of the remainder is fat; the other half is a mixture of carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. These substances are organized into a watery matrix that constitutes the most complicated mechanism k n o w n to m a n . T h e brain contains scores of billions of nerve cells which form a skein upon 416

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whose tendrillar projections dance nervous^ihpvUses that definj-'fbr each of us a personal world, maintaining our\q&2^1~rrot^ejce^$ing, banking our memories, governing our comportmevind-reckoning our pains and pleasures. A COMPARISON WITH COMPUTERS In order to grasp the significance of brain complexity w e m a y compare its componentry with that of modern computers. Engineers are devising microelectronic circuits that are being m a d e smaller, more economical and more reliable. In laboratory conditions, they can n o w construct decision-making devices that contain several hundred thousand 'yes-no' switches per square inch. These are photo-etched on flat microchips. It is hoped that by 1980, engineers m a y be able to build similarly compact circuits, but in a three-dimensional volume. If they are successful in this, the concentration of switches will still be one-twenty-fifth as compact as the density of nerve cells in ganglionic masses of the h u m a n brain. T h e connexions of such electronic devices are at present necessarily sterotypical whereas enormous connexional subtleties exist in brain organization. Each nerve cell receives from ten to ten thousand or more synaptic contacts from upwards of tens to thousands of different neurons. This battery of spacetime inputs becomes coupled with the spontaneous activity of the neuron itself which has a variable set-point. T h e result is that the neuron emits a computed response which, by a variety of neuronal codes, delivers its influence to tens to thousands of other neurons lying nearby and remotely disposed. T h e neuron deals in unimaginably more comprehensive and variable operations than the components of computers. It is a miniature computer in its o w n right. For a computer to operate a number of cyes-no' switches equal to the number of neurons in the h u m a n brain would require the waters of Niagara Falls to prevent overheating. T h e h u m a n brain does its work quietly, in a recognizable compact space, and with a power consumption of only about twenty watts. A POTENTIAL AVALANCHE OF NERVE IMPULSES A further illustration of the potentialities of the h u m a n brain was contrived some years ago by C . Judson Herrick. H e estimated that a single flash of light to the h u m a n eye could induce a barrage of

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impulses a m o n g neurons along the visual pathways which, using minimal assumptions of contacts between neurons in the visual cortex, would yield an horrendous n u m b e r of ultimate potential transactions. Herrick estimated these to be, conservatively, io2,783j000! If w e recall that the total n u m b e r of atoms in the universe is less than io100, w e realize that the potentialities for impulse distribution within brain circuits will remain beyond imitation by engineers for some time. It remains for m e n to utilize their o w n brain power for the creative processes of discovering improved options for social progress. Computers can be immensely useful in the experimental testing of these options and by extending man's brain capabilities for relatively stereotypical computations. DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN GENETIC AND ACQUIRED BRAIN CHARACTERISTICS In part our brains are designed for us according to our genetic inheritance. But the aspects of brain function characterizing h u m a n behaviour, those relating to social transactions, are largely acquired during our lifetimes. T h e genetic framework which w e inherit for the initial structuring of our brains naturally depends strictly and exclusively on our individual ancestry. This plaited chain of inheritance is nevertheless remarkably individualized as a consequence of the chancy dance of chromosomes that takes place during sexual union. This, of course, affects our inheritance at every stage all along the path of our direct ancestry. It is estimated that the possible combinations of different inheritable characteristics resulting from the combination of one pair of h u m a n gametes involves a variety that is greater than the total n u m b e r of h u m a n beings that have existed since the origins of the hominid line. Individuality is therefore built into our genetic m a k e - u p . Since a large share of genetic instructions are involved in the organization, development and functioning of the nervous system, ideosyncracy of h u m a n brain organization and operation is entirely normal. Information contributed and skills acquired during an individual's lifetime of experiences produces some operational convergences and some divergences stemming from the enormous potentialities supplied at the outset by our genetic endowment. This individual shaping of brain processes is most rapidly instructed b y the cultural system encountered during our infancy and early childhood. Although w e

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can receive genetic instructions only from our o w n direct ancestral lineage, w e can, through educability of our individual brain, e m b o d y contributions to the images, judgements and the techniques and scope of our thinking by enriching ourselves through contributions from m e n and events available from any place and any past time. W e are instructed by Plato or Confucius, Goethe or Jiminez, Elizabethan theatre or Kabuki, Tolstoy or M a r k Twain, Palestrini or Hindemith, Praxiteles or C r o - M a g n o n m a n , V a n G o g h or Memling, M o h a m m a d or Prince Gautama, Darwin or Einstein. T h e reach of our minds is limited only by the degree of internal drive, the initially established habits for acquisition, and the time and materials available. With n e w knowledge about motivation and learning that is emerging in the neurosciences and with modern techniques for reproduction and transmission of information, future generations should have increasingly generous opportunities. BRAIN AS A SELF-ACTIVATED SYSTEM O u r brains are not passive instruments to be played upon by our parents, teachers and others. T h e brain is self-actuating and selfgoverning. It is the hardest working organ of our bodies. Although it weighs only 2 per cent of our weight, it disposes of more than 20 per cent of our over-all energy. Although by appearance it isflaccidand motionless, it works as hard metabolically as do the skeletal muscles of exercising athletes. T h e brain spends energy in this fashion day and night whether w e are waking or sleeping for the duration of our lives. W h a t are the fruits of this industry? T h e conversion of oxygen to carbon dioxide, like any other organ although at an unusually high rate, the utilization of sugars, and the turnover of astonishingly large amounts of proteins and lipids. Nerve cells are constructing proteinaceous materials at a rapid pace, presumably in the formation, alteration and breakdown of membranes. Examination of the fine structure of nervous systems reveals that they are composed almost entirely of membranes. Although w e see these structures in static form, fixed for convenience of observation, w e must remember that they are not necessarily idle. Paul Weiss and Charles Pomerat pioneered in showing that, w h e n nervous tissues are viewed with time lapse photography, there is evident a conspicuous microscopic motion of membranes and organelles, and bulk flow of neuronal contents. Like plants that are opening and closing, budding and sending out tendrils, the nervous system, on a microscopic scale,

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is similarly dynamic. T h e activity involves selective making and breaking of contacts between individual cells. W e do not yet understand the implications of this microscopical activity and, for technical reasons, w e do not yet k n o w h o w activity of this sort might vary during various forms of brain function. T h e activity already visualized is of sufficient magnitude and universality to suggest that it might have important consequences for neuronal circuitry. T h e activity suggests that neuronal circuits m a y be intermittently strengthened and weakened, initiated or terminated perhaps in accordance with the traffic of nerve impulses along the involved pathways. It makes one wonder whence can arise any enduring functional stability? T h e answer is not available, but the emerging insight is one of far m o r e plasticity and modifiability of nervous system mechanisms than was heretofore appreciated.

What does the brain do?

THE GOVERNMENT OF GOAL-DIRECTED ACTIONS O u r brains seem to be designed to govern actions. A n d the actions always seem to be goal-oriented, for the achievement of internal visceral satisfactions. Brains are built to 'hale the sullen slaves (e.g. our muscles and glands) along'. T h e touchstone of such c o m m a n d s stems from the flux of our internal physiological state. T h e goals of visceral satisfactions m a y be immediate and desperate, as in our response to an obstructed airway, or to an irresistible peristaltic wave: they m a y be less immediate but strongly compelling as in temperature regulation, thirst, hunger, sex or sleep; they m a y be more remote and removed as in aesthetic responses or ascetic devotions. Satisfactions of this latter sort are acquired and indirect, as in the satisfactions derived from praise or self-control. Nevertheless, they all seem to relate back ultimately to visceral satisfactions. Even self-sacrifice is perforce of an inner satisfaction or escape from irrepressible dissatisfaction. Priorities for actions closely follow the flux of biological purposes and can be changed abruptly. THREE MOTORIC FUNCTIONS T h e nervous system, according to Paul Yakovlev, engages in three motoric functions. These are visceration, expression and effectuation.
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Visceration relates to the regulation and restoration of physiological growth requirements, endocrine and metabolic balances, respiration, blood pressure, temperature regulation, water and food intake and waste product output, accommodation to exercise, acclimation, cyclic changes associated with endocrine and sexual behaviour, sleep and arousal, etc. Expression relates to emotion, literally, e-motion, or ex-motion, the outward expression of our internal state. This includes bodily attitudes, orienting behaviours, social imitations, and approach and avoidance behaviours. Effectuation refers to what w e do to change the material world around us, moving objects, assembling things, destroying. W h a t is performed b y w a y of visceration is nearly universal although there are interesting social and cultural differences even in this sphere of visceral control. W h a t is expressed by the nervous system is manifestly influenced by social and cultural traditions. A single individual usually plays several distinctively different roles of expressive behaviour within any given culture. S o m e of these roles are largely unconsciously acquired and manifested. W h a t is done by w a y of effectuation is almost entirely acquired and is strongly d o m i nated by social and cultural experiences. Effectuation is to a considerable extent dependent upon conscious awareness and yet it can be considerably habituated. If so it m a y be more interfered with than helped by direct conscious intervention. Golfers tell us this is so! EDUCATION IN RELATION TO MOTORIC FUNCTIONS Education, in the informal sense, has to do with all three realms of motoric function. Formal education, in m a n y cultures, has been dedicated largely to shaping the skills of effectuation. Depending on the given culture, however, the aims of formal education m a y e m p h a size preponderantly influencing things or influencing people. Both thing-oriented skills of effectuation and people-oriented skills of expression are universally deeply embedded in informal education. SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCES W e deliberately left aside until n o w the treatment of subjective outcomes of brain activity. Starting with motoric functions and proceeding thence to subjective functions is contrary to the usual expository practice. Usually sensory stimuli and mechanisms of perception are dealt withfirstand motor activities are treated as reaction 421

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systems. This conception makes good sense from a point of view outside the subject individual. But it is perhaps more appropriate, in the context of education, to recognize that in the beginning there is feeling and action stemming from internal sources, and only later is there attachment of outside stimuli to those sources of feelings and to higher order (above reflexes) c o m m a n d s effecting activity. This is true for the development of the infants' awareness of body image and growth of sensori-motor skills. It is equally true for adults learning a skill. Even reflex responses, as have been increasingly clearly recognized in recent years, are heavily dependent on the dynamics of the internal state. It appears that both throughout evolution and during development of the individual the priority for subjective awareness has been to improve prognostications essential for successful actions, the success being measured ultimately by internal satisfactions. Consciousness was postulated by George Coghill as emerging in evolution and during development from crude sensations of effort and duration. Feeling, m o o d , sensations of tension and fatigue or playfulness seem to be dependent upon internal well-springs over which w e have little control and which w e can disguise only transiently. W e can take an immediate reading by introspection, and sense confidently anytime in our waking hours just what is our internal feeling state, our m o o d , etc. W e can easily m a k e a self-rating evaluation of our 'level of happiness' or 'sadness', 'restedness' or 'fatigue', etc., on a scale of one hundred, although w e would find it difficult to describe of what components the assessed feeling consists. PRIMITIVE SENSATIONS OLFACTION AND PAIN Olfactory sense and pain sensibility appear to have no representations in neocortex. Neocortex is in evolution the most recent cortical development, appearing only in m a m m a l s . Both olfaction and pain are in quite direct communication with our inner feelings. It is difficult to be precise about olfactory and pain experiences in terms of language. T h e highest olfactory projection is to phylogenetically old cortex, mesopallium. Pain is represented mainly in brain stem systems close to our innermost subjective feelings and relatively remote from higher analysis and explication.

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DISCRIMINATIVE SENSATIONS It is only w h e n w e study s o m e aesthetic senses such as discriminative touch, vibratory and position sensations and auditory and visual perceptions that w e find a subjective representation that can, with experience, be given quite precise linguistic or notational definition. These sensory pathways have abundant neocortical representations. These sense modalities also have access by w a y of collateral projections to influence our feelings and m o o d s . T h e more readily subjectively analysed and defined parameters of visual and auditory sensations belong to some superordinate system riding with and on top of the more primitive viscerally directed sensory messages. PERCEPTION DEPENDS O N PAST EXPERIENCES EXPECTATIONS AND PURPOSES T h e important lesson of subjective analysis is one that is drawn from the work of Adelbert A m e s Jr. and Hadley Cantril and their followers. W h a t w e perceive depends critically on our internal state, on momentarily obtaining physiological conditions. These include the visceral state of well-being or distress. T h e y include also prognostications for actionprognostications that are necessarily based on our complicated past history of witnessing similar stimuli. F r o m these past experiences w e automatically develop 'weighted averages' that dictate our prognostications. W h a t does all this mean? It means that w e do not perceive what is cout there'. W e perceive, instead, events inside our brains which are composed of the following: the results of stimuli which activate our sense organs and sensory pathways, including transmissions into and a m o n g higher cortical and cortical association areas and other centres; at the sense receptors themselves and at each centrifugal relay of signals there are transductions which depend in part on local intrinsic 'spontaneous' nervous activity and also in part on centripetal sensory 'comparison' impulses generated and controlled centrally; the combination of centrifugal and centripetal messages contribute the necessary linkages a m o n g m e m o r y stores, including impulses relating to our momentary state of expectation, and impulses relating to our momentary state of visceral needs. All of these processes take part in our perceptual experiences. Perception is therefore m u c h more than just an invasion by sensory impulses. It is an active process in which the perceiver is automatically engaged and precommitted. 423

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AMES' DEMONSTRATIONS Perception is therefore a neurologically complicated process. It incorporates active perceptual skills that are acquired during early development and that continue thereafter to be only moderately modifiable throughout the remainder of one's lifetime. There are assorted stable perceptual habits, heavily weighted averages, formed early in life, which tend to have strongly compelling influences on future perceptions. A n example demonstration by A m e s : a trapezoid, painted like a w i n d o w , w h e n rotated slowly, appears to oscillate, apparently presenting one edge only which swings back and forth as long as the trapezoid is rotated. A bar suspended from the mullions of the ' w i n d o w ' appears to bend and snap into a n e w position with each rotation, or to cut through the mullions and appear on the other side. A cube attached to one corner of the trapezoid seems to detach itself and corbit' through half of the cycle and then accompany the corner through the other half. It can be shown that this is not a simple 'optical illusion' because it is seen correctly, that is, as a rotating trapezoid, by children u p to the age of about 8 or 10 years. It is also seen correctly by adults w h o have not lived in a predominantly rectilinear architectural environment, e.g. Zulus. It is evident that the habitual perception of rectilinear architecture intervenes in the perceptual interpretation of an object that resembles a window, door, r o o m , etc., but is not itself rectilinear. M a n y other similar examples are available. A m e s and his followers constructed disorted rooms which compel an illusion of laughable distortions of objects and people. Persons standing at the far corners of the room appear to be of twofold difference in height, but w h e n they exchange places the larger individual shrinks in half and the smaller one doubles in size! This biological improbability is produced by our past perceptual experiences. Sizebrightness discrepancies, distance parallax and overlap, size-distance relationships, hardness, resiliency, and a wide variety of other body wall, auditory and visual perceptions are similarly demonstrably conditioned according to our past experiences. A m e s and others have also demonstrated that perceptions are conspicuously affected by expectations; for example, h o w m u c h of what is perceived can be modified by instructions and prior conditioning. These can also be vastly affected by the testimony of other witnesses. Perceptions are additionally affected by the perceiver's purposes, by the values he attaches to the object perceived and by the use he m a y intend for it. 424

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THE DYNAMICS OF ONGOING PERCEPTION Jerome Bruner projected out-of-focus coloured slides of c o m m o n place objects to subjects w h o were asked to indicate what they thought the pictures showed. T h e projections were gradually brought into better focus. T h e process of making perceptual assumptions induced perceptual commitments which carried over to affect later interpretations until well beyond the point at which an 'outsider' could easily identify the same image correctly. T h e images could often be brought into perfect focus while subjects were still perceiving according to earlier committed assumptions that were ridiculously remote from the real object. This ties in with the effects of expectations on perception and illustrates the binding power of prior assumptions. Other workers have shown that if four pictures are displayed simultaneously in a brief exposure, the images are perceived correctly or incorrectly according to the emotional content of each individual picture for a given subject. T h u s , three pictures out of four m a y be correctly perceived, regardless of the arrangement of the four images on the screen. If the fourth is moderately 'taboo' emotionally for that individual, the subject m a y require several times more exposures and several times longer exposures in order to perceive this image. This suggests that in the comparison between stored images and present incoming impulses, there is an element of 'censorship' as well as all the other effects identified above. THE KILPATRICK DEMONSTRATION A n excellent illustration of the need to act out in an environment in order to perceive it correctly, and also of the perceptual commitments induced by past experiences, was provided by Franklin Kilpatrick. H e built three small model rooms which could be viewed from the same chair. O n e model was distorted vertically, one horizontally, and the third was rectilinear. Subjects w h o are allowed to view one r o o m after the other in any order report that the rooms appear to be similar and that they seem to be normally projected, i.e. rectilinear miniature rooms. Each subject is then given a probe and instructed to touch a mark on the left wall in the left-right distorted room. H e reaches to where he expects the mark to be, but is surprised and startled by the fact that he needs to to reach m u c h farther than he expected. W h e n hefinallystretches enough to touch the mark on the left wall, he is asked to touch another mark on the right wall. His

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probe strikes the back wall and then the far end of the right wall. H e must withdraw unexpectedly far back and still farther before he can place the probe on the mark. H e is then instructed to proceed back and forth in touching the two marks one after the other. After a few trials, he suddenly perceives the model differently; he n o w perceives it more correctly, with left-right asymmetry. H e has learned to perceive through acting out in the environment, something w e all have to do for the development of all of our perceptual skills, from infancy. A n additional feature of interest in respect to the Kilpatrick d e m onstration is that after this conditioning experience, w h e n the subject again inspects each of the three models, he reports them all looking alike, but n o w with 'left-right asymmetry'! H e reports them all distorted in accordance with his recent perceptual acquisitions which in turn depended upon his acting out in a particular environment. W e m a y surmise from these various convergent lines of evidence that individuals reared in distinctly different environments are bound to have distinctly different perceptions in m a n y instances. THE WATERFALL EFFECT It has long been k n o w n that if you gaze for a few minutes at a waterfall and then turn your gaze to face the rocky cliff adjoining, you experience the startling perception of a section of the cliff (approximately the width of the waterfall) moving upwards in relation to the rest of the cliff! This effect has been imitated in m a n y different ways in the laboratory. T h e after-effects can be accurately charted and measured. It has been shown that the waterfall effect cannot be due to eye movements; instead, it must reflect a newly adjusted prognostic programme for just that sector of the visual system that is obtended by the width of the waterfall. OTHER EXAMPLES M a n y people are familiar with the false perception, after a sea voyage, of instability of the wharf, solid ground, thefloor,chairs and bed. T h e French call this mal de dbarquement. T h e perception of continuing motion m a y last for several days and m a y recur even after it has largely subsided, w h e n one tilts one's head in an uncustomary position. Accompanying the perception is a wide-stanced gait, 'sea legs'. S o m e people m a y become sick and vomit only after getting to shore,

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particularly if the roughness of the voyage increased gradually. It appears that during shipboard experiences w e 'learn' to prognosticate motion which, in its aftermath, continues to accord well with the characteristics of the wave and ship motion experienced. S o m e people have noticed that after driving fast in an open car for a few hours, there m a y be a sustained perception of hair or whiskers blowing. If the car is closed, and only one forearm is exposed to the wind, the after-perception is limited to that region. S o m e individuals have a vivid visual impression, after having driven some hours, of the road continuing to advance. This m a y be perceived even with the eyes closed. Riding while facing the rear from the back of a car or train platform is an unusual enough experience to generate special perceptual effects while beginning to travel in that wayhills, for example, appear abnormally steep; after a while this effect disappears, but after stopping such travel, objects in the visualfieldappear to be expanding. This is a perceptual prognostication dependent on some hours of experiencing objects getting smaller because they are receding. Each of the above examples emphasizes the plasticity of our perceptual apparatus. T h e y indicate also that w e depend upon sensorimotor combined learning in order to be able to perceive. W e learn to perceive. Present perceptions are correlated automatically with stored experiences. W e shape current perceptions according to previous perceptual outcomes. A n important point is that if there is a discrepancy between sense stimuli generated from the outside and stored experiences, the stored experiences dominate. T h e overwhelming subjective effect is the compelling sense of veridicality generated by the stored experiences. W e understand thereby h o w powerfully past perceptions become committing for future perceptual prognostications, w e become automatically and unconsciously committed to habitual perceptions. PERCEPTION AS A GOAL-SEEKING PROCESS Seen from the point of view of evolution and of development of the individual it is obvious that those perceptions which have in the past led to visceral satisfactions and to the avoidance of visceral dissatisfactions generally have survival value. A n d they certainly tend to acquire strong like and dislike values for the individual. Perception is thus organized for successful motor performance and has n o other biological foundations. W e encounter trouble, however, w h e n w e 427

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assume that our perceptions have intrinsic epistemological significance, w h e n w e believe that what w e perceive 'out there' actually exists 'out there' in the form in which w e perceive it. In the course of development, as our actions prove the limitations of previous perceptions for successful prognostic purposes, our perceptions are gradually amended. This process of perceptual error reduction, in a given context, becomes so strongly reinforced that w h e n w e encounter a situation that is different, our past perceptual prognostications nevertheless dominate and w e m a k e further errors. These errors m a y be grave, as w h e n a hunter perceives a deer and thereby accidently shoots a m a n . T h e y are important in another respecterrors represent one if not the only opportunity w e have for learning. Seen from the point of view of society, there are two major effects of these learning-to-perceive processes. T h efirstis that people sharing similar past experiences tend to m a k e the same misperceptions and, therefore, tend to confirm a m o n g themselves the similarity (and hence presumed veridicality) of their perceptions. This tends strongly to stabilize shared community perceptions. There m a y be few opportunities for error correction by action. Novelty, particularly encountered in cross-cultural transactions, m a y be widely misperceived by each of two groups while each is receiving strong intragroup stabilization of its o w n ideosyncratic misperceptions. T h e outcomes of such conflicting prognostications m a y be bilaterally charged to malfeasance rather than recognized as due to culturally different past experiences. N o b o d y has access to the outside world except through such experience-bound perceptual processes. Everyone is strongly suffused with confidence of the veridicality of his o w n perceptions. These biological mechanisms thus have the effect of precipitating and amplifying conflict. T h e likelihood of conflict, of course, increases with disparity of upbringing. Under given circumstances, neither party to such a conflict m a y be guilty of any wrongthinking or wrongdoing. It is simply that the events, as perceived, m a y have been categorically different. This is equivalent to the two individuals perceiving different events, of existing in different worlds. Because m a n y of these effects are taking place during input stages of their perceptual processing, before these can be available to consciousness, the discrepant perceptions are perceived as absolutely incontrovertible facts to which are added the m o m e n t u m of intragroup reinforcement and intragroup sanction. It is not difficult to realize that some u n k n o w n proportion of the 428

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world's conflicts, a m o n g individuals, communities and nations m a y be wrongly assigned as deliberate malfeasance. T o the extent that this process can be better understood and more widely c o m m u n i cated, it should provide an opportunity for growth and maturation of mankind, for a reduction of present risks, and for a closer approach to Homo sapiens. Cultural contributions, through formal and informal education, are obviously both critical and overwhelmingly powerful in affecting these naturally existing biological conditions. Education can work strongly in the direction of worsening or in the direction of reducing international risks according to local cultural disposition.

Interpretive formulations

T h e nervous system consists of a matrix of dynamically active, excitable membrances and associated chemical processes. Neurons and glia are organized into circuits and systems that link u p with one another to effect sensori-motor control throughout the body and in relation to the outside world. T h e h u m a n brain is the most complex mechanism k n o w n to m a n , but it is already being sorted out in ways that are recognizably meaningful for education. Brain functions involve simultaneous, mutually interdependent signalling transactions occurring a m o n g billions of spontaneously active cells that balance each other with feedforward and feedback regulations. Operation of the body as a whole depends upon the brain's internal control and neuroendocrine systems control provided by diffusely projecting neuronal circuits. T h efirstnervous systems were diffusely projecting, and all later evolutionary inventions have built upon this holistic, integrative scheme. T h e natural history of nervous system evolution and embryogenesis indicates that brain organization and activity is designed to secure visceral satisfactions. Visceral assessment properties are built into the nervous system and e m b o d y directional forces which tend toward survival of the individual and survival of the species. Visceral satisfactions are the biological foundations of all h u m a n goalsno matter h o w aesthetic and long range. M a m m a l s , and particularly primates, developed successful biological mechanisms to sustain prolonged infant dependency on the parental generation. Both generations derive distinctive visceral satisfactions from this interacting. These indispensable interdependent

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satisfactions emerged through evolution as a part of more general nervous system traits governing co-operation, mutual trust and altruism. Specific behavioural characteristics of infant and parental relationships are acquired very early in life: lack of appropriate experiences in infancy precludes successful adult sexual and parental behaviour. Hominid departure from the c o m m o n ancestor of all primates was characterized b y birth of an even less mature and more dependent infant. Evolutionary pressures for increasing the brain size became effective mainly after birth. Over less than one-tenth of i per cent of the total span of evolution, adult hominid brains expanded more than threefold, mainly by rapid growth and elaboration of the brain during infancy. T h e lengthening period of infant dependency combined with luxuriant brain development became, increasingly, a period of tutelage and apprenticeship, of learning and aculturation. This probably accounts for the fact that early m a n was the first species in evolution to learn (and teach) living practices adaptable to all climates of the world. Brain growth is attributed to a combination of changes including upright stance, prehensile t h u m b , object play and object manufacture, increasing social communication, etc. Intellectual and cultural developments likewise contributed to brain enlargement during evolution. M o d e r n m a n appeared about 50,000 years ago, already showing cultural distinctions a m o n g his art forms, burial practices, and tool and weapon manufacturing. All of this required substantial and prolonged educational programmes, and it probably also required elaborate language. Expansion of utilization of gesture vocalization presumably led to the naming of objects and this in turn to the giant step of creating the cognitive gymnastics and conventions necessary for communication by sentences. Language is closely allied to perception and tends to bind perceptual and judgemental inferences in accordance with its intrinsic and culturally ideosyncratic logic, values and metaphors. Language becomes conspicuously limiting as well as enabling, for thinking and remembering processes, making them differentially culturebound. T h e geneticflexibilityof sexual union provides more potentialities for genetically distinct offspring from one h u m a n couple than the total n u m b e r of h u m a n adults that have existed since the advent of the h u m a n species. Embryonic organization and development of the brain is very rapid throughout gestation and it is critically dependent on adequate nutrition, especially protein. T h e child is born with a full quota of brain cells but these are not all infinalposition and the 430

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vast majority of them are very incomplete in terms of branchings and ultimate attachments. T h e brain doubles in size during thefirstsix months of life and doubles again by the fourth year. During this critical period, cell growth and feature elaboration continues at a high rate and the infant remains critically dependent on tender, loving care, proper tutelage and an adequate diet. During infancy, the child is characteristically congruent and promptly responsive to his visceral needs and satisfactions, presumably being dominated by hypothalamic and brain stem controls. During maturation, the child's growing capacity for emotional experience and expression, social imitation and simulation, and ultimately, long-range postponement of visceral goals, can be understood as expanding in parallel with development of the limbic system, basal ganglia and frontal lobes. N o t only are sensori-motor skills learned, perception itself must be learned by taking action. This inevitably occurs in a particular environment. This experience leads to habituation of perceptual inferences that are demonstrably peculiar to that environment. T h e brain is built for action. Nerve cells in general are spontaneously active and the set point of their spontaneity can be m o d u lated by specific and generalized signals introduced by near and remote events throughout the brain. Nervous system output consists of muscular and glandular activities categorized as visceration, expression and effectuation. T h e former are controlled predominately by neuro-endocrine, hypothalamic and brain stem mechanism acting in concert. These processes are generally unconscious, but they m a y break into consciousness at any time and override all other purposes and programmes for comportment. Cortical representation of visceral functions and the experiencing and expression of emotions is mainly attributable to the phylogenetically primitive limbic system. Expression is further controlled by an ensemble of the limbic system, basal ganglia and frontal lobes. All of these interact with each other and converge on the hypothalamus and m i d brain. Social imitation and social signalling, a large part of education, utilize mainly the basal ganglia together with the brain stem. Effectuation is achieved predominantly by neocortical systems that find their outlets through pyramidal, basal ganglia and brain stem systems. All three of these major categories of motoric control are conditionable. All three are affected during conditioning by ideosyncratic individual and cultural experiences that are intrinsic to any given environment. 431

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Perception consists of conscious prognostications for action. Prior to their emergence into consciousness, sensory signals are explicitly shaped according to an individual's past experiences, expectations and purposes. T h e final result is a matter of 'weighted averages' together with s o m e shielding b y selective censorship. Olfaction and pain are primitive sensations that influence behaviour relatively directly without neocortical representation. Discriminative sensations reach neocortex and are available for symbolic, including linguistic, analysis. Perception is an active neurophysiological process that involves comparisons with m e m o r y stores during preconscious recognition and evaluation. A share of the shaping of sensory signals into perceptions involves centrifugal impulses that provide central control of sensory receptors and sensory transmission systems. Centrifugal as well as centripetal sensory controls are subject to conditioning. Perceptual p h e n o m e n a indicate unambiguously that perceptions as experienced are already dominated in accordance with ideosyncratic and culturebound past individual experiences. M a n y compelling effects take place before the neural events become accessible to consciousness. T h u s , to the degree that the preconscious perceptual controls in different individuals are differentially conditioned, those individuals will perceive the same event as two different events. Both experiences will be subjectively convincingly veridical. Perception, contrary to commonplace assumptions, is learned. T h e experience of correlating visual and bodily activities is essential to the recognition of both body image and the spatial dimensions of the environment. Perception is learned initially and corrected throughout life in n o other w a y than by acting out in specific environments. Because of the shortness of life, an intimate acquaintance with more than a few environments is impossible. Because conspicuously different perceptual experiences are associated with different environments, different perceptual inferences become ingrained. A n u m b e r of these, sufficient for illustrative purposes, have been identified and measured under controlled conditions. Habituated perceptual inferences are found to affect the perception of even simple lines and objects and in complicated ways. It can b e supposed, with justification, that if simple things are perceived so distinctively differently, there are likely to be even greater gulfs, perceptually, between different individual and cultural experiences involving more complex perceptual events. There is evidence that this is dramatically true for the interpretation of different languages and for other complex perceptual and cognitive functions. 432

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People w h o share given experiences tend to habituate the same perceptual inferences. Therefore, there is a powerful and seductive trend toward in-group stability of perceptions, judgements and actions. W h e n individuals belonging to such a group refer to each other for testimony they tend to confirm and to stabilize the already strong individual subjective experiences of verisimilitude of their perceptions and to confirm a m o n g themselves the erroneousness of any testimony to the contrary. W h a t is considered 'right' and 'loyal to the group' can become a self-reinforcing and ingrown vortex that m a y obtain a persistent stability of its o w n . M o d e r n means of transportation and communication, and strong international competitiveness, bring people of significantly different past histories, expectations and purposes into conflict with one another. Processes of biological commitment of perception, judgement and behaviour tend to magnify any intrinsic difficulties and to amplify all contrasts in points-of-view and values. Patriotism, narrowly pursued, naturally exaggerates this tendency. Because most people are unaware of the limitations of their o w n and other's perceptual processes and because subjective experiences accompanying perception are strongly veridical, the natural assumption taken in the face of conflicting testimony is (a) one or both of the participants in the conflict must be lying, or (b) one or both of the participants must be incapable of sustaining a reliable transduction between perception and testimony. Both parties m a y feel quite righteous about their o w n subjective experiences. There is n o w recognizable a third possibility, namely, that the two individuals or groups m a y be witnessing significantly different events; perhaps they are living in quite different worlds. K n o w i n g these facts obliges our recognition that some of the presumed skullduggery of the world m a y be assignable to such biological processes. Escape from prior perceptual and other cognitive commitments can occur only under certain conditions. Basically, this requires exposure to and recognition of events that d o not correspond to one's necessarily limited past experiences. Besides the experiencing of novelty, there must be added a strong motivation that seeks to achieve successful behaviour in face of the non-corresponding circumstances; exercise of an ability to relax from previous commitments sufficiently to create n e w models of the event whereby perceptions, judgements and actions can be m o r e appropriately fitted to the occasion; and finally discipline enough to test out the n e w insights until they are adequately workable. T h e achievement is never final. This is basic 433

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to all forms of learning, for all sensory and motor as well as cognitive skills. It requires a creative act that is referred to as reorientation from prior commitment. A m u c h more drastic and far-reaching manner of surpassing prior commitments is that of reorganization. Reorganization involves the internal creation of entirely different perspectives. T h e general strategy for relating to the event, person or organization must be fundamentally shifted or reorganized. T h u s , individuals m a y take an entirely different attitude toward themselves after an especially illuminating personal experience. Falling in love m a y be similarly revolutionary in the w a y it alters one's entire relationship to another individual. Climactic educational experiences, professional commitments and religious conversions can all be examples of radical and enduring individual reorganization. Institutions, ethnic groups, nations and groups of nations can similarly become reorganized, with their viewpoints, values and activities drastically reordered. This is a relatively rare and consuming, highly creative process for the individual or the group. Creativity demands certain definite criteria from the individual and from the environment in which he works. It cannot occur without subject mastery, strong motivation, a relaxed and nimbly imaginative play of ideas, and the discipline and talent necessary to test the newly created outlook and to communicate it to others. Creativity on a small scale is involved in every occasion of learning. Creativity can be fostered by specific educational design as well as by example. It needs aim and ambience. Acquiring creativity is so delicate a process that it is easily quashed. Creative contributions are indispensable for any form of educational and social progress. Like creativity, constructive adaptation can be taught and cultivated widely throughout society. Conditioning (here taken to include all forms of learning) is of two kinds: conditioning introduced via sensory systems (Pavlovian or classical conditioning) and conditioning built around motor systems (Konorskian or operant conditioning). In thefirst,a conditioned stimulus is associated temporally with the unconditioned stimulus, as a bell followed by food for a hungry subject. In the second, the subject emits a motor act which is then 'rewarded'. Pavlovian conditioning demands m o r e finesse on the part of the 'teacher'. Konorskian conditioning is m o r e under the control of the 'learner'. A somewhat more direct channel is opened for the shaping of behaviour in desired directions. Either form of conditioning can be used 434

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to form any behaviour that is within the potential repertoire of an individual or group. Indispensable to learning of all kinds is reinforcement. Casually speaking, reinforcement involves the occurrence or administration of 'reward' or 'punishment'. Either form of reinforcement can be used to shape any behaviour that is within the potential repertoire of an individual or group. T h e effectiveness of reinforcements depends entirely upon the internal state of the subject. This is a good reason w h y subject initiative in learning experiences is so valuable, whether it is spontaneous or elicited. Central nervous mechanisms relating to positive reinforcements (rewards) are distributed throughout the entirety of the limbic system and most of the hypothalamus, with a rich panoply of different positively reinforcing mechanisms represented in different regions of that phylogenetically old system. Positive reinforcements lead directly to visceral satisfactions, to approach behaviours, strengthen external relations and yield exploratory behaviour. T h e y not only provide immediate stimulus and control for educational purposes but strengthen the confidence, habits and social bonds relating to future learning processes. Central representation of negative reinforcements ('punishments') lies in the intermediolateral midbrain, s o m e of the diffusely projecting thalamic nuclei and the posterior part of the hypothalamus. Activation of this relatively small group of contiguous tissues can serve to reinforce any form of learning but it leads to withdrawal behaviour, internal visceral turmoil, erosion of external relationships, and behavioural resorting to evasion and retaliation. Deterrence, a form of shaping behaviour by threat of punishment, is notoriously undependable in terms of shaping behaviour in desired directions. It has the characteristics of negative reinforcement, and in addition, deterrence necessarily shifts the initiative into the hands of the individual or group that is presumably being deterred. Negative reinforcements, on top of their other disadvantages, depend strictly on the adequacy of the specific hormone ( A C T H ) put out by the anterior hypophysis under control of the hypothalamus. A small fraction of this chemical agent must act back upon the brain, upon specific nuclei within the diffusely projecting thalamic system (e.g. the parafascicularis). A n y defect in this sequence leads to failure of retention of conditioned avoidance. This is manifested by failure to anticipate previously experienced punishments. It is suspiciously likely that individuals w h o are refractory to learning from punishment m a y be suffering

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from a defect in these mechanisms, possibly from the system being exhausted or perhaps simply turned off. During learning, the following steps take place within the brain: i. W h e n a novel event is encountered and perceived as novel, strong arousal and orienting reactions take place under control of limbic mechanisms for orienting and cephalic brain stem mechanisms for arousal. 2. W h e n initial exploratory trials are found to be successful (i.e. achieve some form of reinforcement), activities have been detected circulating from limbic subcortical to limbic cortical stations. 3. A s correct performances (and perceptions) become familiar, activities originating in limbic cortex are seen circulating into limbic subcortical stations and hence to hypothalamic and midbrain reticular formation. 4. F r o m the limbic frontal midbrain area some form of generalized ' n o w print' or c n o w store' order is presumably to be distributed throughout the forebrain, perhaps by way of the diffusely projecting midbrain and thalamic pathways or perhaps by way of s o m e chemically diffused signal. 5. T h e end result is that all recently active brain circuits become strengthened in their connexionswhether they are sensory, motor, visceral or systems for evaluation or whatever. T h e newly strengthened connexions thereupon increase the likelihood that these circuits will be available again, for perception, judgement and behaviour. Education invariably takes place in particular physical environments and in particular philosophical and historical contexts. Uri Bronfenbrenner has depicted s o m e of the differences that are wrought in perceptions, judgements and behaviours by two different cultural practices of infant rearing, education and generational expectations. T h e two systems he studied, those of the United States of America and the U . S . S . R . , are by no means as remote from one another as are m a n y other cultures throughout the world. In general, educational systems are calculatedly designed to reinforce traditional viewpoints and to instil a sense of distaste and distrust for alternative viewpoints. This has been biologically useful in the past because of man's need to learn to cope with a given peculiar environment. N o w , because of m a n ' s technical capabilities, this m a y b e countercontributory to man's evolutionary success. It appears that educational systems need to preserve and to honour cultural differences. But at the same time

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they must provide insight into the arbitrariness and ideosyncracy of any given cultural habits. T h e y must orient mankind to the maturing satisfactions that can be derived from being able to recognize and to exercise at least s o m e different forms of perception, judgement and behaviour. O n a trivial scale this can be likened to children learning different mathematical solutions to the same problem. A n emergent capacity for cross-cultural appreciation appears to be indispensable to m a n ' s survival. M a n ' s brain is the instrument for both commitment and for reorientation and reorganization. His capacity for both talents has been the main factor in his successful evolution to date. Both need to be cultivated by educational programmes on a world scale and with a world viewpoint. This is urgently needed to ensure m a n ' s general cultural maturation and to safeguard his opportunities to advance to a n e w level of evolution. Neurosciences techniques need to be provided better to serve education beginning earlier in life and throughout life. T h e goals of education need to be deliberately oriented toward liberating mankind from the biological and cultural provincialisms that have dominated m a n ' s past history and which n o w threaten his extinction. This will contribute not only to survival but it will contribute enormously to the quality of life and social well-being. W e must try. W e must succeed. W e do not need crisis conditions before beginning; crises could only interfere with the opportunities w e have for success. If w e try but fail, w e shall not have lost anything not already lost. Ours m a y be recognized as an age for constructive adaptationswe must use our brains for all they are worth. T h e y are all w e have to take the next steps for m a n .

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Toward a national policy on education i Nigeria1 n

T h e current series of exercises aimed at formulating a national policy on education is a most encouraging and welcome development. In his address to the inaugural meeting of the National Council on Education on 2 October 1969, the then Federal Commissioner for Education, M r W . O . Briggs, said: 'Put simply, the purpose of our meeting today is to begin a series of consultations from time to time in order to harmonize the educational policies of all the States in the Federation.'2 T h e present series of exercises, also pioneered by the same National Council on Education, represents an advance on the purpose put forward at the inaugural meeting of the council. Indeed, it is one thing to attempt to harmonize thirteen different educational policies with all their 'divergencies and internal contradictions':2 it is quite another to formulate a single educational policy for a united countrya country rearing to l f itself from underdevelopment. T h e earlier role it of the National Council on Education resembled what C o o m b s calls 'a caretaker, regulatory and supervisory' one: whereas the latter role appears to be 'more dynamic, development-oriented . . . calculated to bring about growth and change'. 3

Otonti N d u k a (Nigeria). Commonwealth scholar 1966-67, has held various academic and administrative posts. Teaches history and philosophy of education at lbadan University. Author of Western Education and the Nigerian Cultural Background.

The evolution of policy: from the missionary to the nationalistic

Although it m a y be doubted whether a truly national policy on education has ever been enunciated in Nigeria, a brief excursion into the
1. This article is a slightly revised version of a paper presented in Lagos in June 1973 at a Seminar on a National Policy on Education. 2. Address delivered by the Federal Commissioner for Education, M r W . O . Briggs, p . 3. (Mimeo.) 3. P . H . Coombs, The World Educational Crisis, p. 121.

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history of Nigerian education reveals that this country has always been blessed (or cursed?) with educational policies. Policy is here defined in the broad sense which means a course of action adopted by a government, a political party, or some other organization, e.g. a missionary body. T h u s , as A . Fajana1 has recently shown, for threequarters of a century after the introduction in the 1840s of Western education into what eventually became k n o w n as Nigeria educational policy was dominated by missionary organizations with headquarters in Europe and America from where the missionaries got their directives. This was largely true even after the British Government had declared protectorates over Northern and Southern Nigeria by the turn of the century. Meanwhile, from around 1882 the colonial administration began to take tentative action in the formulation of an educational policy. Following the Imperial Education Conference held in L o n d o n in 1912 and the amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria in 1914, Lugard promulgated the 1916 Education Code. H e tried to evolve a national policy both politically and educationally. His attempts in the latter direction were opposed2 by the Colonial Office, which directed that the Northern and Southern departments of education which had been in existence before the amalgamation should be kept separate. Furthermore, the Nigerian colonial government was obliged for long afterwards to operate different educational policies for Northern and Southern Nigeria. For instance, in the pursuit of quality rather than quantity in the Northern schools, more European personnel were appointed to Northern schools and the Northern Education Department than were appointed in the south where there were far more schools.3 This was in line with the policy adopted in the north, namely, to produce not clerks and office staff 'but rather co-operative African administrators'.4 T h e impetus for the Nigerian colonial government's playing of a more dynamic role both in educational development and in the formulation of policy came from a number of sources such as the commissions sponsored by the Phelps-Stokes F u n d whose reports5 helped to revolutionize educational thinking both in official and u n official circles, the writings of social anthropologists like B . Malinowski
1. A . Fajana, The Evolution of Educational Policy in Nigeria 1842-1939. P h . D . thesis, Ibadan 1969. 2. Fajana, op. cit., p. 466-7. 3. Fajana, op. cit., p. 474. 4. Fajana, op. cit., p. 211. 5. Education in Africa (1922) and Education in East Africa (1925).

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and the activities of the League of Nations, especially those connected with the mandates system. With the establishment in 1923 of the Advisory Committee on Native Education in British Tropical African Dependencies and the publication in 1925 of the famous m e m o r a n d u m , Educational Policy in British Tropical Africa^ by the Colonial Office, the Nigerian colonial government took the cue and issued the 1926 Education Code. T h e initiative taken by the imperial power in thefieldof educational policy was carried forward into the next few decades by the publication of such policy statements as: Memorandum on the Education of African Communities? Mass Education in African Society3 and Education for Citizenship in Africa.* Finally, in the closing decade of the British colonial era in Africa, a survey of African education was carried out under the joint auspices of the Colonial Office and the Nuffield Foundation and culminated in the Cambridge Conference of 1952. T h e reports of the survey and the deliberations of the Cambridge Conference were published in 1953. 5 It is worth noting that some of the Nigerian observers at the Cambridge Conference were the new regional ministers of education: H o n . Aliyu, H o n . S . O . Awokoya and H o n . R . I. U z o m a for the Northern, Western and Eastern regions respectively. N o doubt they availed themselves of the results of the deliberations of the conference and subsequently enunciated n e w education policies for their respective regions. T h e most notable development during the period under discussion was the launching of the Universal Primary E d u cation ( U P E ) schemes in Western Nigeria (1955) and in Eastern Nigeria (1957). With the establishment of a federal system of government in 1954, the stage was set for the operation of four or more systems of education together with the policies that went with them. With the setting u p of the twelve States in 1967 basically the same pattern of development continued till the present day.

The

persistence of the colonial legacy

In the preceding section of this paper w e have been at pains to identify three basic periods in the evolution of educational policy in
1. 2. 3. 4. M d . 234, Col. No. Col. No. Col. No. London, H M S O , 1925. 103, H M S O , 1935. 186, H M S O , 1944. 216, H M S O , 1948.

5. U n d e r the title: African EducationA Study of Educational Policy and Practice in British Tropical Africa.

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Nigeria. F r o m about the 1840s to the end of the second decade of this century, the missionary influence was dominant. F r o m the 1920s to the early 1950s the imperial power took over the initiative in the enunciation of educational policy. F r o m the 1950s till the present, Nigerians themselves progressively took over the reins of government and the enunciation of educational and other policies generally. These three dominant influences had each its organizational, racial or other imperatives which determined the specific objectives it pursued. T h e y were all active to varying degrees during most of the period under review and, therefore, interacted with one another. Indeed, the Nigerian educational system (or systems?) in particular and the Nigerian society in general are the resultants of the interaction between these and other influences in the cultural milieux.1 It is hardly surprising that shifts in the balance of power a m o n g the major influences determining the orientation of educational policy in Nigeria have always been reflected to a greater or lesser extent in the policies actually adopted. T h u s the evangelistic aim which provided the initial driving force for the missionary pioneers of Western education continued to influence Nigerian educational policy even in the post-independence era. W h e n the imperial power began to play the dominant role the emphasis shifted from the production of converts and future church workers and clergymen to the production of subordinate personnel to assist in the administration of the colonial territory and the running of the various commercial and industrial enterprises opened u p in various parts of the country. A s Lugard later s u m m e d u p the matter: 'the chief function of government primary and secondary schools a m o n g primitive communities is to train the more promising boys . . . as teachers for those schools, as clerks for the local native courts, and as interpreters'.2 With the nationalists taking up the reins of government as from the early 1950s there was no radical departure from the educational aims pursued in the two previous eras. T h e U P E schemes adopted by both the Western and the Eastern regional governments had been anticipated by the imperial White paper, Mass Education in African Society (1944), a m o n g others. O n e important difference between the policies adopted by the former colonial governments and those of its nationalist successors was the greater priority rating which education enjoyed in the hands of the latter. Whereas in the early 1920s the
1. For a fuller discussion of the issues involved see, among others, O . Nduka, Western Education and the Nigerian Cultural Background. 2. F . Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, p. 444.

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colonial government was spending less than 2 per cent of its total annual budget o n education, in the late 1950s the Western and Eastern regions each spent over 30 per cent of their total budgets on education, the Northern Region around 15 per cent. S o m e have argued that the greater priority given by the nationalist leaders to the expansion of educational facilities and the increase of enrolment figures represents a shift of emphasis away from one conception of education to another, namely, from 'education for the lite' to 'education for the masses'. A s will be argued later, it is doubtful whether there has been a real shift from an elitist to an egalitarian system of education. T h e mushrooming of private and special schools and nurseries during the last ten years provides prima facie evidence to the contrary. In the era under discussion the devolution of educational functions from the central to the regional governments and thence to local authorities and communities continued apace. T h e total effect was an all-round increase in the quantity of education provided in Nigeria. It is doubtful, however, whether the quantitative changes were paralleled by any appreciable qualitative changes. There are certain basic similarities between the educational policies adopted during the eras identified in the preceding paragraphs. These similarities warrant our referring to the system of education developed during the different periods as the colonial educational system. In the first place, it was an unplanned system. T h e dominant nineteenthcentury British political philosophy of laissez-faire was transported to the Nigerian scene lock, stock and barrel. Although the effects of this philosophy on the development of Nigerian education were most pronounced during thefirstand second eras under discussion, they have in various ways persisted till the present m o m e n t . T h u s , speaking in August 1971 about previous developments the former chief Federal Adviser on Education, D r S. J. Cookey, had this to say: 'For m a n y years w e were merely drifting educationally. Emphasis was on mere expansion of educational facilities without m u c h regard for relevance.'1 Even though w e m a y not be drifting at the m o m e n t , it is yet to be demonstrated that w e have shaken off the insidious effects of the ingrained and inherited philosophy o laissez-faire sometimes masquerading under the guises of pragmatism and realism. Nevertheless, laissez-faire served the purposes of colonialism

I. Teacher Education and National Development, p . 10. (Report of thefirstNational Conference of Principals of Teachers' Colleges, Vol. I.)

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admirably well. While producing Christian converts and church workers the mission schools also produced the growing n u m b e r of literate personnel w h o serviced the administrative, commercial and industrial arms of the colonial enterprise in Nigeria. Even w h e n , first, the colonial government and then the nationalist governments took a more positive part in the development of education, the most that was done was the production of a growing n u m b e r of literate personnel with an increasingly diversified expertiseall in the service of a rapidly growing satellite economy. Worse still, there was reproduced at the same time an even larger army of unemployed and u n e m ployable school-leavers. N o w h e r e was this more apparent than in the Western region.1 O n the positive side, Western education m a d e certain contributions towards the modernization of Nigeria and other colonial territories. It became cthe main determinant of social mobility and of the chance to achieve an enhanced political status'.2 It introduced n e w social and political ideas as well as scientific ideas to the colonial peoples. S o m e of these n e w ideas3 were later used by the educated lite in thenstruggle for independence. A s Wallerstein has put it: 'colonization not only created the social conditions of its demise; it provided also the ideological weapons'.* Indeed, several of the positive results of the introduction of Western education are a m o n g the unintended consequences of imperialist enterprise in Nigeria. W h e n all is said and done, however, it must be admitted that one of the shortcomings of the colonial education system in Nigeria is its failure hitherto to develop and inculcate a true spirit of national consciousness. Those w h o fought for our national independence did so from a n u m b e r of motives, not necessarily nationalistic ones. T h e reasons for the failure referred to above are not far to seek. First, few colonial administrators, if any, went abroad in order to create the social and economic conditions for the demise of colonialism. Even w h e n the demise of colonialism has become inevitable its protagonists are busily engaged in switching their attacks along neo-colonialist lines. Secondly, as Brian Holmes has pointed out: 'mission education tended to perpetuate and intensify the divisions a m o n g ethnic,
1. See, for instance, D . Calcott, 'Some Trends and Problems of Education in Western Nigeria', West African Journal of Education, October 1967, February 1968 and June 1968. 2. B . Holmes, Educational Policy and the Mission Schools, p. 31. 3. For a f l e discussion of the issues involved see, among others: E . A . Ayandele, The ul r Missionary Impact on Modern Nigeria; P. Foster, Education and Social Change in Ghana; and A . Moumouni, Education in Africa. 4. Quoted in Foster, op. cit., p. 105.

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regional and parochial groups'. 1 T h e fact that this education was for religious and other reasons rejected for a long time in most of the Islamic parts of Northern Nigeria has left legacies which have further complicated the issues.

Mobilizing for unity

A m o n g the unfortunate legacies, is, of course, the most discussed question of the educational imbalance between the northern and southern parts of the country. It is gratifying to note that serious efforts are n o w being m a d e to bridge the gap. O n e wonders, however, whether the effort to bridge the gap is aimed primarily at making good the shortfall in the availability of literate and allied personnel indigenous to the Northern States or primarily at giving education that is capable of transforming the society. W e are here faced with a dilemma which must be resolved sooner or later. T h e dilemma is that of either setting u p a colonial-type educational system capable of giving us an army of literate and allied personnel whose developmental potential is minimal in the context of the space age, or setting up an educational system of high developmental potential, one that is geared to the rapid transformation of society. Yet it is precisely this transformation that the former leaders of the North feared and rejected. Is there a real change of heart on the part of the present leaders? T h e basic failure of the colonial system of education in Nigeria is that, lacking the inspiration which could galvanize a people into an irresistible moving mass, it acquiesced in keeping this country underdeveloped vis--vis the imperial power and the other advanced countries of the world. In spite of our possession of abundant natural and h u m a n resources, our progress along the path of modernization has been sluggish and will continue to be so unless w e overhaul our educational system. This call has been m a d e so often that it n o w sounds platitudinous. It need not be so. W e shall proceed to examine those factors which are the prerequisites of total mobilization on the educational front, which is what the call for the overhaul of our educational system amounts to. T h e problem before us, then, is h o w to fashion a n e w policy on education so that w e shall not only avoid the pitfalls of the earlier policies but also supply that missing link, that elusive spark, without
i. Holmes, op. cit., p. 39.

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which our nation will not take off or be transformed into a modern State. Instead of devoting most of our time to writing and re-writing some abstract and lofty idealsa lot of this was done in connexion with the National Curriculum Conference of September 1969 I suggest that it is time w e addressed ourselves to answering certain basic questions which w e as a nation have shied away from for far too long. T h e most crucial of those questions is: W h a t type of society do w e intend to establish here in Nigeria? A recent Unesco study makes the same point w h e n it says, inter alia, cany educational policy reflects a country's political options, its traditions and values and its conception of its future'.1 A related question is: H o w soon d o w e wish to see this type of society materialize? Just as it is useless to 'reform educational schedules without a clear conception of the attributes which you wish to evoke in the living minds of the children',2 it is equally futile to propound an educational policy without a clear conception of the type of society which that policy will help to fashion.

Education and society

It is true that questions such as those raised above will be answered definitively at the highest level of consultationat the Supreme Military Council or in a constituent assembly. Those w h o set out to deliberate on the n e w and dynamic education policy w e are looking for cannot avoid grappling with such questions. T h e alternatives are either to discuss educational policy in vacuo, or to hang the n e w education policy on the peg of a make-shift social philosophy, which is partly a legacy from the colonial era and the succeeding civilian rgime. It seems to m e that neither alternative will yield a truly viable educational policy that is capable of transforming the Nigerian society. It is worth noting at this juncture that the great and influential philosophies of education all through the agesfrom Plato and Aristotle through the mediaeval Christian ideals to Rousseau, the Russian communists and John Deweyhave all included a total view of m a n and his society. This is not to say that any of the great philosophies of education mentioned above is necessarily suitable for Nigeria. T h e y m a y well contain insights which w e m a y decide to

1. Learning to Be, p. 170, Paris, Unesco, 1972. 2. A . N . Whitehead, The Aims of Education and Other Essays, p. 12.

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incorporate into our o w n national social philosophy. It is, however, one of the tasks of philosophy to see life whole and assist in the formulation of a well-thought-out and logically consistent view of m a n and society. F r o m the foregoing it seems to m e that thefiveprincipal national objectives as vaguely enunciated in the Second National Development Plan 1970-74 cannot provide the vital philosophical prop for our n e w policy on education. T h e issue at stake is the need to formulate a coherent, consistent and viable national ideology. For instance, the mere proclamation that one of our national objectives is to establish c a just and egalitarian society' m a y be belied by the actual operation of an educational system which is elitist1 in orientation. W h a t in fact is egalitarianism? W h a t is justice? W e are n o w at the heart of the matter, for w e are inquiring into the moral basis of the Nigerian society. A r e w e setting u p a society where service rather than the ability to grab material resources by fair or foul means is a highly valued commodity? Are the burdens and the material wealth of the society being equitably distributed? If not, will the citizens be fired with the zeal to work for the transformation of the society in the interest of the coming generations? These and a host of other related questions cry for answers. It is well k n o w n that educational systems perform two vital functions, a m o n g others. T h efirstis what Bourdieu calls 'the cultural (logical) integration function',2 namely, providing individuals with a c o m m o n body of thought categories which m a k e communication possible. T h e second is what Durkheim calls the moral integration function. If the educational system is to perform its tasks efficiently there should be on the moral front m o r e concensus, at least the absence of flagrant contradictions between precept and practice. Secondly, the operative values should be spelt out more clearly. O n the cultural front the factors that m a k e for unity need to be stressed as against those that divide. M o r e important still, education must be used more positively to foster national integration as well as political unity. O n the basis of the foregoing let us briefly examine s o m e of the value orientations of the Nigerian society.

1. For more light on the typology of educational systems see, for instance, E . Hopper, Readings in the Theory of Educational Systems, Chapter 5. 2. International Social Science Journal, Vol. X I X , N o . 3,1967, p. 340.

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The long road to equality

O f the five principal national objectives outlined in the Second National Development Plan 1970-74 two are of special importance in the context of this analysis. These are (a) the establishment of a just and egalitarian system and (b) the establishment of a free and democratic society. T h e two objectives are, of course, closely related. Their moral and political presuppositions1 have certain points of contact. Democracy, for instance, presupposes a commitment to rationality, the exercise of authority in a non-oppressive manner, arriving at solutions by adjustment and discussion, and the existence of a certain degree of concensus in the society in question. This concensus is based not on force or the threat of it but o n such fundamental moral principles as fairness, liberty, respect for persons and so on. It is on such a basis that w e talk about the democratic w a y of life. Similarly, 'a just and egalitarian society' is one in the operations of which moral principles such as fairness, equality (e.g. of opportunity, before the law) and the absence of discrimination based on irrelevant grounds are exemplified. A s for egalitarianism its progress in our society is even more problematic. Its progress (or regress?) in thefieldof education is a case in point. It is generally agreed that one of the crucial implications of egalitarianism is the provision of equal educational opportunities for every child (and possibly adult) to develop his or her abilities to the fullest extent. There are books, toys, educated parents and relatives, cultural and artistic objects, m o r e hygienic surroundings and a wellbalanced diet. In addition, it is these very children whose parents can afford to, and often do, send them to private and expensive nurseries and thence to private fee-paying primary schools. T h e vast majority of children have to m a k e do with the State free primary schools, most of which are of poor quality, some downright deplorable. Be it noted that the latter group of children generally miss the benefit of nursery school education. Without belabouring the point, it seems to m e that one can only talk of equality of educational opportunity in such circumstances with one's tongue in one's cheek. O n e of the significant educational developments in the last decade is the proliferation of the private educational institutions mentioned in the last paragraph. O n c e again in our educational history laissezfaire is becoming triumphant, thanks to its association with big or
1. For a detailed discussion of the issues involved see, for instance, S.I. Benn and R . S. Peters, Social Principles and the Democratic State, Parts II and III.

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not-so-big business and powerful vested interests. Education is being used assiduously though covertly to create a class society where none existed before. In the interest of the future stability of our society and in the n a m e of the avowed objectives of justice and egalitarianism a w a y must be found to arrest this insidious development. O f course in saying all this one is not forgetful of the claims of excellence and the need to set u p high educational standards. A practical problem posed here is whether w e should level upwards or downwards. But the w a y to solve our problem is not to stack all the advantages of equipment, qualified staff, etc., in a few favoured schools while leaving the vast majority comparatively starved, while hoping that after a decade or two the others m a y gradually catch up. T h e chances of the latter happening are remote so long as the children of the wealthiest and most influential m e m b e r s of society continue to be sent to the private institutions. If they had to send their children to s o m e of the poorer schools referred to above they would see to it that urgent changes were effected in the quality of most of our primary schools. It seems to m e that our national ideology of development must be firmly set in the context of well-thought-out solutions to the basic issues such as those raised above. It is only then that w e can confidently talk about building a dynamic, just and egalitarian societyone that will inspire love and devotion in the hearts of its citizens.

Forging the tools for development

Granted that w e are all agreed on the need to modernize our society, the question then arises: at what rate do w e wish to modernize? W e must concede that in its o w n w a y colonialism was also engaged in the task of modernizing colonial societies. Left to the devices of colonialism w e might still have been under political tutelage right into the middle of the twenty-first century or beyond. O n the economic front colonial societies were and are still destined to remain the satellites of the imperial powers. In spite of the attainment of political independence m a n y African countries are still tied to the economic apron strings of the former colonial powers. A s for scientific and technological development colonial peoples were destined to m a k e the type of progress that befitted them. T h u s after a century of our coming under the tutelage of British cultural and political imperialism ours is still an underdeveloped society. Yet after taking herself in 448

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hand after the October 1917 revolution, the U . S . S . R . was transformed into a modern society, a military and industrial giant, within a single generation. It is time w e said good-bye to the sluggish pace of the era of colonialism. Nothing less than a radical and revolutionary transformation of our society will serve our purposes in the last quarter of the twentieth century. T h e pace of development must match the requirements of a people in a hurry. All this calls for the total mobilization of the citizens of this country. Are w e really prepared to accept the challenge? If w e are, then the n e w educational policy must mirror this. But how? In thefirstplace, w e must adopt a n e w strategy for educational developmenta strategy that calls for the involvement of all sections of the society, that is, children, youths, adults, m e n and w o m e n . All the h u m a n resources of the society must be tapped and developed. Apart from galvanizing the different aspects of the formal educational institutions more attention will have to be given to the organization of pre-school and adult education. M o r e emphasis must be laid on education as an instrument of change. Adult literacy classes, especially those geared to the development of functional literacy, should be organized throughout the country. Here is an opportunity for the educated and more fortunate sections of the society to help the less fortunate ones and thereby render useful service to the society as a whole. Similarly, the organs of mass communication should m o u n t sustained campaigns not only in thefieldsof general education, health and sanitation, commercial and technical education but also with a view to the deliberate inculcation of an ideology of rapid development as part of the awakening of national consciousness. A n education that can transform our society into a modern one must develop a strong bias towards scientific and technical studies. T h e curriculum should be so reorganized as to m a k e the study of science occupy pride of place at all levels of the educational enterprise. For instance, during thefirstera of educational policy the study of the Bible, catechismreligious activities in generaloccupied pride of place. In the second era religion reluctantly shared this pride of place with other secular subjects (including some form of science!), which were necessary for passing examinations and obtaining certificates which were the passports to the fairyland of the white m a n ' s jobs. A s pointed out earlier, the colonial system of education served the purpose of producing converts and an army of administrative and other

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subordinate personnel, w h o in turn served the purposes of the colonial regime in Nigeria. In contrast, the type of education n o w being advocated is one that stresses innovation and adaptability. Methodologically, instead of stressing mentally passive habits (rote learning, regurgitation, etc.) and the acquisition of what Whitehead calls inert ideas1 it will introduce children and adults to hammering, building, questioning and experimentation. It will, in short, aim at encouraging creativity and developing an inquiring turn of mind. It seems to m e that the type of education being given in this country is not geared to produce these results in any significant w a y in the near or even distant future. Its colonial ancestry has left us with legacies which are dysfunctional in the task of rapid m o d e r n ization. O u r n e w educational policy must help us to forge n e w tools to serve the purposes of a nation in a hurry.

I. A . N . Whitehead, The Aims of Education and Other Essays, p. 1-2.

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Viewpoints and controversies

T w o approaches to educational planning: conflict and complementarity


Bikas C . Sanyal

Bikas C . Sanyal (India). Associate Staff Member of the International Institute for Educational Planning (Unesco). Has taught in universities in India and the United States of America. Author of numerous articles on resource allocation in education and agriculture, cybernetics and statistics.

Prospects published in Vol. II, N o . 4 (Winter 1972) an article entitled 'Economics and Educational Planning in Developing Countries' by Professor M a r k Blaug. T h e article rejects the manpower approach to educational planning, because the author asserts that accurate m a n power forecasting is impossible over the period offiveto ten years required by the length of educational cycles. T h e manpower forecast implies a rigid view of the capacity of the economic system to absorb school-leavers into employment. T h e typical manpower forecast being inapplicable to primary-educated workers, necessarily commits the bulk of educational expenditures to the expansion of secondary and higher education resulting in an underinvestment in primary education and overinvestment in higher education, leaving the educational planner with virtually n o choice to m a k e . Professor Blaug, therefore, rejects the idea of gearing educational systems to long-term manpower requirements. H e , of course, suggests an alternative approach: the cost-benefit analysis, sometimes labelled rate of return analysis. This method consists of calculating the social or private costs of education and the discounted social or private benefits of education and comparing the two as a guide to the expansion or contraction of a particular part of the educational system. These costs and benefits are streams of expenditures or returns spread over the life of an individual, while he is a student, or afterwards, w h e n he is a m e m b e r of the active labour force. Conventional discounting techniques are applied to obtain the present value of costs incurred and benefits accrued over the lifetime. A private rate of return is calculated from the individual investor's point of view where costs refer only to the part of schooling expenses that the individual actually pays and benefits are adjusted for tax. A social rate of return refers to benefits before tax and includes full costs of the 451

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particular educational level. T h e crucial data needed for such analysis are data on earnings by age and educational level. According to Professor Blaug himself, this method has its o w n demerits. T h e so-called 'externalities' or neighbourhood effects of education are not reflected in personal income flows (the benefits of education in the rate of return analysis are taken to be extra income payment that typically accrue to people with additional education). T h e influence of social background to earnings is in most cases ignored. T h e structure of wages and salaries, reflected in the earnings, is only a matter of social conventions in m a n y developing countries and has little to do with the contribution of individuals to national income or to relative scarcities of different kinds of skills. T h e rate of return cannot tell us what would happen if the content of primary schooling were radically altered. It can provide only signals of direction to carry the reallocation of resources not statements to actual amounts to aim at and it cannot prove by itself if the resources are misallocated. But Professor Blaug thinks that the rate of return analysis is 'surely the appropriate framework for thinking about educational planning for economic ends', because this technique helps to decide on the selection of priorities and a more effective programme at a given cost. H e also states that primary education yields higher social rate of return in most of the developing countries for which rate of return analysis has been carried on for different levels of education. ' T h e one general lesson', he concludes, ' w e can draw from these results, therefore, is that there appears to be underinvestment in primary education in almost all developing countries'. T h e table opposite shows the rates of return to different levels of education for some African countries. It would appear from this table that only in one case (Nigeria) out of four countries, primary education has the highest rate of return. In one case (Kenya), it is the lowest. This is the only case where adjustment of age-earning profiles for fourteen socio-economic variables have been m a d e by using regression analysis and the assumption of the whole earnings differentials due to education has been relaxed. But this shows a rate of return one-third as m u c h as that of secondary education. T h e data on earnings by age and educational level are scarce in developing countries. T h e estimates of benefits in the above calculations were m a d e from a cross-section of current earnings of a sample of the labour force grouped by age and education. Marginal

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Social benefit/cost ratios1 for Country Year of study Primary education Secondary/ school certificate2 Secondary/ higher school certificate3 Higher education

Ghana Kenya Nigeria Uganda Zambia

1969 1969 1967 1968 1966

11.3* 5* 16.9 LS 1.4 I5 4 3-5 I.I

17.6 4 I5 4 0.3 2.6

I5.4 4 94 8.5 0.7

1. In each case social benefit/cost ratios refer to the returns to the level of education shown over the preceding level of education. 2. F o r m I V output (approximately eleven years' schooling). 3. F o r m V I output (approximately thirteen years' schooling). 4 . These are rates of return; benefit/cost ratios were not calculated. Source: Richard Jolly and Christopher Colclough, African M a n p o w e r Plans: A n Evaluation, International Labour Review, Vol. 106, N o . 2 - 3 , August-September 1972.

earnings were assumed to be equal to average earnings and future earnings were estimated to equal present earnings (except in Kenya). Earnings differentials were attributed totally to education for all the studies mentioned above except in Kenya. Although higher earnings of better educated people cannot be simply a reflection of their superior h o m e background and although life-time career circumstances are not rigidly determined by circumstances of birth as argued by Professor Blaug, there is n o doubt that differences in social background or in individual intelligence or the host of other factors have relevant contributions to the earnings differentials. O n the basis of the above facts, it would be difficult for the reader to rely m u c h on the above values. Richard Jolly and Christopher Colclough1 add that there are a prion reasons for expecting rate of return methodology to produce higher returns to primary education than to others particularly in Africa. According to them: 'Since the methodology generally excludes any future changes in the structure of salaries, differentials in the earnings of school-leavers match the differentials in teachers' salaries and higher rates of return follow from the higher pupil/teacher ratios at primary level. T o the sceptic

1. Richard Jolly and Christopher Colclough, African M a n p o w e r Plans: A n Evaluation, International Labour Review, Vol. 106, N o . 2 - 3 , August-September 1972.

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rate of return calculations indicate little more than this simple fact.' There are other difficulties in the rate of return analysis: i. It is difficult to put m u c h faith in the assumption that an individual's earnings before tax equal his social marginal product (i.e. the value to society of his contribution to the total output of goods and services), because in most of the developing countries, roughly two-thirds of the persons with higher education work for the government or in full-time education and their salaries are not indicative of m u c h more than the regulations of the government salary structure. It is very difficult to identify and quantify the physical results of an individual's work, let alone to put a value on that work. 2. T h e political and economic importance of localization in m a n y developing countries is considerable but has been ignored in the rate of return analyses. 3. T h e rate of return analysis is concerned with the direction of marginal quantitative change in the existing system, but what is needed is guidance on the direction and size of non-marginal quantitative and qualitative changes in education and the whole wage structure. It is believed that the m a n p o w e r approach to educational planning can meet this need. Professor Blaug states that the m a n p o w e r forecasting methods employed are held to be inapplicable to the requirements of primary educated workers, but the rate of return analyses so far done have also neglected earnings in agriculture, particularly in the subsistence sector and again this technique has explicitly attempted to calculate returns of primary education. In most of the developing countries, where the agricultural sector plays the most important role in the economy and where people with less than primary schooling are mostly engaged, neglect of the earnings of individuals in this sector makes the rate of return of primary education more unreliable. Professor Blaug advocates the use of cost-effectiveness analysis which is of a m u c h larger genus than cost-benefit analysis. This consists of three steps: (a) specification of each of the multiple objectives in such a way that they can be scaled; (b) measurement of the effectiveness per unit of cost; and (c) choosing the best project by applying the planner's 'preference function'. W h a t would happen if one of the objectives is to find the n u m b e r of people needed with different skills for the proper development of

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the economy including localization of key posts or to minimize shortage or surplus of people with different kinds of education? Most of the m a n p o w e r plans had these objectives in view. 1 T h e expansion of primary education has indeed been emphasized in the developing countries by way of allocation of a percentage of the budget to eradicate illiteracy, within a specified period. M a y b e that period has been extended due to various reasons: social, economic and political. M a y b e the expansion in higher education in most of the developing countries has been due to the higher private rate of return to such education and has nothing to do with the emphasis on m a n power forecasting which Professor Blaug so strongly assumes. T h e allegation that m a n p o w e r forecasting constitutes an openended invitation to expand secondary and higher education without limits is not justified. A n y planning has to take into account the constraints o n resources available and the objectives to be achieved. M a n p o w e r forecasting provides only the magnitudes of one of these objectives: the need to minimize shortage or surplus of skilled and educated manpower. T h e planner compromises this objective with the others; one of which is, say, to increase literacy in the country. H e then checks with the available resources and considering the social and political phenomenon he allocates his resources according to priority. M a n p o w e r forecasting is only a small part of the over-all planning activity. Without these forecasts, one would not be able to cost the plan and estimate the resources needed for the implementation of the plan. W h e n the objectives have been fixed and the possible n u m b e r of programmes to achieve these objectives have been identified, the rate of return or cost-benefit analysis or cost-effectiveness analysis identifies the m o r e effective programme. Given the objective of meeting the needs of the economy for vocational skills, the cost-effectiveness analysis should be able to identify whether on-the-job training or special vocational institutes or vocational training in formal educational institutions will be m o r e effective as a vocational educational strategy. But to do so, one must k n o w what are the needs of the econo m y in respect of skills and a manpower analysis becomes imperative beforehand. W e are aware of the inaccuracies of the manpower forecasts and also of the difficulties in formulating the cost-effectiveness measures, particularly in the context of a developing country.
i. In the concept of planner's preference function, these objectives m a y either be a part of the preference function which is to be maximized/minimized or a part of the constraints which are subject to certain regularity conditions.

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Yet a lot of improvements have to be m a d e for manpower forecasts to be more useful for over-all planning. Similar is the case with the rate of return analysis. Professor Blaug's suggestion for applying the planner's 'preference function' to choose the best project for achieving an objective is indeed a difficult task. This is more so for a developing country where information on crucial variables is so limited. Thanks to the attempts m a d e by manpower analysts and rate of return analysts w e n o w have more information on certain variables than w e would otherwise be able to get. Because of these attempts w e are n o w in a situation to evaluate the shortcomings of different techniques and in a position to improve upon them. T h e article by Professor Blaug gives us indication about the possible shortcomings of manpower analysis (though sometimes he has been too harsh on this technique) and that by Professor Richard Jolly referred to above has evaluated the manpower plans in Africa and suggested methods for their improvement. T o us, the users of these techniques, they throw n e w light and make us more careful about the shortcomings and think about developing means to improve upon them. It is easy to evaluate a manpower plan which covers a period offiveto ten years. It is not so easy to evaluate a rate of return analysis because it involves a period of twenty-five to thirty years (because of the methodology which projects earnings in one's lifetime). T h e demerits of cost-benefit analysis mentioned above are only logical rather than empirical. It is clear n o w that there are no sufficient grounds to accept Professor Blaug's remarks: 'over the next decade or so, there is little point in arguing whether educational systems should be geared to long-term manpower requirements, because it is a simple fact that they cannot be'. O n e might pass the same remark on the rate of return analysis, which he so strongly advocates. There is a great need of analysing the imbalance prevailing at present between the labour market and the education system of most of the countries around the world. This calls for an analysis of the need of the labour market and the way the education systems are responding to these needs. This cannot avoid the quantitative aspects of the problem which would m a k e forecast of needs of skills and specialties and supply of graduates imperative. This would also call for a qualitative analysis of the problem; aspiration of the students, graduates and employers, information for training programmes, employment services for graduates and guidance on choice of careers. Predictions

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have to be updated periodically on the basis of the flow of information through employment information systems and graduate output patterns. M a n p o w e r analysis has to extend its present coverage. Costeffectiveness analysis has its application in choosing a particular employment and/or educational strategy. These are complementary. But before applying any of the techniques, one must satisfy himself about the strength of the technique in a particular situation on the basis of available data. Professor Blaug's suggestion to consider the planner's 'preference function' deserves attention,1 depending upon the availability of data and the system in which the planner is working. T h e lessons w e draw from Professor Blaug's and Richard Jolly's articles are that one should not blindly follow a particular technique but judge the situation in which the potential user is and try to improve upon the drawbacks in both the techniques mentioned above o n the basis of the information available and also to identify areas, where information is scarce. Identification of the needs for information precedes its gathering. After all, both the techniques of m a n p o w e r forecasts and costefFectiveness analysis have m a d e available m u c h detailed information on items which would not otherwise be available.

i. Application of this concept may be found in Bikas C . Sanyal, ' A Systems Approach to Resource Allocation in Educational Planning', Chapter VII in Karl A . Fox (ed.), Economic Analysis for Educational Planning, Resource Allocation in Non-market Systems, Baltimor and London, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

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Mark Blaug

M a n p o w e r forecasting as a technique, not an approach to planning

M r Sanyal's c o m m e n t on m y article entitled 'Economics and E d u cational Planning in Developing Countries'1 takes issue,firstof all, with m y conclusion about the overexpansion of higher education in almost all developing countries, and secondly, with m y destructive remarks about the manpower-forecasting approach to educational planning, which I believe to be responsible in large part for the present state of underinvestment in primary education in most poor countries. Let us take these issues in turn. I based m y conclusion on rate-of-return evidence for eighteen developing countries by George Psacharopoulos.21 observed that 'in most of these (Brazil, Malaysia and the Philippines are exceptions), primary education yields higher social rates of return than any other level of education. A s between secondary and higher education, h o w ever, the situation is more mixed: in half of the developing countries, secondary education also ranks above higher education, but in the other half the ranking is reversed. T h e one general lesson w e can draw from these results, therefore, is that there appears to be underinvestm e n t in primary education in almost all developing countries'.3 M r Sanyal cites only the last sentence in this statement, ignores the published evidence for eighteen countries and instead reproduces evidence for four African countries, concluding that 'only in one case (Nigeria) out of four countries, primary education has the highest rate of return. In one case (Kenya), it is the lowest'. Unfortunately, M r Sanyal's evidence comes from Table I X of the article by R . Jolly and C . Colclough,4 which presentfindingsfrom six
i. 2. 3. 4. See Prospects, Vol. II, N o . 4 , Winter 1972. George Psacharopoulos, Returns to Education. An International Comparison, 1973. Prospects, op. cit., p . 481. Richard Jolly and Christopher Colclough, African Manpower Plans: A n Evaluation, International Labour Review, Vol. 106, N o . 2-3, August-September 1972, p. 240-1.

M a r k Blaug ( United Kingdom). Professor, Research Unit in the Economics of Education, University of London Institute of Education. Author of Economics of Education,- A selected Annotated Bibliography (1966); A n Introduction to the Economics of Education (1970); and other articles and books on economic aspects of education.

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different rate-of-return studies without any attempt to m a k e them comparable: s o m e studies adjust for h o m e background, others do not; some studies m a k e an allowance for unemployment, others do not; some studies use government pay scales to estimate earnings, while others use actual private sector salaries; and so on. This confuses the issue of comparative rates of return to different levels of education. Psacharopoulos, on the other hand, reworks the original data to m a k e all the calculations comparable across countries and he concludes as follows:
Ranking within countries of the social rates of return b y educational level ist Primary 14 2nd I 3rd 3

Secondary Higher

9 8

5 10

Source: George Psacharopoulos, Returns to Education. An International Comparison, 1973, Table 4 . 3 , p . 66.

Surely, this table justifies m y assertion that there is underinvestment in primary education in most, although not in all, poor countries? In those cases where primary education fails to yield the highest social rate of return, it is secondary rather than higher education that leads the way. T h u s , the proposition that there is overinvestment in higher education throughout the Third World can be asserted with even more confidence than the one that there is underinvestment in primary education. But although M r Sanyal quarrels1 with m y evidence, his main thrust lies elsewhere. Even if he accepted m y evidence, it is clear that he would not accept the implications I draw from it. H e does not believe in the rate-of-return criterion because for h i m 'the structure of wages and salaries, reflected in the earnings, is only [my italics] a
1. Although M r Sanyal denies the fact that primary education frequently yields the highest rates of return, he nevertheless cites Jolly and Colclough's a priori argument for expecting higher rates of return to primary than to secondary or higher education: 'Since the methodology generally excludes any future changes in the structure of salaries, differentials in the earnings of school leavers match the differentials in teachers' salaries and higher rates of return follow from the higher pupil/teacher ratios at primary level. T o the sceptic, rate-of-return calculations indicate little more than this simple fact.' If I understand what this means, it amounts to the assertion that primary education yields higher rates of return simply because it is cheaper. N o doubt, this is the principal reason. But it is not the only reason, else w h y would w e ever find cases where it is not true? It only illustrates the importance of keeping in mind both costs and earnings, which is precisely w h y it is necessary to calculate rates of return.

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matter of social conventions in m a n y developing countries'. T h e belief that labour markets simply do not function in developing countriesthat no amount of unemployment will ever drive d o w n wages and that no shortage, however acute, will ever pull up wagesis pretty extreme and most of the evidence, although ambiguous, will not bear this interpretation.1 Besides, has M r Sanyal considered what it would m e a n : since most costs are labour costs, it necessarily implies that all prices are ca matter of social conventions in m a n y developing countries' and hence that project appraisals which involve observed prices, whether the project is a steel mill or a university, are economically meaningless. Perhaps he would be willing to go that far but, if so, he will have little support from economic planners. Furthermore, it is fallacious to assert, as he does, that 'because in most of the developing countries, roughly two-thirds of the persons with higher education work for the government or in full-time education . . . their salaries are not indicative of m u c h more than the regulations of the government salary structure'. H e assumes that government pay scales are determined in total isolation from private sector salaries; if not, it is perfectly conceivable that administratively determined government pay scales are nevertheless a more or less accurate reflection of the relative scarcities of different kinds of labour in an economy. I dare say that he believes, in company with m a n y others, that university graduates in the civil service of most developing countries are overpaid in consequence of their monopoly control of the public sector. It is amusing to notice that this has the consequence of reducing the social rate of return on investment in higher education below the rates that have so far been observed, which strengthens our earlier conclusion that there is pervasive overinvestment in higher education in poor countries. But as a matter of fact, the private sector in most poor countries does pay highly qualified people above the pay scales prevailing in the public sector1 and in that sense graduates in the public sector are if anything underpaid rather than overpaid. However, it is perfectly true that the high proportion of qualified people employed by governments around the world must sap our confidence in the competitive model of labour markets. W h e r e I differ with M r Sanyal is that I do not believe that the question of what governs the structure of wages and salaries can

1. See m y 'Correlation Between Education and Earnings: What Does It Signify?', Higher Education, February 1972, p. 62-3. 2. See Blaug, op. cit., p. 61-2.

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be settled by assertion. T h e question is: are government pay scales passively adapted to salaries in private industry or, instead, does private industry adapt itself to the arbitrary determination of pay scales in the public sector? This is a question of fact, and as I read the facts it is largely the private sector that sets the pace for salary determination. A m u c h more telling point is the neglect of earnings in the rural sector in most but not in all rate-of-return calculations. A t any rate, this neglect has nothing to do with the inherent limitations of the approach. It is entirely a question of lack of data and, of course, the data will never be forthcoming so long as M r Sanyal and others go on arguing that wages and salaries do not really matter for planning because they only reflect the social conventions. But h o w would a m a n p o w e r forecaster deal with the rural sector? C a n w e seriously believe that the expansion of agriculture is held back by definite m a n power bottlenecks which a m a n p o w e r forecast could help to overcome? T o ask the question is to answer it. W e could go on quibbling like this almost indefinitely, but the real disagreement between us is inherent in the title of his paper. M a n power forecasting is not an approach to educational planning; it is merely a technique that might be employed in a planning context. Suppose that a manpower forecast were capable of accurately predicting a shortage of graduatesfiveyears hence? T h e decision to act on this forecast by expanding higher education is not itself capable of being justified by the m a n p o w e r forecast. There is nothing about the forecast that assures that it would be worth while to incur the social cost of expanding higher education for the sake of avoiding the social cost of an inadequate supply of university graduates five years from n o w . W e would still have to carry out a cost-benefit analysis to translate the prediction of a manpower shortage into an educational policy. A n d that is w h y it is profoundly misleading to talk of a so-called manpower-requirements approach to educational planning. A s a technique, the only question w e need to consider about m a n power forecasting is its degree of accuracy. If w e could accurately forecast m a n p o w e r shortages and surpluses over a period of, say, five years, w e should certainly m a k e use of it for purposes of educational planning. A s I argued in m y original article, the evidence suggests that 'virtually all manpower forecasts of the long-term variety are such as to render them almost indistinguishable from wild guesses in an upward direction'. For that reason, manpower forecasting will have to be limited for some time to c o m e to short-term interventions in the

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labour market, and educational planning will have to look elsewhere for its techniques. M r Sanyal is quite wrong w h e n he asserts that 'it is easy to evaluate a m a n p o w e r plan which covers a period offiveto ten years. It is not so easy to evaluate a rate of return analysis because it involves a period of twenty-five to thirty years'. H e has forgotten that discounting, inherent in rate-of-return calculations, renders the results insensitive to earnings beyond those in the next five or ten years. Besides, rate-of-return analysis does not have to be used to forecast anything, although it can be. It m a y be employed simply as an ex post check on the efficiency of past investments in education. In other words, w h e n w e calculate rates of return on government steel mills in a country and show that they are unprofitable, w e do not deny that there are circumstances that might some day m a k e them profitable. It is far from m y purpose to suggest that one should leap straight away from a rate-of-return calculation in Ruritania to an educational policy conclusion in Ruritania. G o d forbid! Rate-of-return analysis creates a presumption, not a proof, that a certain policy would be desirable; it invites further investigation of the operations of labour markets to strengthen or possibly to weaken the assumption that earnings reflect the relative scarcity of labour; it invites a re-examination of the costs of education to see if perhaps this alone produces the results; it neatly accommodates renewed calculations with 'shadow' prices of both inputs and outputs,1 as well as notional values attached to the externalities of education; above all, it provides a framework for thinking about educational policy that is on all fours with project appraisal and programme evaluation in thefieldof economic planning. Whereas m a n p o w e r forecasting is hardly economics at all but is instead a purely mindless mechanical exercise, involving such patently absurd assumptions as fixed labour-output and fixed occupation-education coefficients as if the economy were a special kind of machine instead of something m u c h more like a biological organism. M r Sanyal contends that most m a n p o w e r plans were really about the objectives of 'localization', that is, the replacement of native for expatriate m a n p o w e r . There is some truth in this remark with respect to African m a n p o w e r plansMr Sanyal always writes as if Africa were the whole worldin which case rate-of-return analysis is, of course, beside the point. A n d so is manpower forecasting traditionally
I. See m y Introduction to the Economics of Education, 1970, p. 210-12.

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conceived. If R u m a n i a wants to Ruritanianize its government service, it would certainly be useful to project the rate at which this can be carried out. W h a t on earth does this have to do with the indispensable m a n p o w e r requirements of a growing economy, or for that matter with rate-of-return criteria for maximizing the rate of growth of national income? T o analyse this problem, w e need cost-effectiveness analysis, a natural extension of cost-benefit analysis to cases where the objectives of planning are not economic in character. A rate-of-return analyst has no difficulty in adapting himself to this n e w objective function, whereas a manpower forecaster wouldfirsthave to learn about trade-off ratios, substitution at the margin, and 'shadow' prices, all of which are concepts he has never previously employed. Perhaps this is what is ultimately wrong with m a n p o w e r forecasting as a principal tool of educational planning.

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Elements for a dossier

The European university in change

Joseph Herman

Introduction

For those who watch the development of the university situation in European countries closely, there is no doubt that the theme of change in universities throughout the continent is a very hot issue. After the spectacular quantitative growth in recent decades, after the upheavals which, only a few years ago, shook the traditional structure of universities in many European countries, there are signs that other changes, perhaps unspectacular and undramatic, but more deep-seated, are beginning to take place in many European countries, notwithstanding their diverse traditions and their differing social systems. These changes are not unconnected with the quantitative growth of the last twenty years nor with the upheavals of 1968, but it would be an oversimplification to ascribe them solely to these two factors. For the sociological and cultural situation has been evolving and developing throughout the continent: education systems as a whole have evolved considerably, the one and the other have inevitably had their effects on higher education. The 'scientific and technological revolution' we hear so much aboutand rightly sohas reshaped the everyday life of whole nations and has in its turn, raised fresh problems which have yet to be solved. The changes we see today are the result of all these elements; it is scarcely possible to tell at this stage where they will lead and what is

Joseph Herman (Hungary). Director of the Division of Higher Education, Unesco.

their significance, but they are taking place all over Europe. A number of facts, chosen almost at random, will adequately illustrate this. The university, which is described as being traditional, is passing through a period of modification, transformation and diversification in many countries: courses of different lengths, 'post-secondary' education of different kinds, are coming into existence or being incorporated in the ancient networks of academic institutions, formerly the exclusive province of an education which was as traditional in its essence as in its methods, in spite of the modern scientific knowledge that they often aimed to pass on. Large numbers of people who had never before dreamt of having access to higher education are seeking entry to institutions of advanced studies, and an increasing number of governments and an ever wider variety of institutions are making efforts, sometimes successful, sometimes apparently fruitless, to open the universities, faculties and institutes of advanced studies to those who, by reason of their underprivileged social situation, their involvement in their daily work, or simply because of the inflexibility of existing rules, have hitherto been prevented from going on to higher education. While institutions are becoming more varied and the doors are being thrown open to 'students' who, a few decades ago, would have had no chance of attaining this status, efforts must be made to enable the new universities to continue to satisfy the ever greater demands being made upon them as

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Introduction

the advance of human knowledge and which, while a result of the rapid progress in science and adding to the stock of such knowledge, passes it on technology. In such a situation it is inevitable that contra- to all those who are capable of assimilating and dictions should arise: contradictions between the using it for the good of all. need to liberalize access to institutions of higher Within this very general framework, opinions education and the legal or, at any rate, political are inevitably widely divergent; this will no doubt and moral obligation to provide those who have be apparent in Bucharest during the Conference completed their studies with employment oppor- of European Ministers of Education, and the tunities appropriate to the training they have reader himself will find confirmation of it in this received; contradictions between the specialized series of articles, certain of which, unwittingly, requirements ofprofessions and the obvious need to firmly contradict what has been stated in another produce specialists who have a broad intellectual piece. horizon, sound general culture and a ready adapAs for the working document submitted to the tability of mind; contradictions between the rising ministers who are to meet in Bucharest at the end cost of research and of specialized training and the of November, it makes no claim, on behalf of the limited amounts which States and communities are Secretariat of Unesco, to have found solutions to at present able to allocate to higher education; the problems; drawing on the documentation subcontradictionswhich are sometimes only apparmitted to it by Member States, the Secretariat of ent and sometimes realbetween the requirements the Organization has merely tried to formulate of training and those of advanced research. Such the questions clearly and frankly and to state the a list could easily be extended. These contradic- fundamental principles referred to above, which tions should no doubt be surmounted, but it would derive from a more or less general consensus as to be dangerous to be unaware of them or to disregard the likely future trends in higher education: a them. desire for democratization, a desire to give the The solutions which, here and there, are taking universities the place they should have in society, a desire that higher education should play a part shape are of the most varied kind. A number of common features nevertheless emerge at least as far in making lifelong education a reality, and lastly as the principles are concerned; it is already clear a desire to ensure that the quality and scientific standards maintained by higher education are adthat the democratization of higher education must equate to enable it to train specialists for the late be part of the process of the democratization of twentieth century and the first decades of the education as a whole; it is clear that higher edutwenty-first. cation must in the future be part of lifelong education and continue to be available to those who wish to take advantage of it and are capable of benefiting from it, throughout their lives; it is clear that higher education and its institutions must take their place in society, and must move in the direction in which history is moving, refusing to align themselves with the forces of conservatism or of aristocratic withdrawal, an attitude for which 'liberal' rhetoric about the timeless nature of knowledge and the prerogatives of the mind is a very poor excuse; lastly, it is clear that higher education must remain an education which is, indeed, higher, the development of which keeps pace with Are these exclusively European problems? Perhaps not. It is none the less true that Europe has a certain unity not to be ignored. More important than its geographical unity, more important than its profound cultural unity manifested in its very diversity, Europe presents certain similarities in thefieldof higher education properfor example, the manifestly preponderant role of the State in directing higher education, notwithstanding the often very substantial degree of autonomy enjoyed by certain universities, an autonomy which may, in some cases, give the impression of complete independence of the government. Another characteristic

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feature shared by European systems is of a historical kind: European universities are the heirs of past ages, in most cases of several centuries; their legacy is a glorious though heavy burden, it inspires respect but is also a hindrance, it holds out the prospect of renewal but is also a source of elitist pride which may possibly delay the adoption of urgently needed remedies. In this context, the European Member States of Unesco which are moving towards co-operation in many other fields, will no doubt find fresh ways of sharing their experiences and strengthening their training potential through broader and closer co-operation.

come to an end. While the authorities who are responsible at the highest level for higher education are considering the documents submitted to them, the authors of these articles will, in their capacity as technologists, university teachers, and professional educational specialists, be elucidating another aspect of these problems and will no doubt approach them differently. However, as the situation is the same for all, it is likely that these two separate approaches will produce similar results and that their findings will be complementary without conflicting with each other.

The articles in this issue are thus part of an effort being made by Unesco itself and by all its By the time the series of articles on European Member States to develop and modernize the sysuniversities being published by Prospects comes off tem of higher education in Europe, largely through more positive and more effective co-operation in the press, the second Conference of Ministers of this area among European Member States. It is Education of European Member States of Unesco to be hoped that so considerable a combined effort (Bucharest, 26 November to 4 December 1973), will not have been made in vain. on the problems of higher education, will have

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Death or change of the universities?

Integrated or segmented university systems

All economically developed societies, using scientific knowledge and training technical, administrative or professional personnel, transmit a certain cultural heritage. Almost all of them have established and maintain institutions k n o w n as universities. But this term is in fact applied to such a wide variety of bodies that it cannot be used here without first defining it. Let us, then, agree to say that a university is an establishment which fulfils three interrelated functions: producing, transmitting and applying knowledge. Let us not take it for granted that the existence of universities as so defined is a good thing, or even a necessary thing. Let us, on the contrary, try to discover, more empirically, what are the circumstances accounting for the existence of universities, or, in other words, in what

Alain Touraine (France). Director of studies at the cole Pratique des Hautes tudes (Paris), Director of the Centre d'tude des Mouvements Sociaux. Former director of the Department of Sociology of the University of Paris-Nanterre, former president of the Socit Franaise de Sociologie. Among his many publications are: L'volution d u Travail Ouvrier aux Usines Renault/ L a Conscience Ouvrire/ L e M o u v e m e n t de M a i o u le C o m m u nisme Utopique; L a Socit Post-industrielle; U n i versit et Socit aux tats-Unis.

circumstances are the production, transmission and use of knowledge associated and combined in a single institution instead of being assigned each to a separate establishment, which might be called a research centre, for 1 he production of knowledge, a college, for its transmission, a professional training institution for its application. Before advancing any hypotheses, w e must remember that the various industrialized countries, or those in the process of industrialization, have followed very diffrent paths. T h e United States affords the most striking example of highly integrated universities. T h e very rapid development of research, especially from 1957 o n 5 t 0 k place mainly within the universities, even though certain big physics laboratories were very largely independent of their parent universities and, particularly in medicine, the existence of substantial research funds led to strained relations between teaching and research authorities. Furthermore, in the United States professional training is associated with university life. T h e great founders of the American university system in the second half of the nineteenth century proudly claimed that a campus should be a 'service station'. T h e 'land-grant colleges' have developed into State universities or colleges. Institutions for higher technical education, such as the institutes of technology, have become universitiesand a m o n g the most

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outstandingby taking on activities other than technological training. Generally speaking, Latin America adopted the same course, going to even greater extremes, for the big State universities concentrate vast numbers of studentsthe National University, Mexico City ( U N A M ) is reputed to be the largest in the worldworking both in research and in specialized training institutions which provide only a limited amount of scientific education. Japan, like the United States and the Latin American countries, has an integrated university system combined with a very marked internal hierarchy of institutions. At the other extreme are the countries which have dissociated research centres, colleges and institutions for professional training. T h e French case is a familiar one, as represented by its external features. For the greater part of the nineteenth century, France did not really have any universities: higher education was provided by specialized institutions training for the professions, among which must be included the faculties of law and medicine, and by research centres, represented by what are n o w k n o w n as the great institutions of higher education (cole Normale Suprieure, Collge de France, M u s e u m d'Histoire Naturelle and, later, the cole Pratique des Hautes tudes), and by faculties of arts or science which did not assume m u c h importance until the very end of the century. Administratively speaking, the universities did not exist in their o w n right until 1968. France is one of the few countries in which the governing lite does not in general come from the universities but from the grandes coles, which have not dwindled in importance despite the numerical growth of the universities, and which are highly selective, so that their graduates are sure of good openings. In recent times, research has been still further divorced from the universities, where it had gained a slight foothold at the beginning of the present century. T h e establishment of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 470

( C N R S ) and bodies for applied research marks the clear distinction m a d e between teaching and research. This does not m e a n that there is no c o m munication between the three types of institutions. T h e unity of the French university system is maintained by committees on which specialists from the various institutions meet. This unity is real in the case of the 'natural' sciences, but very slight indeed in that of the social sciences. T h e only example of university integration is to be found in medicine, since the setting u p of the Centres Hospitaliers-Universitaires, and above all since the splitting u p of the old Faculty of Medicine after 1968. There are two intermediate types of systems between these two extremes. In the one case research and general education are associated while professional training is on its o w n . In the other case, on the contrary, general education and professional training are associated while research is conducted by special institutions. Although it is risky to generalize at the national level where situations are so complex and in general informally structured, England and the Federal Republic of G e r m a n y m a y be said to represent the former pattern, and the Soviet Union and countries with similar university systems to represent the latter. T h e main feature in England is the importance of the polytechnics and, in the Federal Republic of Germany, of the Technologische Hochschulen or Universitten. It might be added that the Federal Republic of Germany is moving in the direction of university integration and has launched the great idea of the Gesamthochschule whereas England seems to be more attached to a very hierarchic system of institutions. T h e outstanding feature in the case of the U . S . S . R . is the separation of the Academy of Sciences and the universities; the situation here is in m a n y respects similar to that in France, as there are a large number of independent or selfgoverning colleges for technical training.

Death or change of the universities?

This very sketchy description is, of course, not enough to allow of any real analysis of the determining factors in higher education, of its integration or segmentation, and of the presence or absence of universities in the sense in which the term is used here. It does, however, make it possible to advance some hypotheses which might be examined more systematically in future. University integration seems to be bound u p with the rise of a n e w ruling classsegmentation, to the dissociation of a modernizing State and a conservative dominant class. T h e American university system is so powerful that it is worth taking as an example. At the beginning of the second half of the nineteenth century, the United States had hardly any universities comparable with those of Europe. In the course of a few decades, however, an i m posing complex of n e w or completely transformed universities was built u p , with a view to producing a national lite which would cut across the different ethnic, religious and regional communities and be capable of running a country unified economically by the railways andfinancialundertakings, and of resisting i m migrant pressures and maintaining or strengthening a Yankee middle class. Based on social 'Darwinism', this university system led the civil society in an optimistic progress towards knowledge, power and nationhood. Colleges and universities were seen as places for self-improvement and the promotion of a scheme of national development. In them young people were lifted out of their narrow original background and equipped to serve the more 'universal' values of American society. But, to complete this picture, which reflects intentions rather than reality, it must be said that the university system was closely dependent on the social hierarchy. T h e campuses, generally situated outside the towns, constituted an aristocratically inclined bourgeoisie, steadily increasing the symbols of its social and cultural superiority.

In Latin America the situation was to a large extent the same. T h e universities served to train up a n e w middle class, which often aspired to be a national bourgeoisie. They were more frequently moved by a spirit of social reform than was the case in the United States because they were opposed to the old dominant order, constituted by the landowners, the clergy, and the doctors and lawyers having ties with the upper middle class. They took in more students from the middle of the social hierarchy because the upper middle class preferred to send its children to the Catholic universities or to great universities abroad. Urban development and the broadening of political activity were accompanied by a great reform movement which started at Crdoba in Argentina and had profound and lasting effects, first in neighbouring countries such as Uruguay and Chile, and then all over the continent. Both Mexico City and So Paulo acquired great universities which were associated with national and economic development, though they assumed very different forms. There is no reason to suppose that the principles of integration are the same today as they were in the pastespecially as the university world is n o w on a different scale. However, the connexion between university integration and the formation of a national middle class, not only in the cases mentioned above but also in Egypt and Japan, reminds us that such integration presupposes that the university is a place for moving u p in society, that it is associated with a scheme for the development of society as a whole, and that it is conducive to the bridging of community differences or the overrunning of dependence, as obstacles to national integration. Consequently the integration of the production, transmission and application of k n o w ledge within the same type of institution is bound u p with the predominance of a n e w ruling class in the national development, and hence of the 'civil society' over the State. 471

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T h e French case, on the contrary, illustrates a university system more directly linked with the State than with the 'civil society', which is at the same time careful to preserve the social and cultural privileges of the middle class. Hence the opposition to be seen between two aspects of this university system, simultaneously tied to a State apparatus which is in favour of reform but lacking economic power. F r o m the July monarchy onwards, this gave French university teachers an independence which their American counterparts still did not possess even at the end of the nineteenth century, w h e n the Rpublique des Professeurs was beginning to triumph in France, for the splitting u p of the university system gave teachers considerable autonomy while at the same time relegating them to a marginal position. University rhetoric was more widely developed in the French system than in the American, for in France the university was separated from the bourgeoisie by the State: in consequence it occupied a subordinate but fairly independent position, and the tension between the two entities, instead of coming to a head, was controlled by a corporatism which progressed in step with the combination of monarchic centralism and socialdemocratic reformist trends characteristic of the French Republic. A curious paradox that must be properly understood is that the more integrated the system is the less independence the teachers have, for the integration of the system is bound u p with its integration in society and its forms of social domination. O n the other hand, the more disintegrated the system is the more professional training and research are taken out of the hands of the universities, the more they are given over to corporatism and the professional rhetoric which goes with it. A s a result, in France, behind the faade of Napoleonic centralism, w e find both absence of university integration and a very strong professional and intellectual corporatism a m o n g the teachers, which has been 472

further accentuated of late by the progress of trade unionism on education. In the U . S . S . R . , too, the universities are not responsible for 'education', that is, for the inculcation of established cultural practices. They are tied to the State and defer to the established order, which has its o w n means of social control, with the Communist Party performing the same function as the Church and the family in nineteenth-century France. T h e State educates ; the universities only instruct. T h e greater the control exercised over development by a firmly directing State which is opposed to the traditional ruling classes or is attempting to create a n e w middle class, the greater is the dissociation between the civil society and the State, and the greater the splintering of the university system, for the handing on of a cultural heritage can never be integrated with the creation of knowledge bound u p with the emergence of n e w authorities. This statement is too general and must at once be qualified for the part played by the State and the extent of its intervention in university activity are, of course, very different according to whether it is an instrument for the management of development by an old ruling class, as in Germany or Japan, or an agent for the creation of a n e w ruling class characterized by its relation to the State, as in Egypt under Nasser or in Mexico under the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI); or again a revolutionary authority stemming from the workers or the peasantry but not identified with them. T h e latter case to which I have referred involves extensive splintering of the system, whose unity is extrinsic and provided by the political and ideological authority itself. T h e first case is the most likely to produce a conflict between the university, where n e w lites are being formed, and the State, which represents both the old and the n e w ruling classes, and is thus most likely to present no ideological checks to the splitting u p of the

Death or change of the universities?

university system. T h e second case, o n the other hand, has m a n y features in c o m m o n with the situation in Latin America, although it differs from it in that the recruitment of the ruling lites is left under the direct control of the State, and frequently of the A r m y . T o s u m u p , the integration of the university system is not achieved miraculously through the operation of certain values and a marked trend towards secularization. O n the contrary, it is soundly based only w h e n the universities are very closely integrated with the social and economic system and w h e n that system is capable of changing from within, unaided by the State. T h e integration of the university system is therefore bound u p , on the one hand, with its internal differentiation and its active role in social selectionnot a passive one as in Franceand, on the other, with the limitation of the influence of the teachers It is a great mistake to take T . Parsons' view that the university system is all the stronger w h e n it is directly governed by 'professional' norms and methods of decision. At all events, this is not the way the American systems work. Moderates in the teaching profession from both the left and the right, w h o thought in the sixties that the time had come to establish professional power once and for all by taking advantage of the conflict between the students and the administrators were quickly m a d e to see h o w nave their hopes were and h o w mistaken they were in their conclusions. Universities are always dependent on some authority whichfinancesthem, recognizes thendegrees and places its trust in them. They cannot nurture the illusion that they are the source of their o w n legitimacy or can possess political institutions and an independent decision-making system. However, their ties with authority m a y be more or less close to one or other of two extreme types: either the university is associated with a rising ruling class whose mobility leads to an 'open' society, w h e n the univer-

sity is strongly integrated and plays a key part, whereas its o w n components, teachers and students, have little independence; or, on the contrary, it is associated with a state which necessitates development, a society in which the present has not wiped out the past, which is the case especially in certain dependent societies, w h e n the university system is segmented, whereas teachers and students, standing between the State and the civil society, have more independence and form an intelligentsia whose responsibility it is, according to the situation, to provide managerial personnel for an industrializing State or to oppose its authoritarian management in the interests of old or n e w ruling classes.

From the transmission of knowledge to the production of knowledge

So far w e have been concerned with the recent past and therefore with situations in which the university has had to be considered from the standpoint of its adaptation to change or reproduction of culture, rather than from that of its actual production. W e have seen in what circumstances universities or, on the contrary, segmented university systems have come into being. This approach to the question is not likely to lose its interest for some time yet, particularly in countries where only a small proportion of the young people go on to higher education. But it is not enough by itself for, over and above the alternative of the integration or the segmentation of universities, there is the more basic question: have the universities outlived their usefulness? Are w e not witnessing their final decline? Such questions are by no means iconoclastic, especially in a country such as France, which has only just set u p universities, has not yet given them any very real existence, and does not seem to be inclined to commit to them the training of the governing

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lites or the management of the principal research systems. T h e French m a y wish to acquire Americantype integrated universities. In m y view this type of system in fact represents a great step forward in advanced industrialized societies, more particularly because it gives the universities a greater capacity for making decisions and changes. It is not certain, however, that the type of integrated university that w e have k n o w n and admired can still serve as a model today and in the future. It is not only the form of the university system which is at issue in the present crisis. T h e question is whether university autonomy is not an outdated idea, whether the university as an institution is notfinallydeclining as a result of being dragged into the world of production and politics, though still remaining attached to its o w n categories and to an idealistic definition of itself. W e must see exactly in what this crisis consists before trying to discover what form an integrated university might take if societies had the courage to desist from what is really destruction of the universities b y 'adapting' them to the workaday world, that is, to economic and political power. W h a t warrants our speaking of a fundamental crisis, is,firstof all, the practical side of the evolution of the university. Research calls for an increasingly large and specialized staff, so that its needs are even more at variance with those of teaching. A form of organization which would enable young scientists to devote themselves to research, turning to teaching or administration in their mature years, is frequently advocated. T h e n again, more and more students need university degrees in a meritocracy. Finally, the transmission of a cultural heritage is becoming a task on its o w n in a society where the past has less and less weight on the present, which is, on the contrary, closely linked with the future whose foundations it is laying, unless

the heritage transmitted is used b y the upper strata as a status symbol. T h e production, the reproduction and the application of knowledge are splitting asunder. T h e requirements of research, of general education and of professional training are becoming less and less compatible. M u s t it not be admitted that even the American system, maintained and bolstered as it has been by exceptional means and by a state of society in which the middle class expected m u c h of the universities and gave them m u c h assistance, is nearing breaking-point? Less sound and less integrated systems such as those of Western Europe seem to be affected by an even deeper crisis. A n d have not most of the great Latin American universities, too, entered a critical period aggravated by the breakd o w n of people's governments and the triumph of authoritarian rgimesin Brazil and, to a lesser extent, in Argentina (up till 1973), and even in Mexico? University crises cannot be generally explained solely in terms of politics, as if the form of university organization itself was of no importance in a clash between progressive youth and militarist, reactionary or merely authoritarian States. If the modern university systems were brought into being by rising social forces and by national projects, the crisis of the Latin American or similar universities is understandable. T h e middle class struggled against the former oligarchy, enlisting the support of a part of the urban population and taking advantage of the crises on the international market. After this 'popular' phase, w h e n national industrial production was developed, however, n e w forms of dependence bound u p with the use of more complex technologies grew u p , and the State allied itself with foreign investors to throttle the popular advance. T h e n e w middle class, cast out, deprived of influence and in some cases of employment, revolted just at the time that the weakness of the national bourgeoisie became evident. M a n y teachers were driven from the universities by authoritarian govern-

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ments and students abandoned institutionalized politics and fell back on the guerrilla in spirit if not in fact. T h e situation is very different in the industrialized countries, where the part played by the universities in political ideology is affected by the transformation of the role of knowledge. Science was not an important factor in the first stage of industrialization, or at all events the essential scientific discoveries were m a d e well before the advent of the n e w technologies. This gap has been continually closing. T h e chemical industry, in G e r m a n y in particular, was thefirstexample of a n e w economic activity based on scientific discoveries. Soon afterwards, the electrical industries were to take advantage of the progress m a d e in science and technology. Today, technical progress, more or less directly bound u p with that of scientific knowledge, plays an essential part in economic growth. Consequently, the university sector is becoming less and less different from the production sector. Knowledge is less and less something reproduced and more and more a factor in production. T h e first consequence of this fundamental change is that the university is less and less the symbol of a rise in social status. In a meritocracy, a university degree is necessary not only to rise but in order to maintain one's status. Similarly, in a big city, a motor car is a necessity if one is not to be increasingly cut off from the centre. But at the same time, as everyone has a car, there are enormous traffic jams. T h e same applies to the universities. Recent surveys have shown that m a n y American students regard college as a guarantee against insecurity or a drop in social status, not as a means of rising. O n e must live in a big city, o w n a car and go to university not in order to live better, but in order not to be crushed by the system and driven out to the fringe of social organization. Often, along with the feeling that going to university is a 'necessity' there is a more definite idea that the university system is geared to

the needs of the ruling lite, that it is an instrument in the service of the ruling class, m u c h more directly than w h e n it was not concerned with production. It is futile to reply to those criticisms that massive development entails democratization, because it is not true. W o u l d anyone say that society is more democratic because the urban population is increasing? Certainly not. Does not the same answer apply to the increase in the university population? T h e university system is becoming more and more hierarchical so as to adapt to the production system and, above all, to the separation between the technocratic lite, the management bureaucracy, 'line' and 'fringe'. In the United States, there has been m u c h criticism of certain universities for accepting the methods employed in the war in Viet-Nam. In Japan, the students are denouncing the links between the universities and big business, which absorbs the vast majority of graduates. Everywhere the universities are becoming the main focus of counter-cultures and counter-Utopias. In opposition to the Utopia of the affluent consumer society there is n o w the Utopia of a return to a balanced life and community values. This is particularly attractive to students w h o feel more directly destined for managerial responsibilities, that is, w h o are in the higher university institutions and w h o come from a higher social level, which in them weakens the conformist tendencies associated with social climbing and 'anticipated socialization'. Along with this growing awareness that university studies are already a part of employment goes an increasing degree of independence over a longer and longer period of life w h e n the authorities which had charge of the child are no longer in control and the firm providing e m ployment has not yet taken over control. S o m e people like to joke about the apparent contradiction in the fact that students complain that the universities are increasingly subject to the power lite and at the same time constantly

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defer their departure from this environment of which they are so critical! It is w h e n w e reflect o n the association of these two kinds of attitudes, to be observed everywhere, that w e can best understand the nature of the crisis. Here it is n o longer a question of setting counter-culture against social conflict, but rather the decline of university society against the emergence of n e w social movements. In France or Japan, students have often reproached teachers w h o are critical of the social order with deluding them and enticing them into a false world of ideas and freedom of expression which has nothing to do with the bureaucratic jobs that the universities, under the control of big business, are actually preparing them to take u p Let us go a step further: teachers are not the only ones to harbour the more and more artificial idea that the universities do not lead to jobs. T h e students are at least as m u c h involved in the same situation. Moreover, being younger and spending their youth at the university, they constitute a separate social category, an age group and to a large extent a category defined by social origin. T h e present crisis is not comparable with that of certain institutions for professional training where future executives or supervisors are rebelling against the organizations which are going to absorb them. It also represents the breakdown of the university society, which is faster and faster losing its independence, and the effort to preserve that society. This accounts for the two aspects always distinguishing student movements: the conflict which is symptomatic of the n e w clashes between classes in technocratic societies, and the crisis characteristic of the breakdown of university society and its independence from the system of production, which spells the end of the authority of the intellectuals. T h e crisis is not confined to one type of society. It occurs on the borderline between one type of society and

another, and more dramatically still at the point in time w h e n university 'autonomy', and with it the university's place a m o n g the instruments of social control rather than a m o n g the forces of production, is vanishing for ever. A variety of changing threads run through all these different streams: n e w social conflict and disillusionment, counter-culture and decline of university society. F r o m time to time, the political movement recedes from the universities, leaving them to morose delectation or a mixture of counter-culture and social crisis. In other circumstances, counter-culture and awareness of the university crisis are crystallized around a n e w social protest. It is absurd to try to s u m u p in one word or one idea a crisis as complex as this. A n actual historical situation can never be reduced to a sociological diagram. T h e main thing is to understand that, just as a workers' movement grows out of the crisis in craft trades and the disintegration of traditional working-class districts, so the student movement is inseparable from the crisis in university society, which sometimes makes it aggressive and sometimes on the contrary causes it to lose direction.

A n d after the university?

T h e crisis in the universities runs deeper where teachers and students have enjoyed most independence. European teachers are more directly affected than their American counterparts, and American students more directly affected than their European fellows, for European teachers were relatively more independent and American students had more cultural independence. W h e r e are the universities heading? Simple as this question is, it m a y be found surprising, for very few people as yet are asking themselves about the future of the universities. There is m u c h talk of crises, reforms, adaptation and negotiation, but nearly everyone hesitates to

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raise the crucial question, of the choice of a n e w path to follow. If no one takes the trouble to work out a n e w type of university life, the universities can only languish on in their present critical state, eventually coming to accept a consciously and repressively 'socializing' role. T h e key word is 'adaptation'. T h e more the universities adapt, the more I think they will deteriorate, break up, or themselves serve the purposes of exclusion and repression. T h e universities, adapting themselves to the needs of the big organizations would become agents of technocratic power, accepting a certain freedom of movement at the top, for 'caf society' and the 'upper ten', perhaps even for innovators, but exerting stricter and stricter control at the lower levels of the bureaucratic hierarchy. They would be less and less prepared to admit that students and teachers should exert a critical influence, or even be 'non-productive'. At most, they would encourage the development of a counter-culture outside their precincts or would be delighted to see a 'fringe' develop there to purge society of its 'maladjusted' elements. In this situation, the students would find themselves more and more on the borderline between two worldsthe world of professional training, sometimes refused but more often accepted, and the world of private life, more and more withdrawn from university organization. O n e can even imagine small university units drifting about on the fringe for long periods, ignoring both professional training and political commitment, pursuing a sort of interesting but unimportant waking dream. In this event, the university system breaks d o w n . Research is concentrated in a few selected institutions or in big laboratories: the transmission of the cultural heritage is weakened. Professional training gains ground as the essential function of the universities, always associated with the inculcation of values and norms those established by a State ideology or those recognized by the silent majority.

It is futile to try to counter this trend by recreating a university spirit, the community of the campus, the spirit of the liberal arts. A s things are at present, a return to the unity and autonomy of the university is impossible. Only two paths are open: I have just described the first, adaptation, which means eventual disintegration and dispersal. W h a t is the other? It begins with the recognition that a university can n o longer rely on a state of mind but only on the reconciling of different kinds of requirements. T h e universities are so situated today that they have to meet three distinct demands which cannot be unified or integrated into values: the students' demand for education, the teachers' demand for research facilities, and the e m ployers' demand for graduates. W h e n the university was a world of scholars transmitting a cultural heritage, there was no fundamental difference between these three types of demands: the teacher prepared the student to take his o w n place and keep the torch of knowledge burning. Today, the student sets the needs of his o w n personality against those of social integration and frequently, too, one using knowledge, opposed to the way that knowledge is applied by the authorities. W h a t is still k n o w n as the teaching body wants to produce n e w knowledge and, as a secondary concern, to protect the mutual interests of the profession. T h e employers want executives, integrated and integrating, dynamic but obedient. H o w can w e save the universities except by recognizing this plurality of requirements and abandoning the attempt to define a university in terms of its spirit, its values and its organization? Universities must accept their disintegration and hasten its completion if they are to live again. Coming d o w n to brass tacks, this means first of all that the university, often denned as a community of teachers and students associating their Lehrfreiheit and their Lernfreiheit, must become a meeting-ground where the supply of

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knowledge and the demand for education or for graduates can be brought into contact and reconciled. T h e efforts m a d e to recreate the university society, and even the university community, to turn the research-worker teacher into a guide, philosopher and friend, seem to m e to serve a purpose, but one that is probably rather remote from the intentions of those w h o advocate this type of solution, since it represents an extremely conservative trend. T h e more the direct teacher/ student relationship is singled out and favoured, the more the university becomes a place for socialization, and the further removed w e are from what can save it: stricter and stricter submission to the requirements of knowledge and ever more critical analysis of the way knowledge is used by society. Whether socialization consists in spreading the prevailing normswhich is obviously what happens in most casesor whether its object is to develop counter-norms, it confines the university to serving for the transmission of culture, the exercise of social control, and the promotion of conformity, be it that of the small campus community or that of society as a whole. It is high time to react against an ideology which reduces teachers and students to infantile level in the n a m e of teamwork or h u m a n relations. T h e research-worker teachers ought not to be subjected to the exigencies of the various social demands. N o r is it for them to run the universities in terms of their o w n needs and interests. T w o units must therefore be separated: the institute, for the production of knowledge, and the university, with its different departments for teaching purposes. This separation has come about gradually in most universities, but the inferences have not yet been drawn. T h e main one is that teaching must result from the bringing together of the supply of knowledge produced by the institutes, and the demands put forward, on the one hand, by the students and, on the other, by various social entities in a pos-

ition to employ graduates or, more broadly, having recourse to the competencies of the universitybusinessfirmsor trade unions, national or local political institutions, voluntary associations, professional groups, etc. Negotiation between the parties concerned presupposes the existence of a political system, that is, of tripartite university institutions b y which university policy is framed. T h e French system would be excellent in this respect, if it were able to deal with real problems and m a k e decisions, which is not the case at present but m a y become so. Such an organization presupposes the existence of an executive, modelled on the lines of what it was in the great period of the founding of the American universities, although conceived in a quite different spirit. This institutional machinery should m a k e it possible to reintegrate the university system and thus to restore the unity that the universities have lost. For by trying to combine supply and demand of knowledge, the universities will also acquire the means of combining unity and diversification. A university should comprise three sectors: research, general education and professional training. T h e three partners should all have a say in each sector, but each should take charge in one: the teachers should have privileges and, in practice, a right of veto in the organization of research; the students, in general education, and the external agents, in professional training. A student should be able to combine in varying ways, and subject to revision, these three elements in education, which should be distinct but not hierarchized, each involving special advantages and responsibilities. T h e introduction of a strict hierarchy as between institutions should befirmlyopposed, which is possible only if the material and cultural unity of the university is kept in check. W e must get away from the university campus as soon as w e can. T h e university must split u p in order to adapt to its internal differentiation

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and to establish relations with society as a whole. I see a university, ideally, as a number of institutes situated at some distance from the towns, professional training centres closely associated with the places from which the social demand comes, and general educational centres situated in places where exchanges are extremely active and associated both with other youth activities and with cultural facilities. A s for the central administrative agencies, they should be in the heart of the city. Just as the combination of the three contributions presupposes a strong executive, some unifying principle needs to be introduced to co-ordinate the three functions. This is the last problem arising in connexion with the revival of the university, and the most important of all, for the survival of the university depends on its serving the unity of k n o w ledge. For decades n o w m a n y transformations in the world of learning have heralded the gradual disappearance of the old categoriesarts, science, medicine, etc. T h e time has come to introduce into the universities some unifying factor to knit together the creation of k n o w ledge, general education and professional training. This unifying factor can only come from a social aim, that is, a technical and h u m a n system. T h e only way to give the university n e w lifeto counter its subjection to technical b u reaucracyis to transform its intellectual function. In the past, it defended the abstract against the practical, which was associated with the domination of the notables. N o w the production system wants scientific and technical knowledge and would like to reduce society to mechanisms, machines and games. But the university, on the contrary, must examine the social nature of social practices. It is not enough for a prospective doctor to study biology and have some experience of clinical medicine. H e must k n o w something about public health problems and policy. Science must not be cut off from politics, from consideration of the social uses of k n o w ledge. This does not m e a n that science and

ideology should be mixed; they m a k e an absurd combination which destroys both science and political life. However, it is high time that, instead of talking only in terms of separate branches of study, w e should give central importance to complex technical and social questionsdecision-making, communication, change, and, at a more practical level, the city, news, the firm, war, the family, sex, etc. T h e day w h e n the universities secure recognition that the study of h u m a n practices is their essential purpose, instead of 'desocializing' society to determine the place of each thing, their rebirth will be assured. Only too often, w e hear discussions between the advocates of general education and those w h o are all for professionalization. These very terms, and this mis-statement of the issue, o b scure the true problem, which is that of choosing between the study of social action and the study of 'things', amongst which the facts of society would themselves be included. M o s t of those w h o work in the universities are not likely to be frightened by these changes, but they will have more difficulty in accepting one of their inevitable consequences: the end of the research-scientists' monopoly of teaching and of the students' monopoly of training. T h e separation of the institute and the university means in fact that research-scientists can no longer have a monopoly of teaching in the fields of general education and professional training. I think, however, that the prolonged crisis in m a n y universities has prepared a large number of the teachers to abandon a monopoly whose dangers outweigh its attractions. A t the same time, w e can no longer accept the situation in m a n y universities in the Western countries, where teaching is provided only for young people devoting all their time to their studies. O n the one hand, the various social agencies mentioned above will take an interest in the university only if they can benefit directly from it (it is extraordinary, w h e n one comes to think of it, that the university pays no attention to

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guiding the teachers themselves in the practice of their profession). O n the other, the university must, above all, choose between increasing or reducing a social inequality, which in the past it had only to transmit. It cannot reduce that inequality unless it gives a chance to those w h o have had none. This is yet another reason for breaking u p the teacher/student relationship, which perpetuates inequality, since the teacher is used to having as students those w h o are most like himself, whereas he must learn, on the contrary, to use his knowledge to help those w h o are further removed from university work owing to their age, their functions and activities, but w h o have behind them their experience of some sector of social practice. It is not enough to hope that training for adults will be successful in a university set-up. T h e universities must establish a systematic inequality favouring the underprivileged w h o , with such possibilities open to them, will demand knowledge. At the present time the university system operates like a lift-and-force p u m p . O u r technological and bureaucratic society demands graduates. So there is a very great call for higher educationso great that it tends to break d o w n the old cultural barriers. This is a threat to the dominance of the ruling class, which rests increasingly on the administration of social systems. Strict selection must therefore be introduced, which m a y perhaps maintain the privileges of the children of the upper classes, but which will,firstand foremost, recruit the leaders and executives needed by firms. It is the university which is asked to meet the dem a n d for higher education and it is at the university that the ruling lite wants to enlist recruits. There are three methods of solving the problem. T h e Soviet method is the simplest and the most rigid: the number of places available for each type of specialization isfixed.T h e student flow is therefore conditioned entirely by a government plan. In the United States of America, the main method is the establish480

ment of 'buffer institutions', n e w colleges with diminishing career prospects, at the base of a pyramid topped by highly reputed universities, difficult to enter but ensuring their graduates of a satisfactory career. T h e French system is uncontrolled; there is n o system of selection except for medicineand great numbers of students flock into the faculties, especially the old faculties of arts, where the percentage of failures is exceptionally high and employment prospects are almost negligible. Outside this system, in a protected environment, the grandes coles keep u p the supply of recruits for the ruling classes. W h e r e no control is exercised by the authorities, the decay of the system is manifest. M a n y students c a m p in the universities, in conditions of quite tolerable poverty on the whole, taking hardly any part in the life of the university, which contents itself with providing them with shelter of sorts and with a few courses, m a d e available in dismal or picturesque caravanserais. T h e disorganization is such that groups of these so-called students are s o m e times found opposing any change in their m a r ginal situation, whichfitsin with the preference of the authorities for an 'elitist' policy and a cultural soup-kitchen for these unemployed instead of having to face u p to their demands, because politics in these caravanserais is all an act. Curiously enough, the result is that a very broad consensus is often found in favour of the continuance of a process of decay which facilitates the selection of the ruling lites while keeping happy those w h o prefer to be in these pseudo-universities than in the offices to which they are destined. T h e French case is not exceptional. A n d this is a situation leading straight to the destruction of the universities and the triumph of the grandes coles, or federal universities, for the lite alone. Those, be they conservatives or revolutionaries, w h o will not hear of a transformation of

Death or change of the universities?

the university are only contributing, in this part of the world, to a process of sub-division which protects the dominant order from the threat that the general demand for higher education presents to it. O n the other hand, the effort to devise a n e w form of university m a y not be prompted solely by concern for democratization, but alsoand primarilyby deep thinking on the cultural changes of our time.

If w e persist in defining universities as institutions for the transmission of knowledge, w e shall not be able to stem the crisis. If, on the other hand, w e try to set u p n e w universities with the twofold task of producing knowledge and critically examining the social conditions in which knowledge is used, w e m a y see the revival of a university organization which alone can counterbalance the more and more obtrusive power of the technocratic machinery.

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The European uni in society

For the purposes of this article, Europe will be taken to m e a n Eastern as well as Western Europe, although it should be borne in mind that our information concerning the countries of Eastern Europe is less direct and extensive. There is m u c h talk nowadays of a n e w relationship between the university and society. T h e university's functions, it is true, are tending to change. Society's n e w needs, arising from changes in society itself, and the resultant u n foreseen or even hitherto u n k n o w n 'expectations' of individuals and groups, young people and adults, m e n and w o m e n , public and private enterprise, not forgetting the Stateall these are putting heavy pressure on the university, which is itself grappling with internal problems of an acuteness unprecedented in its long history. In this case, all the factors are interconnected. Changing one variable, whether internal or external, aifects all the others. T h e degree to which this crisis is felt varies according to the country, the type of socio-political rgime and

Henri Janne (Belgium). Former Minister of Education and Culture; former Rector of the University of Brussels; member of the Presiding Committee on Permanent Education of the Council of Europe; President of the Royal Academy of Science, Letters and Fine Arts. Among his recent publications are: L e Systme Social. Essai de Thorie Gnrale; L e T e m p s d u Changement/ L'Universit et les Besoins de la Socit Contemporaine/ Les Principes Gnraux de la Planification Universitaire.

even the particular circumstances of each university. Our aim is first to examine the tendencies which are already expressing in concrete form the changing functions of the university in society, and then to consider the long-term prospects. Naturally, the few opinions given here can only be general or personal, since so m u c h research and so m a n y publications have already been devoted to a close examination of these problems that it is difficult even to give a list of them. O n e sign of this intense activity is the very noteworthy series of publications, reports of commissions and booklets published by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education and by the International Council for Educational Development. Another is the part played in this connexion by Unesco, in liaison with the International Bureau of Education, the regional conferences of Ministers of Education, the International Institute for Educational Planning, a large number of commissions set u p to deal with specific problems, and, last but not least, the International Commission on the Development of Education.1 In this range of concerns, the importance allotted to higher education is considerable. It will thus be observed at the outset that

1. Chaired by Edgar Faure, whose report gave rise to the publication of a book: Learning to Be, Paris and London, Unesco and Harrap, 1972.

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the university is n o longer treated in this broad context as an isolated institution or a separate entity, but as a factor 'situated' in the educational system, which is itself considered as a rule to be one of the 'sub-systems' of society as a whole. This point of view has existed for quite some time, but only recently has it begun to assert itself with an irresistible force. F r o m a cultural standpoint this is undoubtedly the fundamental change from which all the others follow.

The functions of the university. The threat of deterioration

In order to grasp what is really happening, it is necessary to recall the five functions which the modern university, more or less explicitlyin the normal course of things anywayat present discharges: It trains society's higher technicians, and hence most of the occupants of its key posts. It is a centre of scientific research and of creative scientific thinking, and trains all the research workers required by society; higher education in the university is regarded as inseparable from scientific research. It very often also trains secondary school teachers and specialists in the sciences of education; it thereby exerts a strong influence on this level of education, from which its o w n students are drawn. It selects and trains its o w n teaching staff, so perpetuating itself b y a kind of social parthenogenesis; transfers from university to university occur fairly frequently. Lastly, as a community of teachers, research workers and students, it is an influential centre of cultural activity and of social and moral regeneration. T h e Soviet idea of the university is somewhat different in that all higher education is regarded as an organic whole, including not only the university as such, but also the establishments

of higher training in specialized professions (agronomy, medicine, etc.),1 and with the ultimate purpose of serving national production while helping to build a socialist society. T h e act of 1961 on higher education in the U . S . S . R . sets out in seven points the aims of the universities and of the higher education establishments: T o train highly qualified specialists, brought u p in Marxist-Leninist spirit fully familiar with the most recent scientific and technological achievements at h o m e and abroad and with the practical aspects of production, and capable of making full use of modern technology and of inventing the technology of the future. T o carry out research which will help to solve the problem raised by the building of c o m munism. 2 T o produce high-quality textbooks and teaching aids. T o train teachers and research workers. T o provide advanced training for graduates e m ployed in various sectors of the national econo m y , the arts, education and the health services. T o popularize scientific and political knowledge. T o study problems connected with the employment of graduates and the improvement of their training. Prokofiev3 writes: ' T h e higher school is closely connected with the national economy and reflects the processes taking place in it.' T h e roles and objectives of all educational establishments are laid d o w n by the development plans. In considering the nature of university education, Sir Eric Ashby writes with his customary
1. T h e general term for this is ' V U Z ' (vyssee ucebnoe zavedenie) i.e. 'higher education establishment'. 2. It should, however, be noted that most research is carried out in the academies, which have their own network of institutes and laboratories. 3. Articles by M . A . Prokofiev, M . G . Chilikin and S. I. Tiulpanov in Higher Education in the U.S.S.R., p. 5, Unesco, Paris, 1961 (Educational Studies and Documents, N o . 39).

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discernment that it should equip the individual with three capacities: the ability to work with ideas, the ability to work with things and the ability to work with other people. According to British tradition, he adds, thefirstof these abilities is taught by the universities, the second by the polytechnical colleges and the third by pursuing an occupation. Y o u n g people today are demanding that higher education shift its e m phasis to the third of these abilities.1 In this situation it is clear that the university is tending to lose its distinguishing characteristics, since it is under pressure to modify its fundamentally conceptual and scientific teaching so that it m a y at least have some practical significance and be directed towards material and h u m a n applications. A s far as Western developments are concerned, the origin of this change, already i m plicit in the five functions set out above, lies in the fact that the university n o longer confines itself to training a limited 'lite', drawn from the ruling class and under the requirement to acquire those skills which will enable it to step into its inherited role at the levers of power based on property, co-optation within the ranks of the ruling class (including endogamy) and political selection. It is worth noting that the October Revolution transformed the pre-1917 class-based university into an institution based on the principle of equality of opportunity. Nevertheless, the enrolment structure is still markedly influenced by social background. T h e proportion of places occupied by the children of members of the 'intelligentsia', the social category defined statistically as comprising non-manual workers, continues to b e higher than this category's proportion in the working population. H o w ever, special facilities have been provided for working-class youngsters' admission quotas particularly and, in addition, correspondence courses and part-time courses are very widespread in the U . S . S . R . In spite of these c o m pensatory opportunities and the development of

lifelong education, the under-representation of rural areas remains particularly pronounced, whereas democratization is very advanced as far as concerns workers.2 In the West, although the children of the ruling classes are strongly over-represented in those branches of study which lead to the top jobs, middle-class students and eventhough in m u c h smaller proportionsworking-class students, are today in the majority at university. In most European countries, at any rate on the Continent, most students are concentrated in mass universities. T h u s the character of the university has changed at the same time as its purpose and its sizefor in this as in other spheres quantity affects quality. It must in fact be admitted that the university has not emerged unscathed after absorbing the inflow of n e w students. Generally speaking, it has not been successful in effecting the metamorphosis from 'lite' university to mass university. It has not responded as it ought either to the challenge of numbers or to that of socio-cultural heterogeneity. E d u cational failure is everywhere apparent. T h e drop-out rate is enormous, while instruments of assessment are unreliable. In any case, a great deal of doubt persists about the qualities to be gauged and about the true nature of the criteria employed, especially w h e n , as is inevitably the case, they are adversely affected by sheer weight of numbers. Although, broadly speaking, the university

1. The Structure of Higher Education; A World View, p. 17, N e w York, N . Y . , International Council for Educational Development, January 1973 (occasional paper, N o . 6). 2. Some information on the subject is to be found in the reports of professors Szczepanski and Janne submitted to the Conference of Ministers of Education of European Member States of Unesco on Access to Higher Education (Vienna, November 1967), Unesco, in the work by Barbara B . Burn, Higher Education in Nine Countries (Carnegie Commission on Higher Education), N e w York, N . Y . , McGraw-Hill, 1971, and in Alfred Sauvy and Janina Lagneau-Markiewicz, Access to Education (Project 1, European Cultural Foundation, Amsterdam), The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1973.

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has not shown enough imagination or willingness to make innovations, the State, which is the expression of society as a whole, cannot pride itself on having supplied the university with the extra resources it needed. This is obviously because of the rapid increase in expenditure on existing types of activity and employing existing criteria.1 It must be emphasized that the university has scarcely been in a position to adapt its selection procedures and criteria to the n e w situation. A s long as it was a matter of selecting an 'lite', it was necessary, in the logic of the elitist culture, to reject the unfit and classify the elect: examinations were, and had to be, selective. In the present circumstances, there has been a change in what is expected of the university: the aim n o w is to enable each student to pursue his education to the highest level which he is capable of reaching so that he m a y pursue a rewarding professional career as an executive, a technologist, or a person competent in a field less clearly marked out by academic qualifications (the ' h u m a n sciences'). T h e university has become mainly a channel for social mobility (chiefly 'inter-generation' m o bility). Under these circumstances, the traditional method of university selection is wide open to criticism. T o see this method in operation, one would think the purpose was to detect, not the student's positive qualities, but the signs of his shortcomings. T h e university examination thus appears as essentially negative, and tends to determine what a person is incapable of doing rather than trying to find out what he can do successfully. T h e method of assessment which the n e w situation demands would be an orientation and guidance forming part of university education itself.2 This latter type of selection would be positive, because it would make it possible at any given m o m e n t to 'place' the student wherever his abilities, acquired knowledge and aspirations ensure that he can succeed. Needless to say, such a method of positive assessment could only work within a system

where thefinalacademic awards left plenty of leeway for such guidance by allowing for a very wide margin of personal choice. This presupposes a system of 'credits' (as in American universities), or the (Bertrand Schwartz) system of 'study units', and hence a m u c h greater flexibility in university structures. Yielding to the force of circumstances, the university has begun to adapt itself, but m u c h more by responding to immediate needs than by undertaking reforms based on policy3 planned a long time in advance.
i. Extract from our closing report at the Bruges S y m posium: European Policy and Higher Education, College of Europe, 12-14 April 1973. 2. See the remarkable study by M . Reuchlin: Individual Orientation in Education (Educating Man for the 21st Century), T h e Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1972, in the framework of Project I of the Tlan 2000 Education' (European Cultural Foundation). 3. In France, more than 600 'education and research units' {units d'enseignement et de rechercheUER) have been established by internal transformation under the Orientation of Higher Education Act of N o v e m b e r 1968 (Barbara B . Burn, op. cit., p . 12); on the strength of a 1966 decree, more than thirty 'university institutes of technology' {instituts universitaires de technologieIUT) have been set u p , which in a two-year course train higher technicians for industry and the tertiary sector, with emphasis on practical experience. S o m e I U T s were converted into U E R s after 1968 (Barbara B . Burn, op. cit., p . 15). O n e should mention the Centre Universitaire de Vincennes (12,000 students, 26 departments, 400 full-time teachers) which admits students w h o have not passed the school-leaving examination, practises contact between different disciplines, and offers wide choices; it has a credit system and is developing a policy of group activity (see Learning to Be, op. cit., p . 201-2). O n e should note the opening of the technological university of Compigne based on contact between different disciplines, research, and a staff of teachers and engineers with full 'functional equality'. T h e community colleges in the United States are also worth mentioning. In the State of N e w York, for example, 37 establishments have been set u p , with 166,000 students, half of w h o m are doing courses in technology (for the 'Associate in Applied Sciences' diploma at the end of two years) and the other half, general studies (for the 'Associate in Arts' diploma after two years, leading on to other higher studies). cf. O E C D , Recurrent Education in the State of New York (Country reports), p . 23-4 (mimeographed document). T h e 'university-without-walls' set up by a dozen American universities also needs to be considered: free admission between the ages of 16 and 6 0 , individual

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In several respects, the answer to certain needs has had to be found outside the university itself in the framework of cnon-university' higher education or by means of parallel efforts.1 A s a result of the need for a policy governing the distribution of the resources devoted to higher education, there is thus a trend towards organizing all of higher education as a single, comprehensive whole. 2 This trend brings Western higher education closer in this respect to the system in the countries of Eastern Europe.

the working population of the industrialized countries was changing m u c h more rapidly than the virtually immobile population of traditional societies, this rapiditynoticeable, with benefit of hindsight, from generation to generationwas on the whole scarcely perceptible to the individual specialist or technician: the job remained the same. Nowadays this is no longer true. W e are witnessing an increasingly rapid change in the structures of the working population and, in fact, the technologies of production are based
1. Here one should mention the 'career ladder programs' of the State of N e w York. These enable student nurses to pass through several stages from practical nurse to registered nurse and on to degrees in nursing ( N e w York State University, cf. O E C D report, op. cit., p. 29). S o m e professional organizations have set u p permanent in-service training schemes. In 1971-72, 2 )354 practitioners were officially recognized by the American Medical Association as having spent 50 hours per year on training courses for a period of 3 years. But the most significant reform is the one carried out in the United K i n g d o m , by royal charter in 1964, founding the Council for National Academic Awards ( C N A A ) which awards degrees obtained on the basis of approved courses at various educational establishments open to adults (in 1967 there were approximately 170 undergraduate courses and 6 graduate courses with an enrolment of more than 10,000 students, (cf. Barbara B . Burn, op. cit., p . 49-50.) Although academically speaking their standard is not that of a university, the very distinctive 'folk high-schools' of Sweden (30,000 students) and the Yugoslav 'workers' universities' (see Edgar Faure, op. cit., p . 206-7) deserve a mention. A n important sign of the expected changes appears in the I L O introductory note (Department of Social Institutions Development, Education programme: W E D / R E S . 1 / D . 5 ) concerning the role of universities in workers' education. 2. Here it is appropriate to mention the development of the University Grants Committee in the United K i n g d o m , towards State control, the transformation of the role of the 'Chancellor' in Sweden (now the State's representative to the universities and not vice versa, and the n e w role of the Federal State as regards higher education in the Federal Republic of G e r m a n y , cf. Higher Education: From Autonomy to Systems, ed. by James A . Perkins, International Council for Educational D e velopment, N e w York, N . Y . , 1972, esp. p . 243 et seq.). Furthermore, economic planning is everywhere showing a tendency to embrace education, including higher education, which is hence becoming more and more to be considered as one of the economic factors (both as input and output) in the life of the nation.

The university and the permanence of education

T h e traditional universitythe whole traditional educational system for that matter culminated in a final diploma certifying that its bearer was henceforthfitto carry on one of the trades or professions corresponding to the social division of labour In his youth, a m a n was expected to acquire a stock-in-trade of knowledge and techniques which would be valid for the whole of his professional career. Only a few extra skills might need to be learnt as a result of technical progress. For the rest, thanks to his acknowledged competence, each individual was able to adapt himself to the minor and infrequent changes which occurred Although

programmes, teaching by tutors, teaching staff consisting partly of visiting experts (seeLearning to Be, op. cit., p . 187-8). In the U . S . S . R . , the range of study opportunities is remarkably wide. (See Barbara B . Burn, op. cit., p. 277 ff.) T h e development of correspondence courses is continued at a post-secondary level. Poland has also taken an appreciable step in this direction by linking a number of evening classes to big factories (see Edgar Faure, op. cit., p . 203). In the United K i n g d o m , one should note in particular the establishment of numerous 'polytechnics' (30 of these were foreseen in the White Paper of M a y , 1966) which should each have 2,000 students and which have aims similar to those of the French I U T s , but are distinguished by close links with industry and business; they often raise existing technical colleges to university level.

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on an increasingly scientific type of conceptual approach. A s a result, the functions of research, evaluation and organization and those of planning, information and communication are multiplying. Moreover, technical operations often change, and with them the 'trade', i.e. the skills required, and the tools employed. O n the other hand, with the increase in the quantity and variety of (mostly private) consumption and leisure, the economy of the tertiary sector is flourishing, and with it the enterprises providing culture, amusement, sport, public transport and catering, and national and international tourism. Certain jobs in the fields of c o m m u n i cation, information, knowledge of languages, popularization and interpretation of cultural works, and adult education are becoming increasingly numerous. Faced with these changes and n e w activities, the university is being slow to adapt itself, and its innovations, w h e n they are m a d e , lag behind the real needs. For this reason, a great deal of training has been taken over by private firms, and the parallel higher education which w e mentioned is, explicitly or implicitly, taking organized shape.1 At all events, the basic phenomenon is that academics and technicians are no longer able to cope with the changes occurring in their branches of activity by falling back on their basic knowledge (acquired in the course of their studies) alone or by drawing on their professional experience. There is an increasing need to be kept u p to date by those w h o k n o w and so the problem is no longer one of selfadjustment but of education, and hence of the transmission of knowledge. But this is not feasible except through an appropriate system, and lifelong education is just such a system. If university-level knowledge is involved, such a system must be organized at university level. This challenge is addressed to the universities of the entire highly industrialized world, irrespective of political and social rgimes. W h e n one adds to these considerations the

fact that, on the one hand, public opinion considers study at university to be the best means of climbing the social ladder, and, on the other hand, it is becoming aware of the limitations and lack of prospects w h e n democratization is confined to school-age education, then one can understand w h y the desire for lifelong education is becoming widespread especially at the higher level. T h e aim must be, at one and the same time, to deal with vocational problems and to hold out constantly renewed opportunities for higher education throughout the individual's career. T h e university must, therefore, equip itself to make lifelong education a reality at its o w n level. T h e need is so pressing that, were the university to fail in this n e w task, functional substitutes would spring u p to do what it has failed to do. This concerns not so m u c h individual universities as the university education system as a whole, since the best way for the universities to tackle this problem would probably be jointly and by applying the principle of distributing the specialized subjects a m o n g themselves. T h e volume of requirements will go on increasing in the years to come. 2 T o quote a passage from our Bruges report:3
T h e traditional pattern of h u m a n life, whereby the individual passes through three successive stages training without any exercise of responsibility until the age of at least 16 and at most 25-26, professional activity until the age of 65 o n average, and, lastly, a retirement of total leisurewill gradually yield to a model whereby from the age of reason to the age at which physical and intellectual faculties seriously decline, the h u m a n being will live permanently in

1. There is no need to remind readers of the remarkable achievements in programmed instruction made by such a firm as I B M almost throughout the world. In this field, the influence of Skinner's neo-behaviourism is increasingly strong. 2. cf. in this connexion the section by Stefan Jensen in Possible Futures of European Education, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1972, and in particular Table 3, p. 30. 3. European Policy and Higher Education, op. cit., not yet published.

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three dimensions: responsible work, study and leisure. T h e c open university' in the United K i n g d o m undoubtedly foreshadows the n e w culture which corresponds to the n e w w a y of life.

The university and the profile of the working population. The problem of orientation

W e have hinted that orientation and guidance by the university, built into the education process itself, should logically come to replace a system of selection which was geared to a different ultimate purpose. There remains the fact that in the so-called 'Western' world, one of the university's most difficult problems is that of gearing the training it provides to the genuine needs of society and, in consequence, the individual needs of the students, w h o hope that their studies will in the normal course of things, give them access to their expected professional careers. However, one should not overlook the fact that the forces of dissent in the capitalist system denounce the university precisely because they see it as an instrument for supplying private exploiters (or the State, submissive to their interests) with an intellectual labour force conditioned to serve them. T h e university's view is that it should devote itself exclusively to satisfying individual aspirations for scientific and cultural training, regardless of the 'needs' of society, at the same time, as scientific Marxism objectively requires, indicting the capitalist social order. Quite apart from the fact that the political majority wouldrightly or wronglybe unwilling to pay for the university to d o this, society must after all function sufficiently well to be able to cope, in technical terms, with the needs created by the standard of living; and, like it or not, most students go to university to obtain a good 'passport' to a career. If this is the case, the fundamental problem, which has so far not been satisfactorily resolved,

is the medium-term forecasting of the structure of the economically active population, and hence of needs for newly qualified personnel trained in various occupational skills. This approach does not entail any need to set a numerus clausus for every speciality at national level. In fact, knowledge of the numbers of graduates recently qualifying, students enrolled and university places probably available, would constitute a 'creative prediction', which would bring into play both the personal motivations of students and those of the university (as regards the further development of teaching capacity). In this way there would be a closer correspondence between individual aspirations and the needs of society. Hence, it is undoubtedly one of the primary functions of departments and centres of economic and statistical research, in collaboration with official departments, to seek a solution to this crucial problem of the economic system in Western countries. T h e problem is theoretically solved in an economic planning system of the Soviet type. In practice, however, it is not, of course, without its serious difficulties. It is not always easy to get the two aimsthe needs of the State plan and individual desires regarding the type and place of workto coincide completely. These are the broad outlines of the process involved:
T h e State guarantees that a student, after graduating from a higher educational institution, has work in the speciality acquired, and since education in this country is free of charge, it sends the graduate to an industry and a region where he is most needed. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the student has the right to choose between several offers. If it happens that the interests of the State and those of the student clash, the State insists on the graduated specialist working for three years at the enterprise indicated. T h e State distribution of graduates is performed by a special commission of the university, consisting of the dean of the faculty, heads of its departments, and representatives of students, the public and of enterprises and departments. W h e n deciding o n the most

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appropriate place of work, the Commission takes into account the student's abilities shown during his studies, his family situation, personal inclinations and other qualities, sometimes very difficult matters being taken into consideration. If students are married, then only one of the couple is subject to distribution, according to their choice. T h e graduating and distributed student is protected by a n u m b e r of special laws that require the administration to use h i m only in his speciality, creating for h i m decent conditions of life, etc. I a m dwelling on this in such detail because I want to say that the system of State distribution is a system of regulation of the n u m b e r of specialists needed by the country, proceeding from which it is also established what number of students should be admitted to the first course. This very system protects the graduate against overproduction of specialists in the given sphere.1

In the West, the gap which has so far existed between qualifications and their use is at the loot of a considerable part of the dissatisfaction and anxiety among young people and of the low public opinion of universities as places which produce failures and malcontents. This remark demonstrates the importance of the United Kingdom's efforts in thisfield.T o quote from a study by Barbara B . Burn, of which the chapter on the United K i n g d o m had the benefit of Sir Eric Ashby's criticism:
One of the explicit functions of the U G C 2 is to help ensure that the universities 'are fully adequate to national needs', and this principle in slightly different words has been confirmed by the Committee of ViceChancellors and Principals. It has been carried out with the appointment of special committees to study and recommend on the need to expand different areas of university teaching and research and by subsequent measures to encourage and finance such expansion. Because of the difficulty of accurately predicting future m a n p o w e r needs, and because university firstdegree enrolments have been determined mainly by student demands, the role played in university growth by estimates of future needs of highly trained m a n power has thus far been limited. T h e Robbins C o m :mittee based its forecasts of enrolment on estimates

of 'social demand'projections of the n u m b e r of qualified persons w h o would seek higher education rather than on the future needs of the economy for highly qualified manpower. But it recommended that machinery be established for 'continuous statistical investigation' so that m a n p o w e r needs might be taken into account in future higher education planning (Robbins Committee, 1963, appendix I V , part II, p. 70-4). T h e recommendation led to the establishment of several research bureaux, including one at the L o n d o n School of Economics in 1964. K n o w n as the Higher Education Research Unit, it is under the direction of C . A . Moser, w h o has since become head of the Central Statistical Office. Financed by the U G C , the Department of Education and Science, the Social Science Research Council, the Ford F o u n dation, and other sources, the unit is conducting research on a variety of projects. T h e Higher E d u cation Research Unit works closely with the n e w planning branch in the D E S , 3 established in 1966 to look at higher education as a whole and to advise the policy branches within D E S on alternatives for possible development schemes. T h e planning branch also attempts to gather information pertinent to future needs for trained m a n p o w e r . 4

It will be seen from this extract that the universitiesdespite their functional autonomy, which is not challengedare here considered, in this fundamental respect, to be an integrated factor which is itself situated within society, the latter being taken as an economic and cultural whole. Naturally, university education is linked with the whole of higher education, considered as a part of the over-all education system. O n c e again, the university thus emerges as no longer being an 'ivory tower', cut off from society and accomplishing its self-appointed tasks.

1. Statement by Professor Kapitsa in reply to a questionnaire from the International Association of Universities, cf. Henri Janne, The University and the Needs of Contemporary Society (Papers-10), p. 53, Paris, International Association of Universities, 1970. 2. University Grants Committee. 3. Department of Education and Science. 4. Barbara B . Burn, op. cit., p. 72-3.

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Versatility in training. T h e 'diffuse' university

If the university is henceforth to take in adults of all ages with a view to readapting them to activities which have changed with the progress of science and technology, and if, with this in view, it is to offer them fresh chances of promotion through higher education, it is necessarily expected to adjust its teaching so that it corresponds completely to the real needs of life in society. This does not m e a n that university education must incline towards narrow specialization with a purely utilitarian end in view. In point of fact, a person w h o is capable of adapting his abilities to n e w requirements, as the future will increasingly demand of him, needs a theoretical, scientific and technical grounding in a wide area which, far from turning him into a specialist, will m a k e him versatile, capable of mastering a succession of specializations (successive and varied problems, in fact). Hence, general training, with its implications of detachment from direct and concrete ('utilitarian') application, is becoming a basic requirement. It goes without saying that at the same time this high-level intellectual equipment needs to exercise itself o n a variety of practical applications. If so, it surely becomes obvious that the university will be less and less able, for purely material reasons, to set up its o w n workshops, laboratories, offices and practical units, the range of which is unlimited and hard to foresee. It will therefore have to make systematic use of external resourcesboth material and humanappropriate to the particular exercises in point, and organize corresponding services. In fact, the university will be obliged to call in 'practitioner-teachers' of high technical calibre, but attached to the university on a part-time or temporary basis; they only contribute successfully in the same place where they are professionally in charge of the actual production and research systems. T h e university will thus be 'a university without walls'. It will become 'diffuse'.1

These final reflections bring us towards our conclusion. It should be emphasized,first,that although w e have shown the university to be a prey to powerful factors of change, w e have not, in the limited space of an article, been able to take all these factors into consideration and even in the case of those which w e have mentioned, w e have not, for the sake of coherence, been able to consider all their consequences. In particular, w e have not had the time to demonstrate that the present structures of the university are outdated (organization by faculty and by discipline) and that university teaching, henceforth based on the principle of assisted self-instruction (both individual and in groups of varying size, according to Bertrand Schwartz) must be able to assimilate the mass media and the n e w educational technologies. T o s u m up, the university is under pressure as a result of scientific and technical changes which have restated its response to society's and individuals' needs in n e w terms, and simultaneously as a result of a social demand which has become a mass phenomenon, and lastly, as a result of public and political opinion which intends drastically to reduce the rate of growth of higher education expenditure and at the same time to obtain an efficient, economically viable university, providing 'services' for individuals and for society; in short, the university is entering a critical phase of metamorphosis. If it failed to overcome this crisis and to change to the necessary extent, it would sink back into one of those periods of stagnation which it has already experienced at least twice in its long history. After a phase of remarkable brilliance, the mediaeval university lived o n as a shadow of its former self, as a pedantic and

I. This idea has been developed in a remarkable way by Gaston Deurinck and his international team in the book L'Enseignement Universitaire en Europe de l'An 2000 which is shortly to be published by Elsevier (English edition by Martinus Nijhoff)Plan Europe 2000, Project I: Education, of the European Cultural F o u n dation.

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fossilized institution, until the Renaissance. In the eighteenth century, the humanist university, which had started developing in the sixteenth century, had become an empty shell, whilst the functions of scientific research, creative thought and the dissemination of ideas were taken over by the m a n y newly founded academies. Such precedents should give us food for thought. If the university succeeds in making the necessary change, its whole traditional nature will be transformed. First, in terms of time, the university will no longer be either an institution peculiar to a certain age group (18-25), o r a full-time activity, since as a rule the student will carry on a normal job; it will be the period of recurrent education. Second, in terms of space, it will be physically neither a campus nor a set of buildings in a town constituting an exclusive place of learning, nor a centre for the dissemination of knowledge through direct on-the-spot contact, nor an organization requiring students' residence in the vicinity or their regular attendance; the place of learning would be everywhere where the m a terial and h u m a n 'resources' for training are to be foundfirms, public institutions, public or private organizations, natural or cultural sites, dissemination through the mass media and external contacts through computer terminals. Lastly, the professional 'academic corps' would

become for the most part a body of specialists in the various disciplines, responsible not for teaching but for organizing teaching (mobilization of external h u m a n and material 'resources'; procedures for contacting scattered students, the educational principle being that of assisted self-instruction, guidance and interdisciplinarity) and the majority of teachers would be part-time specialists to w h o m students would go outside the university. In short, the traditional introversion of the university, bound u p with the political i m pression of extraterritoriality, its cultural i m pression of separateness (the 'ivory tower') and its individualist feeling of academic freedom, will give way to extraversion: the university will m a k e its entry into society. It will be 'without walls' and 'diffuse'. Society will be in the university, and the university will be in society. Nevertheless, however involved it m a y be in social life, and however 'open' to the outside world it m a y wish to be, the university as an institution must enjoy a large degree of autono m y and very extensive self-determination, without which it would not have the capacity to innovate and create, and above all would be unable to discharge its function of criticizing the structures of societya capacity and a function which will be more than ever necessary in a world threatened by over-organization and conditioning.

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The university and research

T o d a y il seems obvious to say that a modern university can only fulfil its role successfully if scientific research is progressing well; the statement usually requires n o proof. But there is nothing obvious about questions such as the nature of scientific research at a university, the goals towards which it should be directed, the persons w h o should decide upon research priorities, the relationship between research inside and outside the universities, the scientific organization of scientific research and methods of financing it, and the distribution of the university staff's work load between teaching and scientific research. Let us consider some of these questions o n the basis of the experience of universities not only in the Soviet Union but also in Eastern and Western Europe.

Factors in the increasing importance of universities within the system of higher education

T h e revolution in science and technology calls for a corresponding reorganization of higher education. This reorganization should meet the following requirements, which are all conse-

A. N. Matveev (U.S.S RJ. Professor of Physics at Moscow State University. Was Assistant DirectorGeneral for Science at Unesco from 1964 to 1969.

quences of the scientific and technical revolution. First, specialists in allfieldshave to show m u c h more initiative than they have done in the past. This means that in technical and even organizational work the specialist is increasingly required not only to understand research work but also to take part in it. Moreover, technical and even organizational work in themselves are increasingly taking on the characteristics of research work. Universities have always been, as they are today, higher educational establishments which pay particular attention to developing their students' powers of initiative. This is w h y they are n o w natural centres of experimentation for the reorganization, along the lines mentioned, of the work of other establishments of higher education. Second, because of the rapid rate of scientific and technical progress all specialists need to be able continually to improve their standard of knowledge and bring it u p to date. T h e aim in the training of specialists at the level of higher education, therefore, is not so m u c h to hand d o w n a certain body of knowledge as to develop their ability to update and replenish their store of knowledge constantly according to present needs. This approach to teaching has always been a hallmark of the best universities. It is therefore quite natural that w h e n other higher educational establishments are to be reorganized along these lines the universities should point out the way for them.

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Third, the basic sciences are playing an increasingly important part in all sectors of science and technology, and consequently in all higher educational establishments. T h e standard of the basic training in higher education can only be raised with the help of the universities and through them. This is one of the main reasons for the very great importance of universities in the system of higher education in a period of scientific and technological revolution. Fourth, the scientific and technological revolution is opening u p and rapidly expanding n e w areas of knowledge and technology in which no specialists have been trained. There are m a n y examples of thisnuclear energy, cybernetics, information theory, computer technology, etc. Experience shows that these n e w areas of k n o w ledge and technology not only emerge from the basic sciencesthey are most successful and m a k e most rapid progress under specialists with a basic university training. There is no doubt that n e w areas of science and technology will be discovered in future, but the task of developing them cannot be left to university-trained specialists. This means that the training of specialists in all spheres must have the qualities that used to belong only to a university training. Obviously, universities will have an important part to play in ensuring that the whole system of higher education acquires the qualities characteristic of a university training. Fifth, the scientific and technical revolution calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the solution of scientific and technological problems. There is probably no scientific and technological problem of any significance which does not require an interdisciplinary approach. Today, one of the most important qualities for a specialist to possess is the ability to co-operate closely with specialists in other subjects in solving scientific and technological problems with which they, too, are concerned. T h e type of university training given today obviously develops this ability more fully, although by n o means fully enough. Therefore the value of

university experience in this sphere for the system of higher education as a whole can hardly be exaggerated. T h e task of the university is to develop its o w n experience in this sphere and to extend it to the rest of the system of higher education.

T h e role of scientific research in the university

At the higher levels of university trainingthose which lead to a P h . D . or its equivalent, depending o n the countryit is unthinkable that research should be separate from training. At these levels the training itself is acquired through scientific research and has something of the nature of vocational training. T h e post-graduate student's main activity is scientific research. Because of this he not only acquires knowledge in his o w n branch of studies, but grasps the point of scientific method, and his powers of initiative are developed. These two qualitiesa grasp of scientific method and powers of initiativeare the main qualities a student finishing a course at the higher level of university education should possess. N o t all of them, by any means, will go on to become scientific research workers. But these qualities are extremely useful, not only for future scientists, but in all kinds of other spheres of activity, some of them very far removed from the narrow field of scientific research in which they were acquired. O f course, the reputation of a university as a whole stands or falls by the standards of its post-graduate training. This of itself justifies the claim that the reputation of a university is determined to a large extent by the quality of its scientific research. But scientific research at a university is i m portant not only at the higher levels of university educationthe lower levels also are considerably influenced by the standard reached in scientific research. A teacher w h o is actively engaged in scientific research is more aware of

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the need to change the content and methods of his teaching so as to keep pace with scientific progress and the requirements of industry. W h a t is more, scientific research generates a spirit of inquiry and imaginative enterprise in a university. Active research work prevents the educational process at university from stagnating; it raises the standard and improves the content of the training given, in so far as these are not determined by factors within the training process itself. Another aspect of scientific research at university has great practical importancescientific research which is carried out at the request of industry, agriculture or of cultural, scientific and other organizations which are able to finance scientific research. This kind of research is i m portant for universities in two ways. First it brings in additional funds to finance scientific research. This is very important for the universities, as in most cases the scientific research they undertake is not financed as generously as similar research at specialized scientific laboratories, w h e n calculated on the basis of each worker. Second, such research enables the universities to m a k e a second substantial contribution to scientific and technical progress and to the social and economic development of the country. Theirfirstand major contribution, of course, is the training of specialists.

and methods or to improve those already in use, including the preparation of models and the construction of demonstration models of industrial plant. W h a t kind of research should be developed at universities? In the past, they have always been associated with basic research. There was a time w h e n universities had a monopoly of such research. But basic research is n o w undertaken at specialized scientific research institutes, laboratories and scientific centres as well as at universities. Universities have not only lost their monopoly in this sectorin m a n y cases they no longer even lead thefield.This is partly a result of the advent of 'high-level' science, which requires extremely expensive plant and equipment (accelerators, large bubble-chambers with electronic computers, radio-telescopes, etc.). Obviously, such equipment must be used as intensively as possible. This is the reason for the existence of scientific groups, the main or only function of which is to undertake basic research for which this equipment is needed. T h e extent of the universities' involvement in this work is in most cases outside their control. Their position in these centres is often that of the 'poor relation'. Only outstanding universities manage to avoid this fate. For example, the M o s c o w State University has a branch at D u b n a , and two of its departments are based there. T h e heads of these departments and their colleagues play leading roles in the work done at D u b n a and see that close contact is maintained between T h e nature of scientific research D u b n a and the M o s c o w State University's deat universities partment of physics. A similar situation exists with regard to Serpukhov. Scientists in the Scientific research m a y be either basic or apM o s c o w State University's department of physplied research. T h e aim of thefirstis to extend ics have very close links with the scientific scientific knowledge or to open u p n e w areas of complex at Pakhra. Scientists working in other research; it has no practical aims. T h e aim of the fields at the M o s c o w State University have simisecond is to extend scientific knowledge for lar contacts with centres working in their fields. some concrete, practical purpose. Another i m For example, the centre for biological research portant aspect of scientific and technical work at Pushkino collaborates very closely with scienis its applicationthe systematic use of the tists in the biology department and in the deresults of basic and applied research to develop partment of applied mathematics, a m o n g others. n e w materials, n e w goods, industrial processes

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Scientists from the M o s c o w State University undertake scientific research for industry on a large scale. This means that leading universities such as the M o s c o w State University play a considerable part in the development of research. But special attention must be paid to the less important universities, particularly the newer ones, and special measures need to be taken for the development of scientific research in them. It is essential for the development of scientific research in the country as a whole that universities should play a sufficiently active part in it. Attention should be paid to points given below. Basic research requires an inventive approach, boldness, an open mind, great enthusiasm and dedication and a constant influx of young people. It would, unfortunately, be difficult for established scientific groups to retain all these qualities over a very long period of time. Scientific research centres, like everything that exists, are subject to the dialectics of development: the growing organism reaches m a turity, which is followed by decline. Universities are more fortunate in this respect: the basis of their existence is the endless succession of generations. Universities must therefore be a vital factorthough not the only onein a system of basic research which can ensure its rapid and uninterrupted development. In July 1972 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Council of Ministers of the U . S . S . R . considered measures to be taken for the future development of higher education in the country. In the decision adopted on this subject, special attention is paid to the development of universities. It is recognized as essential that the role of universities in the country's system of higher education should be strengthened, that they should become key centres of teaching and methodology in higher education and that their forces should be directed towards the further development of basic scientific research. This decision makes it clear that any scientific policy which, due to the desire for rapid results,

does not guarantee universities their proper place in the system of higher education is incorrect. It m a y produce quick results, but in the long term it can only result in failure. It should be noted that the correct solution to this problem can only be found if basic research is considered as a long-term capital investment, one of the chief aims of which is to transform m a n ' s mental and physical capacities, on which the progress of mankind ultimately depends. In all developed countries applied research accounts for a large proportion of the total amount of scientific research. Its usefulness is more obvious and its results are available more quickly than those of basic research. Financial resources for applied research considerably exceed those allocated for basic research. T h e question of the universities' attitude towards applied research is therefore a very important one. It can only be properly settled in the light of the changes in the relationship between basic and applied research which have occurred over the last ten years. T o begin with, the success of scientific research and its effectiveness in bringing about scientific, technical and socio-economic progress depended largely upon the close interaction of basic and applied research. Each stimulated the activity of the other: not only did basic research open up n e w areas for applied research, but applied research offered n e w o p portunities for basic research. But n o w the differences between basic and applied research differences in techniques, methods and general approach to problemsare decreasing. T h e same people m a y work in both basic and applied research, depending on circumstances, without additional training. It should once more be emphasized that the disappearance of the distinction between basic and applied research is mainly the result of the change in the nature of applied research which has been discussed above. Applied research can therefore n o w successfullyfillthe role of research at a university. It seems to us that universities should not try to avoid applied research. In fact w e would go

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further and say that in m a n y cases it is their duty to undertake it. This is particularly true in cases where the country's interests require the rapid exploitation of newly discovered areas of knowledge for which the necessary specialists and organization are not yet available. Nevertheless, universities must be somewhat cautious about the development of applied research. T h e

main point is that they should not become involved in its application. Also, w h e n choosing the branch of applied research which they take up, they should endeavour to keep it as close as possible to problem-focused basic research. If these two points are observed, there is n o danger that research in the universities will not fulfil the role for which it was intended.

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The third reform of higher education in the German Democratic Republic

A n y attempt to give an account, based on the example of the Humboldt University in Berlin, of a far-reaching process of transformation which has been lengthily prepared and whose effects are likely to be felt for an even longer time to come (a transformation which historians of our educational system will one day refer to as the third reform of higher education) must begin with the preliminary remark that this reform is not, any more than were those that preceded it, an isolated, self-contained occurrence but is rather a process intimately bound u p with the social development of the G e r m a n Democratic Republic. All changes that have been introduced into the higher education system were determined by the necessities inherent in the material and spiritual development of our socialist society. In this respect, it is significant that the tasks generated by society's overall development coincide with the concerns and objectives of science, of scientific institutions and of scientists themselves. Another significant fact is that a key feature of the transformations which since 1945 have left their stamp upon socialist universities and other higher educational establishments is the wealth of ideas and

Professor Karl-Heinz Wirzberger (German Democratic Republic). Fellow of the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic; Rector of the Humboldt University, Berlin.

the resourcefulness shown by all members of these institutions, and the large measure of determined and organized efforts devoted to giving concrete expression to the concepts e m bodying a dialectical unity of humanist traditions and modern innovations. T h e transformation of the higher educational system of the G e r m a n Democratic Republic during the 1960s was based upon two previous such reforms, without which the third could not have been successfully carried through. In the years immediately following the defeat of fascism, the priority task was to build on the intellectual and material ruins of the educational system destroyed by fascism with a view to reopening anti-fascist, democratically oriented universities and to eliminate all elements contaminated with fascism from the teaching staff no less systematically than the fascist ideology which they propagated. T h e aim was to provide democratic forces in the intellectual community with extensive opportunities for effective action and to ensure that academic activity should, despite major economic difficulties, serve in multifarious ways to promote social progress. This meant not only destroying the privileged position enjoyed in this respect by the bourgeoisie; it was also necessary to introduce Marxist-Leninist theory into the academic Ufe of our higher educational establishments through the creation of the first professorships in this field, and so m a k e it

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the scientific cornerstone of the necessary reconstruction processabove all in the social sciences. O u r universities, built u p anew out of the rubble to which they had been reduced, thereby came to be strongholds of h u m a n ism and understanding between peoples; they opened their doors to the children of workers and peasants. With the founding of the G e r m a n D e m o cratic Republic and the transition to the building of a socialist State which began in the early 1950s, the universities found themselves required to perform a n e w kind of duty if they wished to play a determining role in the training of a n e w , socialist intelligentsia. T h e comprehensive programme which accordingly emerged in these years for remodelling the universities on a socialist pattern was put into effect in successive stages in the course of the second university reform. Its achievement was to introduce the study of the fundamentals of MarxistLeninist theory at all levels and to ensure that it provided the ideological and methodological basis of all academic work in education, training and research. T h e same period saw the introduction of uniform, compulsory curricula which put an end to the lack of direction inherent in the so-called academic freedom of liberal-bourgeois institutions and established compulsory streams and curricula for the various branches of education. Correspondence courses were devised which gave experienced key personnel from working-class and peasant backgrounds opportunities to acquire skills and qualifications without needing to leave their employment. A further characteristic of the 1950s was the increasingly close linking-up of study courses and scientific work with the requirements of practical action and with a systematic effort to lay as broad a scientific foundation as possible for the construction of our society. Sound working relations were established for thefirsttime in this decade between universities and the different branches of industry. In order to ensure unified and effective direc-

tion and planning of academic work, measures were taken to give effect to the principle of democratic centralism while at the same time ensuring that the social organizations, and particularly the students themselves, should enjoy the democratic right to voice their views and to take part in consultations. Democratic centralism guarantees the unified development of socialist society under the leadership of the workers' party and the socialist State. It can be achieved in higher education only if a great m a n y experienced and committed academics and students are willing to bear a considerable measure of personal responsibility and at the same time to ensure that all university members tackle the problems as they arise and solve them in the best interests of society as a whole. T h e present stage in the remodelling of our universities and other higher educational institutions is a consequence of the G e r m a n Democratic Republic's embarking, in the early 1960s, on the construction of a full-fledged socialist society. In accordance with a decision of the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party), taken at its Sixth Congress, priority was given to establishing the bases of a unified educational system, the individual stages of which would be co-ordinated from kindergarten to university and closely geared to the development of society as a whole, and in particular to its economic and social evolution. In the course of broad-ranging and thorough-going discussions which lasted for over two years, the universities defined their place and their tasks within this unified socialist educational system and have since 1968 proceeded to carry out a number of vital reforms. O n e of the starting points of this process consisted in achieving the full union of teaching and research, training and education, theory and practice, as postulated by the spiritual founders of the Humboldt University, within the framework of our socialist society. T h e aim here was above all to secure a dramatic rise in the stan-

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dard and effectiveness of our academic work in thefieldsof teaching, education and research, on the basis of an accurate analysis of needs to bring the university closer to society and m e s h its concerns more closely with the practical issues of the day and,finally,to strengthen cooperation and integration in academic matters even further with the U . S . S . R . and with the higher educational institutions of the other socialist States. Given the indisputable fact that the university's raison d'tre is its training and educational work, the fundamental concern was to bring about a decisive improvement in the quality of training and education, to not only a c c o m m o date but actively stimulate efforts to achieve greater scientific rigour and to involve students more closely in scientific activities and particularly in the vital problems of research and the necessities of everyday life. This meant working out n e w training concepts and n e w curricula in which innovations in content and form were introduced which, while being c o m pulsory, were at the same timeflexibleenough to permit their testing during a trial period. Efforts were directed towards basing forms of training which proved their worth in practice on the latest state of scientific knowledge, a process in which considerable energy was devoted to turning to account the achievements of all w h o contribute to the advancement of m a n and science and above all to benefiting from the wealth of experience of our Soviet partners. In order to ensure that the scientific training acquired at university should be as sound and as enduringly effective as possible, emphasis was laid chiefly on the methodological aspects and on study of the scientific bases of each particular discipline. Attention was given to ensuring that, as training proceeded, instruction should be geared increasingly to research. This meant involving students in the actual process of winning knowledge; even though atfirstthis might be in purely follow-up activities, our students were able to cope so well with ever more difficult

tasks and to play such an effective part in successful scientific projects that they could finally be initiated, mainly working together in teams with experienced scientists, in something very akin to actual research work. A s far as the organization of research, as the foundation and mainspring of teaching proper, is concerned, this meant vigorously promoting the development of basic research, which has considerable importance in shaping the curriculum, and at the same time securing a proper balance between basic research and applied research. T h e latter was necessary in order on the one hand to instil, via research and instruction, an enduring sense of economic and social reality while students are still training and, on the other, to sharpen their awareness of the problems generated by the use of scientific discoveries and thereby systematically develop their knowledge of praxis. O n e of the ways of achieving these objectives involved linking a major part of research to contracts negotiated with the industrial sector, with productive basic research being financed either from funds provided by the contractor or from the State budget. O n e of the key features of the n e w educational ideas has in fact been the concern to provide a thorough knowledge of praxis and the problems it gives rise towhile at the same time taking care not to interpret the concept of 'praxis' in too narrow a sense. T h e concern was above all to ensure that higher education should serve the best interests of the community, by seeing to it that university staff possessed a thorough k n o w ledge of praxis, by choosing themes bearing closely upon practical matters, by focusing attention on the use m a d e of scientific discoveries and by requiring that the results of scientific research must also be m a d e to bear fruit in practice. In the light of these objectives, considerable attention was at the same time given to the organization of the different practical courses provided for by the curriculum. T h e Humboldt University also collaborates in practical matters with fellow institutions such

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as the G e r m a n Democratic Republic's academies and in particular the A c a d e m y of Sciences, whose facilities are partly situated in the neighbourhood, and m a n y of whose fellows have for long been closely associated with the university. Co-operation between academy and university has been strengthened in recent years: not only does this have a positive effect o n the training and further training of our rising generation of scientists and o n collaboration in joint research projects, but it also helps to foster the developm e n t of our relations with the international scientific community. In our efforts to improve scientific work and to increase its efficacity, a specially important place is occupied b y our increasingly close academic links with the higher educational establishments of socialist countries and in particular the U . S . S . R . In addition to the mutually very advantageous exchange of teachers, the opportunity to send young scientists o n protracted study and training courses, for example to the U . S . S . R . , is, in our view, just as rewarding as our co-operation in the joint planning and execution of research projects, in the joint drafting of scientific publications and in the joint preparation and holding of scientific meetings, etc. A feature of the reforms which have taken place in recent years and which is at the same time illustrative of the pattern of socialist community relations, b y means of which the democratic principle has prevailed within the university, is the relationship which has evolved between the State educational authorities, the academic staff and the students. T h e primary purpose of this has been to enable students to shoulder their individual responsibilities in the c o m m o n task of shaping the educational and training process, and to pull their weight as informed, experienced co-partners, enjoying the full support of their fellow students, in the direction, planning and organization of academic work. A s evidence that success has been achieved in this respect one can point in particular to the students w h o are delegated by

the Freie Deutsch Jugend (Free G e r m a n Youth representing the students' interests in all respects) to the collective consultative bodies (section councils, academic council, social council). Traditionally, the H u m b o l d t University was divided into nine faculties, to which over 200 institutes, for the most part very small ones, working in isolation, were associated. H o w e v e r , the n e w duties resulting from the innovations m a d e in the content of education m a d e it necessary to reorganize it into structural units which grouped together a greater n u m b e r of university teachers and students, workers and employees in groups able to work together effectively as teams. B y fusing and grouping together institutes of similar nature and institutes working in conjunction with one another, the authorities formed n e w units k n o w n as 'sections' and these n o w constitute the main artery of university life capable of meeting the n e w standards in regard to scientific work, the dynamics of scientific development and the need to intermesh science and praxisin which education, training, further training and research all have their place. Each section is headed b y a director; in carrying out his duties, he is as a rule assisted by two deputy directors, one responsible for educational and training matters and the other responsible for directing planning and supervising research tasks. A joint consultative body, the section council, is assigned to the section director, as the person solely responsible for the direction of the section. This body deals with the planning of curricula and syllabuses and with reports o n the results of education, training, further training and research emanating from the different disciplines ('branches'). It also, however, considers proposals regarding the establishment of Dozenturen (lectureships) and professorships, and recommendations regarding the appointment of university teachers, as well as all other questions relating to the academic development of the section. M o s t of these questions are then discussed in the respective faculty

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of the university's academic council or else in the senate or the plenary meeting of the academic council. Each section is subdivided into separate branches, according to the structural division of knowledge, and the branches have attached to them professors and lecturers as well as research workers and senior technicians working in particular scientific sectors. T h e State direction of the H u m b o l d t U n i versity, and indeed of all universities and other higher educational establishments in the G e r m a n Democratic Republic, is based on the principle of a single, controlling authority. In this principle is distilled the experience gained from scientific work undertaken in connexion with the national economy of the G e r m a n Democratic Republic; it is one of the cornerstones of socialist democracy. Authority is vested solely in the rector. H e decides above all o n questions of principle and specific major issues which require to be settled by a central authority; in doing so, however, he avails himself of the various possibilities open to him for joint consultation. In reaching his decision, the rector is assisted by several consultative bodies and particularly by the social council, which is composed in equal part of prominent members from the private sector and of distinguished university m e m b e r s , and by the academic council, which is divided into four faculties (social sciences, mathematics and natural sciences, life sciences and medicine). M o r e over, the Konzil (university council), which is the body representing all categories of university personnel and to which the rector is required to report once a year, also advises o n questions of principle relating to teaching, education and research activities. W h e n deciding upon questions of major i m portance, the rector can also consult, using the machinery for routine consultations, either the section directors or the pro-rectors and heads of the different directorates {Kollegium). This enables the rector to reach fully informed decisions on questions of principle, following

thorough-going democratic consultations. T h e rector has three pro-rectors to assist h i m as deputies in the task of directing the university. These are thefirstpro-rector, w h o is the rector's permanent deputy, the pro-rector for social sciences and the pro-rector for scientific development. T h e division of work between the rector and thefirstpro-rector is intended to take account of the specific conditions obtaining in the Humboldt University. T h e pro-rector for social sciences assists the rector in the work of directing the university in regard to raising the theoretical level and effectiveness of basic studies in Marxism-Leninism, social sciences and the further training of the teaching staff in Marxist-Leninist theory. T h e pro-rector for scientific development assists the rector in the task of directing and co-ordinating scientific development and in the work of the academic council. H e also assists him in establishing and strengthening working relations with industry and with other scientific institutions. T o help him in the task of preparing his decisions and seeing to it that they are carried out, as well as in the regular work of analysis and planning in specific task areas, the rector can call upon seven directorates, which are organized and equipped as functional bodies. These are the directorates for educational matters, for post-graduate work, for research, for planning and economics, for training of senior technicians, for international relations and, finally, for cultural and public information activities. T h e structure of the H u m b o l d t University, Berlin, can thus be presented diagrammatically as in Figure i. It can be affirmed that both the principles informing the direction of the university and its structure have proved their value, at the highest level and at that of individual sections alike. Thanks above all to the democratic cooperation of all university m e m b e r s , particularly the students, and as a result of the valuable advice and practical help received from those associated with us in our endeavours, it has proved

501

Faculty of social sciences Faculty of mathematics and natural sciences Faculty of life sciences Office of the rector Faculty of medicine

Senate Rector

Pro-rector for social sciences

First pro- rector

Pro-rector for scientific development

Director for educational matters

Director for post-graduate

Director for research

work

Director for planning and economics

Director for training of senior technicians

Director for international relations

Director for cultural a n d public information activities

Section assemblies

Section councils

1
\\
Law
Criminology Economics Scientific theory and method Pedagogics Rehabilitation and communications/science Philology and G e r m a n

Marxism-Leninism Foreign languages Physical education Mathematics

Physics Chemistry

Biology Section Geography Veterinary science and medicine Nutrition and food technology Horticulture Plant production Psychology Marxist-Leninist philosophy M u s e u m of Natural History University library

Section Aesthetics and art Asian studies

Electronics

Medicine History Theology Librarianship and scientific information

Central administration and accounts

F I G . I. Structure of the Humboldt University, Berlin. 502

The third reform of higher education in the German Democratic Republic

possible to raise the direction and planning of academic work to a n e w standard. In this respect, the co-operation, based on mutual trust, between the State authorities responsible for the direction of the university and the leaders of the democratic mass organizations, in particular the Freier Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund (Union of Free G e r m a n Trades Unions) and the Freie Deutsche Jugend (Free G e r m a n Youth) constitutes a sound basis for the achievement of the tasks assigned to the university. Thus, under the leadership of the workers' party, the Humboldt University in Berlin developed into a socialist establishment of higher education, whose duties, in accordance with the decisions of the Eighth Congress of the Socialist Unity Party, held in 1971, consist in ensuring a high theoretical level of instruction, fusing together yet more effectively a high standard of general education and the students' political education, fostering theoretical work and broadening the compass of basic research and, lastly, ensuring the rational investment and appropriate and effective use of available material andfinancialmeans. T h e aim at present is to

focus all efforts on improving the quality of teaching, education and research, and to m a k e full use of the opportunities generated by the reform processes. In the same way, the experience and knowledge acquired to date must be used in order to review the effect of provisions and measures already adopted, and to m a k e such amendments or refinements to them as m a y be required in the progress of future work. For one of the key features of the third university reform is, in our view, the fact that it has produced sufficiently flexible structures to be capable of further modification in accordance with changes in praxis. O u r present and future efforts are and will continue to be characterized by the concern to collaborateusing the specific tools of knowledge and in full consciousness of our great responsibilitiesin fulfilling the primary duty of a developed socialist society and so contribute to the further improvement of the people's material and cultural standard of living, thanks to a rapid rate of expansion of socialist production, increased efficiency, scientific and technological progress and a continuous rise in the productivity of labour.

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Heinz Draheim

The Gesamthochschule'. a model of mobility

Mass secondary education provokes the dem a n d for mass higher education. W h a t in the past was a privilege is today regarded as an obligation upon society to provide.'1 In the Federal Republic of Germany wide publicity for what was called a 'state of educational emergency' {Bildungsnotstand) was an added stimulus to the world-wide trend to growth in student numbers. Growing masses of boys and girls pass the school examinations which qualify them for admission to the universities. In consequence of this development 'it must be realized that the quantitative problems also alter the quality of situations, structures, contents and methods'. 2 Although one can attempt to solve the problem by erecting more and bigger universities and hiring more professors and staff, it is important to realize that there is a real chance for a profound reform of higher education. A s James R . Killian Jr declares:3 ' O n e of the great difficulties of an academic institution is to m a k e drastic changes, even though their necessity m a y be clearly indicated. T o o

often we've had to be content with making very minor innovative changes in our educational programme w h e n major changes might have been possible.' Major changes are possible n o w . In a U n e s c o / I A U publication4 w efindthe following statements:
The expansion of higher education is no longer merely a matter of adding m o r e students to a system that remains basically unchanged. . . . In the next decade, one of the most important questions for governmental agencies is h o w to plan for an increasingly integrated post-secondary sector . . . in a n u m ber of countries the education ministries have begun to appreciate that the pressures of mass higher education m a y well impose radically n e w patterns of organization, not least the elimination of m a n y of the traditional distinctions between universities and other types of institutions.

In the Federal Republic of Germany the trend for change is most clearly evident in the concept of the Gesamthochschule (comprehensive university), which is an attempt to answer this

1. Lord Annan, 'The Distinctive Role of the University in the Structure of Higher Education', C R E Meeting, Vienna, 1970. Heinz Draheim (Federal Republic of Germany). Professor of Geodesy and since 1968 Rector of the Univer- 2. H . Janne, Report of the Fifth General Conference of the International Association of Universities (Montr sity of Karlsruhe. Member of the Science Council 30 August to s September 1970), Paris, 1971. of the Federal Republic of Germany. Chairman of 3. Creative Renewal in a Time of Crisis, Massachusetts the Regional Commission for the integrated compreInstitute of Technology, 1970. hensive university of Karlsruhe-Pforzheim. Member of 4. Teaching and Learning: An Introduction to New Methods the Working Party on Diversification of Tertiary Eduand Resources in Higher Education, Paris, Unesco/IAU, 1970. cation of the Council of Europe.

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*most important question', the needs for 'major changes', andin case of successwill lead to 'radically n e w patterns'.

What is wrong with the university? In his report to the I A U Congress in Montreal, 1 Professor Henri Janne describes the G e r m a n university as 'a community of research scholars devoted to the search for truth, creating by this very activity the only pedagogical approach suitable for the education of an lite. T h e unity of research and teaching constitutes, indeed, the key to this concept', which includes academic freedom as a principle of organization. Certainly this definition covers the most important aspect of G e r m a n universities, but it is not the complete picture, foras Heckhausen 2 pointed out:
T h e traditional G e r m a n university w a s never concerned only with the training of n e w generations of academics, in the sense of cultivating pure scholarship, and from the outset it provided professional training for teachers, clergymen, lawyers and doctors. T o d a y one can only wonder w h y the implicit opposition between general, i.e. academic, and vocational education remained latent for so long.

modest version of the 'association of research and teaching' is in danger. At the Montreal meeting the President of I A U , D r Constantine K . Zurayk, seriously cautioned against too m u c h adaptation to the demands of the day because this
would not serve the true purposes of society and of the universityand m a y indeed run counter to these purposesunless it safeguards the characteristic function of the university in the persistent cultivation of reason and in the single-minded struggle to b e c o m e its embodiment and its representative.4

N o w , the great and still growing number of students of today striving after a passport to the jobs with high status and substantial income can no longer be hidden behind an idealistic formula. A s Lord Annan, Provost, University College, London, formulated:3
W e can not any longer claim that a university is a collection of professors and their assistants; that while students w h o care to listen to the professor are welc o m e , the professor has n o further obligation to his students; and indeed that his only obligation is to lecture o n what interests h i m .

If the positive aspects of the concept of the classical G e r m a n university shall be preserved not only for the lite of the future but for the rapidly growing number of students and teachers alike, a n e w system for post-secondary education is needed. Certainly there will be no single or simple answer to the present problems applicable to all universities of the world, not even for the European countries with similar conditions. T h e solution cannot be the deportation of student masses to other post-secondary institutions, not the attempt to rebuild the strongly damaged 'ivory tower' in which an 'unpremeditated c o m munity of professors and students' tries to live up to an ideal of the last century. As Professor Janne points out:6 'Universities of today are more or less subject, according to their o w n conditions, to contradictory tensions.' This university tends to be integrated into the general educational system, but, at the same time, seeks an autonomous development. In institutional

There is no doubt that the balance of activities expressed by the bold principle for universities of the 'unit of research and teaching' already is disturbed considerably, and that even the more

i. The University and the Needs of Contemporary Society, Paris, 1970. (IAU Papers, N o . 10.) 2. Problems of Integrated Higher Education. An International Case Study of the Gesamthochschule, Paris, 1972. (IAU Papers, N o . n . ) 3. Lord Annan, op. cit. 4. Report of the Fifth General Conference of the International Association of Universities (Montreal, 30 August to s September 1970), Paris, 1971. 5. The University and the Needs of Contemporary Society, op. cit.

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terms, the tension occurs between public control and autonomy; in pedagogical terms, between academic freedom and socially integrated education. T h e university tends to accept the whole age group concerned, but also devotes itself to training an lite. For admission, the two poles are freedom of access or the numerus clausus. It is the opposition between quantity and quality. For internal administration, the poles are democracy and technocracy. W h e n it comes to professional training the tension occurs between specialization and polyvalence. T w o functions are struggling for preponderance: teaching and scientific research. T w o final purposes oppose and complement each other at the same time: universal humanism and economic development, disinterested general culture and pragmatic training for a profession. T w o sets of values condition an ambivalent form of action: the loftier the traditions and the more futuristic the ideas of progress. Lastly, the university is considered to be in the service of society and its culture and simultaneously to exercise a 'critical function'. But all these polarizations can and must give rise to syntheses which overcome the contradictions and go beyond the ambiguity of the institution. T h e Gesamthochschule shall be the attempt to overcome these polarizations and find a serviceable synthesis. Care must be taken that it does not become a bad compromise destroying the values and wishes of the universities as well as those of the other tertiary institutions.

There are no special laws for these institutions, no separate financing, n o specific organizations for rectors, professors or students. In order to avoid the usual confusion s o m e Technische Hochschulen accepted the n a m e Universitt, others use the n a m e Technische Universitt. This state was reached after a long struggle for full recognition. T h e first polytechnical school with university character, the present Universitt Karlsruhe, was founded in 1825 according to the model of the cole Polytechnique in Paris. T h e development to the present state was facilitated by the fact that the technical universities never lived in seclusion from the non-technical disciplines, e.g. the humanities, and even less from the natural sciences. As an illustration it m a y be mentioned that the T e c h nische Hochschule Karlsruhe had thefirstchair for the history of art in the country, that Schnabel wrote his famous G e r m a n history as a professor of the Technische Hochschule and that the famous physicist Heinrich Hertz here discovered the electromagnetic waves. Today some Technische Hochschulen have complete faculties with disciplines of the classical universities, e.g. medicine, on the other hand classical universities build u p technical disciplines and n e w universities were founded covering the whole range of natural and technical sciences and the humanities without a claim of totality. So in this article the notion 'university' always includes the Technische Hochschulen and Technische Universitten and also a few colleges of medicine. It is a criterion for a certain level of scientific standard only, but not for a fixed compilation of disciplines. T h e G e r m a n university is rigidly uniform in qualitya s o m e what doubtful benefit which does not allow room for the wide range of students' abilities.

Classical and technical universities

While classical universities tend to renounce their teaching role, the technical universities have less trouble with this side of their duties. In the Federal Republic of G e r m a n y institutions of the highest level having only or predominantly technical faculties are equivalent and have the same rights as the other universities.

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T h e other institutions of tertiary education

In 1969 there were forty-three institutions of university level in the Federal Republic of Germany with more than 300,000 students (65 per cent of the total student number). About 170,000 of them were dispersed a m o n g about 325 institutions for post-secondary education, e.g. colleges of education, of engineering, of commerce, of social work, of art, of music, theological colleges, etc. T h e most important institutions of this group are: 1. Pdagogische Hochschulen (teacher-training colleges or colleges of education) for the education of primary-school teachers. Access to these colleges is limited to students having the upper secondary school-leaving certificate {Abitur), that is the same entrance conditions as the universities. There were nearly fifty institutions of this type with 13 per cent of all students in 1969. Quite recently in some Lnder (states of the Federal Republic) the different colleges were united to one Pdagogische Hochschule of the Land or, in other cases they were integrated in a university as a special faculty. 2. Ingenieurschulen (engineering colleges), which admitted students after ten years of education o n completion of middle-level secondary education, or after primary education and some professional experience. A small percentage of the students hold the Abitur. After three years of rigorous study they received the title of Graduierter Ingenieur. In 1969 there were 126 colleges of this type with 15 per cent proportion of all students. Because of the unrest spreading a m o n g the graduates, w h o felt discriminated against in comparison with engineers from other C o m m o n M a r ket countries, these Ingenieurschulen m e a n while were upgraded through legislation to Fachhochschulen (colleges of advanced technology). Access is n o w limited to applicants w h o have completed twelve years ofeducation.

It is important to point out that the process of changes in all tertiary institutions is marked by a constant upward development of all institutions toward the university.

The need for mobility

A s long as secondary education did not produce the present mass of applicants for higher education, the variety of institutions available for post-secondary education appeared to offer enough possibilities to comply with the wishes of students and to fulfil the needs of all professional fields more or less satisfactorily. But for a long time already criticism was directed against the fact that the above-mentioned institutions as well as the different types of schools are strictly separated and isolated from each other, which, together with the very strict and formal G e r m a n career system and an overstressed system of privileges, m a d e the whole structure of education a series of social one-way streets without the chance for a student to rectify a bad choice ofstudi.es or to adapt himself to changing personal or economic circumstances. In practice student mobility was generally restricted to the following cases: 1. University students can and, in fact, d o change universities quite freely. Even in the technical faculties, with very rigid and diverging curricula, changes are possible without too m u c h loss of time. It is, however, more difficult to change from one discipline to another. In some disciplines the students have to pass intermediate examinations in the course of their studies, before being admitted to the final examinations. These intermediate examinations are part of the final examinations but are of no value without the final examinations. 2. A large number of university students w h o want to become teachers at secondary schools change over to the colleges of education

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during the course of their studies. Although courses at the colleges of education are shorter than university courses, most of the students w h o change over do not succeed in shortening their studies. There is n o m o v e ment in the opposite direction. 3. Graduates with a good examination from an engineering college could enrol in a technical university, even if they did not hold the Abitur. T h e y usually were good or even excellent students. But in most cases their university studies required the same time as those of the students w h o entered university immediately after graduating from school. There has been practically n o m o v e m e n t in the opposite direction. T h e problems were not solved by the n e w entrance conditions for the Fachhochschulen. N e w regulations giving all graduates the right to enter a university and sometimes to start with the third year of the university curricula only resulted in an overflow of university faculties and threatens to empty the Fachhochschulen.

The right to higher education But all plans and attempts to facilitate mobility between the different institutions and disciplines have become obsolete as a result of the general development which led to a completely n e w concept of higher education. After the successful campaigns of educational propaganda people became conscious of education as a civil right and of the right of equality of opportunity for all. Besides participation this is the other component of the democratization in education. Indeed the Constitutional Court of the Federal Republic of G e r m a n y recently in its verdict o n restricted admission to higher education (numerus clausus) stated that everyone w h o was sufficiently qualified had a right to be admitted to higher education, deduced from Article 12 of the Constitution: 'All Germans shall have the

right to a free choice of their profession, place of training. T h e practice of a profession m a y be m a d e subject of legislation.' T h e court therefore considered the usual numerus clausus regulations to be ' o n the limits of what was constitutionally acceptable' and laid d o w n the following conditions: 1. All available training capacities must be exhausted. 2 . T h e selection of applicants and their distribution a m o n g the different institutions must be based on relevant criteria. 3. M a x i m u m consideration must be given to the individual choice of the place. In order to comply with these conditions the Lnder have meanwhile concluded a convention on admission to higher education. It is intended to include admission regulations in a federal bill defining basic principles for higher education. It is obvious that with this legal condition the selection and distribution of students to the various isolated institutions is a very difficult problem because it will be always controversial what m a y be used as relevant criteria. There is m u c h talk about special tests instead of school certificates, but if a test is needed, one is looking for it in vain. So even lottery systems are discussed. There is a similar uncertainty concerning the need of society for academics. Predictions differ considerably. It is one of the main aims of the Gesamthochschule to m a k e it easier for a student to find his place in society according to his abilities and inclinations without too m u c h governing and pressure.

The tools for reform A booklet prepared by the G e r m a n Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst) begins with the sentences:
T h e distinct aspects of the organization and promotion of science in the Federal Republic of G e r m a n y are their complexity and multiformity. In fact,

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foreigners must have difficulty in fully understanding the structural pattern and the functions of institutions and bodies dealing with science policy and science promotion. Very often it is not easy to see where responsibilities begin and end. In addition, in the Federal Republic as in other countries, science and technology are in a continual state of development and reform, so that every few months the picture is changing.

cerning educational policy which are of national importance with the aim of a joint determination and representation of matters of c o m m o n concern'. These decisions require transformation in Lnder laws or decrees in order to become binding law in the Land. So it took years to reach agreement about the uniform beginning of the school year in all schools. Without having the possibility to lay d o w n legal regulations, the universities can influence T h e reason for the complexity and multiformity the planning of tertiary education and paris the fact that in the federal system of the ticipate in co-ordination through the Rector's country with eleven Lnder, school and univerConference with recommendations to the unisity affairs are a matter for the individual state versities, the governments and to the general and that the B u n d (Federal Government) was public. given only concurrent legislative powers in the field of scientific research. Only since 1969 has In order to advise both the Federation and the B u n d wider competence within the framethe Lnder the Wissenschaftsrat (Science C o u n work of c o m m o n tasks of B u n d and Lnder, cil or Council for Higher Education and R e given by changing the basic law of the Federal search) was created in 1957. It is an institution Republic. T h e B u n d n o w is not only permitted which corresponds to the federal structure and to participate in the planning and construction tries to give independent and objective advice. of n e w university buildings, it was even possible Its recommendations carry considerable weight. to set u p a Joint Committee for Educational So the recommendations on the expansion of Planning which has already adopted a number universities of i960 have been accepted by the of'proposals for realization of urgent measures', Lnder and were a basis for very effective quanand this year passed an over-all plan covering titative improvements. all stages of the future educational system. This All decisions on the construction of university year the Bund also tried again to draft an acbuildings are m a d e according to an annual ceptable university skeleton law. There are difpriority programme of the Science Council. In ferences in opinion between B u n d and Lnder context with this paper it is most important to about the extent of permissible federal involvepoint out that in the 'Recommendations for the ment and even in the very unpopular problem Organization and Development of Education in of numerus clausus the Lnder did give prefer- Institutions of Higher Learning after 1970' the ence to a State agreement in spite of strong Gesamthochschule was propagated. political differences between the governments In 1965 another advisory committee was esinstead of a possible federal law. But here can tablished by administrative agreement between be no doubt that the present situation will enB u n d and Lnder: T h e Deutscher Bildungsrat force at least stronger co-operation and prob(German Education Council or Council for ably shift responsibility to the Bund. Primary and Secondary Education). Its main concern is to make forecasts and development In the past co-operation in all cultural affairs, plans for the G e r m a n educational system, to including education and science was in the remake proposals on the structure of the edusponsibility of the Standing Conference of M i n cational system and to calculate the financial isters of Education and Cultural Affairs which needs. Corresponding to the recommendation only could constitute recommendations to the of the Gesamthochschule by the Science Council Lnder by unanimous decisions in 'matters con-

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the Education Council favours the Gesamthochschule (comprehensive school).

University {differenzierte Gesamthochschuly w e read:


T h e form, in which the model of the Hochschulgesamtplan will find its clearest result in the view of those principal considerations, is the comprehension of all structural elements in one system. If one does not start from the structural elements but from the actually existing form of organization, the question will be organizing connexion of a scientific university, a college of education, a college of art and an advanced technical college, which has developed into the field of a polytechnic. T o such a model m o r e components m a y be added, e.g. a seminar for school-practice, institutions for permanent education, but also a technical school and institutions for education and/or research u p to n o w outside of universities, but with tasks in teaching and research reaching into the field of universities. For the structure this would m e a n that all tasks of a most extensive spectrum of disciplines would be solved in one organizational combine. Such an organizational product could be called differenzierte Gesamthochschule. For the model of a differentiated comprehensive university it is important that its components are not only connected formally, e.g. connected b y law or referred to an administrative centre, but wherever it makes sense, should be interlaced effectively, without destroying the peculiarities of the components. T h e point of main effort will thereby lie always as well in the connexion as on the inner structure, whereby both have to be understood vertically and horizontally: Vertically means the possibility to reach the highest degree and position from any point of the Gesamthochschule without leaving the institution; structure means here, that besides practice-orientated curricula, there are also places for research or for esoteric culture for the best in the same university. Horizontal connexion means mobility in change-over between curricula and university institutions; structure means here, that in spite of the possibility of exchange the tasks of the structural components will remain different and multiple. With this combination of connexion and structure the differentiated comprehensive university combines all advantages of big organizational unions.

The road into a new education landscape

T h e president of I A U , Professor V . Merikoski, has pointed out that the problems which gave rise to the idea of the Gesamthochschule are c o m m o n to virtually all countries:
h o w to co-ordinate and at the same time diversify higher education; h o w to ensure orderly mobility between various courses and levels of study; h o w to avoid educational deadlocks; h o w to do away with the sort of caste-system that sometimes separates different types of institutions to the point of making passage impossible from one to the other and of marking the graduates of each with a life-long stigma of glory or mediocrity; h o w to ensure continuing education and to enable m e n and w o m e n to develop their talents and abilities throughout their lives.1

It is amazing indeed h o w completely this list of problems agrees with the motives for the development of Gesamthochschulen in the Federal Republic of Germany. It includes also some of the key-words like diversification, coordination and mobility. If one excepts these aims as virtues of higher education in the future then it is indispensable that all institutions of the tertiary level 'be integrated in the overall conception of the educational system'. T h e heading of this section originates from the preface of the Over-all Plan for the Development of Tertiary Education for BadenWrttemberg, written by Professor H a h n , Minister of Education and Science of BadenWrttemberg. This plan, drafted by a c o m mission presided by Professor Dahrendorf and published in July 1967, for the first time developed the idea of the Gesamthochschule. Under the heading ' T h e Differentiated Comprehensive
5IO

1. Problems of Integrated Higher Education . . . , op. cit.

The Gesamthochschule: a model of mobility

This definition of the Gesamthochschule c o m prises already the main aspects of this institution but also the disposition for the following and still lasting heavy quarrel about the practical realization of the project. T h e controversial question is the problem what it really means to c be interlaced effectively, without destroying the peculiarities of the components'.

schule'. In a statement of principle2 the Rectors' Conference formulated very distinctly:


T h e establishment o f integrated Gesamthochschulen m e a n s the integration within unitary subjectfieldsof the relevant disciplines in existing institutions. A separation of subjectfieldsaccording to institution of origin is rejected.

Integration or 'co-operation'?

W h e r e there is general agreement about the necessity to reorganize the very structure of the whole system of tertiary education in order to build u p a coherent system instead of the so far isolated tertiary institutions to master the educational problems of the future, the appropriate form for the linking together of all institutions concerned is controversial: the provoking word is 'integration'. T h e matter becomes especially difficult because the issue at stake is by no means an economic, technical or organizational problem only, but one political direction has written 'integration' on its banner and promptly the opposition answers with 'cooperation'. So one m a y find under the slogan 'integration' only co-operation or less occasionally and vice versa. In the definition of Hess, 1 co-operation means more or less close association of independent institutions, the m i n i m u m basis being mutual agreements and the m a x i m u m the existence of some c o m m o n curricula and joint bodies; and integration means c o m m o n curricula and joint government bodies in which the original autono m y of the institutions is merged as fully as possible in a single unified organization. T h e dispute about integration or co-operation became evident w h e n people began to express the basic ideas in precise definitions and to meditate on the consequences. In this context it was of particular importance that the Science Council as well as the Rectors' Conference categorically favoured the 'integrated Gesamthoch-

T h e most important consequence then is: ' T h e Gesamthochschule has one teaching body and one student body.' These demands m a k e it perfectly clear, that the Gesamthochschule should not be a formal matter only, but one effecting all institutions internally. A simple co-ordination of what exists does not make a Gesamthochschule; it would be a fraud indeed, for which students already have coined the slogan 'label-swindle'. In a paper prepared by a working party in Kassel it is stressed that it is necessary to bring into play the ideal for education of the classical university of Humboldt as well as the aims of the professional colleges and the society-minded activities of art colleges in order to represent the full range of the Gesamthochschule determined by origin and the tasks of the future. T h e authors also claim that with the development towards the Gesamthochschule there will be a change in the conception of the tasks of postsecondary education. T h e Gesamthochschule has to set u p a differentiated but co-ordinated range of courses of study for all disciplines. This does not m e a n that it has to comprise within its organization all study subjects and curricula but has to offer, within the framework of its subjects, an organic entity of diversified study courses. There should be not short or long courses only and no Gesamthochschulen for teachers or engineers only, but always a certain range of disciplines. A n important influence on the development
1. Problems of Integrated Higher Education ..., op. cit. 2. Grundsatzerklrung zur integrierten Gesamthochschule, Westdeutsche Rektorenkonferenz, 21. i. 71.

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of Gesamthochschulen will be on the future education of teachers and engineers. As for teacher education, the present system, offering separated courses for primary- and secondary-school teachers, will be replaced by a system which gives all teachers an education of the same scientific level with students specializing only for different age groups of pupils. T h e normal study course of three years leads to a final qualification and can be expanded to four years for the upper-secondary level. T h e integrated teacher education will not m e a n the training of 'standard teachers'. It will be an integrated but highly diversified system containing the elements of knowledge of the chosen subject, knowledge of teaching methods specifically suited to the chosen subject matter, science of education in general and practical experience at a school. At all phases of education, these elements will form part of the curriculum, but the curriculum will vary according to the different phases of study. Permanent education for teachers will play an important role. Students must also have the chance of changing over to courses leading to graduation for other professions. In thefieldof engineering curricula for horizontal and vertical mobility several models are discussed: the well-known consecutive model, the Y-model with basic courses for all students, the junction-model with differing basic courses leading to a c o m m o n main study course, the intersecting model with a c o m m o n stage, a system offering a great variety of units-credits and m a n y other variations. It cannot be denied that there are m a n y severe difficulties to overcome in order to remodel the present system into a net of Gesamthochschulen. In any case a transitional period of considerable duration is needed and nobody knows when or if after all there will be a homogeneous field of integrated Gesamthochschulen deserving this n a m e . So continuing co-operation will certainly be of great importance not only for the transitional period. But co-operation should not be
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used in order to camouflage antipathy against integration, chosen as the lesser evil or even serve as an excuse to change nothing. There is no sense in fighting about words. O n e should agree that the most effective form of cooperation is integration.

Main criticisms of the Gesamthochschule

In S u m m e r 1971 the Science Council sent its members to all universities in order to discuss its recommendations and to gather information for future planning. O n e important point of the investigation was the Gesamthochschule. There was a lively discussion in most universities with a wide range of opinion. T h e main opposition arguments are: T h e main purpose of the Gesamthochschule is to force students into short courses in order to eliminate the shortage of capacity. It would be problematic to organize Gesamthochschulen in places where existing institutions have no c o m m o n subjects. T h e concept of the Gesamthochschule is directed towards instruction only, and research will therefore be neglected and forced out of the university. Education in universities and in the colleges of advanced studies {Fachhochschulen) is so different that a c o m m o n performance of differentiated courses will be impossible. T h e different conditions for admission will not allow consecutive courses without which the Gesamthochschule would only be an organizational clamp for different institutions. In this case integration is unnecessary as m o bility could be attained by co-operation, too. Gesamthochschulen will become giant institutions. In the large Lnder as well as in large cities with heavy traffic, integration would not be possible. In response one might say:

The Gesamthochschule: a model of mobility

It is true that especially politicians are hoping to save money by transferring as m a n y students as possible from long courses to short courses. Short courses will be accepted w h e n they are introduced out of objective needs to reach a certain aim and do not lead into a blind alley. T h e essential presupposition for a success of short courses simply is the elimination of the present strict regulations about the college years in the careers for civil servants, for more than half of all students will become civil servants (e.g. teachers) and will strive for the highest degree as long as this is the only possibility to reach top jobs. T h e subjects needed could be introduced. It should be possible also to stop or transfer a discipline. Research will be more differentiated than in existing universities, but that is n o reason to neglect it. T h e forming of a Gesamthochschule has to be the occasion for a critical check of all curricula in all institutions involved. In the long run the thirteenth school year will be abolished, but meanwhile transitional courses are necessary. T h e size factor is repeated over and over again. But all organizations in favour of the integrated Gesamthochschule have pointed out that the m a x i m u m size should be about 25,000 students. O n e can have more than one Gesamthochschule in one town as in Berlin, Stuttgart, M u n i c h , H a m b u r g . T h e physical separation of the institutions proposed for integration is one really serious difficulty. It will involve difficult and painful decisions. T h e Science Council is of the opinion that, as a rough guide, institutions not more than an hour's journey apart are quite suitable for integration. In any case a careful planning is necessary. But to the critics w h o always talk of crowds of students constantly on the m o v e , one can suggest that perhaps arrangements could be m a d e for the professors to travel instead.

The early achievements

T h e law of the Land of Hessen of 1970 concerning the post-secondary institutions (Hochschulgesetz) speaks of the following types: Gesamthochschulen (comprehensive universities), Universitten (universities), Kunsthochschulen (art colleges), Fachhochschulen (professional colleges). According to the text of the law these institutions 'serve the realization of the right for education and scientific knowledge'. T h e law also gives definitions for the four types:
comprehensive universities are institutions for education, which unite the duties of all or various institutions; universities serve science in research and teaching; art colleges have the task to bring about and to develop artistic shapes and contents; professional colleges bring about education based o n the understanding of scientific research.

Certainly these definitions are not very satisfactory and illuminating. T h e y just try to d e scribe the present situation without giving an indication for the future. So they are an expression of political uncertainty and lack of decision, which indeed is the main reason for the difficulties. But nevertheless there is m u c h activity of the following kind all over the country: In North Rhine-Westphalia five Gesamthochschulen were founded all at once. In all cases there were rather big colleges of education and engineering on hand, which serve as a basis for the development. In other parts of the Federal Republic of Germany, Gesamthochschulen are beginning to be shaped around a university. In Baden-Wrttemberg the more than fifty institutions of higher education were organized into nine regions with a university as nucleus in each region. Each region has a local committee, and there is an elected advisory committee for the Land. N u m e r o u s commissions are working on integrated curricula. Each region has to work out and to test special models. T h e Karlsruhe-Pforzheim

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region had to develop a model for an integrated comprehensive university. T h e first practical steps are already taken. It is hoped to have thefirstintegrated courses for teacher education very soon. O n e very important achievement is the integrated planning of buildings for all higher institutions in a coherent system by the Science Council and the governmental commissions. T h e annual priority programmes are arranged in regions which take into consideration the overall situation for each decision and recommendations for the optimal use of the combined capacity of all institutions belonging to the region. But the most important consequence of efforts m a d e u p to n o w is the fact that the several separated institutions working for higher education have discovered mutual interests. There still is m u c h left to be done to overcome animosities and anxieties, but the Gesamthochschule certainly is on its way. S o m e people in the Federal Republic of Germany are convinced that the Gesamthochschule will destroy the university and all it stands for. Others believe the formation of Gesamthochschulen will plunge all other types of education into the crisis of the university. In view of the exceptional role of science and education for society, one cannot expect a purely impartial academic discussion, fixed on issues of the theory of knowledge or pedagogical problems only, but rather a dispute burdened with political, emotional, ideological and selfish as-

pects and arguments. That is immanent to the problem. A n d it is not a n e w experience. W h e n the Technische Hochschulen (technical universities) in Germany were authorized to award doctorates, the degrees of a Dr.-Ing. (Doctor of Engineering) had to be written in G e r m a n letters, in order to avoid confusion with a degree given by a 'real' university. Very soon this degree obtained a special high reputation, which still lasts and by n o means shows a sinking tendency. A n d still today the honorary degree of a Dr.-Ing. E . h . {Ehrenhalber) does not bring shame upon a person. In 1825, John Bull published a satirical p o e m against a 'rubbishing mock college' under the title 'Cockney University'.1 It reads:
Each D u s t m a n shall speak both in Latin and [Greek, A n d Tinkers beat Bishops in knowledge . . . Each Cobbler will soon be as good as a King A n d a King a thing hardly worth making: T h e rising of some and the fall of the rest. Will bring things at last to their level. A n d just as in France, which has suffered the test, Old England will go to the devil.

This 'rubbishing mock college' was the University of London. Today w e hear exactly the same arguments against the Gesamthochschule. T h e Gesamthochschule still has to stand the test. But it will destroy neither the universitystandard nor the Federal Republic of Germany.
1. Heide Thielbeer, 'England: Gesellschaft und Universitt im 19. Jahrhundert', Konstanzer Bltter fr Hochschulfragen, 10. Jg. (1972), H . 4.

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Branko Pribicevic and Jovan Gligorijevic

Self-management in Yugoslav universities

Yugoslav universities have gained a rich and interesting experience in the development of institutions and relationships based on selfmanagement. In the past dozen years or so self-management has become not only the main feature of the institutional framework, but also the principal trait of the functioning of Yugoslav institutions of higher education. Discussions evaluating the level achieved in the development of self-management, determining the major problems and indicating further prospects and tendencies are one of the major preoccupations of all organized social forces at Yugoslav universities and the society as a whole. S o m e aspects of self-management are probably more advanced in Yugoslavia than in m a n y other countries. It is obviously not possible to deal in complete detail with all the issues related to the development, prerequisites, institutional framework and the practice of self-management. This paper is therefore a condensed review of the main aspects of the existing system and of its development. W h e n analysing Yugoslav experience in university self-management, one must constantly bear

in mind,first,that university self-management is an integral part of the social system; some twenty-odd years ago leading social and political forces of the country adopted self-management as one of the basic principles of organizing our society, and this principle is built into the foundations of the constitutional system of the country. Self-management has thus become the guiding tenet, permeating the organization of all major spheres of public life, from economy to science and culture. For the time being, it is the only example of this kind in the world. N o other country has adopted to such an extent the principles of direct democracy as a basis of the entire structure and system of social relations. Secondly, self-management in the universities is characterized by the same degree of autono m y , voluntary association, the development of the system and vertical 'upward' social integration, which underlie the political philosophy of self-management socialism. There is general agreement that social relations based on university self-management must gain the greatest possible recognition. W h a t means will be applied to this end depends largely on the decisions taken autonomously by the universities themselves; there is therefore a rather big diversity not only with regard to some less important details, but also in connexion with some major issues concerning the institutional mechanism of the self-management system. This flexibility

Branko Pribicevi, Ph.D. (Yugoslavia). Professor, Faculty of Political Science, University of Belgrade. Jovan Ghgorijevi, Ph.D. (Yugoslavia). Rector, University of Belgrade.

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in approach makes it only the more difficult to explain the self-management mechanism in Yugoslav universities. Thirdly, major changes aimed at the further expansion of self-management are n o w under way in all Yugoslav universities. Despite considerable results achieved so far, the universities have by no means reached a complete and final form of public organization; it is a system 'under construction'. A n d finally, it is necessary to clarify the meaning behind the terminology. T h e contemporary world bears witness to a number of ideas, demands and movements for the democratization of higher education systems, aiming most frequently at some form of student participation. All these initiatives are given different names, such as self-management, participation or democratic management. T h e differences in action undertaken in various countries in this respect are not only a matter of terminology. T h e political terminology widely adopted in Yugoslavia interprets the term'self-management' not as just any kind of participation in the management or just any democratization of the system. O n the contrary, it is a specific type of societal organization in which working people are by law guaranteed the right to decide directly or through their representatives on all vital issues concerning their living and working conditions, as well as to influence decisionmaking outside their particular working and living environment which has a bearing on the development of the community and especially on the conditions of work.

the status of the university in the society as a whole. Viewed from this angle the substance of self-management effort marks an endeavour to free higher education institutions from the i m pact of the intervention of the State and its patronizing attitude, or briefly, from Statism. T h e university must be a direct and equal partner in the relations established with all other parts of social structure and public activities, without the mediation of the State. T h e second vital dimension is the relationship established between the university and individual schools and other institutions of learning that are a part of it. Self-management in the university depends significantly on the w a y in which this relationship is established, and where the main sources of initiative, decision-making centres and centres of power and finance are located. T h e third and the most important dimension are the relations existing within individual schools as self-contained working units. T h e experience gained over the past three decades makes it possible to assert that these three dimensions are closely interrelated and interdependent. They are the three distinct aspects of the university set-up, where various issues m a y be considered and settled in accordance with the circumstances, balance of powers and assets available, but whenever vital matters are in question there is a most direct interrelationship and interdependence. It would b e hardly possible to picture a situation where the self-management elements would be constantly gaining strength in one of these dimensions, and losing it in the other two.

The three dimensions of university relationships

Main trends in reforming university management

O n e must apply a three-dimensional approach to the analysis of the institutions, internal relations, postulates, principal results and open issues. T h e first dimension would be the universitycommunity relationship, or, in other words,

Since their foundation Yugoslav universities have been enjoying a special social status and traditional academic freedoms and autonomy. T h u s , for instance, the Universities L a w of

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1945 guaranteed to Belgrade University 'as the highest ranking self-governing body for high professional instruction and study of science' democratic relations based on self-government. T h e bourgeois autonomy of the university acquired a n e w substance in Yugoslav socialist society based on self-management and brought forth a n e w type of social relations. After 1950 in particular, n e w relations were established between the university and the social community, as well as within individual faculties of the university itself. T h e basic elements of university self-management are the following: the exclusive right to elect and confirm the election of teachers and associates, as well as management organs, both the collective (councils and boards of the university and its faculties) and individual bodies (the rector, deans, heads of departments, institute director, etc.). Certain elements of limited self-government pertaining to the adoption of curricula and syllabuses and to the election of almost all administration bodies existed before self-management was more broadly introduced. True, electoral bodies were very frequently restricted to the teaching staff only, but it is important nevertheless that the powers of the State administration were very limited in these issues. T h e offices of rector, deans and other individual executive bodies were strictly elective. T h e end of the sixties marks the completion of a stage in the development of the higher education system, which laid the foundation for bolder and more substantial efforts aimed at the establishment of genuine self-management. T h e organized socialist forces in Yugoslav universities, and in the community as a whole, reached a high degree of consensus at that time regarding the evaluation of past efforts and achieved results, as well as concerning the principal trends and the essence of changes needed. There was a growing awareness of the need for a profound reform introducing radical changes into the higher education system, its social position, internal structure and organization, system and

programme of instruction and scientific activities and mutual relations a m o n g various categories of persons involved in the higher education process. T h e idea of the reform was born, marking the beginning of a long-term enterprise aimed at a profound change of the whole higher education complex. Current reforms are wide-ranging, covering the university from those of a financial and professional nature to the more socio-political and ideological ones. T h e development of selfmanagement, howeverstrengthening the concept, expanding the mechanism, involving n e w categories of working people in the process, extending it to all the major spheres of life and activity of tertiary educationis the c o m m o n denominator and the vital feature of various programmes and proposed reforms. Although the programmes passed in recent years and the corresponding legal acts adopt rather diverse approaches to various issues, they all stem from close or identical views regarding the next stage in the development of selfmanagement. First, all universities assume that it is possible and even imperative to m a k e a further radical step forward towards the strengthening of self-management. Furthermore, they all envisage rather similar directions of its expansion. T h e current major trends are:firstof all, the opinion prevailing at Yugoslav universities that the time has come to deliver a decisive blow to the vestiges of Statism and bureaucratic thinking in defining the social status of universities. This concerns primarily the system of financing universities, which hitherto m a d e them directly dependent on the State, entailing numerous disadvantages. T h e surviving elements of Statism and State patronage affected the relations within the universities as well. It has to be emphasized that this is not only an ideological matter but also a widespread conviction at the universities that the system offinancing,the income system, exercises a direct and powerful influence on the social relations within the relevant working m i lieu. It is difficult to carry out genuine expansion

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and evolution of self-management relations in higher education institutions without an adequatefinancialbasis. It is not possible to develop relations based on self-management without financial self-management, that is without the abolition of a State-financing system. Education in general, and higher education in particular, followed the democratization and de-tatisation of Yugoslav society, as its integral part, in their o w n specific way. T h e socialization of higher education began with the elimination of the State-financing system and the establishment of special funds for the financing of education and scientific research. After a brief transition period w h e n these funds were operating, the assemblies of the republics, and then the assemblies of the autonomous provinces, passed the L a w s on Education Financing and Communities of Education (1966), which are the basis of the current system of financing Yugoslav universities. T h e communities of education are the associations which directly link the activities of educational institutions with the requirements of the economy and public services, take decisions on the allocation of socially-owned funds intended for education and consider all other matters of c o m m o n interest. T h e communities of education are composed of educational institutions, organizations of associated labour (firms and enterprises), other organizations concerned, and individual citizens. They are autonomous self-governing organizations, vested with decision-making rights in all matters within their jurisdiction. Funds for the financing of education, at the disposal of these communities, come from: educational charges on personal incomes (salaries); percentage of turnover taxes levied by the republics and c o m m u n e s ; additional sources which have to be provided by the founder (republic, province, c o m m u n e , working organizations, etc.); and other funds such as voluntary contributions of citizens, appropriations of working organizations and socio-political

communities (communes, provinces, republics), gifts by individuals, legacies, etc. T h e communities exercise their functions through the assembly and the executive board. T h e assembly is composed of the representatives of tertiary institutions (universities, faculties and higher schools of learning), working organizations and public services, educational and pedagogical institutions and services and delegates of public and political organizations. T h e representatives from educational institutions must constitute at least 50 per cent of the total. T h e assembly adopts annual and long-term programmes offinancing,decides on the distribution and utilization of funds; sets forth criteria for the allocation of funds; decides on merging its funds with those of other c o m m u n i ties of education to provide sources for activities of c o m m o n interest; considers reports on the activities of the community and its bodies and adopts all legal acts which fall within its jurisdiction. Communities of education are allotted additional funds, appropriations by public and political organizations, in accordance with the needs and level of the economic growth of the society, to carry out capital investments in the field of education, to provide assistance to raise the living standard of students and to supplement financing of education in underdeveloped regions. T h e current system of financing has contributed considerably to the emancipation of education from State authorities and the establishment of closer relations between education and the productive and non-productive spheres of associated labour. However, this process has not reached the same level of progress in all the republics and provinces; it depends to a large extent on the funds available to the communities of education, that is, on the general level of development in a particular region. Although the communities of education have played a decisive role in recognizing the public

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function of education, their scope has been limited. T h e economic relationship between the beneficiaries of education and the educational institutions, between the communities of education and the educational institutions, and a m o n g the communities of education themselves has not been sufficiently developed. A n e w concept of educationfinancingis n o w being elaborated, which should expand the economic independence of education and place it on an equitable footing with other spheres of associated labour, particularly concerning the earning and distribution of income. T h e second important component of action at present is the relations between the university and associated faculties, which has been the subject of vehement discussions. S o m e felt that the university should continue to be a compulsory association of faculties in a higher education centre and be vested with considerable powers, whereas others claimed that one should adopt the principle of voluntary association and that the authority of the university over its constituent parts should be further restricted. Solutions adopted in various centres are rather diverse, but it seems that neither of the two views has scored a convincing victory. S o m e centres have accepted the principle of a voluntary, nearly confederative, association while others have remained faithful to the principle of compulsory and slightly firmer association. T h e third and the most important domain of changes covers the entirety of social relations developing a m o n g individual social groups involved in the higher education process. Those responsible for the reforms have set forth the following demands as the principal objectives: (a) the inclusion of students in all the bodies vested with decision-making powers in the operation of higher education institutions; (b) incorporation of the non-teaching staff in the self-management process along the same lines; and (c) establishment of a more equitable relationship a m o n g individual categories of the teaching staff so as to break the monopoly held

until recently by the 'upper crust' of the teaching staff. T h e development trend of the system of self-management in Yugoslav universities is reflected in the ever-increasing recognition of faculties as basic self-governed, self-contained and autonomous working organizations which have agreed on a self-management basis to associate with a university. In this way the university has become an association and a higher form of organization of self-contained, selfgoverned and free faculties, scientific research institutes, libraries and other institutions dealing with higher education, with all those working in them represented.

Belgrade university: an example

For example, at the desire expressed by all their members (teachers, associates, students and other employees), twenty-five faculties in Belgrade decided to join Belgrade University in a self-managed and autonomous association. T h e y thus agreed to adhere to these principles in all relations and matters arising from the association, based on equality and mutual accord. T h e faculties, signatories of the agreement, have mutually bound themselves to o b serve strictly and fully the agreement and the decisions of joint university bodies, as well as to regulate their mutual relations in accordance with the provisions of the agreement. O n the other hand, the university is bound by the agreement to represent and voice the c o m m o n interests of associated faculties in contacts with non-university bodies and organizations and to respect and abide b y the principles of mutual agreement reached a m o n g the organizations associated in the university, i.e. the decisions of the university authorities. In its relations with individual faculties and other organizations, the university is bound by the agreement to respect their self-government, autonomy and equality.

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In this self-management-based agreement and in accordance with the L a w on Higher Education, the faculties have agreed that the matters of c o m m o n interest that should be dealt with at the university level are: 1. Promotion of scientific and educational activities. 2. Co-ordination and rationalization of the operation and development of associated organizations, including the establishment and organization of scientific and educational institutions and other forms of scientific and teaching activity. 3. Organization and promotion of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary forms of research and education. 4. Harmonization of the admission policy and general rules of studies. 5. Interdisciplinary approach to post-graduate studies and other joint activities intended to train junior scientific and teaching personnel. 6. Harmonization of criteria for teachers and associates. 7. Care for the living and working conditions of teachers, associates and other working people members of associated organizations. 8. Improvement of living and working conditions of students. 9. Harmonization of c o m m o n needs in the field of investments. 10. Development of co-operation with universities and other research-teaching and kindred organizations in the country and abroad. 11. Solution of other tasks entrusted to the university by associated organizations. T h e self-management-based agreement envisages management bodies of the university, which are entrusted with specific functions. These authorities are the assembly, executive board and the rector. T h e assembly of the university is composed of delegates elected by the faculties and faculty institutions (teachers, associates, students and

the non-teaching staff), representatives of the socio-political community and individual organizations, chambers of economy, the rector and pro-rectors of the university. T h e university assembly is the principal and supreme authority which in addition to general tasks aimed at the promotion of instruction and scientific research, is responsible for all general matters concerning the organization, functioning and development of the university. In addition to commissions and committees, the assembly also has an executive board which prepares proposals and draft decisions to b e adopted by the assembly and sees to their i m plementation. T h e executive board of the assembly is conceived in such a way as to be an efficient and operational body, not too large, but still fully representative of all the faculties and institutions, as well as of all categories of working people at the university. T h e assembly is headed by the presidency, also representative (two teachers, one assistant, two students and a representative of the non-teaching staff). Individual authority at the university is vested in the rector and three pro-rectors, all elected for two-year terms. T h e rector is elected a m o n g professors and the pro-rectors m a y represent teachers, students or the non-teaching staff. T h e rector and pro-rectors are nominated by the faculties and the system of elections is more precisely defined in the university statutes. T h e nominations procedure and the elections are democratic. Self-management in the faculties as selfcontained units of associated labour developed along with the process of establishing new relations, and in particular with the equality of all structures and the investment of the existing bodies with n e w tasks and responsibilities. B y obtaining the status of active participants in the educational process and of equal members in the C o m m u n i t y of the Working People the students m a d e significant gains with regard to their self-governing rights. T h e organizational forms

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through which teachers, associates, students and other working people in individual faculties exercise their rights vary and the actual relations and specific character of the scientific and educational processes carried out in each. Since self-management as a form of management presupposes the c o m m o n interest and participation of all members of the community in decisionmaking, particular attention has been paid to implementation of rights and powers in order to make the work of various self-management bodies more efficient. In view of the number of categories of people involved, students in particular, almost all faculties have kept as a direct form of self-management the general assemblies of working people, the electoral bodies (for the election of deans and pro-deans, representatives to other self-management bodies and the promotion to academic degrees) and referenda. All other self-management bodies are composed in such a way as to represent all categories of the working people at a faculty. T h e collective selfmanagement bodies are the faculty assembly or the faculty council, the executive board of the assembly, teachers, or combined teachers and scholars council and the referendum of studyyear councils; deans and pro-deans, etc.all act individually. Study-year councils are the basic u n d direct form of joint student-teacher selfmanagement, and include teachers, associates and student representatives. Study-year councils consider the organization and execution of instruction during the relevant study-year, inform students on all matters of instruction, textbooks and examinations, on opinions, proposals

and decisions of the faculty bodies concerning scientific and teaching activities which m a y be of particular concern to students. Furthermore, these councils see that lectures, exercises, seminars, pre-examination work are held regularly, that students participate in all forms of scientific and teaching activity and that the most direct contacts and co-operation possible are established a m o n g teachers, associates and students. Study-year councils strive to introduce n e w , more advanced methods of education, especially those requiring the active participation of students, such as discussion groups, seminars and study groups, in order to broaden the knowledge of students and teach them to carry out independent research and apply a scientific approach to various problems. Self-management, once introduced as a means by which the working people in a socialist community achieve the further decromatization of the society, requires continuous development and improvement. In its o w n domain of public activity the university is called upon not only to promote and develop self-management-based relations within the scope of higher education, but also to develop further the theory and practice of the self-management system in general. T h e university reform and the further development of self-management are a lasting process reflecting the continuous transformation which the Yugoslav socialist community is going through. T h e n e w phase of the de-tatisation of higher education and its broader integration with associated labour as a whole are n o w under way.

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Beyond the university to mass higher education

The

expansionist trend:

balancing aspirations against manpower requirements

In a fairly simple w a y , the current concern throughout Europe on the future of postsecondary and adult education is the logical consequence of the huge strides forward in secondary education taken in most European countries in the last quarter of a century. T o set out to examine h o w countries are responding to social change and the pressures which build up therefrom is in large measure to look at the outcome of secondary-school policies, all successful by crude quantitative standards, though in varying degrees. S o m e countries have still a long way to go before they have an effective comprehensive system of secondary education. In too m a n y countries, in one way or another, the builtin selective mechanisms have eliminated half the children by the age of 16in some countries, like the United Kingdom, they are eliminated by actually removing themselves from full-time education. Their future participation in systematic learning depends on whether, and h o w m u c h , they take advantage of opportunity for part-time study in connexion with industrial training or in pursuit of cultural interests. A

Stuart Madure (United Kingdom). Editor, T h e Times Educational Supplement. 522 Prospects, Vol. Ill, N o . 4 , Winter 1973

few find their way back into the mainstream of education through the post-secondary colleges of further education, or through the O p e n University; the great majority say goodbye to formal education when they leave school, and their secondary schooling has been such that in reality they have been diverted into an impasse several years before they actually leave school. Other countries which manage to retain a larger proportion of the age group in full-time education still differentiate within post-primary education in ways which deprive a high proportion of the choice of higher education. But criticisms of this kindand certainly there are m a n y shortcomingscannot cloak the remarkable expansion of secondary education which has taken place in all countries of Europe. Most European countries have inherited restricted and narrow systems of secondary education superimposed on universal systems of elementary education. O n e by one, Eastern and Western European countries have been moving, in Professor Martin Trow's familiar formulation, from lite systems to mass systems; the next phase, from mass to universal, has begun in a few countries, notably Sweden. C o m m o n to all the countrieseven if in some there are reactionary (or extreme radical) elements which refuse to come to terms with the notionis a steady raising of the average terminal age for education and the general expectation that only some futuristic breakdown of urban social and

Beyond the university to mass higher education

economic life can prevent the arrival of a time w h e n universal secondary education is both available and taken u p . Talk of deschooling does little to shake this expectation, it merely suggests modification of what schools should be. This implies m a n y changes of organization including the dismantling of the internal and external divisions within the various forms of post-primary education; it implies a commitment to democratization which is not, by any means, universal: it implies curricular changes, changes in examinations and teaching methods. In m a n y countries, these changes still have to be made. But it can still be confidently asserted that this transformation is on its way and that it is the logical outcome of social and economic developments which are continuing and from which there is no turning back. T h e full implication of mass secondary education and the difficulties involved in going on to universal secondary education have become increasingly apparent during the past decade. T h e present interest in the challenge of higher and adult education is sparked off by the same considerations: the numbers in higher education (in terms of percentage of age groups) are m u c h lower than those in secondary, but the rates of growth are even more rapid; Professor T r o w offers some observations on this growth process. ' T h e case of access to higher education', he writes in a recent O E C D paper,1
is closely linked to the conceptions these people students and their parentshave of college and university attendance. W h e n access is highly limited it is generally seen as a privilege, either of birth, of talent or both. A b o v e about 15 per cent of the age grade, people increasingly begin to see entry to higher education as a right for those w h o have certain formal qualifications. A n d w h e n the proportion of the whole population comes to about 50 per cent, and in certain sections of the society it is then, of course, m u c h higher, attendance in higher education is increasingly seen as an obligation: for children from the middle and upper-middle classes . . . not to go on to higher education from secondary school is increasingly a

m a r k of some defect of m i n d or character which has to be explained or justified or apologised for. M o r e over, as m o r e people go o n to higher education, the best jobs and opportunities and the economic rewards in life c o m e to be reserved for people w h o have completed a university degree and this greatly contributes to the sense of obligation that is felt by m a n y students on entry.

This is to approach the matter from a consumer point of view. In countries where the planning of higher education is guided by manpower requirements, the consumers' interest is kept more in the background. (Though when the European Ministers discussed these matters in Vienna in 1967 it was plain that there was more c o m m o n ground than might have been expected.) It certainly seems to be true that in the Western European countries 'student demand' has been the main determinant of expansion and that manpower planning has been a secondary consideration. M a n y of these countries are in the second phase described by Professor T r o w where admission to higher education is a prized 'right' for all w h o obtain a baccalaurat or Abitur. Sweden, as so often, reflects both the pressure of consumer demand and the attempt to engage in manpower planning. T h e pressures behind the U 6 8 commission2 (of which more later) u n doubtedly include strong consumer interests but, in the Swedish manner, transmuted by the social priorities which the Swedish Government has established. T h e combination of consumer pressure, manpower and economic planning and social policies of wider access make the Swedish approach of particular interest, not necessarily as a model, but certainly as a demonstration of issues which, in one form or another are being, or soon will be confronted throughout Europe.

1. A paper prepared for the O E C D Conference on F u ture Structures of Post-Secondary Education, Paris, 28-29 June 1973. 2. U68. Proposals by the Swedish 1968 Educational C o m mission, Stockholm, 1973.

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The pressure for life-long education

If, as I a m suggesting, thefirstreason w h y there is pressure for innovation in higher and adult education is growth itself and the respective changes which it induces, growth certainly is not the only reason w h y pressure is taking its present form. T h e present apparent international consensus in favour of life-long or recurrent education is one of the more remarkable movements of educational opinion in recent time, crossing frontiers and ideologies. W h y is it, for instance that the Swedes in their present discussions are setting their faces against what might be called the Californian solutionthe continued expansion of end-on higher education till the 25 per cent of each age group which n o w goes on to post-secondary courses in Sweden rises to 40, 60, or 80 per cent...? At a time w h e n Western Europe is still committed to intensive economic growth and w h e n North American living standards appear to be attainable, it does seem strange, on the face of it, that all the rhetoric is going into arguing the case for ducation permanente in one or more of its m a n y guises. T h e Eastern European countries are well advanced with m a n y forms of adult part-time evening and correspondence study. In the Soviet Union where more than 4 million students are engaged in higher education, only about half are full-time students. T h e other half are pursuing correspondence courses or attending evening classes. B y the use of these cheap methods of continuing learning and earning, the total higher education is increased and m e n and w o m e n w h o were unable or unwilling to go to universities or technical college in their teens can take up their studies later in adult life when, with the adult eye, they can see more clearly the relevance of what they are asked to work on, and appreciate the value of the qualification in their working life. It is unlikely that any system of end-on-to-

school, post-secondary education can ever eliminate the need for second-chance institutions and the economic and social support which adult students should receive. It would be an error, for example, to suppose that in California where 70 per cent of highschool graduates go on to college, there is no need for university extension activities or for opportunities of the junior colleges for mature studentsquite the reverse: education is an appetite which grows with feeding and the opportunities to pursue extension courses or to enter junior college as an adult are widespread, as are special terms of entry for disadvantaged groups. Even so, there seems to be a fundamental difference between this kind of 'safety net' or 'second chance' operation and what people have in mind w h e n they was eloquent about recurrent or life-long education. Life-long education as Edgar Faure in Learning to Be or Professor Ralf Dahrendorf, the E E C Commissioner for Science, Research and Education, uses the term is intended to have more far-reaching implications than this. W h e n recurrent education crops u p in the Swedish U 6 8 report it is something m u c h grander. It is seen as an egalitarian instrument, a means of reducing the built-in bias which in all countries, including socialist countries, seems to ensure that social advantage help middle- and upper-class children to do relatively better in the examinations and gradings used for the recruitment of students to higher education than students from lower social classes. Life-long or recurrent education, then, is seen as a corrective measure, aimed at the same objective as that which has led socialist countries like Poland and Czechoslovakia1 to use various 'points' systems to give heavier weighting to working-class candidates in university selection

1. See article by Janina Lagneau in Europe 2000, Access to Education. T h e Hague.

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procedures. T h e U 6 8 report expresses this with the following words:


T h e present organization with its emphasis o n coherent education, tends to assign a decisive importance to choices m a d e by schoolchildren. There is strong evidence that this is an essential factor underlying the disturbed social distribution of the upper secondary school, with its overrepresentation of thefirstsocioeconomic group in the lines that must directly prepare pupils for the types of higher education most in demand.

If the Swedish Government decides to follow the advice of the U 6 8 report the growth rate of higher education in the seventies will be m u c h reduced from that in the sixties and a numerus clausus will be introduced in m a n y of the academic disciplines which n o w attract large n u m bers of 19-year-olds straight from school. Given the continued build-up in the secondary school, the effect will be to push more young people into higher forms of vocational education or into employment with the prospect of returning later to study in connexion with vocational training. This report comes close on the heels of reform in the upper secondary school and clearly the commissioners were reluctant to propose yet more changes for the harassed schools. But implicit in the proposed change for the universities as other post-secondary colleges, were changes in secondary education: ' T o permit a real choice', the report states, c on the conclusion of the upper secondary school, between continued studies and work, every line of study at the upper secondary school should in principle prepare pupils both for further studies and for gainful employment to a greater extent than is n o w the case. However, the commission consider it natural that such a reform be introduced only when sufficient experience has been gained from the upper secondary school introduced as from the academic year 1971/72. In shorter term the same objectives should be furthered by reducing the number of students on those upper secondary lines that do not prepare pupils for an

occupation.' In other words more vocational courses and fewer of the traditional academic gymnasium kind. Sweden seems to stand in this respect at the European cross-roads. Swedish education is well informed about North American practice. S o m e of the thinking behind the recent Ontario report1 on the future of higher education is discernible in the Swedish document, including its extremely cautious financial basisone of the reasons for setting up U 6 8 in thefirstplace was a recognition that spending in higher education could not continue to rise exponentially. It appears to offer a sharp reduction of the rate of growth in spending, an egalitarian recipe for working-class higher education, and a means of using resources more equitably throughout the community and across the age-range. Whether these objectives are attainable and if so, whether they can all be attained at once, is open to question but as a political answer to a political question the Swedish Commission has come u p with a formula which, though bitterly attacked from left and from right, is a logical development of Sweden's education policies of the past quarter of a century. It owes a good deal also to the example of Eastern Europe, particularly in its emphasis on vocational education and training, and its hankering after a 'polytechnical' approach to upper-secondary education. Whether it will e m pirically prove to be the case that working-class children will actually benefit and have their life chances improved by making it more difficult to get into post-secondary education without a period of employment between school and college is, however, quite another matter. Technology as a force for change It would be a mistake to concentrate too m u c h on the rhetoric which, in this matter as in others,
I. cf. review of this report, Prospects, Vol. Ill, N o . 3, 1973) P- 405-6. (Ed. note.)

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is only the froth on the top of the beer. Egalitarian considerations are not by any means the only reason w h y Europe seems to be about to acquire a n e w interest in adult education. Equality certainly demands that access to the resources of higher education should be wider and that artificial conventions which discriminate against the mature student, the part-timer, the m a n or w o m a n in employment, should be eliminated. But, fortunately, the pressure to do something about this is not dependent entirely on political good-will. There are other objective forces contributing towards changing the present patterns of educational behaviour. O n e such force for change is technology. T h e O p e n University, perhaps Britain's most significant educational innovation of the present century, has shown that educational technology in the form of the systematic application of all the available resourcestelevision, radio, correspondence, personal tutoring, conselling, and s u m m e r schoolscan achieve excellent results with a high degree of economy, provided that the enterprise is undertaken on a sufficiently large scale. A n d in this respect, the O p e n University is only just beginning to have the influence which it will come to exert on other educational institutions. If this can be done for the provision of high-level academic courses, it can also be used for courses at other levels and for other groups of post-secondary students. It has opened u p opportunities in recurrent and adult education, and at the same time shown h o w they can be exploited at low cost. (The present British Government shows little sign of recognizing this but the evidence will be there for all to see.) But this is only one example of the way in which educational technology is going to make possible programmes of adult education which will develop their o w n impetus. For m a n y years people have been prophesying that educational technology would shortly transform the schools, and yeton both sides of the Atlanticthe schools have, without difficulty, withstood the determined efforts of the learning industry.

There are good reasons for continuing to be sceptical about educational technology at the school level but for adults there is m u c h more reason to be hopeful. T h e essential difference is that within the next ten years the cassette revolution will be upon us. T h e video-tape will follow this audio-tape into private homes all over Europe. W h e n this equipment is commonplace for entertainment its true potential for adult education will be recognized. T h e revolution in communications which will accompany this will revolutionize independent learning. There will, in fact, be an element of technological inevitability about ducation permanente: it will be extremely hard to avoid. N o less significant are the changes in e m ployment which are going to force future generations to undergo retraining as old jobs end and n e w jobs begin. T h e emphasis on industrial training and vocational guidance in Eastern European higher or technical education, are echoed in the U 6 8 report. In France, where study leave is already provided for by statute, Professor Bertrand Schwartz's exposition oducation permanente places it firmly within the context of changing technology and industrial efficiency. Retraining, in-service training, professional refreshmentall these belong within the concept of recurrent education and all are being extended from year to year, not by some grand design or ideological purpose, but as a result of irresistible changes in industry, technology and professional practice. (Significantly, perhaps, Sweden, where ideological pressure employs the rhetoric of recurrent education as an instrument of egalitarian social policy, is also a country where these changes in industrial and professional Ufe are most advanced.) Finally, there is the transformation of work by machines and the long-awaited reduction in the hours of toil. It is well k n o w n that before people choose to take their increased wealth in the shape of more leisure they use it to take on more work, doing two jobs if need be, or preferring to work overtime in their notional leisure

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to buy consumer goods and the appendages of good living. It will certainly take longer for the three- and four-day week described by futurologists to materialize than some facile forecasts suggest, but nevertheless, longer paid holidays are coming and with them a wider choice of leisure and cultural activities.

Diversifying possibilities of access

It is easy to distinguish some kinds of formal learningor some kinds of informal, c o m munity-orientated group activityas adult education, but in a healthy society where leisure is more widespread and the range of choice of 'non-work' is extended, it is going to be difficult, if not impossible, to draw the line between adult education and other popular forms of recreative, cultural and community activity. Equally (at least in the non-socialist countries), it will be essential to envisage a multiplicity of providers of adult education, some public, some private, some co-operative, some commercial, some subsidized, some free, some self-financing. All of which seems a long way offin fact it is quite easy to get the impression that nothing m u c h is happening behind the barrage of rhetoric except the gradual development of existing institutions. Certainly there is no great evidence in m a n y Western countries of any general desire to open up existing higher education institutions to adults and to those w h o lack formal entry qualifications defined as the completion of the full secondary education course. Rhetoric is no substitute for small but practical schemes at ground level. T h e emphasis o n vocational education is understandable and exploits a primary motivation for working adults. But it seems strange to see it being emphasized in Swedish plans, just at the point w h e n a lot of young adults seem to be rebelling against pressure to take early vocational decisions and to resent having their

working future manipulated by the system. It will be extremely interesting to see if this rebellion and these resentments are subordinated to the practical advantages of assured employment. But, again, it could be that the affluent post-industrial society is going to m a k e this kind of assured employment in pre-determined vocational roles less attractive and young m e n and w o m e n are going to be more concerned with discovering their social roles and pursuing their social relationships than making the machine work smoothly. T h e strong emphasis on technical and technological education within this concern for vocational education also conflicts with the evidence (again confirmed recently by the I E A study)1 that science and technology have ceased in m a n y Western European countries to present an attractive, optimistic vision to young people. It is impossible to resist the conclusion that recurrent education is a part of the conventional wisdom of Europe of the seventies which needs to be subjected to the most rigorous and sceptical criticismnot because it is not good or desirable or necessary, but because it means all things to all m e n and because it could turn out to be an illiberal, authoritarian device to kick d o w n the ladder u p which the present generation of political and academic leaders have climbed. In its more grandiose forms it is offered as an instrument of social engineering. A s such it has to be examined in the light of the social objectives to which it is being directed. But it is not enough to show that these objectives are good; what is m u c h more difficult, it must be shown that the particular model of life-long learning chosen can actually achieve the specific results attributed to it. In its more modest manifestations, stripped
I. Science Education in Nineteen Countries, Stockholm, International Association for the Evaluation of E d u cational Achievement.

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f some of the verbiage, it means a commitment to an open society in which the fewest possible number of educative decisions are irrevocable. It is not just a matter of rigging a safety net for those w h o fall, but perpetuating the idea of a learning community in which it is always

possible to acquire knowledge and organized experience, whether for vocational reasons or for cultural reasons or for pleasure or for a combination of all these. This is a luxury which Europe should be able to afford in the last quarter of the twentieth century.

528

Short reading ls on higher i t education in Europe

A S H B Y , Eric; A N D E R S O N , M a r y . The rise of the student estate in Britain. London/Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1970. A V R A M O V A , Bistra. L'enseignement en Bulgarie. Sofia, Sofia-Presse, 1969. A W E D U T O , S.; S C H I A V O N E , M . La diversificazione dell'insegnamento superiore in Europa. Milano, Marzorati Edtore, 1971. B U R N , Barbara. Higher education in nine countries. A comparative study of colleges and universities abroad. N e w York, N . Y . , McGraw-Hill, 1971. B U T C H E R , H . J.; R U D D , Ernest (eds.). Contemporary problems in higher education, an account of research. L o n d o n , McGraw-Hill, 1972. C A T Y , Gilbert. La politique scientifique et universitaire en Rpublique fdrale d'Allemagne (du fdralisme la coopration inter-universitaire). Paris, L a Documentation Franaise, 1972. (Notes et tudes documentaires, no. 3860.) C H E V A L L I E R , Jacques. L'enseignement suprieur. Paris, P U F , 1971. C H O M B A R T D E L A U W E , Paul-Henry. Pour l'universit, avant, pendant et aprs mai 1968. Paris, Payot, 1968. Conference of Ministers of Education of European Member States of Unesco on Access to Higher Education, Vienna, 20-25 November 1967. Paris, Unesco, 1967-68. Several vols.
C O U N C I L O F E U R O P E . D O C U M E N T A T I O N C E N T R E F O R E D U C A T I O N I N E U R O P E . Colloque sur les enseignements sup-

rieurs: l'ducation post-secondaire en Europe: situations et perspectives. Strasbourg, 1972. D E B B A S C H , Charles. L'universit dsoriente: autopsie d'une mutation. Paris, P U F , 1971. D E J A N , Christian; B I N N E M A N S , Charles-Louis. L'Universit belge. Du pari au dfitudes des problmes de l'enseignement suprieur. ditions de l'Institut de Sociologie, Universit Libre de Bruxelles, I97iDe l'universit aux universits, octobre 1968-janvier 1971. Paris, I97I- (Cahiers des universits franaises, no. 1, Association d'tudes pour l'expansion de l'enseignement suprieur.) D E N N I G E R , Erhard. Das Hochschulrahmengesetz. Kernstck einer Bildungsreform? Frankfurt, A . Metzner Verlag, 1972. D E U R I N C K , G . University education in the year 2000, Plan 'Europe 2000', Project 1: Education, Theme III Study 9A. Amsterdam, European Cultural Foundation, 1972. F I L I P O V I C , Marijan. L'enseignement suprieur en Yougoslavie. Beograd, Conseil fdral pour l'ducation et la culture, 1970. F L O O D - P A G E , C ; G R E E N A W A Y , H . (eds.). Innovation in higher education. L o n d o n , Society for Research into Higher Education, 1972. FouRASTl, Jean. Faillite de l'universit. Paris, 1972. G R O H M A N N , Karl; H L L I N G E R , Sigurd. Bildungsplanung in sterreich, Band II: Einzugsbereiche der Wissenschaftlichen Hochschulen. W i e n , C . Ueberreuter, 1970. H B E R G E R , K . L'enseignement suprieur en Hongrie. Budapest, Tanknyvkiado, 1966. H O L M E S , Brian; S C A N L O N , David G . ; N I B L E T T , W . R . (eds.). Higher education in a changing world: The World Year Book of Education 1971/72. L o n d o n , Evans Bros. Ltd, 1971. I N T E R N A T I O N A L A S S O C I A T I O N O F U N I V E R S I T I E S . International university cooperation. Paris, 1969. (Cahiers, 9.) . The university and the needs of contemporary society. Paris, 1970. (Cahiers, 10.) . Problems of integrated higher education; an international case study of the Gesamthochschule. Paris, 1972. (Cahiers, 11.)

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Short reading list on higher education in Europe

K O U R G A N O F F , Vladimir. La face cache de l'universit. Paris, P U F , 1972. M A C K E N Z I E , N o r m a n ; E R A U T , Michel; J O N E S , H y w e l C Teaching and learning. An introduction to new methods and resources in higher education. Unesco and the International Association of Universities. Paris, 1970. (The development of higher education.) M E I L N G I L , Jos Luis. Los planes universitarios de enseanza en la Espaa contempornea. Alcal de Henares, Escuela Nacional de Administracin Pblica, 1970. N O R W E G I A N N A T I O N A L C O M M I S S I O N F O R U N E S C O . O S L O . Students' aspirations and participation (final report on international conference on students' aspirations and participation of students in university management, Oslo, N o r w a y , 4-9 August 1969). Oslo/Bergen/Troms0, Universitetsforlaget, 1970. O N U S H K I N , Victor G . (ed.). Planning the development of universities, vol. I. Paris, Unesco/Intemational Institute for Educational Planning, 1971. O R G A N I S A T I O N F O R E C O N O M I C C O - O P E R A T I O N A N D D E V E L O P M E N T . Educational policy and planning: France. Paris, 1972. . Innovation in higher education: French experience before 1968. Paris, 1970. . Innovation in higher education: Reforms in Yugoslavia. Paris, 1970. . Innovation in higher education: Technical education in the United Kingdom. Paris, 1971. . Innovation in higher education: Three German universities. Paris, 1970. . Perspectives diffrentes d'avenir de l'enseignement aux tats unis et en Europe: mthodes, problmes et inc dences en matire de politique. Paris, 1972. . Postgraduate education: structures and policies. Paris, 1972. . Reviews of national policies for education: Austria. Paris, 1970. . Reviews of national policies for education: Germany. Paris, 1972. . Reviews of national policies for education: Italy. Paris, 1969. . Reviews of national policies for education: Netherlands. Paris, 1970. . Short-cycle higher education, a search for identity. Paris, 1973. Towards new structures of post-secondary education. Paris, 1971. O V C I N I K O V , A . A . ; P U G I N S K I J , V . S.; P E T R O V , G . F . Setevye metody planirovanija i organizacija ucebnogo processa (v vyssej skole). Pod red. A . A . Ovcinikova, M o s k v a , Vyssaja (skola), 1972. P O W E L L , J. P . (ed.). Universities and university education: a select bibliography. Vol. I, II. L o n d o n , Nationa Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales, 1971. P R E C I S Z E W S K I , T . (ed.). Sprawnsc ksztalcenia w szkolnictwie ayzszym. Warszawa, P W N , 1971. Register of research into higher education 1972. Society for Research into Higher Education, L o n d o n , 1972. T A Y L O R , William. Policy and planning for post-secondary education. European overview. Seventh Conference of European Ministers of Education. Strasbourg. Council of Europe, 1970. U N E S C O . World survey of education. IV: Higher education. Paris, 1967. . tudes sur les quivalences internationales de diplmes. Les tudes suprieures. Prsentation comparative des rgimes d'enseignement et des diplmes. Paris, 1973. Z I L ' C O V A , E . N . (ed.). Voprosy planirovanija vyssego obrazovanija (Sbornik state) ). M o s k v a , Izd-vo Moskovskogo universiteta, 1972.

This bibliography was compiled by the International Association of Universities, the International Bureau o Education and the Division of Higher Education (Unesco).

530

Trends and cases

The Free Gymnasium of Copenhagen1

T h e Free Gymnasium began in September of 1970 with afirst-yearclass of ninety-four students, eighteen teachers (many of them parttime) and a rector. In 1971 and 1972 n e w classes joined to complete the three-year programme. In this report w e have tried to present some facts and viewpoints in a way that could make the meaning of the school go beyond our specific experiences. It was compiled from sections written individually according to a plan drawn u p by a committee, consistent with our educational goal of combining group processes with individual responsibility and initiative. Thus, the sections have been individually written by nine pupils and three teachers. Aside from minor editing, the various sections remain as written and thus represent individual opinions.

The present system and reasons for reform

T h e time seems ripe for a new reform of the gymnasium school system. T h e primary school has changed its structure so that a number of subjects have become optional and, if this change is going to have any effect, the g y m nasiums should follow. Pupils enter the g y m nasium afterfinishingtheir second and third real year. It is not the gymnasium but the school you leave that decides whether you are qualified or not. If the school says you are qualified you go directly into the gymnasium without a test. But if the school is in doubt you must go to a test and not m a n y pupils pass this test. About 14 per cent of the 16-19 Y e a r a g e group are attending gymnasiums. Only 12 per cent of this

14 per cent come from working-class families. T h e young people w h o are being educated in the gymnasium today are different from those of i960. During the past ten years youth has become a group which cannot be ignored by society. Its wishes to participate in making decisions within the school system must be taken into account. This is not to say that all, or perhaps even the majority of young people consciously want a radical change. Such a process from passively obeying orders to active participation takes time and that time does not exist in the gymnasium due to the burden of knowledge which is imposed on the pupils. T o make matters worse, the teachers have generally been unwilling to grant the pupils the necessary time for developing such a change of consciousness. O n the contrary, they have generally used their authority to discourage the pupils from entertaining democratic ideas. But, in the past couple of years a n e w tendency is becoming increasingly clear: a growing number of pupils and teachers are more and more unhappy about the state of education. It is not pleasant for a teacher to be pumping knowledge into the heads of a lazy mass of pupils w h o lack all interest in what goes on in class. Technological development has m a d e it mandatory that more emphasis be put on the ability of pupils to 'learn to learn', thus being able to benefit more readily from future insights and discoveries. It is also time for the g y m nasium to take advantage of such developing sciences as psychology and sociology not only
1. This study was prepared in 1972 for the Unesco Youth Division collectively by the pupils and members of the staff of the Free Gymnasium.

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in order to broaden the pupils' understanding of other h u m a n beings but also because psychology and sociology are bound to make valuable contributions to the development of n e w ways of teaching.

Origin and start of the Free Gymnasium

Really to understand the background of the Free Gymnasium's start, one must know something about the special traditions of the Danish educational system. In two ways it is a lot different than that of m a n y other countries: there is free- and folk-high school legislation which gives private circles the possibility of establishing ordinary schools as well as folk-high schools along their o w n pedagogical and ideological principles; and there is a tradition of educating kindergarten teachers according to different principles than those characterizing the rest of the teacher-training system. These two characteristics have since the First World W a r formed the basis for an educational movement beginning in circles around the kindergarten teacher schools. A number of freeschools or 'little schools' as they are called, have been started where the stress has been on the social and emotional development of the pupils rather than on the learning of specific issues. At these schools, which are still popping u p , one has, as far as possible, avoided grades and exams, instead relying on the pupils' o w n evaluations. T h e creative subjects have been placed as centrally as possible and they have influenced the form and content of the other subjects. In spite of this 'small-school movement', whose most k n o w n example is the Bernadotteskolen, originally existing in direct opposition to the regular system, and despite the fact that the clientele has been somewhat exclusive, one has recently seen the spread of this approach more and more to the public schools.

W h e n the planning for the Free Gymnasium started in the summer of 1967 none of the experiences or ideas from the 'small schools' had influenced the gymnasium world. It's true that m a n y students from the small schools or the Bernardotteskolen had gone to the g y m nasium and felt pretty bothered by it; it's true that teachers from the universities had been complaining about the students' lack of experience with independent work; but yet there still hadn't been any serious work to get this academic educational monopoly changed. At the gymnasiums the coming lite of economists, lawyers, doctors, scientists and gymnasium teachers were taught in a spirit of self-sufficiency and disinterest for those problems which were more h u m a n than academic. They dug eagerly in already existing cultural gaps and more time was spent on the events of the past than on establishing a basis for solving the problems of today. T h e problems of today had no formal place in the curriculum. T h e well-qualified teachers had a post-education aimed only at the teaching process which looked pretty shabby even on paper. In the spring of 1967 a young gymnasium teacher wrote a feature article in one of the country's largest newspapers accusing the g y m nasium of completely letting d o w n its o w n objectives and not having followed the times. H e referred to an experimental gymnasium that some students had just started in Norway and urged people that were interested to come to the planning of something like it in Denmark. At thisfirstmeeting in the autumn of 1967, w e were about ten people from varying backgrounds: a few gymnasium teachers, some g y m nasium and university students and people from the kindergarten seminars. W e used most of the time exchanging experiences and criticizing the gymnasium that w e wanted to change. Already, w e disagreed and had different approaches. S o m e had the understanding that w e were only going to give an incisive critique of the existing gymnasiums while others thought

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the main task was to establish a gymnasium which could show the possibility of organizing the classroom structures in another way. At the end of the autumn it was clear that w e wanted to concentrate on establishing an alternative gymnasium. Those w h o were most interested in this simply put more work and energy into it than those w h o wanted just to set u p Utopian plans. W e divided the work into three areas: the plans for the gymnasium; the propaganda activity in the press and at different educational institutions; and, finally, the negotiations with the Ministry of Education about approval. T h e planning was done by the whole active group, namely a gymnasium teacher, a seminar student, a student taking pre-university courses, an engineer and myself,1 a university student. T h e student taking courses was also a m e m b e r of an education ministry committee so he took over the negotiating while the engineer and I did the propaganda activity at other schools. Gradually the idea gained more supporters, especially amongst gymnasium students and students-to-be, after which they participated more actively in both the planning and propaganda work. A study group was established around the Free Gymnasium, which w e had decided to call it. Meanwhile the public interest and acceptance of the Free Gymnasium idea increased, mostly amongst the political parties of the left. There was obviously not m u c h understanding for the project in the government but they agreed to negotiate with us about problems. These negotiations went on for over two and a half years, with quite a bit of tug-of-war about the subject plan, the students' responsibility for policy and administration and the requirements for attendance. At thefirstmeeting with the ministry w e were told that w e couldn't count on being a regular State gymnasium, that the ministry would only pay 85 per cent of the working expenses according to the rules in D e n m a r k

for private schools. W e then used m u c h time finding a suburb that would pay the remaining 15 per cent. W e felt it would make the social composition of the pupils even more lopsided if their parents had to pay to have their children attend the school. These parallel negotiations concluded in the winter of 1970 with the final approval of a modified plan for the gymnasium and the p r o m ise from a suburb for economic support and a building to house us. F r o m then on w e started talking with teachers about the work itself at the school. T h e n e w Rector came actively into the picture, to help with the m a n y details concerning the building, student applications^ teachers, etc. At one point, w h e n everything seemed all. right, it turned out that the suburb couldn't grant the money for a building. T w o months before the gymnasium was to open w e stood with nothing. T h e prospective pupils had to find other schools where they could go while w e worked desperately during the s u m m e r vacation, trying to get the school started in one way or another. W e approached all sorts of authorities asking for help; even though they were very kind, they didn't find reasons for doing anything. W e gave u p completely one day. While w e were winding up the whole thing, one of the pupils parents called and told us about a factory building that was for rent in the suburb that had originally promised support. W e started all over again, negotiating with the factory's owner about a renting contract. But, at that point, it was already too late. All the other gymnasiums had begun. However, the ministry gave us permission to start one month late, students were quickly notified of the sudden change and the school began, on 7 September, with two days' notice.

1. This section was written by Lars Jacob Muschinsky,, n o w a social science teacher at the Free Gymnasium.

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F r o m abstract planning to concrete reality


ABOUT MAKING A SCHOOL OUT OF A FACTORY

W h e n the governing and administering of a school are distributed equally amongst pupils and teachers, will the practical work be also? Because of a bad economic situation our practical work has often been rather complicated. W e have had to cut our wishes d o w n to a m i n i m u m and to inspect everything between heaven and earth to find the cheapest solution. Although it was hard, w e have had to accept that m a n y important things must be left to the future w h e n w e hope to have more money. Especially in thefirsthalf-year, w e had to save every crown. A committee was set u p to make a tolerable milieu out of the old dirty factory building w e m o v e d into. Everything had to be washed, plastered, painted and arranged just for us to stay there a year or two. Another group picked up tables, chairs and blackboards that other schools had discarded and put into storerooms. They also got milk and beer crates to use as shelves. A third group went after lamps and got some veryfineones after long and hard discussions at the school meeting. Another group, after searching a long time, found afirmthat sold carpeting damaged by water. A publishing company gave us m a n y of their books, and since m u c h of our education is based on excerpts from m a n y texts w e decided that a duplicator would be indispensable. For thefirstyear and a half the arts and crafts workshops consisted only of a few tables and a shelf with very sparse supplies. It was as if it couldn't be taken seriously because the muddle and mess swelled u p so m u c h that it was impossible to make any creative art. It was discussed very often at the school meetings but nobody began to tidy u p and it was desperate. O n e weekend, working on their o w n initiative,

a group cleaned the area up and built a beautiful workshop consisting of three parts: a ceramics area, a drawing area and a wood and metal workshop. In February 1972, w e could draw out money from the funds contributed by the State. T h u s w e could afford to equip the workshops with power tools, a pottery kiln and other art supplies. A n area that easily lent itself to development as a photography darkroom was soon established and equipped. About the mess . . . it's a rather painful case, and it's everywhere in the school. In the beginning w e all agreed that cleaning u p was something that should be done spontaneously. But nobody felt a w a r m inspiration for cleaning and tidying up, so the school became more and more messy and dirty. O n e day it suddenly came u p at the school meeting that money was available for cleaning according to regular school budgets. After m a n y long hard debates it was agreed that the pupils w h o needed to earn money would be paid for running the cleaning up. In the beginning our large c o m m o n room (for school meetings and lunch) was nothing but an oil-stained cementfloor.Finally, a c o m m o n room committee was set up. They worked together with an architect and after two months presented their solution: a lowered ceiling m a d e of sound-absorbent material and a raised floor area with two levels and carpeted. W h e n all of this was set up after the s u m m e r holiday, using thefirstthree weeks of school, a perceptible change had happened. Everything was painted, the carpets had been laid everywhere, the classrooms had been arranged and looked comfortable. EDUCATION AND THE CURRICULUM Education can be thought of as having two parts: the acquiring of knowledge and the successful application of knowledge already acquired. T h e processes by which one uses already acquired knowledge are best learned by placing

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pupils in real situations where they make decisions. T h e n there is an opportunity to look at the decision-making process, to see what kinds of information were used, what more would have been helpful and to consider possible outcomes from alternative solutions. At the Free G y m n a s i u m , where pupils are responsible for m u c h of the policy and administrative decisions and the daily work, there are frequent opportunities to build upon these experiences during the class hours. In the social science and philosophy courses there is a direct and continuing relationship between what the pupils are experiencing at the school and their formal course work. At the school meetings and in numerous committees, the discussions that precede policy decisions provide a forum and testing ground for the wide variety of ideas and assumptions about such things as: individual motivation and needs, selfand group-identification, teacher/pupil relationships, individual and group responsibility, the goals of education and role of the school in society, and situations which produce conflict and ways to resolve it. These are the kinds of benefits which can be assessed n o w . However, m u c h of the value of this interplay between reality experiences and classroom instruction will become more apparent when the pupils arefinishedwith their formal schooling and have begun their careers. This is where skill is needed for effectively applying all the knowledge one has acquired. Since our pupils will have had such experience in this process, in a give-and-take situation with opportunity for evaluation and feedback, it seems safe to predict that a solid foundation has been laid for effective work. Explaining the curriculum is not easy. It consists of about twenty-eight subjects that can be taken u p to various levels in a multitude of combinations. There are three classes of subjects: compulsory, optional and free. T o qualify for the students exam by the end of the three years, each pupil must manage to put some of

the optional together with all of the compulsory in a way that satisfies a complex set of demands and limitations. S o m e of this complexity results w h e n the individual pupil tries to adjust the requirements of the Ministry of Education with the basic goals of the Free G y m n a s i u m , and his o w n particular interests. Although our pupils m a y concentrate on languages, natural sciences or social sciences, they do not have to make a decision about this before starting their first year. T h e y are not separated into these different concentration lines, each with its o w n classes and schedule, as in the usual gymnasium. T h e pupil whose interests change after thefirstor second year can adjust his classes accordingly (but with quite a few limitations); in the usual gymnasium changes are only allowed during thefirstseveral months. Our pupils also have a wider choice of subjects than is typical elsewhere. Spanish and Russian can be taken for all three years. W e are the only gymnasium with a psychology/sociology course which is also a three-year sequence. Not m a n y gymnasiums have an arts and crafts workshop. O u r one-year free subjects (2 hours per week) include philosophy,filmmedia, g y m nastics, religion, music, drama and art. Subjects can be added if ten pupils request it. In the different courses there are varying amounts of freedom for the teacher and p u pils to decide what they will study. These w e share with all gymnasiums. For subjects such as maths, physics and chemistry, the Ministry of Education requires a fairly strict following of an extensive syllabus which includes the n u m ber of laboratory reports that must be written. In subjects such as Danish and history there is more freedom: a selection of historical periods must be covered and a set amount of pages read or essays written. Subjects such as political and economic science and geography have even fewer specifications while in the free subjects there are none. T h e form and combination of subject exams that taken together make u p the student exam

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are also set by the ministry. S o m e of these are written, some oral. They are scattered through the three years with the highest number at the end. Faced, by the ministry, with the choice of (a) taking exams in every subject or (b) making attendance at class compulsory and escaping the exam in some subjects, the school chose the latter alternative.
POLICY DECISIONS AND ADMINISTRATION

T h e school meeting is the supreme authority of the free gymnasium. Here all decisions are taken and all problems discussed. Everyone working regularly at the schoolpupils, teachers, headmaster and secretaryhas one vote. In this way the whole school is delegated the power that elsewhere belongs to the teaching staff and, especially, the rector. For reasons of the placement of responsibility before the Ministry of Education, the rector has a suspensory veto (contrary to democratic principles). T o avoid disregarding a sizeable minority, one-third of the school meeting can also call for a suspensory veto. In both cases, the veto can be over-ridden by a majority vote three weeks later. T h e above was all w e knew about the school w h e n w e came to start it. In addition, w e had the curriculum as approved by the ministry but it was up to us to define the framework of the school. It soon became apparent that reactions against the order and discipline of our previous schooling lurked just below the surface. There was a widespread fear that the formulation of rules and procedures would cause people to get into a routine that they couldn't get out of again. This tendency had strongly influenced the school meetings which w e initially set out to run without a chairman, agenda or minutes. During the first stage, the call for a chairman was often heard when the meeting ran riot. Eventually, however, w e found the way to make it work without speaking all at once and having to continually repeat what had just been said.

N o w , when anyone wants to bring u p a matter at the school meeting, he writes it on the agenda which is affixed to a notice board. At the meeting w e begin by reading aloud all the items and the one w h o has placed the matter on the agenda presents it. Important matters have often been moved u p as thefirstagenda item or the whole meeting has been assigned for their discussion. Decisions are taken like this: everyone w h o wants to say something goes on talking until w e have considered the matter from all points of view and weighed the various arguments against each other. T h efinalgeneral sentiment resulting from the discussion is typically the 'decision'. As w e have no means of applying sanctions against 'disobedient' people, it is necessary that everyone's opinion is heard otherwise the decision would be worthless. W h e n w e actually take a vote, it is most often about matters where w e have obligations towards the world outside the school. As time went on it proved difficult to r e m e m ber what w e had decided so one day there was a proposal m a d e to keep minutes of the meetings. Our aversion to systems meant that w e treated this problem rather cautiously! T h e idea was accepted but since then w e have had to spend a couple of minutes at the beginning of almost every meeting finding a person willing to write the minutes. W e have two school meetings a week, one of 50 and one of 2 x 5 0 minutes. This has often been insufficient so w e have exceeded the time limit and run into lessons that came after. There is a brief gathering at the start of every morning for communications about such things as c o m mittee meetings. W e also have a weekly m i m e o graphed bulletin, distributed to everyone, and containing general information, presentations of important problems prior to their discussion at school meetings, summaries of meetings, a listing of the work done in the various subjects, reports from committees, poetry, complaints and n e w ideas . . . in other words, everything.

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O n e problem with the school meeting is that it is impossible to have all 300 members speak up. S o m e people are convinced that the school is run by a handful of eloquent persons. T h e existence of the problem has been confirmed by one of the teachers w h o recorded w h o participates in the debates and h o w often. During one month sixty-five out of ninety-six second-year pupils had expressed their opinion while only twenty-five (out of ninety-six)first-yearpupils had done so. Almost all the teachers had participated from time to time, with the rector having said the most. Although about 50 per cent had said something in the course of the thirteen meetings, if w e take away those w h o said only a few words, the percentage falls to thirty-five. That is not enough but w e don't quite know h o w to tackle this problem. W e hope for an improvement when w e get to know each other better; debating experience at class-level meetings will help, too. W e soon found that w e had to set u p quite a few committees. O n e of thefirstwas the Information Committee which initially dealt with all information to people outside the school. Their work grew to be too m u c h and other committees were set u p to take over part of it. At present, the Information Committee almost limits itself to dealing with the admission of prospective pupils. It's a big job. This year w e had 300 applicants (we can take only ninety-six; they are chosen by lot) and the committee corresponds with them about conditions for admission and the like. T h e frequent visitors of the school are also taken care of by this committee. T h e off-shoots from the Information C o m mittee include one which is responsible for our contact with and participation in the Danish Gymnasium Pupils Organization, one that prepares an extensive yearly report on the school and one that keeps in touch with the other free gymnasiums. There are three others in Scandinavia and w e have rather good contact with each other through monthly reports and frequent visits.

T h e Budget Committee is another important one. Most of its members are pupils and their task is to understand the various accounts and prepare a decent budget. A s with all the committees, thefinaldecisions rest with the school meeting. T h e Budget Committee present and defend their recommendations before the meeting. Other permanent committees include: the Archives Group which gathers together all written material concerning the school (newspaper articles, etc.), minutes of school and committee meetings, etc. T h e Grants Committee studied the laws concerning grants and scholarships available to young people continuing their studies and is, thereby, able to help pupils w h o are badly off. T h e Social Committee tries to help pupils w h o need a job or a place to live. T h e Book Depot Group keeps a check on our schoolbooks. T h e Lunch Group sees to it that those involved in the voluntary lunch prog r a m m e are well taken care of (and do their share of the work). T h e Library Committee supervises that area. W e also have a large number of ad hoc c o m mittees. For example, there is one working out a proposal for the improvement of the school meeting; another interviews candidates for teaching jobs. M a n y of these are formed as a response to the discussion of problems at the school meeting, and they end after reporting back to the meeting. O n e such tried to make a detailed specification of our goals while another proposed a plan for dividing u p certain responsibilities amongst individual pupils, the class, the teachers, and the school meeting. O n e problem has been that frequently it is the same handful of people w h o sit on every committee. T o help this it was decided that no one can be on more than two permanent c o m mittees. In this way w e hope to have solved part of the problem, which will always exist, that some are more active than others. W h a t must be avoided by all means is the situation in which the very few extremely active run the show.

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find people w h o didn't stuff theirfingersinto a switched-on socket. T h e school meeting works out very differently AS SEEN BY T W O PUPILS from time to time. If people are in a good m o o d T h e physical part of the milieu here has prob- and feel that they have a good general view over things, the meeting passes easily with m a n y ably had a greater importance to us than to most things discussed and decisions reached. O n the others, because w e have built the whole thing other hand, people can be indisposed and the up by ourselves. W e haven't, as in most other discussion will continue unendingly, you'll pass schools, just been put into some rooms that w e over to personal attacks, the meeting keeps on weren't allowed to change. W e all feel a very going and going, and no one gets anything but close relation to our rooms because w e recognize a headache from it. them as our o w n creation. In the working committees there is quite a M a y b e w e have also felt more of a unity different atmosphere. There are fewer people because together w e are trying to build up and usually a concrete problem to solve. W h e n something, in opposition to the feeling of the w e arranged the classrooms, m a n y groups were school belonging to someone else that you have formed to take care of different things such as in the traditional system. painting,fittinglamps, making the kitchen, etc. In the past eighteen months that the school There was an average offiveto ten people in has existed, the m o o d has obviously changed as w e got to know each other. For the first these groups which seemed to make it m u c h easier to get closer to each other. Perhaps many three weeks of the school, while w e met in of us obtain a stronger feeling of satisfaction rooms loaned to us by the Architecture Acadwith the smaller groups as it can be very fruse m y , nothing was yet sure or established in trating having to agree on a decision in a larger any way. T h e only thing w e were sure of was group. that w e wanted to make an alternative school. W e were to work together on a lot of problems W e experienced the strong influence of our without knowing each other. M a n y probably physical milieu very clearly when our cleaning came with illusions of tolerance, solidarity and system wasn't yet organized. T h e place was community, and some have probably been disvery dirty and that put our m o o d very m u c h appointed. Group dynamics were tried to shake down. N o b o d y pulled themselves together to people together but w e couldn't quite forget move the rubbish even though w e tried to orour inhibitions. ganize a c o m m o n cleaning-up n o w and then. Then, when a cleaning system was agreed upon, W h e n the school then moved to our present with a fixed group of pupils responsible, both location, in a suburb of Copenhagen, it went our m o o d and the tidiness got m u c h better. better. W e n o w had concrete practical jobs to do in turning the ex-factory building into a N o w we'd like to say something about the gymnasium. W e ' v e all had to make our classlessons in relation to the milieu at the g y m rooms ourselves. They would never have been nasium. Our goal is to make a school in which finished if w e had worked individually. W e had w e all have a direct and equal influence on to try and rationalize the work, even though it what goes on, in the class situation as well as often ended up in total chaos. W h e n tables and elsewhere. There are m a n y things from the trachairs were to be painted, w e tried to co-operate ditional education which w e try to do in other on keeping each to our o w n colour so that the ways. T o create more motivation for learning chairs weren't red with black splotches, etc. w e use a system where each chooses his o w n W h e n the lamps were to be put up w e had to topic or area within a topic and w e try to see the
The school milieu

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connexions between the topics. All of this is controlled democratically. In theory, it should make things work out easily, but, actually, w e have lots of problems. Basically, I think, the problems are caused by the huge change and its effects on the pupil's physical and psychic resources. It is really quite a change for us to have all the decisions open to us; the people react in very different ways. In this whole mess the teachers have great trouble infindingout h o w they actuallyfitin. O n one hand, they often have a more general view of the whole matter and, on the other hand, they are very afraid of saying too m u c h in order not to sound as if they were in a supreme or leading position as in the traditional school. T h e result is that the lessons are not all equally pleasant and effective (usually these two things appear together here). S o m e subjects actually seem to run quite well while others still are disturbed by too m u c h talking and quarrelling and by a lack of interest, initiative, energy and know-how. After the s u m m e r holiday w e did some group dynamics. Even though w e couldn't quite forget all restraint, it sure improves communication when, for instance, a small group has to build a tower using only our bodies. W e had a festive night to get to k n o w each other better, and so w e did. There have been spontaneous parties then at the school and they have also been valuable for the contacts between us. T h e fact the people want to be together outside of school hours is in itself a good sign. Not so long ago some people suddenly produced a huge pot of cocoa. Everyone came from the lessons and talked and drank for a quarter of an hour. It was a grey and rainy day, so it was a lovely idea. I don't think that could have happened in another school. This m a y sound as if w e are quite well satisfied with conditions, but w e are not always. S o m e think people are too egoistic or that w e should have better contact with other schools or with the social problems around us. A group

of pupils feel the lessons are boring and m o v e too slowly and they don't get enough out of them. S o m e of these have worked out programmes for working independently of their classes. It can be difficult in the classes for those w h o are reserved because they can easily be subjugated by those w h o are not afraid of talking before the class. M a n y times the quiet ones find they have agreed to work on a topic or do some reading about things which really don't interest them. A lot of pupils feel that their self-assurance and sense of independence have developed so I come to the conclusion that there is mostly a good social climate amongst the pupils.
AS SEEN BY A TEACHER

A s the responsibility for the individual pupil's education has been placed entirely on the pupil, the role of the teacher must be defined in the terms of an adviser. T h e choice of topics, m a terial and pedagogical methods, normally administered by the teacher at the ordinary Danish gymnasium, has been taken over by the pupils. They are n o w supposed to plan their studies in a manner that guarantees that the rules laid d o w n by the Ministry of Education will be fulfilled. T h e teacher takes part in the process only so far as the pupils want him to. Still, the teacher must be there with his fund of professional knowledge and understanding of personal relationships. It is also the responsibility of the different classes that each lesson should be satisfactorily planned; the initiative during classes should consequently come from m e m bers of the class. T h e Free G y m n a s i u m has created a milieu where it has been possible to do away with the old barrier between pupil and teacher. It was apparent from the very beginning of the school that there were stong feelings amongst the p u pils against any repetition of the teacher/pupil pattern they had experienced in their previous schools, and the teachers were only too eager to

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meet these demands. N o w there doesn't seem of the school, feeling that they are experiencing to be any other gap but a generation one, small a totally n e w kind of personal development. though it be, since the difference in ages is often This is of course, equally important: the probnon-existent. lem only arises w h e n the pupils channel all their T h e teachers have been absorbed in the energy into these activities and stop caring about school milieu to such an extent that w e don't the work that goes on in the classrooms. stand out as a closed group. During the first six T h e pupils that seem able to take an active months the teachers arranged only a few staff part in the social life, in the administration, and meetings. T h e group of inexperienced teachers in the classroom work tend to get frustrated felt a meeting to be a sort of'treachery' towards because they have to use so m u c h time and the pupils, even though the meetings were open energy on making their classmates turn u p and to everybody. This reaction revealed our very participate in the classwork. This group is also great uncertainty as to what w e actually were frustrated because they don't want to become a supposed to do. n e w kind of teacher. They want the ideal: a whole class of teachers. In this respect, though, After a year most of us have learned to work the Free G y m n a s i u m does represent one step according to our personal conception of the Free Gymnasium. But the problem of a final forward. Groups of pupils have actively and often excellently done away with the old definition of the teacher's role according to the teacher/pupil pattern in so far as they have way the school has developed is still one of the taken up the responsibility of the teacher, either important recurring items of the agenda of the along or together with the teacher. school meeting. T h e experience of thefirstyear has shown T h e really difficult situation for the antithat the teachers can not just maintain their adteacher arises w h e n the intellectual and pedavisory role. T h e responsibility put on the indigogic level gets appalling, when even the active vidual pupil has, in m a n y instances, seemed pupils give u p and it is a struggle simply to over-powering to the extent that a number of get something started. In these situations the pupils have preferred the teachers to take the teacher must act according to his personal lead. M a n y teachers have struggled daily against understanding of what could help this particular this attitude and tried to encourage and perclass. A s a consequence of this, the teachers at suade the pupils to take u p the responsibility. our gymnasium will, for some time, until they Other teachers have remained passive throughare allowed by all pupils to take up their adviser out in the hope that the pupils would finally role, hold a rather important position in the life realize that they had to take up the initiative. of the school. T h efirstyear's experience has shown m e that Another position to this problem comes from it apparently will be necessary to help the pupils the realization that not all pupils are able to realize the extent and potentialities of the freefunction effectively within the classroom. Steps d o m at the gymnasium. Most pupils have come have already been taken towards drawing up from authoritarian schools and cannot be exvarious kinds of study-plan agreements between pected to change their whole way of behaving individual pupils or small groups of pupils and in a single day. M a y b e in a year or two, their teachers. This m a y be the most reasonable however, these same pupils will have learnt arrangement for some independent pupils. At the hard lessons of administering their o w n the m o m e n t though, the predominant reaction freedom. of the school is that too great a percentage of individual work would destroy the social life of S o m e pupils are so excited by the freedom the classroom and school. that they put all their energy into the social life

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View towards the future

O n e thing everyone at the Free G y m n a s i u m could agree upon is that there is no substitute for experience and the experience of starting a n e w institution is invaluable. W e hope that you n o w have some feeling for the kinds of experience w e have and some of their effects upon us. W e have had enough experience to feel certain about some of the changes that are needed for the gymnasium to come closer to fulfilling its dreams. W e have been working with a daily schedule that severely limits m a n y of the kinds of things w e would like to do. As a result of the multitude of courses and the large number of these which most pupils choose, plus our attempt to arrange the schedule so that almost everyone could take everything they wanted, our schoolday runs from 9 to 5,fivedays a week. T h e few free hours pupils have are scattered through the week. T h e average pupil uses about i| hours in travel to and from the school. Under these circumstances it has been an exhausting programme for must pupilsclasses+school administration+meettings-f-homework+travel+being an adolescent. T h e present schedule also limits our possibilities for breaking out of the classroom and getting more of our education from contact with situations and people outside the school. M a n y of the kinds of projects w e would like to organize need a free half-day on a regular weekly basis for a long-term contact with political, social and research institutions or business and manufacturing places. Thus, in planning for next year, a more open schedule will be attempted. This will limit some of the wide choices for courses pupils n o w have but it seems like that price will have to be paid. W e have also talked about bringing the real world into the school through the m e d i u m of running an after-school programme for primary school children of working mothers. Somewhat

in the same vein, w e have given some preference in the entrance 'lottery' to n e w pupils from working-class backgrounds. A reorganized schedule m a y also make it more feasible to develop a workable interdisciplinary studies programme. There was a very modest start with it this year but m u c h more time and experience with it will be needed before w e k n o w where or h o w it's going. O u r progress in this also depends upon the possibility of future changes by the ministry in the syllabus and exams. O n e approach would be to build the interdisciplinary studies out of the kinds of projects mentioned above. W h e n a p u pil can realize that a social worker, for example, in doing her job often can't tell whether she's applying psychology, sociology or biology or what she is more likely to call c o m m o n sense, then he m a y be experiencing some of the important differences between the real world and the world as split up in academic texts. All of these changes seem to require some well-planned and creative approaches by the teachers. But one m a y ask whether this is possible while there still seems to be m u c h confusion about the teacher's role, or roles. T h e teachers will soon be spending a three-day weekend together with hopes of making some progress in this. T o go from the stage of analysis of past failures, of self-criticism, of fault-finding, here, there and elsewhereto m o v e ahead from this to an active, lively, stimulating and satisfying learning programme will take time. But w e are all impatient and that m a y help. However, until w e graduate ourfirstclass, those teaching examination subjects are bound to feel quite strong outside limitationsand to be nervous. This kind of problem is what seems to set the tone to so m u c h of our future thoughts. W e want both to be part of the public education system and to change it. In trying to solve our o w n problems, if w e work only out of the framework of our school, w e m a y be adopting solutions which are not applicable to the system as a whole. W e then diminish our possibilities

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for positive communication with the rest of the system. T h e complications of this dual role are often too muchfor our energy, skills, knowledge and spirit. But just as often, some deep inner

forces of survival, pride and conviction push us u p again. T h e future? I look forward to it; most of us do. W e are pleased that w e have an opportunity to be doing something w e think is important.

Out-of-school education in the Ukrainian S.S.R.


Leonid Grekov
In a socialist society the school extends its influence to almost all children, adolescents and young people; it is the basis of the whole system of education. Schools provide the conditions required for equipping the rising generations with knowledge, forming their outlook and character, and developing their aesthetic and physical powers. A s pupils study the basic subjects, they acquire a Marxist-Leninist outlook and develop an interest in various forms of activity and in the subjects they are studying. However, the intellectual interests and the outlook of pupils are formed in their free time as well as while they are in the classroom. Indeed, experience shows that school work and out-of-class educational activities are directly dependent on each other: the higher the quality of teaching, the more likely the pupils are to have varied interests and to pursue them resolutely. Conversely, varied out-of-class work helps to raise the standard of pupils' knowledge. For this reason a very large part in the educational process of all-round personality development is played by the out-of-school institutions in the Republic, which exist alongside
Leonid Grekov (Ukrainian S.S.R.). Head of the Department of Out-of-School Educational Activities, Ministry of Education of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

the school systemYoung Pioneers' Palaces and club houses, young technicians' and young naturalists' centres, touring centres, junior sports schools, children's theatres, cinemas, railways, sailing-clubs and recreation grounds. During the years of Soviet power a wide network of out-of-school institutions has been set u p in the Ukraine. For example, in 1972 there were 1,328 out-of-school institutions in the education system of the Republic, including 738 club houses and palaces for young pioneers and other pupils, 121 young technicians' centres, 80 young naturalists' centres, 28 excursion and tourist centres, and 386 children's sports schools. W h a t is the distinguishing feature of the system of out-of-school education for young people? T h e main point is that it forms an integral part of the educational work carried out by teachers to give their pupils a knowledge of the basic subjects of study, and it cannot be considered in isolation from this. T h e system is an extension of the main branches of classroom teachingintellectual, polytechnical, physical and aestheticbut it is not rigidly controlled or standardized; on the contrary, the distinguishing features of out-ofschool work are its many-sidedness and the opportunities which it provides to find answers to the various questions which arise in connexion

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with life, science, technology, politics and art. Educational work in out-of-school institutions offers pupils a range of activities appropriate to their age, level of knowledge, aptitudes and skills. At the same time it should provide a permanent means of satisfying all the growing interests of pupils and give them the opportunity of developing their varied abilities and gifts. Indeed, the out-of-school educational institutions of the Republic today have at their c o m m a n d such a profusion of forms of educational activity that they can cater for all the pupils' interests and requirements, however varied. A s a result of m a n y years' practical experience in running these out-of-school institutions forms of educational activity have been developed which are an excellent means of promoting the all-round development of young people. These include: verbal activities (debates, conferences, lectures, universities of culture, the production of magazine and news programmes (with or without the use of broadcasting)); practical activities (the holding of excursions and outings for school children, sporting and other kinds of competitions (Spartakiads, Olympiads, etc.), the organization of festivals, work-oriented games, games requiring initiative, interest groups, and every imaginable kind of pupils' association); visual activities (the organization of m u s e u m s , exhibition halls and galleries, art and technology exhibitions, and displays on a particular topic, in special stands and cases). In practice, these forms of out-of-school work interact: they are independent activities which are also mutually complementary. T h e basic unit for the activities of every out-ofschool institution is the hobby group. T h e hobby group is a very valuable form of education in that it fosters a deep and lasting interest in the various branches of science, technology, art, sport, brings out and develops the creative gifts and aptitudes of pupils and contributes towards solving the problems of

Communist education. W o r k in the hobby group differs from all other forms of work with children in that the basic approach is through direct practical activity connected with the performance of a particular task: building models, acquiring knowledge and skills, physical training, artistic assignments. Consequently these groups raise in a distinctive way the question of the relationship between theory and practice. In these groups, a grasp of general theory is usually acquired mainly through practical activities. Out-of-school institutions include the following groups: curriculum-oriented (e.g. literary, historical, mathematical, etc.), technological groups, aesthetic appreciation groups, physical culture and sports groups, touring and regional studies groups, political groups, etc. T h e n u m erical strength of each group m a y vary from five or six members for a small group, to fifteen or twenty members. Physical culture groups and sports teams, choirs, orchestras and other performing groups generally have more m e m bers. A pupil m a y join two groups at most. T h e out-of-school institutions of the Ukraine have gained considerable experience of educating pupils in the spirit of patriotism and love of their Soviet motherland. T h e study of the history, economy and culture of the fraternal peoples of the U . S . S . R . is a source of mutual enrichment for young people and makes them aware of the magnitude of the Soviet people's achievements. International social gatherings, the exchange of delegations, letter writing, the exchange of souvenirs, the holding of friendship forums and demonstrations are among the activities which promote the spiritual development of young people. Such work with young people in the out-ofschool institutions of the Ukraine is organized by international friendship clubs. A s a rule, they are run by a council of twenty to thirty members. Within these clubs there are sections specializing in, for instance, the nationalities of the U . S . S . R . , socialist countries and foreign

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States, correspondence and meetings with representatives of different countries, as well as sections for lecturers and excursion guides. Each club has its rules, and its members take a solemn oath to strengthen friendship between peoples and to be internationalists. Pupils in the third to the tenth grades are eligible for membership, each m e m b e r being obliged to participate actively in one of the sections of the club, to carry out all instructions, to promote the strengthening of friendship among children and young people of all countries, to honour the m e m o r y of the heroes w h o gave their lives for national freedom and world peace, to m a k e their o w n contribution towards peace and to improve their knowledge of their mother tongue and of a foreign language. T h e work of the international friendship club of the Kiev Y o u n g Pioneers' Palace is widely k n o w n throughout the Republic. In recent years the members of this club have assembled quantities of information about the activities of progressive children's and young people's organizations and about the life of children in other countries. T h e principal purpose of the young internationalists of the Kiev Young Pioneers' Palace is to strengthen the international solidarity of workers and to establish friendly relations with children of various nationalities. Club members are in constant touch with children in the G e r m a n Democratic Republic, Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia; their activities include the organization of forums, festivals, meetings, and friendship months, and in addition they contribute regularly towards the organization of similar clubs in the schools of Kiev. M e m b e r s of the club are helped and advised by foreign students studying in higher educational institutions in the Ukraine and by Soviet citizens w h o have been to other countries or to the union republics. Both pupils and guests learn m u c h from joint discussions and exchanges of views. T h e children find out what sort of lives children in other countries lead and

what their schools and school work are like. Our guests learn more about the people of the first socialist State in the world. T h e scientific groups for the study of natural history and technology in out-of-school institutions are of the greatest importance in that they foster the all-round development of children, the growth of their intellectual interests and their love of knowledge. Pupils in the Ukraine today take a great interest in the progress of science and technology. T h e activities of pupils in such groups broaden their theoretical knowledge in various branches of science and technology, develop their interest in the study of scientific principles, bring to light any aptitude they m a y have for designing, and teach them to put the knowledge they have gained to practical use. In the town of Lvov, for example, the Young Pioneers' and School Children's Palace, which has over 800 young technicians in its hobby groups, is doing m u c h to develop the powers of initiative of its members. In this institution attention is focused primarily o n design and construction; children learn about the latest advances in science and technology, and their intellectual powers are developed. Pupils in the eighth to tenth grades construct complicated models, for which they themselves m a k e all the necessary calculations, diagrams and drawings. M a n y years of experience have shown that to take part in the activities of a technological group considerably increases a pupil's knowledge of physics, chemistry and mathematics. It is very revealing that in m a n y Young Pioneers' Club houses and Palaces and in young technicians' and young naturalists' centres hobby groups for the study of the most advanced branches of science and technology are coming into existencesubjects such as biochemistry, cybernetics, electronics, automatic control, molecular physics and radio engineering. W o r k of this kind is being carried out with particular success by the young technicians'

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centres in the towns and provinces. T h e teachers working in these out-of-school institutions are making every effort to promote the improvement of the pupils' school work; they obtain information about the latest developments in this field, organize correspondence courses and advise teachers and group leaders on matters connected with out-of-school work in technology, physics, mathematics and chemistry. They also give pupils information about scientific and technological achievements and about the life and work of outstanding scientists in both the pre-revolutionary and the Soviet periods. Furthermore, these centres organize correspondence clubs for young technicians, physicists, model aircraft enthusiasts, and those interested in radio and photography; they hold lectures, talks and discussions, arrange meetings with progressive industrial workers, show scientific films (followed by discussion) and organize excursions to factories and exhibitions of technological work. T h e pupils' scientific societies and associations which have grown up in out-of-school institutions in the Ukraine are particularly worthy of attention. These have a wider membership than the hobby groups, and scientists, research students, designers and engineers act as leaders. Scientific societies train pupils to work for themselves, independently, and enable larger n u m bers of young people than in the case of hobby groups to obtain information speedily and rapidly master the essential m i n i m u m of knowledge in a particular branch of science. T h e year 1972 was the tenth anniversary of Iskatel, the Junior A c a d e m y of Sciences of the Crimea. About 5,000 senior pupils, living in twenty-two towns and districts throughout the region, attend seminars, lectures and meetings, and carry out experiments. All sections of Iskatelmathematics, physics, cybernetics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, engineering and technology, history, regional studies, and the press centrework under the

direction and with the active participation of scientists of the Crimea. T h e young scientists of the Junior A c a d e m y have to their credit a number of interesting inventions and observations. For example, one of the sections of Iskatel, the Crimean Amateur Astronomy Society, was one of the few amateur bodies in the Soviet Union to be officially invited to take part in the observations carried out in connexion with the programme of International Quiet Sun Year. Thirty-two spectra obtained by the young Crimean scientists were included in the World Catalogue of Meteor Spectra. T h e senior pupils m a k e their o w n astronomical apparatus and instruments, including a reflecting telescope. T h e results of the research and observations of Iskatel appear in academic journals as well as in popular scientific and youth publications. M u c h that is of interest has been achieved by the members of the Donets school pupils' science society, Poisk, which has sections for mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, history, creative writing and other subjects. For the last two years a junior economists' study group has been part of the society. Societies for young amateur scientists and technologists are an interesting form of organized out-of-school activity for pupils. T h e y perform very important tasks: they encourage senior pupils to take u p research work, stimulate their interest in the various branches of knowledge, and in m a n y scientific problems not included in the school curricula which are of great interest to pupils and arouse in them a love of science and a desire to acquire knowledge. T h e excellent work done by the staff of out-of-school institutions in the Ukraine for the aesthetic education of pupils is an integral part of the story of the development of these institutions. There are hundreds of children's theatres, cinemas, m u s e u m s , exhibition and concert halls, and clubs, where pupils can take part in all kinds of artistic activity. Literature, the theatre, music and painting are part of the Ufe of Soviet children, enabling them to cultivate

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their talents and m a k e their surroundings more pleasing aesthetically. B y raising the quality of art education for millions of pupils, outof-school institutions are promoting the further development of culture in the country. A s a result of the influence exerted by the perfection of art forms, the best works of the classical art of the past, of folk art and of the art of socialist realism on the pupils' minds and senses, they gain a deeper understanding of the true nature of phenomena they observe in their personal life and in the life of society, learn more of the history of their people, and appreciate the beauty of the world in which they live. T h e Young Pioneers' and School Children's Palaces and club houses and the children's sections of trade union clubs are doing all sorts of work along these lines. T h e chief activities of these institutions include organizing groups for the study of art, providing conditions in which children themselves m a y be performers and creators, and organizing children's concert performances. There are thousands of children's choirs, brass bands, folk and symphony orchestras, vocal ensembles and drama workshops in the various regions of the Republic. O n e excellent tradition which is supported by the out-of-school institutions of the Republic is the holding of displays, olympiads and arts festivals in the spring. Thousands of young singers, musicians and elocutionists w h o are members of out-of-school institutions give recitals during the spring holidays for the general public and their parents and teachers. W o r k with young peoplein the form of amateur art clubs, lectures and discussions on art, meetings with composers, writers and artists and universities of cultureis expanding every year. Song and dance festivals, at which the children demonstrate their talents, are especially popular a m o n g young people. They are

generally preceded by a large amount of preparatory work in which the participating groups work together; during rehearsals the children form lasting friendships and get to k n o w their comrades from other schools. Art work occupies an important place in the arrangements m a d e for aesthetic education. There is an extensive network of art studios in Y o u n g Pioneers' Club houses and Palaces and in trade union clubs; the teachers, w h o are also artists, arrange competitions for the best children's drawings and organize exhibitions of drawings and applied and decorative art; m e m bers of groups study the life and work of outstanding painters and also visit exhibitions and museums. Young Ukrainian artists have been awarded diplomas abroad, and successful exhibitions of their work have been held in m a n y countries of the worldin the United K i n g d o m , France, the United States of America, Italy, N e w Zealand, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, India, Nepal, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. For the purposes of aesthetic education teachers in out-of-school institutions also m a k e wide use of the opportunities offered by the surroundingsnatural features or places noted for their connexion with the traditions of work and culture. Journeys and excursions to such places give the pupils a grounding in the principles of good taste, and they acquire a capacity for discovering beauty in their everyday lives and the ability to understand aright the world in which they live. T h u s , in supplementing the work of schools, the system of out-of-school children's institutions in the Ukraine provides a means of satisfying the varied needs of pupils and creates favourable conditions for the all-round development of the personality.

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N e w prospects for secondary education

tity that will result in w o r k losing its frustrating The thirty-fourth session of the International Conference character; on Education, which was held in Geneva from 19 to 27 September, convened representatives of ninety-three In order that education/training be fully and wholegovernments, who attended as participants. In addition, heartedly accepted, ensure that pupils, teachers eleven organizations of the United Nations System, and parents participate in the pedagogical and adfive intergovernmental organizations and thirty-one ministrative m a n a g e m e n t of secondary education non-governmental organizations were also represented. and, as a guarantee of full liaison with the employAltogether, 296 delegates (including twenty-two minm e n t , that representatives of the various sectors of isters and twelve vice-ministers of education) and sixtythe c o m m u n i t y take part; one observers attended the conference. In the light of the foregoing, reorganize secondary education by breaking with its traditional academic The main question on the agenda, and to which emphasis, which is a source of elitism and segreProspects devoted its previous Dossier1 was 'The gation, and b y associating in one balanced, harRelationship between Education, Training and E m m o n i o u s andflexiblydiversified system the general, ployment, with Particular Reference to Secondary technical and vocational processes o f education Education, its Aims, Structure and Content'. that m a k e u p the individual training of the y o u n g We are printing below the text of the recommendation and integrate t h e m in society; submitted at the end of the debate for consideration by the Ministers of Education in the various States. Ensure that education at the secondary level contributes to developing a spirit of peace, understanding and solidarity a m o n g peoples. General principles Coherent action in education, training and employm e n t should be based o n the following principles. It should: Guarantee all young people equality of opportunity in their education for living and their participation in the various activities of society; Afford all y o u n g people and adults the m e a n s for ample self-fulfilment in accordance with their aspirations, within the framework of a harmonious development which reflects the needs of the c o m munity to which they belong; Define a continuous process of lifelong education consisting, in addition to a phase of initial training, of a phase of continuous training in which those concerned take part in productive work throughout their lives and pursue their physical, intellectual and cultural education so that they are able to cope with a rapidly changing society, and with the need to m a k e an individual active contribution to the process of change; T a k e coherent action b y co-ordinating, with d u e respect for the economic and social aims of the c o m m u n i t y , policies of education, training and employment which call, in the case of employment, for a clearsighted policy in both quality and q u a n Practical measures for the renewal of secondary education The objectives of reform Having regard to the m a i n principles set out above and to the situation obtaining in most M e m b e r States in regard to education, training and employm e n t for y o u n g people, there seems to b e an i m perative need for the radical reform of secondary education or the continuing of reform already begun in m a n y countries. T h e aim of such reforms should be : (a) to mobilize all the physical, intellectual and emotional resources of y o u n g people b y facilitating the development of their talents a n d capacities and promoting their interests; (b) to meet the needs of economic and social development in regard to the training of qualified personnel, while facilitating the realization of the pupil's individual aspirations and his full forthcoming participation in the development of society;

1. See Prospects, Vol. Ill, N o . 3, p. 326-81.

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Notes and reviews

(c) contribute fully to the implementation of employment policies. This would imply, inter alia taking full account of the relationship between the formal and non-formal systems and the possibilities for m a x i m u m flexibility. Personality development and educational and vocational guidance T h e cornerstone of the organization of secondary education should be a programme for personality development and educational and vocational guidance, both being of complete relevance to society. Far from being regarded as an auxiliary service, operating on specific occasions only, the programme of guidance and information should become an integral part of school life, throughout the primary and secondary levels. It is also necessary to develop various forms of out-of-school vocational guidance. It is essential to involve pupils, teachers, parents, employers and other representatives of the world of work, as well as trained specialists, in this guidance. All guidance, whether educational or vocational, should be seen as affording to the pupil the widest possible choice, based both on an awareness of his o w n natural dispositions and abilities and on an actual and thorough knowledge of the options available as well as of the future employment opportunities and of their demands in the country concerned. Guidance should also be oriented towards helping pupils to meet their current psychological, moral and other individual needs. Organization and administration T h e renewal of secondary education and the i m plementation of the above stated principles imply a radical reform of organization and administration of education. B y progressively eliminating, where necessary, the dualist and elitist approach within the formal structure on which the distinction between general secondary and technical and vocational education has often been based, and by integrating the different types of establishments and revising their methods of administration and management, the reform of secondary education should eliminate all discrimination from the education and training of young people, which results from the education system, and help to remove discrimination in education, resulting from external factors. Likewise, by an increasingly close co-ordination between the sectors of education-training and of e m ployment, the reform, without ceasing to consider the development of the personality as such as the basic aim of education, should be seen as a continuous process of adjusting the methods of the training of

young people to the requirements of scientific, technical, economic and social changes, on the principle that it is for the system of education-training to help young people to adapt themselves to the greatest possible extent to the rapid changes taking place in society. Structures Educational services at the secondary level should in principle be available to all persons. These various services should be conceived as a total education system for the cohort concerned and include adequate provision for transfers between the various streams and other elements making u p the total structure. It is therefore necessary to re-examine the conditions of access, as it is to think out afresh the structures of the system, so as to ensure real equality of opportunity for access and success. This structural reform should be based on the principle of integration of intellectual and manual activities, thus enabling all aspects of the personality to develop as a harmonious whole. Vocational specialization should be postponed until a broad scientific, technical and cultural education has been provided to young people as a basis for their specialization. A n y such specialization or prespecialization should be ensured by a sufficient range of courses to m a k e it possible to meet both the needs of society and those of the pupils. M e a n s of providing the appropriate education for disadvantaged or handicapped pupils leaving primary school should be m a d e available so that these pupils m a y continue in secondary education programmes to the best of their abilities. Curricula, methods and examinations Reform of structures would naturally entail a concomitant reform of the content of education. Based on a reconciliation of the pupils' interest and needs, on the one hand, and with the needs of each country's economic development, on the other, the n e w curricula for secondary education should be planned from the point of view of an integrated education designed to awaken in the pupil an awareness of the essential unity of the different aspects of his activity. T h e aim of these curricula should be general training rather than the transmission of information. B y a judicious admixture of difficulties and a motivating presentation of concepts, they should enable the p u pils constantly to aspire to greater achievements. T h e content of both general and vocational education should be linked with the development of the c o m munity and be brought into line with modern developments in production and with social advancement.

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There should be a close link between theory and practice in the curricula. In both cases emphasis should be placed o n those elements of knowledge which are basic and have a wide range of application. In regard to methods, just as the administrative structure should be governed by the democratic principle of participation, so should the pedagogical structure, renouncing authoritarianism and d o g matism, aim at the active participation of pupils, developing in t h e m a sense of responsibility and solidarity, a willingness to work and an interest in systematic enquiry, making continual d e m a n d s o n their reserve of spontaneity and stimulating their creativeness. T h e learning process should be developed o n sound psychological principles and o n other relevant behavioural sciences, and should be supported b y appropriate methods, including the transformation of the pupil/teacher relationship within the learning process which would m a k e it possible to develop attitudes in young people which would enable t h e m to w o r k as m e m b e r s of a team as well as individually. This should also be the aim of the progressive and reasonable use of all n e w teaching methods and techniques. Teaching and training methods should be assisted by n e w developments in educational technology and should also keep pace with the developments in technology and industry and exploit innovations in those sectors to the full. T o this end, the world of work should be m o r e intimately and systematically associated with the w o r k of national education. F r o m the standpoint of lifelong education and the gradual use of non-formal types of education, the reform should emphasize in particular m o d e s of certification of knowledge and learning which would not necessarily be based o n school attendance. The training and role of teachers T h e corollary to the integration of general secondary education with technical and vocational training should be a unified teaching profession, at this level of education, in regard both to training and to status. Moreover, to meet the requirements of the n e w reform of secondary education, the training of teachers for this level should be based o n the principles set forth above; once it is understood that the reforms of secondary education should be a continuous process, it follows quite logically that the training of teaching staff should also be a continuous process of such a nature as to enable the whole system of education and training to keep in constant touch with society and the labour market. In view of this, and of the development in secondary schools of n e w methods

and link courses based o n direct experience, prog r a m m e s for training teachers should also be open to innovative, experimental courses, which, for example, m a y include s o m e periods of work experience. S u c h an innovation would also have the value of reducing the present overly academic and sequential nature of most existing teacher training courses. This will be meaningful to the extent that teachers are deeply convinced of the importance of the part they have to play not only in the process of training y o u n g people but also in the choice and determination of the basic options o n which the whole education-training system is based. Their sense of responsibility would therefore undoubtedly be increased. Evaluation, research and innovation A n y improvement of secondary education should rest on a continuous evaluation which would identify successful experiments for further diffusion, as well as ineffective arrangements which should be terminated or modified. A scientific m e t h o d of evaluation, bearing both o n the output of the education-training system and o n the relevance of this output to the needs of the labour market, would therefore b e necessary as part of the reform of secondary education. T o be effective, this evaluation should d r a w o n the results of research in educational science and should have the broadest possible experimental basis. T h e encouragement of innovation, experimentation and research, and a n increase in the n u m b e r of experimental establishments, should all be regarded as necessary methods of achieving balance and progress in the educationtraining system as a whole. A m p l e provision should be m a d e to ensure dissemination of the results of innovation and research and to incorporate t h e m into the training of teachers, guidance specialists and administrators of secondary school systems. T h e same applies with regard to representatives of non-school circles generally and of the world of w o r k , in particular, in charge of students' training or otherwise participating in or sharing e d u cational tasks with school (viz., parents' or students' associations, professional associations etc.). W i t h the consent of national authorities, educational research centres should b e associated within an international network which would determine topics not already being studied at the international level: (a) to perfect the methodology and material aids used in each centre and ensure the methodological training of the research workers forming part of the centre; (b) to propose for that purpose research offering a

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short or m e d i u m term utility for the national community; (c) to examine more specifically the immediate and operational application of the findings of educational research b y the responsible national agencies. Unesco should consider the possibility of: ensuring the servicing of such a network as a high priority; making budget provisions for its support; allocating staff services for this purpose. Such a network should have a steering committee in which interested governments or institutions would be represented and which should meet at the earliest possible date. Secondary education and post-secondary training Considered from the point of view of lifelong education, secondary education should lead readily to post-secondary training and higher education. H e n c e the necessity for thinking out afresh the m o d e s of access, the structures, methods and syllabuses of these sectors and for finding ways to m a k e access possible even for those w h o did not have a complete secondary education. A reform of secondary education based, o n the one h a n d , o n the principle of integration of general with vocational training (perhaps even integration of training with active involvem e n t in productive work) and, o n the other hand, o n that of lifelong education, would be ineffective if the s a m e changes, undertaken in the s a m e spirit, were not m a d e in the sector of post-secondary training. Co-ordination among institutions T h e renovation of secondary education calls for the participation of various sectors of the administration concerned with education, employment and economic and social development, so that it is desirable to set u p interdisciplinary groups for the purpose. International and regional co-operation Co-operation at international and regional level is an important condition for the achievement of the o b jectives described above. Regional institutions should endeavour as far as possible to co-ordinate efforts o n a regional basis, thus enabling the different States

situated in a particular region to take stock of their c o m m o n difficulties and resources, with a view to conducting experiments or research designed to help forward the process of reform of secondary education. Regional organizations and international bodies, in particular U n e s c o and I L O , and national organizations giving aid to education, should strengthen their co-operation with a view to harmonizing their activity in and assistance to education, training and employment. International bodies, and Unesco and the I L O in particular, should endeavour to: (a) encourage exchange of information between the different regional bodies and give technical and financial assistance where necessary to facilitate the introduction of reforms of secondary education; (b) continue to give guidelines for the integration of general secondary education with technical and vocational education as well as for the integration of educational policy with employment and other social and economic policies; (c) assist M e m b e r States to find the m e a n s appropriate to their o w n context to better co-ordinate the systems of education of young people and the training of adults in order to materialize the concepts of recurrent education; (d) encourage in M e m b e r States research and experiments aimed at the renewal of secondary education and to facilitate co-ordination a m o n g M e m b e r States; (e) establish a world-wide network of information and documentation calculated to expand and stimulate the various reform activities being carried out in the different States; (f) assemble and circulate all relevant literature o n innovation in secondary education; (g) themselves encourage and conduct case studies and general studies bearing o n the form and innovation in the spheres of secondary education, training and employment; (h) increase the technical and financial co-operation available to developing countries for improving their systems of secondary education, particularly as regards teacher training; (i) encourage developing countries' efforts to provide technical education in their mother tongues.

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Eighth international conference on health education

T w e n t y years of health education: valuation and forecast for the years ahead In spite of the major advances recorded during the last decades, health, in the broad sense of the word, i.e. the physical, mental and social well-being of m a n , is seriously threatened in highly industrialized countries while it seems a distant prospect for the communities where development is hampered by poverty, disease and hunger. For the former, the civilization of plenty is far from having solved the problems of m a n and society; in fact, some issues of minor importance in the past are n o w in the limelight, as for example the youth crisis, pollution, drugs. For the latter, scarcity gives rise to rejection and even to revolt in front of the world's injustice. Demographic expansion sharpens the disequilibrium resulting from rapidly changing social patterns, while unplanned urbanization only provides the n e w city-dweller with the reverse of the happiness which he is seeking. These social phenomena are so far-reaching that they shape, at least in part, the future of mankind. At the beginning of the second decade of development, questions need to be asked: Is economic growth the answer to the problems of the physical, mental and social welfare of m a n ? Should countries which

have reached the industrial or post-industrial stage continue to sacrifice the values tested by previous generations to the demands of productivity? Is it possible to find n e w values worth retaining? D o w e need, perhaps, to change our viewpoint and to start considering the welfare of m a n as thefirstobjective to be achieved, even if this means that w e will have to slow d o w n economic growth and reduce the market of consumer goods? In all countries, and more especially in those with a slow rate of development, should w e not give priority to ways and means of overcoming glaring social inequalities and of creating better social structures? Health education, obviously, can only be but one a m o n g m a n y attempts at finding effective ways of coping with the complex phenomena associated with m a n y activities of m a n . However, in this multidisciplinary approach involving a large number of professional sectors and which is recognized more and more as a must, the role of health education is far from being a minor one. 'Evaluation and Forecast' was selected as the main theme of the International Conference held in Paris from 8 to 14 July 1973, and where working groups also discussed health education and the environment; health education in a changing world; and health education and development.

Eighth Conference of European Ministers of Education

T h e eighth session of the Conference of European Ministers of Education of the twenty-one m e m b e r States of the Council for Cultural Co-operation of the Council of Europe was held at the invitation of the Swiss Government in Berne from 5 to 7 June 1973. M r F . Jeanneret, Conseiller d'tat, Vice-President of the Swiss Conference of Cantonal Directors of Public Instruction, was in the Chair. T h e main theme of the Conference was: ' T h e Educational Needs of the 16-19 A g e Group'. A n ana-

lytical report covering the pedagogical and sociological aspects of the problem was presented to the conference by two experts: M r Lucien Geminard, Inspector General, French Ministry of Education, and Professor Henri Janne, President of the Scientific College, Institute of Sociology, Free University of Brussels. After a thorough discussion, the ministers adopted a Resolution in which they stressed the need to promote educational policies to secure: equal opportunity of access to the various forms and levels of

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education; equal opportunity for success at school; and the personal fulfilment of each individual in the general context of social development and according to his abilities and aspirations. T h e key education policy issues facing Europe in the near future were set out for the conference in several reports: Analysis of the Educational Situation in Member Countries, prepared by the O E C D Secretariat; Areas for Intensified Co-operation, prepared by the Conference's Committee of Senior Officials; country-by-country reports on problems and pressures in education policy; and a progress report on international activities in the field of education, by Unesco, O E C D , Council of Europe and the C o m mission of the European Communities.

The ministers attached particular weight to the following six priority themes: recurrent educationthe distribution of educational opportunities throughout life in accordance with the concept of permanent education; pre-school education and its links with primary education; compensatory education for the disadvantaged; further development of the policies for the education of the 16-19 age group; reform of initial education and further training of teachers; and education of migrants and their families. T h e ministers accepted the invitation of the Swedish minister to hold the ninth session of their conference in Sweden in June 1975.

Book reviews
Les tudes Suprieures: Prsentation Comparative des Rgimes d'Enseignement et des Diplmes. Paris, Unesco, 1973 (ISBN 93-3-201060). 24 x 15.5 c m ; 549 p., tables. $19.10; 5.40; 60 F . (Studies on International Equivalences of Degrees.)

T h e problem of the comparability and recognition of studies and degrees, which in the past was supposed to affect only a small n u m b e r of students wishing to enrol at foreign universities, is n o w so vast that it is regarded as a determining factor in new educational strategies: it is estimated that, during the next academic year, over i million people will go on to higher studies outside their country of origin. A s this movement of persons is becoming more and m o r e frequent and is often unavoidable for nationals of developing countries, because these countries urgently need to train administrative staff but cannot establish all the necessary training networks for some time, and as the training systems (especially at higher level) are being constantly changed so as to bring them into line with the needs of national development, Unesco has had to revise the objectives and general lines of action of its programme for the evaluation and recognition of studies and of degrees obtained in foreign countries. In an effort to assist the competent governmental or academic authorities in their decision as to the recognition of such studies or degrees, the Organization is n o w trying to work out n e w solutions and to provide M e m b e r States with instruments, to be applied on a complementary basis, which would m a k e the comparison and recognition of studies and degrees easier and more practical.

A m o n g such instruments, Unesco has recently published a work entitled Les tudes Suprieures: Prsentation Comparative des Rgimes d'Enseignement et des Diplmes. This large, 550-page volume contains information as to the most important features of education systems and degrees in each of the 128 countries which have a higher education system. T h e sections o n the different countries consist, in most cases, of two complementary parts: a description of the higher education system, the main stages of which are described in detail and m a d e clear, and a list of the main types of degrees and diplomas. In addition to these two parts, there is a table showing the duration of the main courses. T h e material is presented in such a w a y as to facilitate comparison between the various levels of training reached and between diplomas and degrees in the different countries. It is the first time that such a system of comparisons has been put forward and the information presented in this w a y . A Spanish version will be published in 19735 the English version is being prepared and will be followed by Russian and Arabic editions. T h e texts will be brought u p to date in each new version. A. TRAPERO BALLESTERO Division of Higher Education, Unesco.

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Notes and reviews

Ces Normaux Inadapts, by Al lert Painchaud. Paris, ditions Fleurus, 1972. 40 F . vads de la Vie (Truants from fe),1 by Bruno Bettelheim. Paris, Editions Fleurus, 1973. 58 F . ' H o w are you, Renaud?' 'That's none of your business . . .' ' C o m e on, let's have a little chat.' 'Noj you're going to m a k e m e d o tests. Y o u won't catch m e that way.' 'I don't want to m a k e you d o tests, I just want to have a talk with you.' ' I ' m sick of always doing tests. W h a t do you want to talk to m e about?' ' O h , about you . . . D o you go to school?' ' N o , not any m o r e , and I won't go back. N o b o d y wants m e there.' Conversations like this, and children like Renaud, are m e t with throughout Albert Painchaud's study dealing with school children of normal intelligence, whose level of scholastic achievement is nevertheless such as is frequently associated with mental d e ficiency. T h e author of Ces Normaux Inadapts was in the first place one of the co-founders and leading spirits of the Canadian pilot centre L a Vigie, established for the purpose of taking in and helping those w h o had 'decided' that school was n o longer any use to them. Albert Painchaud in this book is therefore telling us about his o w n personal experience and attempting, without either provocation or concession, to work out, in the light of that experience, the foundations for an innovative method of teaching focused o n and governed by the child. T h e author sets outfirstto identify the various special characteristics of the 'unmotivated' child, trying to present as accurate a picture as possible and defining the post effectual response and clinical attitude. Gradually the refusals, rejections and other reactions of the young boarders at L a Vigie are elucidated and m a d e understandable. These children, whether they abandon any effort to escape from an anxiety producing situation, withdraw into themselves, or deliberately hold themselves back by bringing about their o w n failure, are like m a n y other children w h o really have all the prerequisities for a normal approach to school work but whose ego is not sufficiently organized to be able to tackle it comprehensively. T h e author explains that the world appears to them as a huge conglomeration of dissociated items, so that they become quite incapable of concentrating their efforts within the activities assigned to them. Furthermore, in the technical setting of m o d e r n life, children have to accustom themselves to frequent changes of personnel, which they find difficult to d o . A s a result it continually happens that they are left to themselves at a very early stage and almost obliged to take care of their o w n education. A child in this situation, far from being a psychological case, as his teacher might think, will have the feeling that school brings h i m nothing and that he gets n o satisfaction from it, so that he will refuse to m a k e any effort h i m self and be intolerant of his environment. Parents seldom react constructively to this situation, Albert Painchaud notes. T h e y generally feel that their child's poor performance marks a failure of their o w n , reflecting o n themselves and their prestige. T h e teacher, applying methods designed for a group, will naturally tend to regard a pupil w h o m a y impede progress as an element that must be got out of the w a y . H o w e v e r , in the author's view, while the teacher is thefirstperson to be able to observe the pupil's success or failure, it is questionable whether he is well enough equipped to m a k e the tasks the child is set interesting and stimulating. Are not the m a n y claims put forward by teachers a smoke-screen concealing a feeling of incompetence? If a remedy exists, is it not to be found in a certain maturity of outlook and behaviour which should be required of the teacher? Ought he not to be in a position to inculcate different values by systematic teaching? T h e second part of the work is m o r e theoretical and also m o r e forward-looking. First, the factors in the child's progress towards stability are examined, and then the phases by which he is prepared to embark o n the process of finding his balance. T h e child himself is studied, then the family and the wider social environment, which, as it were, set the poles of attraction the young person needs if he is to c o m e to terms with himself and those around him. Motivation, adjustment and maturation all represent paths whereby the child will be impelled to achieve stability in one direction or another. It is difficult to say h o w motivation operates, whether it consists in the original impulse impelling the child to turn to others, the motive force stimulating his activity, the action whereby he tends to internalize the environment, a goal at which to aim, or the urge to communicate and relate. This is particularly true as motivation, in itself, implies a space-time p h e n o m enon, whereas adjustment, o n the contrary, seems to 1. Truants from Life was published by the Free Press, N e w York, in 1955. Its recent translation into French seemed to us an excellent occasion to call attention to a work which has lost none of its topicality. (Ed. note.)

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be brought about w h e n the child grasps an external reality corresponding to an inner reality, whether expressed or not. W h e n he describes adjustment as a harmonization of objective reality and subjective reality, Albert Painchaud is quite well aware of the objections which m a y be raised. Usually limited to the adult world, reality obliges the child to modify his fundamental attitudes, but this process of adjustment takes on another meaning w h e n it is seen from the other side. W h e n does a child feel that he has responded adequately? In most cases, the author observes, a child will think he has acted appropriately w h e n he senses the satisfaction of his parents, his o w n being closely linked with theirs. Only with m a turity will the child complete the stabilizing process, w h e n his actions impinge on reality. A t that stage, n e w motivations will appear, another adjustment will be m a d e and the process of maturation will be taken a step further. After studying the w a y in which the pattern of relation and communication with the outside world tends to take concrete form at each period of the child's life, Albert Painchaud concludes his bookwhich he submitted as a doctoral thesis in Pariswith an account of the part that teaching ought to play in influencing the whole range of the child's activity. For thefirststage of schooling, a form of education capable of inspiring confidence in the six-year-old pupil should be promoted, because the child will accept school if he feels at h o m e there. If he has the impression that he is just a visitor or a prisoner, he willfindit very hard, at the next stage, to concentrate o n a specific activity. At about nine or ten years of age, the child will show more and more ability to share and exchange; it will then be necessary to give h i m a selected activity with a pre-arranged pattern, through which he will, however, be able tofindhis o w n rate of progress. B y the following year, the child will have set ideas on his surroundings. During this period, it is essential for him to feel that he has somebody there to help him, without overlooking the fact that, should the child 'attack' and begin to challenge outside situations, it is actually himself that he is calling in question more than anything else. O n completion of the primary course, the schoolchild will feel uneasy about leaving a familiar environment, so a type of teaching is needed which will m a k e it possible to bring about his social integration without harm to himself or to those around h i m , especially as he will be making specific use of his aptitudes and motivations. T h e reader of this thick volume, which runs to nearly 450 pages, m a y find certain repetitions regrettable; and the author's style m a y sometimes seem a

little odd. T h e fact remains that he has, to use his o w n term, done pioneer work, and Henri Bissonnier, w h o prefaces the book, rightly remarks that 'although the fruit is yet unripe, it has plenty of flavour'. In the same series on the psychology and sociology of education, published by Fleurus, Bruno Bettelheim describes the treatment of four children suffering from serious emotional disturbances. Evads de la Vie is only one part of a closely interrelated trilogy, thefirstvolume of which has already c o m e out in French under the title of L'Amour ne Suffit Pas. Nevertheless the story of John, M a r y , Paul and Harry forms a coherent whole and the conclusions drawn from it can stand alone. Whereas Albert Painchaud proposed certain measures which might be takenthough often dealing with only part of the problemBruno Bettelheim does not claim to lay d o w n any line of action or to provide any particular 'tips'. Instead, the four case studies presented afford the author an excellent means of stimulating our thinking, our research and our work. T h e family, for instance, is frequently presented in specialized works as a determining or aggravating factor in the emotional disturbances of children. But is it really a major cause? T h e data collected by Bruno Bettelheim on this question incline h i m to adopt a cautious attitude. O n the one hand, if a child does not react appropriately, an anxious mother m a y become a rejecting mother. O n the other, the breaku p of certain marriages m a y be a consequence and not a cause of particular cases of maladjustment. T h e author is equally cautious w h e n assessing the I.Q.s of the young patients he had to treat: the results of tests administered to emotionally disturbed children cannot reflect their real capacities, for the simple reason that blocks are set u p whenever some d e m a n d rouses anxiety. T h e author expresses similar reservations with regard to the theory that an only child is more prone to disturbances than other children. A m o n g the forty serious cases studied by Bruno Bettelheim and his colleagues, only four were in that situation. O n the other hand, a study of the sample shows that the majority of the young patients were in the position of eldest child. John, suffering from anorexia, M a r y , from schizophrenia, Paul, from 'hospitalism', and Harry, a young delinquent, were all treated at the Sonia Shankam Institute at Chicago University. T h e y represent neither the best cures nor the most signal failures. T h e y were merely the first to leave the institute, in 1950, after being treated according to the author's theories. T h e description of the Sonia Shankam Institute and life there is not the least interesting part of

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the book and helps the reader considerably in viewing the facts in perspective. Each child has some furniture which he can arrange as he likes, and there is a small kitchen for the children's use on each floor of the buildings. T h e parents, however, are not allowed to visit the area set aside for the children, as, in Bruno Bettelheim's view, that might destroy the child's impression of having a 'world' of his o w n . T h e young boarders are free to do as they like and m a k e as m u c h noise as they like at all times. A s the author sees no educational value in domestic chores, the children do not take any part in them. Generally speaking, a systematic attempt is m a d e to prevent 'order' being equated with strict compulsion. T h e children should be able to m a k e their o w n choices, but the institute sees that these decisions are not left entirely to their judgement, for they might, otherwise, afford additional proof of the inability of some of the patients to run their o w n lives. A refuge and a h o m e at the same time, this boarding school for the maladjusted is designed to build u p a sense of security in its inmates. While the railings round the windows seem atfirstsight to constitute a restraint, the child soon realizes that thanks to them

he can play in safety. If a patient expressing his anxiety throws his plates and glasses about at meal times and breaks them, the staff merely pick u p the pieces and smooth the incident over. Sharp-edged objects and potentially dangerous toys are used only w h e n an educator is present, but are shut u p the rest of the time in a cupboard near the child, w h o is in this way protected without suffering constraint. O n e of the outstanding merits of vads de la Vie is undoubtedly the author's ability to pass easily from vivid narration to the explanation of basic considerations. This balanced approach naturally presupposed thoroughly documented cases. It is therefore not surprising that the book is rather long: what would have been the use of a series of thumb-nail sketches of cases and treatments? W o u l d there not have been a risk that the author might emphasize only what would support his theory? Deliberately avoiding this temptation, Bruno Bettelheim chose to be strictly scientific. A n d while he m a y , in places, seem to be carrying things to extremes, the reader will b e principally impressed by his honesty.
F. O'DRISCOLL

S o m e recent Unesco publications

Le Racisme devant la Science N e w edition Published jointly by Unesco and Gallimard in French only Exclusive distribution in France and French-speaking Africa by Gallimard, Paris This book is part of Unesco's contribution to the International Year for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. T h e chapters by Michel Leiris and Claude Levi-Strauss ('Race and Civilization' and 'Race and History') were included in the preceding editions; those by L . C . D u n n and Otto Klineberg ('Race and Biology' and 'Race and Psychology'), from the same source, have been updated by their authors. T h e following chapters are n e w : 'Race and C o n t e m porary Genetics', by N . P . Doubinine; 'Tribalism and Racism', by E . U . Essien-Udom; 'Racism and the Urban Crisis', by John Rex; 'Race, Caste and Ethnic Identity', by Andr Beteille; 'Evolution of

the Professional Situation of the Chinese in SouthEast Asia', by G o Gien-tjwan; 'Change Conflict, and Resolution: N e w Dimensions', by M a x Gluckman; ' C a n H u m a n k i n d be Broken u p into Races?', b y Jean Hiernaux. Four declarations o n the racial question complete the edition.

The Book Hunger Edited by Ronald Barker and Robert Escarpit 2i x 13.5 c m , 155 p . 1973 (ISBN 92-3-101085-9) (Unesco) (ISBN 0-245-52071-6) (Harrap) Co-edition Unesco-Harrap O f the more than 500,000 titles issued every year, 80 per cent are published in Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union and the United States. Two-thirds of the world's population are thus handicapped in their search for a better and fuller life by lack of one of

555

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the essential tools of progress: books and reading material. L o w production, inadequate distribution channels and the high cost of importing combine to deprive the public of the reading material it needs. T h e present publication explores the causes of book hunger and the available solutions and aims to broaden understanding of the role of books today, particularly in developing countries. 22 F Educational Research in Five European Socialist Countries A survey 1972. Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia Compiled by Cesar Birzea (Documents on Educational Research, 3) Bilingual: English/French 29.5x20.5 cm, iv + 198 p . , 13 F 1973 (ISBN 92-820-0001-X) Publication of the Unesco Institute for Education, H a m b u r g Technical and Vocational Teacher Education and Training (Monographs on Education, VIII) 21 x 13.5 c m , 240 p . ,figs.,tables 1973 (ISBN 92-3-101097-2) Represents the results of research in thisfieldundertaken by Unesco and I L O in 1968. T h e purpose of the present publication is two-fold: on the one hand, to provide information and to analyse certain problems in the education and training of such teachers

and, on the other, to suggest various general guidelines. Addressed to teachers, teacher-educators, educational authorities and all others interested in the current and possible future state of such teacher education and training, this study is primarily intended for developing countries and therefore reflects present trends and possible directions which developments might take in them. 20 F Planning the Location of Schools: County Sligo, Ireland By Jacques Hallak and James M c C a b e (Unesco: IIEP, Planning the Location of Schools, Case Studies, 1) 2 7 x 2 1 c m , 109 p.,figs.,illus., maps, tables 1973 (ISBN 92-803-1056-9) This case study highlights a typical example of the kind of gap which exists between centralized planning and implementation. Despite the existence of fairly sophisticated central planning machinery in Ireland and an active desire for reform on the part of the Government, the school networks in the country still remain largely out-dated and ill-adapted to modern circumstances. This results in costly under-utilization of resources, a lack of equality of educational opportunity and supply, and inadequate pedagogical provision. For those interested in the practical problems of m a p preparation and the scope and limitations of the technique, this book contains the methodology, parameters and principles of school mapping. 28 F

Meetings

Seminar on South-American Regional System on Tele-education ( U N D P financial co-operation), Caracas, November. Seminar on the Role of Education in Rural Development in Arab States, Sirs-el-Layyan (Egypt), November. Symposium on the Conditions, Concepts, Organization and Achievements of the Regeneration of School and Out-of-School Education in Rural Areas, Mexico, September. F A O / U n e s c o / I L O Joint Advisory Committee on

Agricultural Education and Training, Unesco, December. Workshop on Primary Science Education in Frenchspeaking African Countries, Dakar, November. Workshop on Integrated Science Teaching in the Caribbean (jointly with Centre for Educational D e velopment Overseas ( C E D O ) , United Kingdom), Bridgetown (Barbados), October. Seminar on Approaches and N e w Methods on University Science Education, Nairobi, November. Meeting of Experts on Environmental Aspects of

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Notes and reviews

the Education and Training of Engineers, Unesco, December. Regional Seminar on Education Industry C o operation in the Education and Training of E n gineers ( U N D P financial co-operation), Manila, October. Working Group on Indicators of Scientific and Technological Development, Unesco, December. Meeting of Experts on the H u m a n Implications of Scientific Advance, Unesco, December. Round Table of Institutions Supporting Anthropology and Language Science in Educational D e velopment, Unesco, November. Meeting of Governmental Experts to Review the Application of the Agreements on the Importation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Materials, Geneva, November-December. International Meeting of Experts o n the Associated Schools Project (jointly with the Canadian National Commission for Unesco), Levis (Canada), September-October.

Seminar on Youth and Drugs, Svres (France), September. Communication Workshop for Information, E d u cation and Health Ministries in South-East Asia, Bangkok, September. Meeting of Experts on Management and Evaluation of Family Planning Communication Programmes, Unesco, December. Meeting of Specialists on Introduction of Population Content in Schools of Journalism, Institutes of Mass Communication and Regional C o m m u nication Centres, Strasbourg, December. Fourth Committee Meeting of Governmental E x perts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations raised by Transmissions via Space Satellites, Paris or Geneva, December. Twelfth Ordinary Session of the Intergovernmental Copyright Committee, Unesco, December.

University n e w s

College for third-world students T h e Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Commission of the European Communities have launched a joint scheme to train statisticians from developing countries. T h e G e r m a n Government has built a training college in Grafrath, near Munich, and is providing the lecturers. T h e Commission is using the European Development Fund to pay students' scholarships and travel expenses. Students will concentrate on population, economic and social statistics, and the use of data in carrying out development plans. A n Italian bill on university reform and international co-operation T h e university reform bill submitted to Parliament by the Italian Government on 28 M a r c h 1973 gives a detailed examination of measures intended to promote exchanges and co-operation between the Italian universities and those of other countries, particularly in Europe. T h e report which accompanies the draft bill for university reform, presented to the Italian Parliament

in M a r c h , favours greater co-operation between Italian institutions of higher education and research and their opposite numbers in various countries. T h e following points are dealt with in the report: recognition of diplomas and exchanges; Treaty of R o m e and university co-operation: the universities are free to establish subsequent agreements with universities or scientific institutions in m e m b e r countries; foreign teachers; and the access of foreign students to research doctorates. T h e measures to be taken concerning these areas appear, however, to be somewhat limited in extent, and are subject to subsequent rulings of the Italian central administration and academic authorities. Not all of these measures have been inserted in the n e w draft bill but one feels that even its limited scope will allow for greater international co-operation in the Italian university world. Spain: N e w universities. O p e n University Four n e w universities are to be established in Spain, of which one will be a 'University of the Air'. This 'National University for Long Distance Teaching'

557

Notes and reviews

will have its headquarters in Madrid and will give lectures by radio, television and by correspondence courses; in addition, s u m m e r schools will be held throughout the country. Degrees will be conferred in economic science, administration, jurisprudence, arts and philosophy. Admission requirements are the same as for other institutes of higher education; exceptions m a y be m a d e for students over 25 years. T h e three other universities at Cordoba, Malaga and Santander will be of the traditional type. T w o m o r e universities m a y be established by 1975, in accordance with the third National Development plan of 1972. A n e w private university in the United K i n g d o m T h e University College of Buckingham will open in January 1975, with 120 students. This institution for

general higher education will be thefirstto receive no State subsidy. It will be financed by private donations and students' fees. It will provide a course of general studies to meet the requirements of business, with the emphasis on law, economics, basic science and intensive language practice. Italy T h efifthuniversity meeting organized in R o m e by the I U C (Institute for University Co-operation) o n the theme 'Conformism or Creativity: the D i l e m m a of the University' provided the opportunity for an exchange of views between students of twelve European countries on the function of the university in a changing European society, the role of the secondary school in preparation for higher studies, and the insufficiency of education in relation to the n e w prospects opened u p by European integration.

N e w s from international agencies and foundations

T h e Ford Foundation has recently given grants to: Development administration in South-East Asia, $149,000 two-year foundation-managed project, for continued support of consultants, research and training in managing government programmes in population, education, rural development, and public enterprises. Education and research in the Middle East, $352,900 one-year foundation-managed project, for continued support of consultants in science and mathematics education, English-language training, university administration, educational planning and management, the Arabic language, and mother and child development. Educational planning in Thailand, $398,000 threeyear foundation-managed project, for consultants, research, fellowships, books, and equipment to help strengthen co-operation a m o n g several government educational research agencies. Educational research in Brazil, $150,000 two-year foundation-managed project, for continued support of research in the social sciences and education. Education in the Philippines, $37,000 one-year foun-

dation-managed project, for continued support of an education specialist w h o is advising Philippine agencies and institutions on educational research and planning. Environmental policy, $275,000 two-year foundationmanaged project, for consultants, research and training in environmental policy and management for institutions and individuals throughout SouthEast Asia. Graduate training in West Africa, $300,000 one-year foundation-managed project, for continued support of fellowships in agriculture, population, development planning and management, and education. Institute of International Education, $925,000 oneyear supplement, for support of Chile/University of California programme in which faculty are exchanged by the two universities and graduate training is provided for junior Chilean staff members. Middle East Technical University (Turkey), $75,000 two-year supplement, for staff training and equipment for a graduate programme in biology.

558

Notes and reviews

Specialists and consultants for Eastern Africa, $820,000 one-year foundation-managed project, for continued support of personnel, fellowships, and conferences in development planning, public administration and management development, and educational planning. Center for Cultural and Technical Interchange between East and West (Honolulu), $45,000 eighteen-month supplement for a four-week workshop for Asians on the techniques of planning, implementing, and evaluating population education programmes. Specialists and consultants for Eastern Africa, $820,000 one-year foundation-managed project, for continued support of personnel, fellowships, and conferences in development planning, public administration and management development, and educational planning.

T h e Bernard van Leer Foundation supported: 1. A national pre-school seminar held from 10 to 14 September in Kuala L u m p u r (Malaysia). T h e Ministry of Education designated this event as one [of prime importance in planning the experimental pre-school curriculum and training project, which [is supported by the foundation, and has sought international professional advice on the detailed development of their programme. T h e foundation also provided two consultants for the seminar. 2. A visit of a team from the Faculty of E d u cational Studies of Britain's O p e n University to foundation-supported projects in Amsterdam and Haarlem, as afirststep towards producingfilmby the B B C to illustrate problems of urban education in Western Europe. T h e foundation and the university have agreed to co-operate in this enterprise which will focus specifically on projects sponsored by the foundation.

T h e Centre for Educational Development Overseas (CEDO), in Great Britain, has launched a n e w journal Educational Development International. T h e potential audience for the journal is broadly the innovators of educational change, perhaps in charge of a department or a school, or working in a college, institute of education or resources centre, in a ministry or government agency. T h e journal will include keynote articles by leading educationists of international reputation and case studies giving practical details of curriculum projects, discussing problems and solutions. There will be practical articles dealing with all aspects of the use and production of audio-visual aids from the flannelgraph to the language laboratory. Topics are not to be confined to the classroom but will cover formal and informal education at all levels. Subsequent issues will adopt a thematic approach: in the next issue this will deal with primary education. W e plan to include articles on primary education in Guayana, Malaysia and Zambia, on primary education in rural development and the various aspects of primary mathematics and science. T h e Alexander von Humboldt Foundation is granting research fellowships for young research workers from abroad. Candidates must: have an M . A . , P h . D . , or equivalent qualification; submit scientific publications; submit a clear description of the research to be carried out in Germany; have some knowledge of G e r m a n ; and be not more than 30 years of age. A m o u n t of the grant: Forschungsstipendium: D M 1,600, and Dozentenstipendium: D M 1,900. Applications will be accepted until the end of the year. T h e y should be sent to: Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Schillerstrasse 12, 53 B o n n Bad Godesberg (Federal Republic of G e r m a n y ) , or Office Allemand des changes Universitaires, 15 R u e de Verneuil, 75007 Paris (France).

559

Index

Vol. Ill, 1973 N o . 1, p. 1-134 N o . 2, p. 135-283 N o . 3, p. 284-412 N o . 4, p. 413-S63

Dolci, Danilo. The Maieutic Approach: the Plan of a N e w Educational Centre at Partinico, 137 Alles, Jinapala. InequalityA Reassessment of the Effect Draheim, Heinz. The European University in Change: The 'Gesamthochschule': A Model of of Family and Schooling in America by C . Jencks et al., 406 Mobility, 504 Attagara, Bhuntin, and M a n o n e , Carl J. Learning to Eide, Kjell. Participation and Participatory Planning Be: Concerning Goals and Methods: T h e Case of in Educational Systems, 147 Thailand, 83 El-Koussy, Abdel Aziz Hamid. Learning to Be: For a Self-criticism of Education in the Arab Countries, Avericev, Y u . P . Secondary Education, Training and Employment: Guiding School Pupils Towards 57 Fernig, Leo. Secondary Education, Training and Manual Occupations in the U . S . S . R . , 372 Employment: Introduction, 326 Bandyopadhyay, P. C . European Seminar on EnvironFlandre, A . T . Secondary Education, Training and ment and Education, 123 Employment: Vocational TrainingInstitutions or Berger G u y . Report of the Study Commission on the Teaching Profession at Secondary Level (France) Cogs in the Economic Machinery?, 342 (Joxe Commission, June 1972), 401 Gara, A . , and Boumaza, S. Education for Rural Bishop, G . D . Curriculum Innovation in the South Development: Vocational Training and Rural D e Pacific, n o velopment in Algeria, 252 Blat Gimeno, J. School is Dead. Alternatives in EduGligorijevic, Jovan, and Pribicevic, Branko. T h e European University in Change: Self-management cation, by Everett Reimer, 130 Blaug, M a r k . M a n p o w e r Forecasting as a Technique, in the Yugoslav Universities, 515 not an Approach to Planning, 458 Goldstone, Leo. Public Expenditure in the World, Boumaza, S . , and Gara, A . Education for Rural 1967-1969, 270 Development: Vocational Training and Rural . A n International Standard Classification of Development in Algeria, 252 Education (ISCED), 390 Brembeck, Cole S . , and Hovey, Richard. E d u Grabe, Sven. Secondary Education, Training and cation for Rural Development: Current Trends, Employment: A n Historical Interpretation, 327 210 Grekov, Leonid. Out-of-School Education in the Bruner, Jerome S . , and Olson, David R . Learning Ukrainian S.S.R., 542 Through Experience and Learning through Media, Hadara, Baba Akhib. A n Example of an African 20 Higher Teacher-training College: Bamako, 383 Cairns, John C . T h e Lessons of Tokyo, 119 Harper, Peter. 'Soft Technology' and Criticism of . The Learning Society, 405 the Western Model of Development, 183 H e r m a n , Joseph. T h e European University in Chang M i n K e e . Secondary Education, Training and Change: Introduction, 466 Employment: Nationalizing Education and E m Hoffmann, H . K . F . Education for Rural Developployment Problems in Malaysia, 357 ment: Planning Aspects, 231 C o o m b s , Philip H . et al. Should O n e Develop N o n Hovey, Richard, and Brembeck, Cole S. Education formal Education?, 287 for Rural Development: Current Trends, 210 Cooper, Robert L . Language Structure and Language Husn, Torsten. Resistance to Educational InnoUse; Language Culture and Communication;Language vation, 13 in Social Groups; Language in Socio-cultural Ivanov, V . Open-air Geography Teaching in TolChange; The Ecology of Language; Language, Psybukhin, 103 chology and Culture, 275 Janne, Henri. T h e European University in Change: Coste, Paul. Is Learning Optimal in Childhood or in T h e European University in Society, 482 Adolescence?, 46 Kajubi, W . Senteza. Learning to Be: Educational Debeauvais, Michel. Reconsidering Learning to Be: Priorities in Africa, 76 Problems of Cost and Opportunities, 307

Articles

561
Prospects, Vol. Ill, N o . 4 , Winter 1973

Index

Silva, Alberto. Education for Freedom, 39 Kane, Cheikh Hamidou. Confronting Hopes of Touraine, Alain. T h e European University in Young Africans (Introduction), 333 Change: Death or Change of the Universities? 469 Latapi, Pablo. Reconsidering Learning to Be: E d u Trapero Ballestero, A . Les tudes Suprieures, 552 cation and International Justice, 317 Tugbiyele, E . A . Education for Rural Development: Livingston, Robert B . Neurosciences and education, T h e Out-of-school Component in Africa, 246 405 Louri, Sylvain. From Aid to Re-colonization: the Versluis, Jan. Secondary Education, Training and Employment: T h e Qualitative Mismatch in D e Lessons of a Failure by Tibor M e n d e , 126 veloping Countries, 349 M a d u r e , Stuart. T h e European University in Change: Beyond the University to Mass Higher Wirzberger, Karl-Heinz. T h e European University in Change: T h e Third Reform of Higher E d u Education, 522 cation in the German Democratic Republic, 497 M a h e u , Ren. Learning to Be: A n Aid to Reflection for Necessary Renovations, 51 Malassis, Louis. Education for Rural Development: Collective w o r k Forms and Strategies, 219 Manone, Carl J., and Attagara, Bhuntin. Learning T h e Free Gymnasium of Copenhagen, 531 to Be: Concerning Goals and Methods: T h e Case of Thailand, 83 Matveev, A . N . T h e European University in Change: Film T h e University and Research, 492 M ' B o w , Amadou-Mahtar. Main Lines and Structure T h e Ivory Coast Experiment, 134 of Unesco's N e w Education Programme, 5 Morito, Tatsuo. Prospects of the Third Educational Reform in Japan, 164 Bibliographies Motooka, Takeshi. Education for Rural Development: Investment in Developing Countries, 239 262, 380, 529 M u o z , Juan Jacobo. Secondary Education and Training for the Labour Market in Colombia, 367 Nduka, Otonti. Toward a National Policy on E d u Unesco cation in Nigeria, 438 Ochs, Ren. Twelve Years Later: the Revision of the International Copyright Information Centre, 124 Addis Ababa Targets, 265 T h e Seventeenth Session of the Unesco General O'Driscoll, F . Ces Normaux Inadapts by Albert Conference, 3 Painchaud and vads de la Vie by Bruno N e w Prospects for Secondary Education, 547 Bettelheim, 553 International Conference on Education, 280 Olson, David R . , and Bruner, Jerome S. Learning Unesco and Drug Education, 399 through Experience and Learning through Media, T h e United Nations Conference on the H u m a n E n 20 vironment and its Implications for Unesco, 122 Pauvert, J. C . Education in Africa: What Next? by A World Programme of Action for Books, 401 Dragoljub Najman, 273 Recent Publications, 133, 278, 409, 555 Petrovsky, Arthur V . Ability Tests? A Shot in the T w o Unesco Science Prizes Awarded, 125 Dark, 179 Meetings, 281, 411, 556 Pribicevic, Branko, and Gligorijevic, Jovan. T h e Elections to the Unesco Executive Board, 124 European University in Change: Self-management in the Yugoslav Universities, 315 Sachs, Ignacy. 'Soft technology', Blueprints for CiviUnicef lization, Development, 193 Salas, Irma. Learning to Be: Education in Latin Secondary Education, Training and Employment: America between its Past and the Future, 67 Confronting the Hopes of Young Africans, 334 Sanyal, Bikas C . T w o Approaches to Educational Planning: Conflict and Complementarity, 451 Savary, Roger. Education for Rural Development: N e w s from international agencies Between Tradition and Change, 203 and foundations Scott, Peter. Learning to Be: Education at the Hour of Choosing, 92 282, 412, 558

562

Index

Miscellaneous Education and Models of Development, 182 Education for Rural Development: For an Integrated Rural Development, 202 Learning to Be: T h e Genesis of a Universal Book, 50

Eighth Conference of European Ministers of E d u cation, 551 Eighth International Conference of Health E d u cation, 551 International Congress on Educational Sciences, 281 University N e w s , 557

563

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F R A N C E : Librairie de l'Unesco, place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris. C C P 12598-48. F R E N C H W E S T INDIES: Librairie ' A u Boul' Mich', 1, rue Perrinon and 66, avenue du Parquet, 972 F O R T - D E F R A N C E (Martinique).
G E R M A N D E M O C R A T I C R E P U B L I C : Deutscher Buch-Export

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A C C R A ; T h e University Bookshop, C A P E C O A S T ; T h e

University Bookshop, P . O . Box 1, L E G O N . G R E E C E : Anglo-Hellenic Agency, 5 Koumpari Street,


A T H I N A I 138.

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C H I N A : China National Publications Import Corporation,


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BUDAPEST VI.

ICELAND: Snaebjrn Jonsson & Co., H . F . , Hafnarstraeti 9,


REYKJAVIK.

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BOMBAY I; 17 Chittaranjan Ave., C A L C U T T A 13; 36A

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TEHERAN.

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SYRIA: Librairie Sayegh, Immeuble Diab, rue du Parlement, B.P. 704, D A M A S . T A N Z A N I A : Dar es Salaam Bookshop, P . O . Box 9030,
D A R ES S A L A A M .

U N I T E D STATES O F A M E R I C A : Unesco Publications Center, P . O . Box 433, N E W Y O R K , N . Y . 10016.


U P P E R V O L T A : Librairie Attie, B . P . 64, O U A G A D O U G O U ; Li-

T H A I L A N D : Suksapan Panit, Mansion, 9, Rajdamnern Avenue, B A N G K O K . T O G O : Librairie vanglique, B . P . 378, L O M ; Librairie du Bon Pasteur, B.P. 1164, L O M ; Librairie moderne,
B . P . 777, LOM.

TUNISIA: Socit tunisienne de diffusion, 5, avenue de Carthage, T U N I S . T U R K E Y : Librairie Hachette, 469 Istiklal Caddesi, Beyoglu,
ISTANBUL.

U G A N D A : Uganda Bookshop, P . O . Box 145, K A M P A L A . U N I T E D K I N G D O M : H . M . Stationery Office, P . O . Box 569, L O N D O N S E I 9 N H . Government bookshops: London, Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Manchester. UNESCO BOOK COUPONS

brairie catholique 'Jeunesse d'Afrique', O U A G A D O U G O U . U R U G U A Y : Editorial Losada Uruguaya, S . A . Librera Losada, Maldonado 1902/Colonia 1340, M O N T E V I D E O . U . S . S . R . : Mezhdunarodnaja Kniga, M O S K V A G-200. V E N E Z U E L A : Librera Historia, Monjas a Padre Sierra, Edificio Oeste 2 , n. 6 (frente al Capitolio), apartado de correos 7320-101, C A R A C A S . V I E T - N A M ( R E P U B L I C O F ) : Librairie-papeterie X u n - T h u , 185-193, rue T u - D o , B . P . 283, S A I G O N . Y U G O S L A V I A : Jugoslovenska Knjiga, Terazije 27, B E O G R A D ; Drzavna Zalozba Slovenije, Mestni Trg. 26, L J U B L J A N A . R E P U B L I C O F Z A I R E : L a Librairie, Institut national d'tudes politiques, B . P . 2307, K I N S H A S A ; Commission nationale de la Rpublique du Zaire pour l'Unesco, Ministre de l'ducation nationale, K I N S H A S A . Unesco Book Coupons can be used to purchase all books and periodicals of an educational, scientific or cultural character. For full information please write to: Unesco Coupon Office, Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris (France). [92]

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Partial contents of the preceding issues Vol. II N o . 4 Winter 1972

Bhuntin Attagara with the collaboration of Carl J. Manone Concerning goals and methods: the case of Thailand Peter Scott Education at the hour of choosing Vol. Ill N o . 2 S u m m e r 1973 Danilo Dolci The maieutic approach: the plan of a new educational centre at Partinico Kjell Eide Participation and participatory planning in educational systems Tatsuo Morito Prospects of the third educational reform in Japan VIEWPOINTS AND CONTROVERSIES Arthur V. Petrovsky Ability tests ? A shot in the dark Education and models of development Peter Harper 'Soft technology' and criticism of the Western model of development Ignacy Sachs 'Soft technology', blueprints for civilization, development ELEMENTS FOR A DOSSIER: EDUCATION FOR R U R A L D E V E L O P M E N T For an integrated rural development Roger Savary Between tradition and change Cole S. Brembech and Richard Hovey Current trends Louis Malassis Forms and strategies H . K. P. Hoffmann Planning aspects Takeshi Motooka Investment in developing countries E. A. Tugbiyele The out-of-school component in Africa A. Gara and S. Boumaza Vocational training and rural development in Algeria Vol. Ill N o . 3 A u t u m n 1973 Should one develop nonformal education? Director of the study: Philip H . Coombs VIEWPOINTS A N D CONTROVERSIES: RECONSIDERING ' L E A R N I N G TO B E ' Michel Debeauvais Problems of cost and opportunities Pablo Latapi Education and international justice ELEMENTS FOR A DOSSIER: SECONDARY EDUCATION, TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT Leo Fernig Introduction Sven Grabe A n historical interpretation Confronting the hopes of young Africans Cheikh Hamidou Kane Introduction A . T. Flandre Vocational traininginstitutions or cogs in the economic machinery? Jan Versluis The qualitative mismatch in developing countries Chang Min Kee Nationalizing education and employment problems in Malaysia Juan Jacobo Muoz Secondary education and training for die labour market in Colombia Yu. P. Avericev Guiding school pupils towards manual occupations in the U . S . S . R .

Augusto Solazar Bondy O n educational reform in Peru Raymond Poignant Reflections on the prospects of the evolution of the structure of education systems Joseph Ki-Zerbo Education and development VIEWPOINTS A N D CONTROVERSIES Mark Blaug Economics and educational planning in developing countries Jos Blat Gimeno Should we abolish the schooling of children? E L E M E N T S FOR A DOSSIER: EDUCATION A N D ENVIRONMENT Ren Maheu For a human environment What kind of m a n do we wish to be? (Report of round-table meeting of young scientists, Unesco, M a y 1972) Richard Myshak Community environment studies programme V. M . Galushin and S. Doraiswami Three approaches to school environmental education as consecutive stages of its practical implementation Eugne Binder Teaching of environmental sciences at the university level Matthew J. Brennan Environmental conservation education in the United States of America Sten Forselius Environmental education in the school curricula: the Swedish example Vol. Ill N o . 1 Spring 1973

The seventeenth session of the Unesco General Conference Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow Main lines and structure of Unesco's new education programme Torsten Husn Resistance to educational innovation Jerome S. Brimer and David R . Olson Learning through experience and learning through media VIEWPOINTS AND CONTROVERSIES Alberto Silva Education for freedom Paul Coste Is learning optimal in childhood or in adolescence? ELEMENTS FOR A DOSSIER: 'LEARNING TO BB': THE RENOVATION OF EDUCATION The genesis of a universal book Ren Maheu A n aid to reflection for necessary renovations Abdel Aziz Hamid El-Koussy For a self-criticism of education in the Arab countries Irma Salas Education in Latin America between its past and the future W. Senteza Kajubi Educational priorities in Africa