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K, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Pb, (H), Cu, Ag, Au (Khi No May A Zp St Phi Hi Cc Bc Vng) ngha: K Ba Ca Na Mg Al Z n F e Ni S n P b H C u Ag Hg Au Pt Kh phn ng P b H C u Ag Hg Au Pt

Dy hot ng ho hc ca kim loi.

+ O2: nhit thng K Ba Ca Na Mg Al

nhit cao Z n F e Ni S n

Tc dng vi nc K Ba Ca Na Mg

Khng tc dng vi nc nhit thng Al Z n F e Ni S n P b H C u Ag Hg Au Pt

Tc dng vi cc axit thng thng gii phng Hidro K Ba Ca Na Mg Al Z n F e Ni S n P b H

Khng tc dng. C u Ag Hg Au Pt

Kim loi ng trc y kim loi ng sau ra khi mui K Ba Ca Na Mg Al Z n F e Ni S n P b H C u Ag Hg Au Pt

H2, CO khng kh c oxit

kh c oxit cc kim loi ny nhit cao

Ch : Cc kim loi ng trc Mg phn ng vi nc nhit thng to thnh dd Kim v gii phng kh Hidro.Tr Au v Pt, cc kim loi khc u c th tc dng vi HNO3 v H2SO4 c nhng khng gii phng Hidro.

Nhn bit mt s loi cht


Cht cn nhn bit Cc kim loi Na, K( kim loi kim ho tr 1) Ba(ho tr 2) Ca(ho tr 2) Thuc th +H2O +t chy quan st mu ngn la +H2O +H2O t chy quan st mu ngn la Al, Zn Phn bit Al v Zn Phuong Thao + dd NaOH +HNO3 c ngui Hin tng tan + dd trong c kh H2 bay ln mu vng(Na) mu tm (K) tan + dd trong c kh H2 bay ln tan +dd c + H2 mu lc (Ba) mu (Ca) tan v c kh H2 Al khng phn ng cn Zn c phn ng v c kh bay ln

+ ddHCl Cc kim loi t Mg Pb Kim loi Cu Mt s phi kim S ( mu vng) P( mu ) C (mu en) Mt s cht kh O2 CO2 CO SO2 SO3 Cl2 H2 Oxit th rn +Na2O, BaO, K2O +CaO +P2O5 + CuO Cc dung dch mui a) Nhn gc axit - Cl = SO4 = SO3 = CO3 PO4 b) Kim loi trong mui Kim loi kim Mg(II) Fe(II) Fe(III) Al(III) Cu(II) Ca(II) Phuong Thao + HNO3 c + AgNO3 t chy t chy t chy + + + + + + tn m nc vi trong t trong khng kh nc vi trong dd BaCl2 dd KI v h tinh bt AgNO3

tan v c H2( ring Pb c PbCl2 trng) tan + dd mu xanh c kh bay ln tan c Ag trng bm vo to SO2 mi hc to P2O5 tan trong H2O lm lm qu tm
ho

CO2lm c dd nc vi trong bng chy Vn c CaCO3 CO2 Vn c CaSO3 BaSO4 trng c mu xanh xut hin AgCl trng sa git H2O dd trong sut lm qu tm ho xanh tan + dd c Kt ta CaCO3 dd lm qu tm ho dd mu xanh

t chy +H2O +H2O Na2CO3 +H2O + dd HCl ( H2SO4 long)

+ AgNO3 +dd BaCl2, Ba(NO3)2, Ba(OH)2 + dd HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 + dd HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 + AgNO3

AgCl trng sa BaSO4 trng SO2 mi hc CO2 lm c dd Ca(OH)2 Ag3PO4 vng mu vng muiNa mu tm mui K Mg(OH)2 trng Fe(OH)2 trng lu trong khng kh to Fe(OH)3 nu Fe(OH)3 nu Al(OH)3 trng khi d NaOH s tan dn Cu(OH)2 xanh CaCO3 trng PbSO4 trng

t chy v quan st mu ngn la + dd NaOH + dd NaOH + dd NaOH + dd NaOH (n d) + dd NaOH + dd Na2CO3

Pb(II) Ba(II)

+ H2SO4 Hp cht c gc SO4

BaSO4 trng

Nhan biet cac chat trong dung dch.


Hoa chat - Axit -Baz kiem Goc nitrat Thuoc th Quy tm Cu Hien tng - Quy tm hoa o - Quy tm hoa xanh Tao kh khong mau, 8HNO3 + 3Cu 3Cu(NO3)2 + e ngoai khong kh 2NO hoa nau + 4H2O (khong mau) 2NO + O2 2NO2 (mau nau) Tao ket tua trang H2SO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4 + 2HCl khong tan trong axit Na2SO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4 + 2NaCl Na2SO3 + BaCl2 BaSO3 + 2NaCl - Tao ket tua trang khong tan trong axit. BaCl2 + SO2 + - Tao kh khong mau. Na2SO3 + HCl H2O Tao kh khong mau, CaCO3 +2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + tao ket tua trang. H2O Na2CO3 + BaCl2 BaCO3 + 2NaCl Na2CO3 + 2AgNO3 Ag2CO3 + 2NaNO3 Tao ket tua mau Na3PO4 + 3AgNO3 Ag3PO4 + vang 3NaNO3 (mau vang) Tao ket tua trang HCl + AgNO3 AgCl + HNO3 2NaCl + Pb(NO3)2 PbCl2 + 2NaNO3 Tao kh mui trng Na2S + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2S ung. Na2S + Pb(NO3)2 PbS + 2NaNO3 Tao ket tua en. Tao ket tua trang FeCl2 + 2NaOH Fe(OH)2 + xanh, sau o b hoa 2NaCl nau ngoai khong kh. 4Fe(OH)2 + O2 + 2H2O 4Fe(OH)3 Phng trnh minh hoa

Goc sunfat Goc sunfit Goc cacbonat

BaCl2

- BaCl2 - Axit Axit, BaCl2, AgNO3

Goc photphat Goc clorua Muoi sunfua

AgNO3

AgNO3, Pb(NO3)2 Axit, Pb(NO3)2

Muoi sat NaOH (II) Phuong Thao

Muoi sat Tao ket tua mau FeCl3 + 3NaOH Fe(OH)3 + (III) nau o 3NaCl Muoi Tao ket tua trang MgCl2 + 2NaOH Mg(OH)2 + magie 2NaCl Muoi Tao ket tua xanh lam Cu(NO3)2 +2NaOH Cu(OH)2 + ong 2NaNO3 Muoi Tao ket tua trang, AlCl3 + 3NaOH Al(OH)3 + nhom tan trong NaOH d 3NaCl Al(OH)3 + NaOH (d) NaAlO2 + 2H2O II. Nhan biet cac kh vo c. Kh SO2 +Ca(OH)2 Lam uc nc voi SO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO3 + H2O , trong. SO2 + 2H2O + Br2 H2SO4 + 2HBr + Dd Mat mau vang nau nc cua dd nc brom brom Kh CO2 Lam uc nc voi CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O Ca(OH)2 trong Kh N2 Que Que diem tat diem o Kh NH3 Quy tm Quy tm am hoa am xanh to Kh CO CuO Chuyen CuO (en) CO + CuO Cu + CO2 (en) thanh o. (en) (o) Kh HCl Quy tm am t - AgNO3 Pb(NO3)2 Giay tam ho tinh bot Bot Cu - Quy tm am t hoa o

Kh H2S Kh Cl2 Axit HNO3

HCl + AgNO3 AgCl + HNO3 - Tao ket tua trang Tao ket tua en H2S + Pb(NO3)2 PbS + 2HNO3 Lam xanh giay tam ho tinh bot Co kh mau xuat hien nau 4HNO3 + Cu Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O

Bai tap: A@. Nhan biet bang thuoc th t chon: Cau 1: Trnh bay phng phap phan biet 5 dung dch: HCl, NaOH, Na2SO4, NaCl, NaNO3. Cau 2: Phan biet 4 chat long: HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, H2O. Cau 3: Co 4 ong nghiem, moi ong cha 1 dung dch muoi (khong trung kim loai cung nh goc axit) la: clorua, sunfat, nitrat, cacbonat cua cac kim loai Ba, Mg, K, Pb. a) Hoi moi ong nghiem cha dung dch cua muoi nao? b) Neu phng phap phan biet 4 ong nghiem o?. Cau 4: Phan biet 3 loai phan bon hoa hoc: phan kali (KCl), am 2 la (NH4NO3), va supephotphat kep Ca(H2PO4)2. Cau 5: Co 8 dung dch cha: NaNO3, Mg(NO3)2, Fe(NO3)2, Cu(NO3)2, Na2SO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, CuSO4. Hay neu cacthuoc th va trnh bay cac phng an phan biet cac dung dch noi tren. Cau 6: Co 4 chat ran: KNO3, NaNO3, KCl, NaCl. Hay neu cach phan biet chung. Cau 7: Bang phng phap hoa hoc hay nhan biet cac hon hp sau: (Fe + Fe2O3), (Fe + FeO), (FeO + Fe2O3).

Phuong Thao

Cau 8: Co 3 lo ng ba hon hp dang bot: (Al + Al2O3), (Fe + Fe2O3), (FeO + Fe2O3). Dung phng phap hoa hoc e nhan biet chung. Viet cac phng trnh phan ng xay ra. @. Nhan biet ch bang thuoc th qui nh: Cau 1: Nhan biet cac dung dch trong moi cap sau ay ch bang dung dch HCl:

a) 4 dung dch: MgSO4, NaOH, BaCl2, NaCl. b) 4 chat ran: NaCl, Na2CO3, BaCO3, BaSO4.
Cau 2: Nhan biet bang 1 hoa chat t chon:

a) 4 dung dch: MgCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3. b) 4 dung dch: H2SO4, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, MgSO4. c) 4 axit: HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4.

Cau 3: Ch c dung them quy tm va cac ong nghiem, hay ch ro phng phap nhan ra cac dung dch b mat nhan: NaHSO4, Na2CO3, Na2SO3, BaCl2, Na2S. Cau 4: Cho cac hoa chat: Na, MgCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3. Ch dung them nc hay nhan biet chung. @. Nhan biet khong co thuoc th khac: Cau 1: Co 4 ong nghiem c anh so (1), (2), (3), (4), moi ong cha mot trong 4 dung dch sau: Na2CO3, MgCl2, HCl, KHCO3. Biet rang: - Khi o ong so (1) vao ong so (3) th thay ket tua. - Khi o ong so (3) vao ong so (4) th thay co kh bay len. Hoi dung dch nao c cha trong tng ong nghiem. Cau 2: Trong 5 dung dch ky hieu A, B, C, D, E cha Na2CO3, HCl, BaCl2, H2SO4, NaCl. Biet:

co ket tua. o A vao C co kh bay ra. o B vao D co ket tua.


o A vao B

Xac nh cac chat co cac k hieu tren va giai thch. Cau 3: Hay phan biet cac chat trong moi cap dung dch sau ay ma khong dung thuoc th khac:

a) NaCl, H2SO4, CuSO4, BaCl2, NaOH. b) NaOH, FeCl2, HCl, NaCl.


Cau 4: Co 6 dung dch c anh so ngau nhien t 1 en 6. moi dung dch cha mot chat gom: BaCl2, H2SO4, NaOH, MgCl2, Na2CO3. lan lt thc hien cac th nghiem va thu c ket qua nh sau: Th nghiem 1: Dung dch 2 cho ket tua vi cac dung dch 3 va 4. Th nghiem 2: Dung dch 6 cho ket tua vi cac dung dch 1 va 4. Th nghiem 3: Dung dch 4 cho kh bay len khi tac dung vi cac dung dch 3 va 5. Hay xac nh so cua cac dung dch. Cau 5: Khong c dung them hoa chat nao khac , hay nhan biet cac chat ng trong cac lo mat nhan sau: KOH, HCl, FeCl3, Pb(NO3)2, Al(NO3)3, NH4Cl. Cau 6: Khong c dung them hoa chat nao khac , hay nhan biet 5 lo mat nhan sau: NaHSO4, Mg(HCO3)2, Ca(HCO3)2, Na2CO3, KHCO3. B Nhan biet cac chat : Phan biet cac chat da vao tnh chat vat ly :

1.

Cl2 , O2 va CO2 . 2. Phan biet da vao thuoc th : a. Dung bat k hoa chat nao :

a. b. c.

2 chat bot : AgCl va AgNO3 Fe , Cu va AgNO3

CaSO4 , Na2SO4 , Na2S , MgCl2 Na2CO3 , NaOH , NaCl , HCl HCl , H2SO4 , H2SO3 KCl , KNO3 , K2SO4 HNO3 , HCl , H2SO4

Phuong Thao

Ca(OH)2 , NaOH hoac Ba(OH)2 , NaOH H2SO4 , HCl , NaCl , Na2SO4 b. Dung them mot thuoc th duy nhat : Na2CO3 , BaCl2 , H2SO4 , Na2SO4 . Na2SO4 , Na2CO3 , HCl , BaCl2 H2SO4 , HCl , BaCl2

Cu , CuO , Zn ( dung HCl hoac H2SO4) c. Khong dung thuoc th nao khac :

Na2CO3 , MgSO4 , H2SO4 , Na2SO4. ( dung qu tm hoac NaOH) Fe , FeO , Cu . ( dung HCl hoac H2SO4)

3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

HCl , BaCl2 . Na2CO3 . MgCl2 , Na2CO3 , NaOH , HCl K2CO3 , BaCl2 , H2SO4 , MgCl2. Na2CO3 , BaCl2 , H2SO4 , HCl HCl , CaCl2 , Na2CO3 , AgNO3 .

Nhan biet : NaCl , MgCl2 , H2SO4 , CuSO4 , NaOH ( khong dung thuoc th nao ) 4. Nhan biet : NaCl , HCl , NaOH , Phenolphtalein Nhan biet : NO , CO , CO2 , SO2 . Nhan biet tng chat kh co trong hon hp kh : H2 , CO , CO2 , SO2 , SO3 Ch un nong nhan biet : NaHSO4 , KHCO3 , Na2SO3 , Mg(HCO3)2 , Ba(HCO3)2 Ch dung them nc nhan biet 3 oxit mau trang : MgO , Al2O3 , Na2O . Co 5 mau kim loai Ba , Mg , Fe , Ag , Al . Neu ch dung H2SO4 loang co the nhan biet nhng kim loai nao ?

10.

Ch dung kim loai e phan biet cac d dch : HCl , HNO3 , NaNO3 , NaOH , HgCl2. 11. Lam the nao e biet trong bnh co :

a. b.

SO2 va CO2. H2SO4 , HCl , HNO3

Co 4 lo ng 4 dung dch : K2CO3 , BaCl2 , HCl , K2SO4 . Nhan biet bang cach : a. Ch dung kim loai Ba . b. Khong dung them thuoc th nao khac . C: Vit PTHH gia cc cht v c 1. Vit PTHH biu din cc phn ng ho hc cc th nghim sau : a. Nh vi git axit clohidric vo vi b. Cho mt t diphotpho pentoxit vo dd kali hidroxit c. Nhng thanh st vo dd ng (II) sunfat

12.

d. Hp th N2O5 vo H2O 2. Cho cc oxit sau : K2O, SO2, BaO, Fe3O4, N2O5, FeO, Fe2O3. Vit PTHH (nu c) ca cc oxit ny ln lt tc dng vi H2O, H2SO4, KOH, HCl 3. Vit PTP : a. Kim loi M ho tr n tan trong dd HCl

b. MgCO3 + HNO3 c. Al + H2SO4 (long) d. FexOy + HCl e. Fe + Cl2 f. Cl2 + NaOH 4. Cho t t bt Cu vo dd HNO3 c. Lc u thy kh mu nu bay ra, sau kh khng mu
b ho nu trong khng kh, cui cng kh ngng thot ra. GT hin tng, vit PTHH xy ra

5.

C nhng baz sau : Fe(OH)3, Ca(OH)2, KOH, Mg(OH)2, Cu(OH)2

Phuong Thao

a. Baz no b nhit phn hu ?

b. Tc dng c vi dd H2SO4 a.
b. dd H2SO4 2 M dd NaOH d dd CuCl2

c. i mu dd phenolphtalein ? 6. Hy m t hin tng quan st c, vit pthh khi th l Al vo nhng dd sau :

c.

1. Vit PTHH theo s sau : SO2 H2SO4

Dng . S chuyn ho MgSO4

MgCl2 HCl 2.Tm cc ch ci A,B,C,D,E thch hp, vit PTHH xy ra (1) A + Cl2 B (2) B + Al (d) AlCl3 + A (3) A + O2 C (4) C + H2SO4 D + E + H2O 3. Chn cc cht A,B,C,D thch hp, vit PTHH xy ra A B CuSO4 CuCl2 Cu(NO3)2 A C 4.Hon thnh cc phng trnh di y : a. Na2SO4 + X1 BaSO4 + Y1 Ca(HCO3)2 + X2 CaCO3 + Y2 CuSO4 + X3 CuS + Y3 MgCl2 + X4 Mg3(PO4)2 + Y4 b. A + B CaCO3 + NaCl C + D ZnS + KNO3 E + F Ca3(PO4)2 + NaNO3 G + H BaSO4 + MgCl2 c. KHS + A H2S + HCl + B CO2 + CaSO3 + C SO2 + H2SO4 + D BaSO4 + CO2 + . 7. Vit cc PTP theo cc s bin ho sau : Fe2(SO4)2 Fe(OH)3 Cu

CuCl2 CuSO4

FeCl3 7.Vit cc PTP theo s bin ho +X A +Y Fe2O3 FeCl2

+Z B +T trong A,B,X,Y,Z,T l cc cht khc nhau 8..Vit cc PTP theo s hai chiu sau : S SO2 K2SO3 H2SO4 CuSO4

Phuong Thao