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7.1 Work and Energy

1 The first case.

2 The first choice.

1 B

2 A

The weight component along the plane = W sin θ

⇒ work done by gravity on the block = Fs = W sin θ × d

3 20, 0.3, 37.7

1 B

2 C

3 C

Displacement of the skier in 1 s = 10 m

Work done = 375 × 10 = 3750 J

4 B

375

The mass of the skier m = = 75 kg

10 × sin 30°

The tension in the string if the skier accelerates at 1 m s−2

= ma + weight component along the plane

= 75 + 375 = 450 N

Displacement of the skier when he accelerates at 1 m s−2 from 10 m s−1 for 1 s

1 2 1

= ut + at = 10 + × 1 × 12 = 10.5 m

2 2

The new work done = Fs = 450 × 10.5 = 4725 J

4725 − 3750

Percentage change = × 100% = 26%

3750

5 D

6 D

7 Work done = Fs = 10 000 × 100 = 106 J

The car does work of 106 J.

8 (a) Her work done = potential energy gained by the barbells

= mgh

= 100 × 10 × 1.8 = 1800 J

(b) No, she did not do work when she held the barbells above her head.

Ch07/P.2

W

(b) Average force acting on the object =

s

100

= = 20 N

5

Warm-up 7.2 (p. 142)

1 The fist statement.

2 The second statement.

1 0.2, 52, 2.5

0.2, 302, 90

87.5

2 50, 20

10 000

1 A

Let mt and vt be the mass and the speed of the thief and

mp and vp be the mass and the speed of the policeman.

1 1 vp mt 1

2

m p v p = mt v t

2

⇒ = =

2 2 vt mp 2

2 A

1 2 × 2.17 × 10 −18

By KE = mv2, ⇒ v= −31

= 2.18 × 106 m s–1

2 9.1 × 10

3 C

4 B

(1) By F = ma,

tension in the rope T = weight of the man + ma

= 700 + 70 × 0.5 = 735 N

2 2

(2) By v = u + 2as,

v= u 2 + 2as = 0 + 2 × 0.5 × 15 = 15 m s–1

(3) When the man reaches the helicopter,

1

his KE = mv2 = 0.5 × 70 × 15 = 525 J

2

his PE = mgh = 70 × 10 × 15 = 10 500 J

Therefore, his total energy gain = KE + PE = 11 025 J

Ch07/P.3

2

1 1 108

5 (a) KE of the tennis ball = mv2 = × 0.05 × = 22.5 J

2 2 3.6

The kinetic energy of the ball is 22.5 J.

1 1 20

(b) KE of the bullet = mv2 = × × 2002 = 400 J

2 2 1000

The kinetic energy of the bullet is 400 J.

(c) Since KE ∝ v2, KE in (a) and (b) will be 4 times their original values if their speeds double.

Ch07/P.4

= 0.3 × 10 × 2 = 6 J

The potential energy of the apple is 6 J.

(b) Its potential energy will double if it is hung at 4 m above the ground.

1 1

7 Kinetic energy lost = mu2 − mv2

2 2

1 40

= × × (1002 − 602)

2 1000

= 128 J

The bullet does work of 128 J to penetrate the apple.

= 500 × 10 × 5 = 25 000 J (= 25 kJ)

The potential energy gained by the steel bars is 25 kJ.

(b) The work done by the crane motor is greater than the potential energy gain of the steel bars in (a).

It is because the crane also uses energy to raise its movable parts.

s 30

(c) The average speed of steel bars = = = 0.5 m s−1

t 60

1

Kinetic energy of steel bars = mv 2

2

1

= × 500 × 0.52 = 62.5 J

2

The average kinetic energy gained by steel bars is 62.5 J.

Ch07/P.5

1 The first and third statements.

2 The first statement is always right.

The second statement is correct if the potential energy at the bottom of the chute is defined as 0.

The third statement is correct if the speeds of the boat at t = x1 and t = x2 are considered for different

slopes of the chute.

1 D

2 B

3 1, 5, 50

30

20

1 B

2 C

3 A

The negative work done by friction on the cars is equal to the kinetic energy of the cars.

Assume that same friction f acts on cars A and B.

1

For car A, fsA = mvA2

2

1

For car B, fsB = mvB2

2

s A v A 2 40 2 1

⇒ = = =

s B v B 2 80 2 4

4 A

5 (a) Take the potential energy of the ball at ground level as 0.

PE = mgh = 0.4 × 10 × 5 = 20 J

The potential energy of the ball before it falls is 20 J.

(b) By conservation of energy, the potential energy of the ball is converted to its kinetic energy when

it falls. Therefore, its KE on hitting the ground is 20 J.

1

(c) KE = mv2

2

1

20 = × 0.4 × v2

2

2 × 20

v= = 10 m s–1

0.4

The velocity of the ball before it hits the ground is 10 m s−1.

Ch07/P.6

1 1

6 (a) KE = mv2 = × 0.01 × 102 = 0.5 J

2 2

The kinetic energy of the stone is 0.5 J when it is thrown from the ground.

(b) By conservation of energy, all kinetic energy of the stone is converted to its potential energy

when it reaches the highest point. Therefore, potential energy at its highest point is 0.5 J.

(c) Take the potential energy of the stone at ground level be 0.

PE = mgh

0.5 = 0.01 × 10 × h

h=5m

The maximum height that the stone reaches is 5 m.

(d) By conservation of energy, all potential energy of the stone at its highest point is converted back

to kinetic energy when it falls. Its kinetic energy is 0.5 J when it returns to the ground.

7 (a) Take the potential energy of the bob at the lowest level be 0.

PE = mgh

= 0.01 × 10 × 0.1 = 0.01 J

The potential energy of the bob at 0.1 m above its lowest position is 0.01 J.

(b) By conservation of energy, the potential energy of the bob in (a) is converted to its kinetic energy

at its lowest position. Therefore, its kinetic energy is 0.01 J at its lowest position.

1

By KE = mv2,

2

1

0.01 = × 0.01 × v2

2

v = 1.41 m s−1

The velocity of the bob is 1.41 m s−1 at its lowest position.

Ch07/P.7

7.4 Power

1 The first and second statements.

2 A

E potential energy gained by the mass mgh

1 C P= t = time period

= = 10 × 10 × 0.1 = 10 W

t

2 B

3 3, 60 / 65, 60 / 390 000 / 390 000, 20, 19 500

1 D

E 60 000

2 C By P = = = 500 W

t 2 × 60

3 C

10000

P

Applying equation P = fv ⇒ f= = 30 = 1200 N

v

3.6

4 D

5 D

Let n be the number of people that the lift can raise.

mgh

P= ⇒ 15000 = (120 + 70n) × 10 × 2

t

⇒ n=9

E

6 By P = , ⇒ E = Pt = 500 × 20 = 10 000 J

t

The engines does work of 10 000 J.

E

By P = , ⇒ P = mgv

t

⇒ 400 = 65 × 10 × v

⇒ v = 0.615 m s−1

Alex cannot climb up faster than 0.615 m s−1.

= 4000 × 10 × 500

= 2 × 107 J (= 20 MW)

In each second, water of 4000 kg loses 20 MJ.

(b) Since all the potential energy is assumed to be converted into electrical energy, the power output

of the generator is 20 MJ.

Ch07/P.8

(c) Not all potential energy of the water is converted into electrical energy because there is energy

lost in heating up the wire, moving the movable parts of the generator, driving the turbine, etc.

Revision exercise 7

Section A

1 C

By conservation of energy, the potential energy at A is converted to kinetic energy at B

1

. i.e. mgh = mv2. ⇒v= 2 gh

2

Therefore, if the block moves at 2v at B, the height of the block should be 4h.

2 C

Energy is lost in lifting the movable parts of the machine.

E mgh 56.4

Power wasted = = = 120 × 10 × = 22 600 W (= 22.6 kW)

t t 3

3 C

A: Work done by Stephen = kinetic energy of the ball bearing at A

1

= mv2

2

1

= × 0.1 × 52 = 1.25 J

2

B: By conservation of energy, the kinetic energy at A is converted to potential energy at B.

1

i.e. mgh = mv2. ⇒v= 2 gh

2

C: It is not true when the ball bearing rolls down from B to A.

D: It is true by the conservation of energy.

4 A

(1) By conservation of energy, total energy of the bob is equal to its potential energy, i.e.

total energy = mgh = m × 10 × 0.2 = 2m

(2) By conservation of energy, the potential energy of the bob is converted to kinetic energy at its

lowest position. Hence,

1

mgh = mv2 ⇒ v = 2 gh , which is independent of the mass of the bob.

2

(3) By conservation of energy, the bob will move up to a point at the same level as A, whether there

is a pin at C or not.

5 C

(1) The cart can pass B and C only if the work done by friction along AC is less than the potential

energy difference of the cart between A and C.

Let m be the mass of the cart.

The potential energy difference of the cart at A and C

= mgh = m × 10 × (45 − 15) = 300m

Ch07/P.9

To pass B and C,

300m > 67 500 ⇒ m > 225 kg

Therefore, if the mass of the cart is greater than 250 kg, it can pass B and C.

Ch07/P.10

KE of the cart = PE difference − work done against friction

Since the length of AB is greater than that of BC, the KE, and hence the speed of the cart, at B is

less than that at C.

(3) Since the weight component of the cart along the track is not always opposite to the velocity of

the cart, the work done of that weight component is not always negative.

6 C

Work done against friction over BC = Fs = 3 × 2 = 6 J

Work done against friction over CD = energy stored in spring

− work done against friction over BC

5 × s = 10 − 6

s = 0.8 m (to the right of C)

7 B

The potential energy of sky divers is converted to their kinetic energy and work done against friction.

Therefore, if a fraction c of the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy,

1

cmgh = mv2 ⇒ v = 2cgh , which is independent of their mass.

2

8 C

Section B

9 D

(1) The PE difference of the ball between C and D

= mgh = 0.1 × 10 × 0.5 = 0.5 J

1 1

KE of the ball at C = mv2 = × 0.1 × 32 = 0.45 J

2 2

1 1

KE of the ball at D = mv2 = × 0.1 × 42 = 0.8 J

2 2

⇒ the work done against friction along CD = 0.45 + 0.5 − 0.8 = 0.15 J

⇒ the total energy of the ball at B

= KE at C + PE difference between C and B + work done against friction along BC

= 0.45 + 0.5 + 0.15 = 1.1 J

(2) By W = Fs,

W 0.15

friction f = = = 0.191 N

s 0.5 × 2π × 0.25

(3) By conservation of energy, the energy of the ball is converted to the work against friction along

the track.

KE of the ball at D = work done against friction along the track

0.8 = 0.191 × s

s = 4.19 m

10 A

Ch07/P.11

Section A

1

1 (a) KE = mv2 (1 M)

2

2

1 72

= × 1500 × = 300 000 J (= 300 kJ) (1 A)

2 3.6

The kinetic energy of the car is 300 000 J.

72

(b) Distance traveled in 60 s = vt = × 60 = 1200 m (1M)

3.6

Work done = Fs = 500 × 1200 = 600 000 J (= 600 kJ) (1A)

The work done against friction is 600 kJ.

(c) Power = force × velocity (1M)

= 500 × 20 = 10 kW (1A)

The power of the car engine is 10 kW.

2 Let T be the temperature of water at the bottom of the waterfall and m be the mass of water reaching

the bottom.

PE loss of water at the bottom of waterfall = change in its internal energy (1M)

mgh = mc∆T (2A)

10 × 100 = 4200 × (T − 12)

T = 12.2 °C (1A)

The water at the bottom of the waterfall is 12.2 °C.

3 (a)

The slope of BC is smaller than that of AB. (1A)

The slope of CD is slightly negative owing to the air resistance. (1A)

(b) (i) The chemical energy of athletes is converted to the kinetic energy of the bob-sled. (1A)

1

(ii) KE of the sled = mv2 (1M)

2

1

= × (390 + 2 × 70) × 402 = 424 kJ (1A)

2

The total KE of the athletes and bob-sled is 424 kJ.

(iii) The second athlete should keep his head down in order to reduce the air resistance. (1A)

Ch07/P.12

Section B

5 (a) (i) Since B is in the middle of A and C, the speed of A is the same as that of C. Hence, the

initial speed of the metal cylinder is 10 m s−1.

1

Initial KE of the metal cylinder = mv2 (1M)

2

1

= × 2 × 102 = 100 J (1A)

2

The initial KE of the metal cylinder is 100 J.

(ii) By conservation of energy,

KE loss of the cylinder = its PE gain + work done against friction (1M)

KE loss of the cylinder = mgh + fs

100 = 2 × 10 × h + 5h

h=4m (1A)

The maximum height reached by the cylinder is 4 m.

(b) The speed of the metal cylinder is the same as that of the hammer.

Let v be the minimum speed of the hammer.

KE loss of the cylinder = its PE gain + work done against friction (1M)

0.5 × 2 × v2 = 2 × 10 × 10 + 5 × 10

v = 15.8 m s−1 (1A)

The minimum speed of the hammer is 15.8 m s−1.

(c) Any two of the following and other reasonable methods: (2 × 1A)

Put the bell higher.

Use a heavier metal cylinder.

Increase the friction between the cylinder and the support.

Move the pivot of the plank closer to A.

Ch07/P.13

6 (a) Work done to raise the washing machine is equal to the potential energy gained by the washing

machine. (1M)

PE gained by the machine = mgh (1M)

= 800 × 0.2 = 160 J (1A)

The work required to raise the washing machine up the step is 160 J.

(b) (i) When he puts the washing machine on wheels, the friction acting on the machine is much

reduced. (1A)

Therefore he can use less force to push the machine up the ramp. (1A)

(ii) The chemical energy in Bobby's muscles change to (1A)

KE and PE of the machine as it moves up the ramp. (1A)

Also part of his chemical energy is converted to internal energy of the ramp as a result of

work done against friction. (1A)

(c) (i) From the graph, maximum speed of the machine is 1.5 m s–1. (1A)

(ii) The machine accelerates until it reaches the ground.

From the graph, the machine reaches the ground at 1 s. (1A)

(iii) The kinetic energy of the machine changes to internal energy of the ground as a result of

work done against friction. (2A)

(a) Domestic and (1A)

commercial sectors. (1A)

(b) For electrical energy, 1.4 × 1017 × 23.5% = 3.29 × 1016 J (1A)

For gas, 2.66 × 1016 × 64.6% = 1.72× 1016 J (1A)

Total energy consumed by domestic sector = 3.29 × 1016 + 1.72× 1016

= 5.01 × 1016 J (1A)

(c) Generating energy would produce more greenhouse gases and (1A)

cause climate change. (1A)

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