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1

xfz jg

sp xfz sp D

jg

sp sp S

sp jg

jg jg


jg jhjg jh

jh mx

jh

Ey=
0<Ey<l Ey>1
Ey<0

()

10

11

12

2
1

jg xfz spD xfz xfz


sp jgxfz D xfz
sp Dd x=x(prpmp1)x


sp Dpr p sp jgm xfz p1 sp
jg D
2

sp jg jg sp jg
S y sp ST p
sp jgrlr2 jgp1p2 sp jg
sp Sy=y(T,p,r1,p1,)
S

jg jg sp sp jg
cs sp spjg sp
sp spjg
sp
3
70

jg jg
jg
jg
jg
jg
jg
jg jg

3
1
Q20-4P P4

P=4 , Q=100
Ed=-dQ/dPP/Q=54/100=0.2
1,,

2 : ,,
,
,
()

RCS12=MU1/MU2= P1/P2 P1X1+P2X2=M

P1X1+P2X2=M

:(l)
(2)
(3)
(4)

6 :

RCS

7 :

8 :

2
1



MU MU/P>
MU/P<
MU/p=

()
()


(1)(2)

()
()

(1)
(2)

()
()

1 :

(L)
MPL=TP/L

2 :
:

()

3 :

4 :
,
,,
,,
,,
,,

5 :,


,
:
,,

6 :

7 :
,
: ,,
; ,
; ,

8 :
rL rK
C C=rLL+rKK

9 :
(AFC)(AVC)

10

MC=C/Q
U

11

12

2
1

2
MP
ys
MP

ysjg
cs ys
RTSL,KrL/rKprL*L+rK*K=cMPL/rL=MPK/rK
rL*L+rK*K=c,
max cs ys

cs ys
cs
ys
y=f(L,K);c=rL*L+rK*K=c;MPL/rL=MPK/rK
cs
cs cs

MC=rL/MPL AVC=rL/APL cs

3 2003

1 y=10L3L , L
2

1
2 P=5 rL=10,

APL=(10L-3L2)/L=10-3L
(1)
MPL=10-6L
(2)
,
APL=MPL ,:(1)(2), 10-3L=10-6L L=0
, MPL=0 ,:
10-6L=0 L=5/3
,[0,5/3]

PMPL=rL 5(10-6L)=10 L=4/3 4/3

2 y=24L

K2/3 L K

1/2

rL=1 rk=2
1
2 K=27
3

MPL/rL=MPK/rK
(12L-1/2K2/3)/1=(16L1/2K-2/3)/2
2L=3K,
y=f(L,K)
y=24L1/2272/3 c=L+227
c=(y/216)2+54

c=rLL+rKK


y=f(L,K) c=rLL+rKK MPL/rL=MPK/rK
y=24L1/2K2/3 c=L+2K 2L=3K
L=y6/7/15362/7
K=(2/3)(y6/7/15362/7)

c=5/(315362/7) y6/7
3

TRTCPQTC
L K Q
fLKQ0TCrLL+rKK
LK P rL0P rK0
MPL/MPKrL/rK

MRTSLKMPL/MPK
CrLL+rKKC0 rL/rK
MPL/MPKrL/rK


1
1
TR=P(y)y
AR=TRy=P(y)
MR(Q)=dTR(Q)dQ
2.

MR=MC
3. :,:
,,
,
,
4.

5. :

6.
cs cs
7. cs
cs jg
jg
jg
8. : mx mx
cs
0Acs 1/2Bcs
1/2 A 1/2 14
Acs Bcs Bcs
14 3/4 1/2 3/8Bcs
5/16 cs 13
jh
9.
(S1*Sn*)
i Si* i
Si ui(S1*Si1*Si*Si+1*Sn*)ui(S1*Si-1*SiSi+1*Sn*),
(S1*Sn*) G jh<br />

1 MR=MC
cs cs

<br />
cs
cs
,MR>MC
cs cs

MRMFC L TR


L L
L L
MRPSL D
PH>PL
SA PA
PA

2
(l)

p=MC

(2)

p=LMC=LAC
3

(1)

(2)

P=LMC=LAC

(3)

(4)

(l)(2)
(3)
(4)

D d

D d
D d

28

6
AB

A A
1/2
B B A
B A 1/2 1/4
A B 3/4A
3/8 A 5/8
B
A B A B
1/3

i Si* S-I,
ui(Si*S-i*)ui(Si*S-i*) Si i
,( Si*Sn*)

2000
Q=50-3P
1
2 4
:(1) P=(50-Q)/3
TR=PQ=(50Q-Q2)/3
MR=50/3-Q2/3
(2)
MR=MC, MC=4,
50/3-Q2/3=4 Q=19

P=(50-19)/3=31/3

1 cs ys

cs ys

2 :, VMP=P*MP
,
,

3 :,

:MRP=MRMP,

4 :
,,
,

5 :
,,
,

6 :,
,,
,

,()(
)

VMP=pMP

VMP= pMP=r r
r
MP

VMP

()
3

24

VMP= pMP

VMP= pMP=r
r r

MP

()

MRP=MR*MP=r
MP MR

Y=MPLL+MPKK

(1)(2)
,,
=TR-TC
,
d/dL=dTR/dL-dTC/dL
(3),
,,,,,
TR/L=TR/QQ/L=MRMP
() MRP
(4),,

, MFC
(5), MRP=MFC
, MRP>MFC,,
,,
,
,

1. :

2.,


,,
,,
,,
, 1,
,,
3. :,
,,

4. :

RCSA1,2=RCSB1,2

5. :

RTS1L,K=RTS2L,K

6.:

RCS12=RPT12

7.
1 2
RPT=X2/X1

1874

k r k
r

xi=xi(p1,,pk;pk+1,,pk+r)
(i=1,k)

yi=yi(p1,,pk;pk+1,,pk+r)
(i=1,k)

xi=yi
(i=1,k)

xj=xj(
)

yj=yj(
)
p1pk pk+1,pk+r k+r
k+r k+r
k+r

k+r

j wij
xij
pl p2

(x11-w11)+
(x21-w21)0

()

3 1999
: :
:RCS=RCS:
:RTS=RTS:
:RCS1,2=RPT1,2
4

()

5?

a)
A B 1 2
,RCSA1,2=RCSB1,2
,,
,
RCSA1,2=2,RCSB1,2=1,, A ,1 2
B ,1 1
, B 1 , 1 ,
1 A, A 2
, 1 B, AB ,
1 A B ,
, ,

1. 1999 :

2. :
()


3.:
,

4. 2000 :

5. : :
,,
,
:,

6.

7.:
,
,

3
4

4
Y x


X
Y X
Y x
Y Y X X
Y

new

SH
SL
SH SL D
PH PL

( 50) SA
PA PA

1.GNP:
(
,)GNP ,

2.GDP:

3.(DPI):
(
())

4.:
=/+
5.:
,,

1.
1
GDP 2

GDP GDP=
GDP/GDP GDP
2.

1.:,
:C=C(Y),,,
,
2

3:
MPC=C/Y
4:
:S=S(Y)
5

7 :


() Y=I:
()

8 :
Y=T

9:
()
l

1.(i=s)

()
AE y C I
AEC+I
YC+S AE=Y
I=S

2.
E
E=C+I1 Y C S Y=C+S2
C+I=C+S
I=S

G=G0

T0
Yd=Y- T0 C=+Yd=+YT0
C+I+G=+Y- T0+I0+G0=Y Y=-T0+I0+G0/1-

3.

G=G0

T0
Yd=Y- T0 C=+Yd=+YT0
C+I+G=+Y- T0+I0+G0=Y Y=-T0+I0+G0/1

4.
(1)
,()
Y=I/(1-),,
(
)Y=T/(1-),
,()
,1
(2)
Y=I/(1-),,
(),
(3),,
(),
,

(4): ,
,
,
,

C=200+0.8YI=50

1Y
2S
3 Y f=2000,

4k
, Y=C+I Y=200+0.8Y+50
Y=1250
S=I , S=50
Yf=2000,
, Yf=200+0.8Yf+I
I=200
k=1/(1-)=1/(1-0.8)=5

:,

, R0=R1/
(1+rC)++Rn/(1+rC)n:R0 R1Rn
rC
,

:, I=I(r)

,,
,,

IS :

, S =S(Y) I =I(r) IS
S(Y)=I(r), IS

:,,

L1(Y)
L2(r),
:L=L1(Y)+L2(r)

LM :

,,


LM :L1(Y)+L2(r)=m

L1(Y)
L2

(1)

(2)

1)

2)

(3)

L1=L1y
L2=L2y

L= L1y+L2y
L1 y L2 r
2004
C=200+0.5Y I=8005000 r, L=0.2Y-4000r, m=100.

1IS
2ISLM Y
r
800 950,

S=Y-C I=S
Y- (200+0.5Y) = 800-5000r
Y+10000r =2000 IS
m=L 100=0.2Y-4000r
Y -20000r =500 LM
, Y=1500 r=5%,

Y- (200+0.5Y)=950-5000r
Y+10000r=2300 IS
LM
r=6% Y=1700
Y=200
1/(1-


0.5)=2 150 1502=300
IS-LM

1.:,

,,,,
,;,
,,,,
,

2.:

3.:

4.:

5.

6.:

7.

8.:
D rd
M=D/rd

10 100
90 90
81
D rd

(1)

(2)


(3)
(4)

12003 :

2:,
()

3:,
,

I=I(r), S=SY L=L1Y+L2(r)


m=M/P M IS=LM

I(r)=S(Y)
L1(Y)+L2(r)=M/P

LM LM

AS

(l)

(2)

(3)

2001
1 C=1000+0.8Y I=10002000r, L=0.5Y-1000r
M=5000
IS-LM
I(r)=S(Y) L1(Y)+L2(r)=M/P

1000-2000r=Y-1000-0.8Y 0.5Y-1000r=5000/P
Y=60000+300000/P,
P=1,Y=360000 P=2,Y=210000 P=3,Y=160000,

-: 20 40

1
23
4 G=S/V
:v s

GA=GW=GN

:20 50

12
345
6:sfk=k1nk:s
k y=fkn
k1


1 :
k1
nk

k1=0

:,

, GW=s/vW

(1)(2)
(3)(4)
(5)(6)

v s

GAGw GN

GAGw

GAGw

sf(k)=k+nk,
,
:,:
,,-,
; ,,
,;
,

(1)
(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

AK

AK YAK AK

k*=sAknk c(1s)y=A(1
s)k(sAn)
(sAn)
AK s,A n (
n )

100

2004

Yt t Yf

t=te+ h(Yt-Yf)/Yf

h=0.2 10 5
1

(1)

(2)

(3)

1 18%
h=0.4, 10%
4%
t=t-1-0.4Ut,t-1
Ut 10 h=0.4 18,
1=0-0.4Ut18%
0.4*10%=14%;2= 14%0.4*10%=10%3=10%
0.4*10%=6%4= 6%0.4*10%=2%

58

sp

1999 :

)
20 70

... .
P

80
80

1)

2)

3) MV=PY y
r
M rM y

(new)?

addedmaybe
20 70 80 80

(1)

(2)

(3)
(4)

(5)