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Andrzej Gutek December 8, 2008

Contrasts between Finite and Inﬁnite Dimensional Spaces and between Normed and Inner Product Spaces

Contents

1 Contrasts between Finite and Inﬁnite Dimensional Space 2 Contrasts between Normed and Inner Product Spaces 1 4

1

Contrasts between Finite and Inﬁnite Dimensional Space

Theorem 1.1. Every ﬁnite dimensional subspace Y of a normed space X is complete. In particular, every ﬁnite dimensional normed space is complete. We provide an example of a subspace of a normed space which is incomplete. This space must necessarily be inﬁnite dimensional by the above theorem. Example 1.2. Consider the normed space C[a, b] of all continuous real-valued functions deﬁned on the interval [a, b] with the norm given by x = max |x(t)|.

t∈[a,b]

Then C[a, b] is complete. However, the subspace of all polynomials deﬁned on the interval [a, b] is an incomplete subspace of C[a, b]. An example of a Cauchy sequence which doesn’t converge to a polynomial is provided by any sequence of polynomials which converges uniformly to a continuous function that is not a polynomial, say, the absolute value function. Such a sequence exists by the Stone-Weierstrass Theorem. Theorem 1.3. Every ﬁnite dimensional subspace Y of a normed space X is closed in X. We provide an example of a subspace of a normed space which is not closed. This space must necessarily be inﬁnite dimensional by the above theorem.

1

Example 1.4. By theorem 1.4-7, we have that a subspace M of a complete metric space X is itself complete iﬀ the set M is closed in X. Therefore, the same spaces in Example 1.2 provide an example of spaces such that the subspace is not closed. Theorem 1.5. On a ﬁnite dimensional vector space X, any norm · is equivalent to any other norm · 0 . We provide an example of a normed space which has two inequivalent norms. This space must necessarily be inﬁnite dimensional by the above theorem. Example 1.6. Consider the vector space C[a, b] with the norms

b

x = max |x(t)|

t∈[a,b]

and

x

0

=

a

|x(t)| dt.

The normed space given by · is complete whereas that given by · 0 is not complete. Indeed, take the case [a, b] = [0, 1]. Deﬁne the sequence of continuous functions (xn ) by 0≤t≤ 1 0, 2 1 1 m mt − 2 , 2 < t < 1 + m . xn (t) = 2 1 1 1, +m ≤t≤1 2 Then for n > m we have

1

xn − xm

0

=

0

|xn (t) − xm (t)| dt =

1 2

1 1 − m n

.

**So (xn ) is Cauchy, but (xn ) converges to x(t) = 1, t > 0, t ≤
**

1 2 1 2

,

which is not continuous. So · gives a Banach space, but · 0 gives an incomplete normed space. Problem 5 on p. 76 states that if · and · 0 are equivalent norms on X , then the Cauchy sequences in (X, · ) and (X, · 0 ) are the same. Theorem 1.7. In a ﬁnite dimensional normed space X, any subset M ⊂ X is compact iﬀ M is closed and bounded. Theorem 1.8. If a normed space X has the property that the closed unit ball B 1 (0) = {x ∈ X | x ≤ 1} is compact, then X is ﬁnite dimensional. Theorem 1.9. If a normed space X is ﬁnite dimensional, then every linear operator on X is bounded. 2

Given any inﬁnite dimensional normed space, we can deﬁne an unbounded linear operator on this space. Example 1.10. Let X be inﬁnite dimensional and (xn ) be a linearly independent sequence of unit length vectors in X. We can thus deﬁne T : X → X by T xn = nxn on the sequence (xn ), and linearly extended on the rest of span (xn ) and zero outside of span (xn ). Clearly, T is unbounded. Since Theorem 2.7-9 states that T is continuous iﬀ T is bounded, we have the following Theorem 1.11. If a normed space X is ﬁnite dimensional, then every linear operator on X is continuous. Also by Theorem 2.7-9 then, we have the following example of an inﬁnite dimensional space with a discontinuous linear operator. Example 1.12. Let T be as in Example 1.10. Then T is unbounded so it is also not continuous. Theorem 1.13. Let X be an n-dimensional vector space and (e1 , . . . , en ) a basis for X. Then (f1 , . . . , fn ) given by fk (ej ) = δjk is a basis for the algebraic dual X ∗ of X, and dim X = dim X ∗ . Theorem 1.14. Let X be a ﬁnite dimensional vector space. If x0 ∈ X has the property that f (x0 ) = 0 for all f ∈ X ∗ , then x0 = 0. Theorem 1.15. Every ﬁnite dimensional vector space X is algebraically reﬂexive, i.e., X ∗∗ = X. Theorem 1.16. Every ﬁnite dimensional normed space is reﬂexive, i.e., X = X. We give an example of an inﬁnite dimensional space which is not reﬂexive. Example 1.17. 1 is not reﬂexive and is inﬁnite dimensional. To see that 1 is not reﬂexive, notice that 1 is separable, but ( 1 ) = ∞ is not separable. By the statement on p.243, a separable normed space X with a nonseparable dual space X cannot be reﬂexive. So 1 is not reﬂexive.

3

2

**Contrasts between Normed and Inner Product Spaces
**

x+y

2

**Theorem 2.1. The norm given by an inner product space satisﬁes the parallelogram equality + x−y
**

2

= 2( x

2

+ y 2 ).

Now we can show that there exist normed spaces which are not given by any inner product. Example 2.2. The space p with p = 2 is not an inner product space, but is a normed space. We show that the norm does not satisfy the parallelogram inequality. Take x = (1, 1, 0, 0, . . .) ∈ We get x = y = 2p ,

1

p

and

y = (1, −1, 0, 0, . . .) ∈

p

.

x + y = x − y = 2.

Thus, the parallelogram equality is not satisﬁed unless p = 2. Thus, there are Banach spaces which are not Hilbert spaces. Example 2.3. but not Hilbert.

p

is complete for all p ∈ N. Thus by Example 2.2,

p

with p = 2 is Banach,

There are a number of concepts which follow from the deﬁnition of inner product, but which don’t exist for normed spaces (not derived from an inner product). These concepts include orthogonality, totality, Hilbert dimension, the Hilbert-adjoint operator, selfadjointness, unitarity, normality, and Fourier coeﬃcients. New relations also arise such as the Bessel inequality, the Schwartz inequality, the triangle inequality, and the above mentioned parallelogram equality. Theorem 2.4. Let X be an inner product space and M = ∅ be a convex subset which is complete (in the metric induced by the inner product). Then for every given x ∈ X there exists a unique y ∈ M such that x − y = inf x − z .

z∈M

In a Hilbert space, we always have a direct sum decomposition given by Theorem 2.5. Let Y be any closed subspace of a Hilbert space H. Then H = Y ⊕ Y ⊥. Theorem 2.6. Every bounded linear functional f on a Hilbert space H can be represented in terms of the inner product, namely, f (x) = x, z , where z depends on f , is uniquely determined by f , and has norm f = z . 4

We provide an example of a bounded linear functional on a Banach space which cannot be represented by an inner product. Example 2.7. The space C[0, 1] is a Banach space, but not an inner product space since the norm x = max |x(t)|

t∈[0,1]

**doesn’t obey the parallelogram equality. Indeed, take x(t) = 1 and y(t) = x = 1 and y = 1. But x + y = 2 and x − y = 1 so that x+y whereas 2( x
**

2 2

t−a b−a

so that

+ x−y

2

=5

+ y 2 ) = 4.

So C[0, 1] is not an inner product space with the given norm. Consider now the functional given by ft0 (x) = x(t0 ), where t0 ∈ [0, 1] and x ∈ C[0, 1]. Then ft0 has norm 1 and so is bounded, but since there is no inner product on C[0, 1] which deﬁnes the norm given, there can be no inner product representation of the functional ft0 . Theorem 2.8. Every Hilbert space is reﬂexive. We give an example of a Banach space which is not reﬂexive. Example 2.9. 1 is not reﬂexive, but is Banach. To see that 1 is not reﬂexive, notice that 1 is separable, but ( 1 ) = ∞ is not separable. By the statement on p.243, a separable normed space X with a nonseparable dual space X cannot be reﬂexive. So 1 is not reﬂexive.

5

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