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3, MARCH 2001 87

with Large Delay Spread

Nicholas D. Sidiropoulos and Goran Z. Dimić

Abstract—A two-stage blind multiuser antenna array detector for all , , and , where

is proposed for the uplink of a wideband CDMA system subject is the complex attenuation coefficient between antenna

to large delay spread. It is shown that it is possible to identify the and user , is the th symbol transmitted from user , and

symbols of all users without knowledge of their codes, channels,

or directions. The key idea is that low-rank decomposition of the is the th chip of the spreading code of user . Equation

three-dimensional (3-D) received data array can reduce the FIR (1) constitutes a rank- decomposition of the 3-D

multiple-input multiple-output (FIR-MIMO) CDMA problem into (also known as three-way) received data array with typical el-

standard FIR single-input multiple-output (FIR-SIMO) problems. ement , with each user contributing a rank-one three-way

Index Terms—Antenna arrays, code division multiaccess, matrix component. Define matrices , , and , with typical elements

decomposition, signal detection. , , and , respectively. Given , the model in (1) is

unique provided that 2 2, where is the

k-rank of . The -rank of is the maximum number of lin-

I. INTRODUCTION

early independent columns that can be drawn from in an ar-

multiuser detection for the uplink of a DS-CDMA system

employing a base station antenna array can be cast as a low-rank

bitrary fashion [2], [4]. This is the basis of the PARAllel FACtor

(PARAFAC) approach in [4], which also explains how to treat

the quasisynchronous case with small delay spread.

decomposition of a three-dimensional (3-D) received data array

[4]. The approach allows joint recovery of all user signals

II. W-CDMA WITH LARGE DELAY SPREAD

with guaranteed identifiability without requiring knowledge

of codes, channels, or steering vectors. The results of [4] are If the propagation environment is characterized by multipath

applicable for delay spread less than the symbol duration, that is local to the mobile, then multipath manifests primarily

i.e., in the order of several chips. In this letter, we consider as temporal echoes (delay spread) but not spatial echoes (angle

wideband CDMA systems with delay spread that spans several spread). If the maximum delay spread is symbols, then the

symbols. We show that it is still possible to identify the symbols model in (1) becomes

of all users (albeit under stronger conditions), and propose a

blind multiuser detector that achieves symbol recovery in two

stages. The first stage performs low-rank decomposition of (2)

the 3-D received data array, thereby reducing the FIR-MIMO

CDMA problem into several independent FIR-SIMO problems,

one per user. The second stage solves the FIR-SIMO problem , , , where

for each user. is the convolution of the spreading code of

In [4], the uplink of a symbol-periodic DS-CDMA system user with the respective multipath channel, evaluated at lag

consisting of users with spreading gain of chips/symbol . The array response matrix associated to the model

is considered. The baseband outputs of receive antennas are in (2) is

sampled at the chip rate, and data are collected for a total of

symbol periods. Let us temporarily consider a noiseless syn-

chronous model with no delay spread. The output of the th an-

tenna for symbol and chip is (3)

Q times Q times

(1)

where . The corresponding signal and

effective code matrices and are

Manuscript received June 16, 2000. The associate editor coordinating the re-

view of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Prof. Y. Hua. This

work was supported in part by NSF/CAREER CCR-9733540 and NSF/Wireless

IT&Networks CCR-9979295.

.. ..

. .

The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engi- (4)

neering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA (e-mail:

nikos@ece.umn.edu; goran@ece.umn.edu).

Publisher Item Identifier S 1070-9908(01)01955-1. Q shifts

1070–9908/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE

88 IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2001

.. .. following thus applies.

. . Result 1: Partial Uniqueness for 2: If ,

(5)

, , and are full rank, contains no zeros, and the

Q columns steering vectors for different users are nonproportional, then

1) the steering vectors in are unique up to scaling, and 2)

Notice that consists of buckets of identical columns each, span , , span [where

hence, 1 and therefore, the basic identifiability result of is the th column of in (4)], and span , ,

[4] fails. However, generates a model that is a special span [where is the th column of

case of the so-called parallel factors with linear dependencies in (5)] are unique.

(PARALIND) class of models, which exhibit partial uniqueness Remark 1: Different delay spreads for the different users

[1]. In our present context, consider the case of snap- can in principle be accommodated, since all-zero columns in

shots, spreading gain , and 2 antennas. Suppose strike out the respective columns of and effectively re-

that contains no zeros, and the steering vectors for different duce model order, provided that the reduced model is full rank.

users are nonproportional. The data in (2) admit the following The delay spreads can in principle be determined by clustering

factorization eigenvalues, although this will likely be problematic in low SNR

situations.

(6)

where is a diagonal matrix that holds the th row of in its III. LEAST SQUARES FITTING

diagonal. Define , and absorb the first diagonal The trilinear alternating least squares (ALS) algorithm de-

into scribed in [4] can be modified [5] to fit (or refine eigenvalue

estimates of) the model in (2), under the explicit constraint that

(7)

citation/independence conditions), then the singular value de-

composition of the stacked data yields

.. .. .. ..

. . . .

(8)

where and .

being full column rank assures that .

This serves to ensure that buckets of columns corresponding to

Hence, there exists a nonsingular matrix such that

the same steering vector are jointly recovered.

Construct matrices According to our results in Section II, eigenanalysis will un-

ravel the transmissions, and provide us with

(10) (12)

where . is square nonsingular ( is full for each user , where is a Toeplitz matrix con-

column rank) and so are and . It then follows from (10) structed out of the symbols emitted from user [see (4)], and

that is a full-rank matrix. Due to the Toeplitz struc-

ture of , (12) corresponds to a single-input, multiple-output

(11) (SIMO) multichannel convolution (see also [5]). This structure

allows recovery of user symbols from , provided cer-

which is a standard eigenvalue problem. Due to the structure

tain relatively mild technical conditions hold, e.g., cf. [3], [6].

of , there exist distinct eigenvalues of multiplicity

In particular, the columns of can be viewed as holding

each. These are uniquely determined by solving the eigenvalue

the impulse response coefficients of equivalent FIR measure-

problem and hence, the steering vectors in are unique

ment channels of length samples each. Hence, our result turns

up to scaling. For each distinct eigenvalue , there exist

the blind CDMA FIR-MIMO recovery problem into separate

corresponding eigenvectors in (by construction). Solving the

FIR-SIMO problems.

eigenvalue problem, one will get eigenvectors for , which

will have the same span as the corresponding columns of .

Hence, the rotational ambiguity in is confined within buckets V. SIMULATION RESULTS

of columns corresponding to a given eigenvalue (user). There We define the sample SNR (in dB’s) at the input of the mul-

is also freedom to permute the buckets corresponding to the tiuser receiver as SNR 10 , where is

different users. These ambiguities are simply carried over to the noise-free data, and the is the sum of squares of all

the columns of and , since , , elements of the three-way array . We consider 2, 4,

SIDIROPOULOS AND DIMIC: BLIND MULTIUSER DETECTION 89

and 6 BPSK user signals, spread with pseudo-random codes the FIR-MIMO CDMA problem into multiple independent

of length 16, multipath spanning 2 symbol pe- FIR-SIMO problems. The latter can be solved using a variety

riods, 2 antennas, and 50 snapshots. For each Monte of existing techniques, with the Hankel kernel approach of [3]

Carlo run, the multipath channel coefficients are redrawn from being one example.

an i.i.d. Gaussian generator and so are the fading coefficients.

User signals and spreading codes are redrawn from a pseudo- REFERENCES

random BPSK sequence. The noise component is redrawn from [1] R. Bro, R. Harshman, and N. D. Sidiropoulos, “Rank-deficient models

an i.i.d. Gaussian generator. The results of eigenanalysis fol- for multi-way data,” J. Chemometrics, to be published.

[2] J. B. Kruskal, “Three-way arrays: Rank and uniqueness of trilinear de-

lowed by least squares refinement and the Hankel kernel ap- compositions, with application to arithmetic complexity and statistics,”

proach of [3] are presented in Fig. 1, which depicts average Linear Algebra Applicat., vol. 18, pp. 95–138, 1977.

BER (all users) versus average SNR (both averaged over signal, [3] H. Liu and G. Xu, “A deterministic approach to blind symbol estima-

tion,” IEEE Signal Processing Lett., vol. 1, pp. 205–207, Dec. 1994.

spreading codes, multipath, fading, and Gaussian noise statis- [4] N. D. Sidiropoulos, G. B. Giannakis, and R. Bro, “Blind PARAFAC

tics), for 2500 MC trials [ (10 ) effective averaging per datum]. receivers for DS-CDMA systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol.

48, pp. 810–823, Mar. 2000.

[5] N. D. Sidiropoulos and G. Dimic, “Blind multiuser detection

VI. CONCLUSIONS in W-CDMA systems with large delay spread: A two-step

PARAFAC/Hankel approach,” in Proc. Conf. Information Sci-

We have presented a two-step algorithm for code, channel, ences and Systems. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ., Mar. 15–17, 2000,

and direction-blind multiuser detection in antenna array pp. TP3–23–TP3–28.

[6] G. Xu, H. Liu, L. Tong, and T. Kailath, “A least-squares approach to

W-CDMA systems with large delay spread. The algorithm blind channel identification,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 43,

builds on PARAFAC uniqueness to separate the users and turn pp. 2982–2993, Dec. 1995.

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