1(a) Introduction
Every organization requires good leadership in order to carry out all their projects successfully. This requires the organization to appoint efficient project managers to carry out various tasks, and of course to guide and lead the project management team and get them to a point where they have effectively completed any given project at hand, taking into account a whole load of factors. In order to understand how project management can run smoothly, it is important to first identify the role ant the tasks carried out by the project manager. So who is a project manager and why is he/she so important?

The Role of a Project Manager
The role of a project manager basically involves handling all aspects of the project. This includes not just the logistics but also the planning, brainstorming and seeing to the overall completion of the project while also preventing glitches and ensuring that the project management team works well together.

The Goals of a Project Manager
Following should be the the main goals for a project manager but they are not limited to the listed one because it very much depends on the situation.

(1) Deadlines:
A project manager must always be able to carry out his role in a very effective manner. This means that in most cases he/she would have to run against time with the clock ticking away. All projects would have deadlines, so it is the duty of a project manager to complete the project by this given date. It should be noted that although the project manager and his team may draw up a schedule at the outset that may seem perfect, as time goes on you will find that the requirements may change, and the projects may require new strategies to be implemented and more planning to be carried out. Time therefore could be a big obstacle for a project manager achieving his/her goal. As the project manager you should never lose sight of the deadline, your role would be to keep pushing your team to finish the work and deliver on time. Remember that your clients' satisfaction is your number one priority.

(2) Client Satisfaction:
Satisfaction of the client however does not mean that you rush to finish the work on time without ensuring that standards are met. The reputation of your organization would depend on the quality of the delivery of your projects. This is another factor you should not lose sight of throughout the project. Your role would also be to keep reminding the team members that quality is key.

(3) No Budget Overrun:
No project can be started off without the preparation of the budget. Although this is just a forecast of the costs that would be incurred, it is essential that this budget is prepared after careful research and comparing prices to get the best. You would need to consider ways of cutting costs while also ensuring that you meet the needs of the client as well as meeting the standards expected of your organization.

This budget must include all costs, with regard equipment, labor and everything else. You then need to try and always stick to the budget, although it's always best to leave some allowance for a few 100 dollars for any additional expenses that may arise.

(4) Requirements Coverage:
Another goal of a project manager involves meeting all requirements of the client. You would need to therefore have all specifications at hand, and go through them every once in a while to ensure that you are on track. If there is confusion as to any requirements, it would be best for you to get them cleared at the very beginning.

(5) Team Management:
While you would have to ensure that all aspects of the project are maintained, you are also responsible as project manager for the happiness of your team. You need to keep in mind that it is the incentives and encouragement provided to them that will make them work harder and want to complete the work on time, thereby helping you reach your goals. If the team members are unhappy with the way things are being carried out, productivity will also in turn decrease, pulling you further away from achieving your goals. It is essential therefore to always maintain a warm friendly relationship with them. The communication within the team should be very effective. They should be willing to voice out their opinions, while you listen to their suggestions and consider including them in the project. This is after all a team effort. Your goals with regard to the project are also their goals.

Conclusion: The role of a project manager is therefore no easy task. It involves taking up a lot of responsibility as each of the goals of the project must be met without making too many sacrifices.

If these goals are outlined to the project management team at the very beginning, there in no way for the delivery of the goals to be delayed in any way as everyone will always be aware of what they need to achieve and by when.

Q No.1(b)

Project Management - Project Life Cycle
The Project Life Cycle consists of four phases: • • • •
Define Plan Do It! Close

Note: Depending on the project management method used, the project life cycle phases may be referred to in other terms, such as: • •
Initiate, Speculate, Explore, Adapt and Close Define, Plan, Execute and Deliver

ITS uses Confluence wiki spaces as a collaboration tool throughout the life of a project and as a repository of project management (and other) information after a project closes.

The Project Office maintains a set of wiki templates/outlines which can be copied at the start a new project. The templates are updated regularly with both clarifications coming from "lessons learned" and assumption materials. At the start of a project, the wiki space is "tailored" to the work being undertaken.

To meet with a member of the PSO contact its_pso@usask.ca; we will work with you to set up the most appropriate wiki space for your project. Also, we'll ensure your project enters the ITS project system and that the PM is aware of the project management requirements that may apply to the project.

See size of projects and types of project risks to determine what templates and examples you will need to follow: basic or full. sets the groundwork for a project that will have a full business case as its result. typically no more than one or two pages. The Business Case precedes a project's definition and explains why the project is being initiated. Project management processes produce the following deliverables during the definition stage of the project life cycle: Basic Project • • • • • • Project Charter Governance Structure Communication Plan Risk Assessment Budget Plan Meeting Notes . project manager. in that situation. business process owner(s). In larger projects. Projects can be initiated to create a final business case. the completion of each software cycle deliverable provides a "gate" at which a decision to continue to the next step can be made. the steps may be combined or occur in rapid succession. Participants involved in developing the project proposal and business needs documents include the sponsor. solutions to an academic or business opportunity are evaluated and the preferred approach is defined.Define In this phase. The project team decides what they intend to produce (deliverables) and how they will know they have completed the project. a Preliminary Business Case to confirm strategic fit and business need. In smaller projects. business analyst(s) and technical architect.

Professional development requirements are discussed in terms of the skill development plan for the project during the planning. 4. training sessions are scheduled very soon after the launch. the development and project management method being used and the overall release schedule.Full Project • • • • • • • • Project Charter Governance Structure Statement of Guiding Principles Team Contract Communication Plan Risk Assessment & Management Plan Budget Plan Meeting Notes The final activity in the definition stage is launching the project. if required. 3. 2. The purpose of this stage is to develop the project management plans across the following areas: 1. A "kick-off" meeting with sponsor. The objectives are defined along with the required deliverables. 5. 6. Planning. ^ TOP ^ Plan This is the phase of the project where the concept is verified and developed into a workable plan for implementation. the principles guiding the work. Integration (Coordination. business process owners and full project staff ensures that everyone is familiar with the business need being addressed. Change Control) Scope Time (Schedule) Cost (Budget) Quality Human Resources (Staffing) .

project manager. programmer and database administrator. Project management processes produce the following deliverables during the planning stage of the project life cycle: Basic Project • • • • • Scope Statement Schedule – Basic Competitive Bids & Purchase Order Communication Bulletins Meeting Notes Full Project • • • • • • • Scope Statement Risk Assessment & Management Plan Budget Plan Procurement Plan Staffing Plan Quality Assurance Plan Plan for Managing Issues . 9. business analyst.7. technical lead. Remaining skills and personnel requirements are identified and assignment or hiring proceeds. subject matter expert. 8. Key stakeholders or representative key stakeholders are consulted and advisory committees or task groups are identified and formed. Communications Risk Procurement At this stage the core project team is formed. It includes the business process owner(s). technical architect. clerical support.

Project management processes produce the following deliverables during the execution stage of the project life cycle: Basic Project • • • • • Meeting Notes Status Reports (includes risk log) Schedules Issue Resolution Log Project Delay Log Full Project • Meeting Notes . Reviewing change requests with the project team and recommending whether they will be done within the project or not. staffing and cost constraints. schedule or budget." Monitoring the environment. Change requests may result. ensuring project priorities are understood and translated into which activities are "in progress. Project management activity during this phase involves: • • • Keeping people informed about progress of the project. anticipating problems and taking action to counter any issues affecting the project scope.• • • • ^ TOP ^ Statement of Intended Operations Organization Schedules – Full Communications Bulletins Meeting Notes Do It! This is the phase of the project where the project plan is carried out. Projects proceed in different ways depending on the required project outcomes as well as the schedule.

and examples of various documents that may be developed during a project.• • • • • Status Reports (includes risk log) Schedules Issue Resolution Log Project Delay Log Change Requests ^ TOP ^ Close The project process is completed and documented. Project management processes produce the following deliverables during the closing stage of the project life cycle: Basic Project • • Lessons Learned Closing Report Full Project • • Lessons Learned Closing Report . and the finished product is transferred to the care and control of the owner. lessons learned. The long-term objective is to build a project management repository to document best practices.

Business Case Justification. followed by a Planning phase. in which the outputs and critical success factors are defined. The project manager is appointed and in turn. Business Plan. and Milestones Reviews. The most common tools or methodologies used in the initiation stage are Project Charter. Let’s take a closer look at what’s important in each one of these stages: 1) Initiation In this first stage. Diverse project management tools and methodologies prevail in the different project cycle phases. tasks. an Execution phase. Why? Not only because each industry sector involves specific requirements. It is of great importance to organize project phases into industry-specific project cycles. Project activities must be grouped into phases because by doing so. but also because different industry sectors have different needs for life cycle management methodology. correct. There is first an Initiation or Birth phase. or terminate. any project goes through a series of stages during its life. And paying close attention to such details is the difference between doing things well and excelling as project managers. The most common tools or methodologies used in the planning stage are Business Plan and Milestones Reviews. that marks the completion of the project. It should also include a risk analysis and a definition of a criteria for the successful completion of each deliverable. Regardless of scope or complexity. characterized by breaking down the project into smaller parts/tasks. The governance process is defined. he selects the team members based on their skills and experience.Project cycle management The Project Life Cycle refers to a logical sequence of activities to accomplish the project’s goals or objectives. stake holders identified and reporting frequency and channels agreed. the scope of the project is defined along with the approach to be taken to deliver the desired outputs. the project manager and the core team can efficiently plan and organize resources for each activity. and also objectively measure achievement of goals and justify their decisions to move ahead. in which the project plan is executed.Project Life Cycle . 3) Execution and controlling . Project Framework (or Overview). 2) Planning The second phase should include a detailed identification and assignment of each task until the end of the project. and procedures when it comes to projects. and lastly a Closure or Exit phase.

rewarding the team. 4) Closure In this last stage. Then you can learn to adapt your behavior and draw from different conflict resolutions styles as-needed. production. Q2 b What are the Five Conflict Resolution Modes? When you understand how you handle conflict. The most common tools or methodologies used in the execution phase are an update of Risk Analysis and Score Cards. There are five conflict handling modes and one of these is your preferred mode. This convergence is measured by prototypes. the planned solution is implemented to solve the problem specified in the project's requirements. the project manager must ensure that the project is brought to its proper completion. a list of lessons learned. No special tool or methodology is needed during the closure phase. and support. In product and system development. in addition to Business Plan and Milestones Reviews. These five modes come from the TKI or Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. groups across the organization become more deeply involved in planning for the final testing. The closure phase is characterized by a written formal project review report containing the following components: a formal acceptance of the final product by the client. a design resulting in a specific set of product requirements is created. releasing project resources. During the execution phase. and a formal project closure notification to higher management. .The most important issue in this phase is to ensure project activities are properly executed and controlled. Weighted Critical Measurements (matching the initial requirements specified by the client with the final delivered product). testing. and reviews. As the execution phase progresses. you can begin to understand when your approach is effective and when it is not.

Q3 a . • The TKI was developed in the early 70’s by Kenneth W Thomas and Ralph H Kilmann.What is the TKI? The TKI is a questionnaire designed to measure how you tend to handle inter-personal conflict. You are not pursuing your concerns. Accommodating – The exact opposite of competing. You might be doing this for diplomatic reasons. This is expressed using five modes (which we will cover next) and two dimensions: • Assertiveness – This is the degree to which you try to satisfy your own concerns when faced with a conflict. Did any of the above resonate with you? You will find you have a preferred style but who you are dealing with will impact your style too – you might use a different style in different relationships. Now let’s take a look at the five conflict resolution modes: Competing – This mode is considered to be very assertive and very uncooperative. You might work to understand each other’s needs and perspectives so that together you can find creative solutions. both of you giving ground etc. or to wait until a better time or maybe you are withdrawing from a threatening situation. This could be self-sacrificing. Sometimes the term power-oriented is associated with this mode. Collaborating – This is assertive and cooperative and it is the opposite of avoiding. you are not pursuing the concerns of the other person. and you are not addressing the conflict. Find a mutual solution that partially satisfies both of you. using whatever power is appropriate to win his or her position. but it can also represent selfless generosity or charity or obeying orders when you would prefer not to. Although there might be some negative connotations to the way this mode is described. You attempt to work with the other person to find a solution that satisfies both your concerns. there are absolutely times when it is the best and most effective way to resolve a conflict. You give up more than you would when you are in competitive mode. there is a reason and a situation for each one of the modes. Avoiding – This is unassertive and uncooperative. but less than you would if you were accommodating. This can be an individual who pursues their beliefs at another person’s expense. Compromising – The middle ground in terms of assertiveness and cooperativeness. Remember. but your strength will come from understanding your natural inclinations and then from learning how to employ other modes when the time is right. Together you dig into the issue and identify both of your underlying concerns. accommodating is unassertive and highly cooperative. You might neglect your own concerns to satisfy the concerns of another person. It was originally developed as a research tool and has grown into a wonderful training tool. You address the issue more directly than avoiding but you don’t give it as much attention and analysis as you do with collaborating. Cooperativeness – This is the degree to which you try to satisfy the other person’s concerns when faced with a conflict. This could be splitting the difference.

a methodology developed by the U. equipment allocation in construction planning. • 5. GERTE was developed to analytically evaluate network models of linear systems through an adaptation of signal flowgraph theory. A similar methodology. judicial court system operation. • 4. quality control in manufacturing systems. assessment of job performance aids. and system reliability. burglary resistance of buildings. risk analysis in pipeline construction. commonly abbreviated PERT. • 2. research and development planning. In Q-GERT. Combine the branch functions (the network components) into an equivalent function or functions which describe the network. Q-GERT was developed. definition -PERT A PERT chart is a project management tool used to schedule. involving complex logic and queuing situations. Problem solving with the GERT (graphical evaluation and review technique) procedure utilizes the following steps: • 1. Make inferences based on the performance measures developed in step 4. PERT stands for Program Evaluation Review Technique. Convert a qualitative description of a system or problem to a generalized network similar to the critical path method—PERT type of network. GERT A procedure for the formulation and evaluation of systems using a network approach. refueling of military airlift forces. planning for contract negotiations. . effects of funding and administrative strategies on nuclear fusion power plant development. These might include either the average or variance of the time or cost to complete the network. • 3. a simulation of the network is performed in order to obtain statistical estimates of the performance measures of interest. planning and control of marketing research. and used to analyze the following situations: claims processing in an insurance company.S.Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique. and coordinate tasks within a project. developed. PERT The Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique. organize. Collect the data necessary to describe the functions ascribed to the branches of a network. GERT networks have been designed. is a network analysis technique used in project management that allows probabilistic treatment of both network logic and activity duration estimated. For nonlinear systems. the Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed for project management in the private sector at about the same time. Convert the equivalent function or functions into performance measures for studying the system or solving the problem for which the network was created. capacity of air terminal cargo facilities. Navy in the 1950s to manage the Polaris submarine missile program. production lines. commonly known as GERT. Both analytic and simulation approaches have been used to perform step 4 of the procedure. is a model for project management designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.

A PERT chart presents a graphic illustration of a project as a network diagram consisting of numbered nodes (either circles or rectangles) representing events. These tasks are called parallel or concurrent tasks. and nodes 1 and 3 are not dependent on the completion of one to start the other and can be undertaken simultaneously. 8. The tasks between nodes 1 and 2. The direction of the arrows on the lines indicates the sequence of tasks. Numbers on the opposite sides of the vectors indicate the time allotted for the task. and 10 must be completed in sequence. In the diagram. the tasks between nodes 1. the dashed arrow linking nodes 6 and 9 indicates that the system files must be converted before the user test can take place. The PERT chart is sometimes preferred over the Gantt chart. but that the resources and time required to prepare for the user test (writing the user manual and user training) are on another path. These are called dependent or serial tasks. On the other hand. . for example. 4. For example. These are represented by dotted lines with arrows and are called dummy activities. or milestones in the project linked by labelledvectors (directional lines) representing tasks in the project. another popular project management charting method. because it clearly illustrates task dependencies. Tasks that must be completed in sequence but that don't require resources or completion time are considered to have event dependency. 2.

the PERT chart can be much more difficult to interpret. LOW-COST BASIS FOR YOUR COMPANY’S METHODOLOGY PROJECT PHASES AND THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE Project Manageme nt Internation al Project Manageme nt Commissio n ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES It is important to have a defined formal structure for the project and for the project staff. What is PERT? PERT is also known as the Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique. one-time infrastructure and Research and Development projects where the time factor holds greater relevance than the inherent costs. The roles and responsibilities of project STAKEHOLDERS . Frequently. For those who wish to know what is PERT. PERT looks into analyzing the different tasks which are included in a project in order to estimate the time frames needed to complete each one. have ownership and buy-in to the project plan. it is a project management model which basically works towards analysis and representation of the tasks that are a part of any given project. As a result PERT tends to be heavily used in large-scale. be participants (at some level) in the planning process. A successful project requires that the project team have the authority to complete a project. and proves to be a valuable tool to reduce the redundancy in projects which involve multi-tasking. Project team members need to be accountable for the effective performance of their assignments and achievement of the project goals and objectives. This in turn enables a project manager to determine the minimum time requirements for the entire project management life cycle to be completed. project managers use both techniques. and be PROJECT PHASES AND THE responsible and accountable for completion PROJECT LIFE CYCLE of the project. especially on complex projects. Home > Main Sections Home Printable version Pages PROJECT MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION TO PM WHAT IS A PROJECT? WHAT IS A PROJECT FOR? WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT? WHAT IS PMTOP WHAT IS PRINCE 2 PRINCE 2 ISO 9000:2000 OVERVIEW OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY AND METHODOLOGY USE IT AS THE PROVEN. More specifically. This provides each individual with a clear understanding of the authority given and responsibility necessary for the successful accomplishment of project activities.

however. and contribute to the scope. ▲ On smaller projects. clarify. ultimately. The identification and input of stakeholders help to define. ▲ Tasking and individual responsibilities are often covered in the Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) as activity assignments are defined during the planning phase. the project management team needs to identify stakeholders early in the project. who define business needs. timing. goals and objectives of the project as well as defining the policies and procedures governing the project ▲ The Project Manager. the success of the project.participants will vary. The Project Team and Stakeholders A project team includes a diverse combination of people and skills who share the responsibility for accomplishing project goals. cost. Stakeholders on every project include: ▲ Organizational Management. determine their needs and expectations. who has ultimate responsibility for project ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE SOCIAL-ECONOMICENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES MAKING PROJECTS WORK CONCEPT DEFINITION CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM DESIGN AND PROTOTYPE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM OPERATION ABOUT THIS IPMC EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SUMMARY OF PMMeeting The Mission It’s why you’re here Align the Project Mission with the Agency’s Mission What is your agency’s mission? What is the relatKnow the Project Stakeholders A strong project mission can not be created in a vacuum. Stakeholders are individuals and organizations who have a vested interest in the success of the project. the following is a good “rule of thumb” perspective: ▲ On a large project. Typically these assignments are shorter term and exist only to the completion of the activity deliverable. change. and manage and influence those expectations over the course of the project. To ensure project success. with staff sharing in the execution of multiple functions. The requirements placed on participants will be determined and defined during the project planning process phase. Who are the people with an interest in the outcome of the project? What aAmplify the Voices of Your Customers Who will be paying for this project? Who will actually be using the systems and processes being designed? Clarify the business priorities of . quality and. role assignments may be performed part-time. individual role assignments may require full-time attention to the function. drive.

success ▲ The Project Team members. assessment of project risk. A clear definition of business . Do this for customers inside the organization as welMaintain High-Level Communication About the Project Mission Communicate steadily with stakeholders and customers throughout the project. ▲ The Customer. enabling the resource staffing. Periodically check to see that stakeholders and customers understand and support changes. They are also responsible for establishing the strategic plans and for validating that projects are consistent with customer and organizational requirements. delays. please see Appendix I for more information on the duties of the ISO. Strategies What do you want to accomplish?Set Realistic Business Objectives What are the common business needs of the organizations that will depend on the system? What accomplishments will be critical for the project to be considered successful? Define project boundaries at the outset. Design project development so that requirements and expectations can be reconfirmed at regular junctures. This will help to manage their expectations and requirements over time. Management provides close oversight for high risk or high cost projects. ■ Leaders/decision makers ▲ The Project Sponsor. and use this definition to manage requirements throughout the project. and new developments. who is the person(s) or organization(s) using the product of the project and who determines the acceptance criteria for the product Organizational Management Organizational Management is responsible for the identification of the need and opportunity for a project. who are responsible for managing the performance of the project work activities. who leads in getting the need for the project recognized as well as providing funding. Management Roles and Responsibilities General Functions ▲ Provide leadership and resources to establish and improve project management ▲ Ensure that sufficient resources are available to conduct projects ▲ Review/approve commitments to these customers and their criteria for success. Actively and emphatically communicate this information. and certifying the security of IT applications. and the approval of the project’s feasibility and resources. These could include: ■ Project management staff ■ Business development staff ■ Subject Matter Experts (SME) ■ Documentation (user and technical) staff ■ Training staff ■ Technical staff ■ Information Security Officer (ISO).

external entities (e.Implement Systems Incrementally Work toward a systems implementation that will deliver. and the technical architecture. risk and establish management reserves ▲ Provide management oversight as predicated by review of the project risk analysis. as required ▲ Project Close-out ▲ Validate project completion (goals & objectives) ▲ Verify customer and sponsor acceptance ▲ Review and close project accounting/financial files ▲ Review project lessons learned and post project reports for continuous improvement action Project Sponsor / Business Sponsor The Project Sponsor is usually a member of the management team who will be the recipient of the project’s end result (the success will also help ensure that project efforts support the agency’s strategic plan. cost. useable levels of functionality which support specific business objectives. cost. These should be anchored in an enterprise-wide IT strategy.g. risk response planning and project plan ▲ Enable project staff availability Project Execution ▲ Regularly conduct executive management reviews and provide oversight Project Control ▲ Review project status and corrective action plans (if required) ▲ Review/Approve changes affecting scope. The detailed concept of operations should explain how the architecture will satisfy these objectives and how it will prioritize them. Coordinate Technical Standards Which standards are essential to . in twelve months or less. vendors) ▲ Ensure staff is properly trained in project management techniques and principles Project Initiation ▲ Select Project Manager and assist in project team staffing ▲ Review/validate/approve project charter ▲ Authorize and provide funding Project Planning ▲ Verify that project goals and objectives are defined ▲ Review/approve project plan. customers. the layout and relationship of systems and communications. timing. Define a Sound Architecture Drive Toward an Enterprise-Wide Business Model Ensure that the business model meets business objectives while remaining within the project’s scope.. and/or quality. Publish a detailed concept of operations which distinguishes clearly among the business model. It should also communicate responsibilities for implementing and managing the architecture. incremental.

This will ensure that the project meets expected results. manage the project scope carefully. The Project Sponsor is typically the head of a program area. paying particularly close attention to technical interfaces. Develop a plan to ensure compliance with architecture standards. Many organizations have directives such as Information Technology Security Certification and Accreditation which identifies security related responsibilities for the System Owner. People Understand the project participantsOrganizational Leadership Listen to the Customer and Create a Vision The project sponsor . stakeholders and project participants.product). Over time. Sponsor Roles and Responsibilities General Functions ▲ Articulate project and/or customer requirements ▲ Validate that project requirements are met ▲ Provide the necessary funding and resources as appropriate ▲ Champion the project to provide exposure and buy-in ▲ Communicate the sponsor’s views on project progress and success factors to the project team and other stakeholders Project Initiation ▲ Provide the strategic goals and objectives of the recipient organization and guidance to the project team to identify the relevance and value of the project ▲ Develop project concept document ▲ Define sponsor and organizations needs ▲ Obtain or provides funding for the project ▲ Document requirements Project Planning ▲ Review and approve the Project Management Plan and management approach ▲ Participate in planning sessions Project Execution ▲ Attend executive requirement reviews ensure that the technical architecture ultimately supports business objectives? Define these. This will also help align the project with the organization’s business plans and supporting IT plans. The technical architecture must be documented to ensure its consistency with the overall agency-level design. Please see Appendix I for more information on Certification and Accreditation. Secure an informed agreement up front. Gain Agreement on the Project Plan The project plan formally captures and documents agreements among customers. since there will be a tendency for different areas of the project to acquire their own divergent momentum. controls the overall funding of the project and defines the acceptance criteria of the product. and maintain this agreement throughout the project life. This individual makes the business argument for the project to exist.

For example. translating key customer expectations into a practical vision for the project. within this document the two terms and concepts are separate and distinct. Commit to the Project The most frequent cause of project failure is the lack of involvement of the organizational leaders. staff. removes barriers and obstacles to the project ▲ Provide written agreement to project requirements and qualifying criteria Project Control ▲ Attend and participate as needed at Project Status Reviews and steering meetings ▲ Attend change control meetings and reviews and approves change in scope. Programs generally support strategic goals and objectives. Program Manager Roles and Responsibilities General Functions ▲ Plan. direct.▲ Resolve escalated project requirements issues. timing. Ongoing involvement is crucial. a centralized approach to IT management could bring about unnecessary conflict. in an organization in which field offices have a great deal of autonomy. The program manager has responsibility for the management of a series of related projects and the management of the corresponding Project Managers. Leadership commitment stabilizes the project so that it can accommodate changes over time. Leverage the Existing Organizational Structure The roles and responsibilities of the project and its partners are most effective when they correspond with the way in which the overall agency is managed. cost and quality efficiencies not available to individual projects. schedule. quality manages high-level customer relationships. quality and/or cost as impacted Project Close-out ▲ Provide representation or input to lessons learned reviews ▲ Sign off on project completion Program Manager The terms “program” and “project” management are often used interchangeably. control and coordinate ▲ Recommend composition of own program team ▲ Own and guide the program ▲ Reward and recognize performance ▲ Is accountable for cost. To be effective. However. this vision must be broadly communicated. Program management is defined as a group or series of related projects and ongoing systems/applications managed in a coordinated way to achieve resource.Empower the CIO The Chief Information Officer (CIO) position requires extraordinary . organize. while projects may be more targeted in focus. It is critical to structure the project in such a way that go/no-go decisions may be made at highly visible milestones.

Leverage the centralized technical authority to reduce redundancy across different organizational units. Sharing. Establish complementary managerial and technical structures to provide . risk and establish management reserves ▲ Provide guidance in cost and schedule development ▲ Ensure project staff availability ▲ Conduct routine program planning sessions as defined by individual’s organization Project Execution ▲ Conduct regular scheduled project reviews qualifications in both IT management skills and general management skills. Enable them to share systems and data. Ensure that business objectives take precedence over technological advances. and other commonly needed resources. cost. Project Initiation ▲ Assign Project Manager and assist in project team staffing ▲ Review/validate/concur in project charter ▲ Validates and communicates individual project objectives Project Planning ▲ Verify that project goals and objectives are defined ▲ Verify that project is aligned with the strategic goals of the program ▲ Review/concur with project plan. Bring realistic synergy to IT strategy by focusing disparate IT activities on their contribution to the organization’s mission. approaches. Coordinate a coherent strategy for commercial off-the-shelf software.Support.and scope ▲ Resolve any outstanding issues among the project teams that cannot be resolved within the team ▲ Is responsible for overall resource allocation for Project Managers assigned to the program ▲ Maintain ongoing communication with the project managers from the program management level perspective ▲ Communicate project status to fellow program managers ▲ Ensure IT applications are developed consistently with the software development life cycle ▲ Ensure projects are managed in accordance with the recommendations for project management as outlined in the Project Management Guide ▲ Ensure that IT security certification and accreditation (C&A) requirements are met. Direct architectural compliance across the enterprise. The CIO focuses on three things: Synergy. Create a formal strategic IT plan that reflects business priorities. The CIO needs authority and visibility to guide the organization in key decisions. Seek to make the enterprise technologically seamless. as well as IT training.

Clarify the risks which the project manager is expected to manage strategically. Is the project manager able to communicate clearly and convincingly to all parties? Experience. cost.Project Control ▲ Review project status and corrective action plans (if required) ▲ Review. The Project Manager should be assigned as early as possible in the life cycle of the project in order to establish project ownership and management responsibility as well as to begin the development of the project requirements from the “ground up. At a minimum. and provide training where required ▲ Establish and maintain project quality support for critical enterprise functions. as required ▲ Prioritize any changes to project scope Project Close-out ▲ Review whether stated improvements or benefits were realized from the project ▲ Assure customer and sponsor acceptance is obtained ▲ Review and concur in project accounting/financial file closeout documents ▲ Review project lessons learned and post project reports for continuous improvement action Project Manager The MPM Master Project Manager has overall project responsibility. Can the project manager get key individuals to work together towards common ends? Ability to Take Risks. and even more difficult to find. concur and participate in milestone review briefings ▲ Review/concur in changes affecting scope. and/or quality. within budget. Do this in a way that provides different organizational units with the flexibility they require. Does the project manager have a track record of success? Look for characteristics . "Leadership ability" is difficult to articulate. timing. the Project Manager should work closely with the Sponsor with respect to staffing requirements and funding availability. Does the project manager have a strong desire to succeed? Ability to Build Consensus. In order to achieve success. and clearly distinguish this role from functional program management roles. and meeting the quality criteria and requirements. The Project Manager is responsible for completing the project on time. it includes the following characteristics: Drive.Project Leadership Select a Strong Project Manager Empower a central point of responsibility for project decisions. Can the project manager recognize opportunities and find ways to seize them? Ability to Communicate.” Project Manager Roles and Responsibilities General Functions ▲ Comprehend and implement organizational project policies and procedures ▲ Maintain project staff technical proficiency and productivity.

schedule. contracting officer and contractor. Does the project manager possess demonstrated knowledge in the appropriate technical fields? Sense of the Big Picture. constraints. Stress the importance of accountability by systematically introducing . schedule. The project needs a "truth culture" – let the messenger live. Create a learning environment which attracts individual skills to the table. cost estimates and project budget. Does the project manager understand the project from a broad business perspective?Enable a Cooperative Environment Nurture cooperation among members of the leadership. assumptions. functional program manager. acquisition/procurement plans. quality. Ensure Accountability The project manager is responsible for results. project manager.▲ Identify and procure project infrastructure needs ▲ Develop Project Charter and obtain approval ▲ Define project goals. resource. WBS defining project deliverables. Actively encourage team members to innovate by rewarding judicious risk-taking. objectives and success criteria ▲ Identify and document project constraints ▲ Identify and document project assumptions ▲ Identify and secure project team resources ▲ Serve as focal point for project communications ▲ Develop and present Milestone review briefings ▲ Ensure that IT security C&A requirements are met Project Planning ▲ Develop Project Plan. timing and quality ▲ Establish baseline ▲ Translate documented requirements and experiences that relate directly to the project at hand. major milestones. procurement and change management plans ▲ Obtain stakeholder approval and acceptance of the Project Plan ▲ Obtain organizational commitment and support for completion of project task assignments. ▲ Develop the supporting plans such as scope. Scope Statement. risk. resource requirements. Technical Knowledge. security deliverables. Successful project managers actively encourage team members to make minor challenges known before they become major problems. risk analysis and response plans. cost. tailoring the IPMCS to reflect project needs. The Project Plan should include the Project Charter. including the project sponsor. project team structure and communications plan. Also included will be the deliverables acceptance criteria (quality metrics) and the acceptance process.

or support. Balance the mix of management and technical expertise.into appropriate SDLC documentation (e. cost or quality after obtaining customer approval Project Close-out ▲ Obtain customer and management approval and acceptance of completed product ▲ Complete contract closeout ▲ Closeout open action items ▲ Develop post-implementation report ▲ Conduct lessons learned session and constructive criticism into current practices. Make use of consultants to leverage the team’s capabilities. Distinguish between critical strategic activities and tactical activities. Regularly review project status. One recommended technique is to outsource for independent validation and verification (IV&V) support. There may be a need to outsource for additional skills to round out the team. Another technique is to create an anonymous channel for reporting problems. schedule or quality) ▲ Participate in change control board to review and approve product/project changes ▲ Review project risks and establish risk response plans ▲ Adjust project planning. procurement process and contract administration requirements Project Control ▲ Develop and distribute project performance reports. The project should include the project manager. as required. Keep the Core Team Together Maintain a commitment to the integrity of the core team. cost. timing. evaluating performance criteria (scope. It is critical for the executive leadership to listen to IV&V advice. the . then get the additional expertise needed. Project Team Members Get What’s Needed to Succeed What are the competencies of the team? How does the staffing plan distribute these competencies against project tasks? Assess the team’s particular strengths.. schedule & quality) ▲ Develop and manage corrective action plans ▲ Evaluate project performance and initiate change requests as required (scope. to include approved changes in scope. requirements document) Project Execution ▲ Manage and monitor day-to-day activity and provide direction to team members and supporting organizations ▲ Manage to and monitor quality targets and goals (both project and product) ▲ Manage and monitor risk response strategies ▲ Disseminate project information and maintain communication ▲ Develop and update system security plan and other security deliverables ▲ Manage. cost. and the mix of contractor and government personnel.g.

as required. including standards and architecture. how should different business objectives be . may assist the Project Manager with planning the project (ex. schedule and quality requirements ▲ Support project planning and control ▲ Participate in identifying. From the customer’s point of view. mitigating.develop recommendations for continuous improvement ▲ Close out any financial accounts or charge codes ▲ Archive all project data ▲ Recognize project team and celebrate success Project Team The Project Team is responsible for performing the project activities. Project Team Roles and Responsibilities General Functions ▲ Identify product alternatives ▲ Complete the project within budgeted cost. scope and WBS) and they may also assist with obtaining commitments to complete the project within established schedule and budget constraints. Monitor Team Productivity How does the level of effort contribute to project deliverables and results? How is the team progressing against the project plan? Perform periodic cost-benefit analyses and life cycle cost estimates. This information will be needed for go/no-go decisions at major project and contract milestones. Institute and follow a formal plan for skills training and career development. Align the competencies of team members with the longterm needs of the project. completeness and consistency Project Planning ▲ Develop technical approach ▲ Participate in the development of the project plan ▲ Identify tools needed for project ▲ Identify staff training needs Project Execution ▲ Create product and process solutions ▲ Conduct or participate in internal and functional program manager. the contracting officer and other key players from project conceptualization through implementation. and monitoring project risks Project Initiation ▲ Provide estimates for product deliverables ▲ Review customer requirements for feasibility and available resources ▲ Analyze requirements for clarity (unambiguous). Processes Making it happen Planning Define Success Up Front Define project success in terms of specific business objectives. Project Team members. Develop Competencies Over Time Invest in building competencies in key people. Empower a central point of responsibility for technical decisions. Customers and/or stakeholders should interact with the Project Team to ensure that requirements are properly understood and implemented.

The CIO can help anchor project plans in the organization’s business and IT plans. cost. barriers or unanticipated risk events Project Control ▲ Track the project execution effort and submit status reports (scope. Gain agreement on critical metrics and use them to drive planning and delivery. Integrate Planning Activities Across the Project Formalize planning processes.Risks. If the project encounters significant changes. Assign roles and responsibilities specifically for planningrelated activities. external or both. then the original plans will have to be realigned to ensure desired results. on cost and on quality result ▲ Identify any project roadblocks.external reviews ▲ Provide quality assurance support ▲ Manage work effort to maintain on time. Managing Technology Choose an Appropriate Development Model Base selection of a development model on careful consideration of four factors: Costs. and schedule) ▲ Maintain project and product quality requirements ▲ Identify and react to risk events as they are identified or occur ▲ Participate in change control reviews Project Close-out ▲ Participate in lessons learned sessions ▲ Identify ways to improve project processes or products (continuous improvement) ▲ Turnover all project related documentation to the Project Manager for archiving Customer A Customer is responsible for communicating project needs and verifying that requirements have been met at project completion. Consider how . Consider various development alternatives and estimate how they might contribute to project costs. Prioritize the metrics for which project participants will be held responsible. A Customer may be internal.Realign Plans Over Time How will plans need to be modified along the way? Make sure project plans continue to support intended business priorities. Customer Roles and Responsibilities General Functions ▲ Articulate customer requirements ▲ Validate that project requirements are met ▲ Support and conduct staff training programs as required to make certain that the staff is “ready to accept” the new product ▲ Be proponents of the new product to the customer organization Project Initiation ▲ Clearly define customer needs and requirements to the Project Manager and project team Project Planning prioritized? Use Metrics to Focus On Outcomes Focus on outcomes rather than outputs.

Results from business process reengineering. Consider the project to be complex if it:Affects many organizations or functional areas. Long. dramatically altering the use of information technology.▲ Review and approve project plan ▲ Attend and participate in project requirement reviews ▲ Assign customer personnel as project points of contact ▲ Provide written agreement on requirements and qualifying criteria ▲ Provide input into deployment planning Project Execution ▲ Review project status reports ▲ Provide project support infrastructure as required Project Control ▲ Participate with project team developing corrective action plans addressing variances in time. Different projects require different degrees of rigidity in the sequencing of their phases. Requires a long time for development. Type. time. cost or quality Project Close-out ▲ Provide representation or input to lessons learned reviews much risk the project faces due to: High visibility due to public or political attention or requirements Highly compressed development time High uncertainty associated with the system’s requirements. the technology that the system will employ. Requires new or rapidly advancing technology. Consider the general type of the project:A new development A modification of an existing system A system integration Select an Appropriate Life Cycle The life cycle provides an organizing structure with which to align project objectives with appropriate technologies and resources. cost or quality ▲ Communicate identified issues associated with project performance or product ▲ Validate quality assurance of deliverables ▲ Participate in change control process ▲ Review and approve or escalate project changes affecting scope. or the way that the system will affect business processes Complexity. complex .

Rethink existing processes instead of simply "paving the cowpaths. Know The Limits of Automation Don’t simply automate existing processes.Deal with Shifting Priorities Business needs may change. All requirements must be formally managed.projects intended to modify familiar systems typically yield to more rigid sequencing. On the other hand. Encourage project participants to address . use consultants to facilitate business process reengineering (BPR) and information modeling prior to defining requirements." If your agency lacks the skills. Address downstream changes in the life cycle through systematic risk assessment. Establish a set of key progress indicators and make them visible to all project participants. less rigid sequencing may be required to achieve a series of innovations under conditions of high uncertainty.Make Progress Visible to All Project participants need a clear idea of how well the project plan is working. Leverage Expertise in Established Management Areas Managing Inputs.

Graphically display the work to be accomplished. Use formal risk management techniques to anticipate and mitigate project risks. Identify frequent milestones with a defined set of measurable pass/fail performance criteria. Offer high incentives (18 . This enables you to measure earned .Managing Outcomes. Structure related contracts so that they reflect the same units. granularity.20%) to inhouse staff.evolving technical priorities with appropriate resources. employ contract incentives to deliver the desired results in accordance with the projected cost and schedule. Controlling Tasks Put Meaning in the Metrics Define requirements so that they may be thoroughly tested and validated at the unit and systems level of granularity.Managing Activities. Update the display periodically to reflect reality. Use scope management techniques such as a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to organize project activities and tasks. Encourage all staff to identify potentially problematic outcomes. and milestones. For example.

One reviewed project was situated within an agency which had recently undergone major budget reductions and . routine progress reports can be structured to capture and highlight exceptions from anticipated progress. periodically review actual project expenditures and compare them to the projected budget. These criteria should comply with a preestablished test plan. Controlling Outcomes. Leverage Expertise in Control Areas Controlling Inputs.Controlling Activities. The implications of changes along the way can be understood and incorporated while driving toward the desired result. Use configuration management processes to ensure the project is building what the customer wants. Conduct life-cycle cost analysis to evaluate the impact of design implementation alternatives throughout the project. For example. For example. Use agreed upon plans to control the resources applied to the project. Standardize processes which deal with the most routine activities.value throughout the contract life.

large-scale structural changes. Because senior management was unclear about customer expectations. The commission recommended that the agency work with customers to accelerate development of a new strategic plan. Though initially disorienting. leading to a significantly improved outlook for project success. One reviewed project reversed its declining fortunes by making substantial revisions to project requirements several years into the project. the agency had been unable to articulate a clear strategic view of the project and its role in the new environment. Customers had insufficient information to guide them in improving work processes. this reduction did much to stabilize the project. and that it publish a concept of operations to communicate how the system would operate in future years. leading to large but necessary reductions in both scope and requirements. Project leaders had conducted an evaluation of requirements. The Commission encountered .

The architecture should provide a focal point for project definition and clarity." This led to conflicting expectations when information about the architecture was disseminated among project participants. and there were insufficient technical resources involved in crucial technology decision-making. The project had come to rely heavily upon the functional program knowledge of the technical contractor. had yet to define an architecture. ambiguity surrounding this fundamental concept may be a clue that your architecture requires attention. and generally strengthen the role of contract management. monitor product delivery.a project which. Upon closer inspection. The Commission recommended that the organization establish technical requirements for deliverables. One Commission-reviewed project exhibited a number of inconsistencies in its use of the term "architecture. after eight years of planning. the . Indeed. define modular delivery of specified interim products.

The centralized organization running the project simply did not have the resources or the authority to provide an enterprise-wide solution to all of its widely distributed lines of business.Commission found that the architecture required broad realignment with the organization’s strategic plan and budget. Among other things. The ClingerCohen Act identifies four . but was having great difficulty prioritizing these needs. the Commission noted the need to establish an agency-level CIO who could focus the project architecture on the most critical common needs of the different lines of business. It turned out that no single individual was accountable for providing such leadership. One Commission-reviewed project had negligible high-level involvement on the part of its organizational leadership. Among other recommendations.The Commission encountered one project which had clearly identified the information needs of key stakeholders. this explained the absence of a formal planning process and clear business objectives.

Capital Planning· IT Performance Assessment· Capital Planning and Investment Assessment3. Change Management4. Managerial/Technical· Professional Development and Training· IT Topics· IT TrendsProject leadership does not simply appear. the development of project management leadership competencies remains a difficult but worthwhile challenge. One Commission-reviewed project exhibited no partnership among functional program leaders.core competency areas for CIO’s: 1. Though many aspects of project management may be reduced to defined processes. it must be nurtured. those with the greatest chance for success were those which sought to grow and develop leadership competencies over the long run. IT managers and contract managers. Among all of the projects reviewed by the Commission. Federal Information Resources Management · Policy and Organizational Knowledge· Information Resources Strategy and Planning· IT Acquisition2. Significant confusion .

critical analysis of functional requirements was seriously lacking. concentrating on the addition of technical expertise in computer software and systems. The Commission recommended that the project not only clarify the respective roles of project team members.resulted among both contractor and agency employees as to who made key decisions. but that it reorganize its executive steering committee to make it truly accountable for all final project decisions. The Commission recommended that the management team take all possible actions to expand its staff. In the majority of reviews it has conducted. the Commission has recommended that organizations immediately establish a process for independent validation and verification and that executives explicitly consider IV&V recommendations when making decisions. In the absence of cooperative leadership. The Commission also . One Commission-reviewed project found a significant shortage of staff on the agency management team.

recommended that contract personnel be more effectively used to provide project management support One Commission-reviewed project revealed a clear need to integrate IT planning across various organizational units involved in the project. A new business concept of operations required that IT processes be realigned to meet evolving demands. The Commission recommended that the organization use experts in BPR and information modeling to facilitate the necessary process analysis and redesign One agency requested the Commission review its enterprise-wide architecture.One Commission-reviewed project faced serious risk of failure due to recent major shifts in the agency’s mission. If . The agency appeared to lack a structured process for testing products within the architecture before placing them into use. The Commission recommended a centralized test bed which would enable the agency to simulate new functionalities and assess them before placing them into service.

and that it would need to balance the risk between the agency and the contractor.carried out according to the original plan. the project would simply have automated certain processes which no longer made sense in the new environment. and retain consultants to facilitate high-level process redesign. The Commission recommended that the organization cease development of certain sub-systems. the Commission recommended that the agency tie progress payments to accomplishment of specific milestones. it noted that the agency would need to consider more thoroughly the different risks entailed by the new contract incentives. While the Commission concluded that this was an appropriate step.The Commission reviewed one project which had recently negotiated movement from a cost reimbursement contract to a fixed price contract. For example.One recently redesigned project lacked test and acceptance procedures for a large set of new technical .

in order to ensure an acceptable level of functionality.requirements. The Commission recommended the establishment of configuration management baselines as well as cost and schedule baselines. and frozen. MPM MASTER PROJECT MANAGER – CORE REQUIREMENTS Module One: Project InitiationDefinition of ITFederal Statutes & GuidanceProject Management FrameworkMission NeedsProject CharterProject Requirements ManagementAcquisition ManagementProject Kickoff Module Two: Project Planning and Control -Part AScope Management . The Commission reviewed a project whose software development process was in a perpetual state of change. The Commission recommended that the agency establish test and acceptance procedures at frequent milestones consistent with the project’s work breakdown structure. It further recommended that the requirements be rebaselined.

Schedule & PerformanceScope ManagementWork Breakdown Structure (WBS)Earned Value Management (EVM)Communication PlanningRisk ManagementEnterprise Architecture/ Section 508Control Review ProcessEvaluate PhasePost . Cost.Schedule Development Work Breakdown Structure Cost Plan . and eGov PlansProject Plan Acquisition Plan and StrategyControl PhaseProject Planning. EA.Estimating Performance Measurement Earned Value Module Three: Project Planning and Control -Part B Risk ManagementQuality ManagementCommunicati on ManagementHuman Resources ManagementProcurement Management Module Four: Capital Planning and Investment ControlCapital Planning and Investment Control Process Overview Pre-Select PhaseProject SponsorMission AnalysisPreliminary Business CaseInvestment Review Package Select PhaseFunctional RequirementsFeasibility StudyRisk ProfileFinancial ProfileTechnological ProfileSecurity.

ImplementationReview Validate/update CBASystem PerformanceSteady StateUser/Customer AssessmentOperation and Maintenance Review Records ManagementModule Five: Master Project Manager and Certified International Project Manager Certification Exam PreparationWhat is Master Project Manager (MPM) and (CIPM) Certification:MPM Certification is a globally recognized and respected credential. and therefore requires a valid level of understanding and professional knowledge of Project Management.org for a more detailed list of MPM Certification Requirements. .certifiedprojectmana ger. With Bachelors Degree: 36 (within prior 6 years) Without Degree: 60 (within prior 8 years) Contact Hours: Contact Hours of PM education: 35 Maintain Professional Development: Professional Development Units (PDE): 60+ (within a 3 year period) Please see www. Following is an overview of the MPM Certification requirements: Experience (consecutive months): With Masters: 12 Months.


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