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By M. L. WILLIAMS, PASADENA, CALIF

Abstract In an earlier paper it was suggested that a knowledge of the elastic-stress variation the neighborhood in analyzing the stress distribution supplement upon the circumferential symmetrical maximum direction distortion results obtained anti-symmetric, distribution at the base of a V-notch. investigators. strain-energy in of an angular corner of an infinite plate would perhaps be of value As a part of a more includes remarks and the

general study, the specific case of a zero-angle notch, or crack, was carried out to by other as well of distortion This paper stress density. as symmetric, distribution,

For the case of a

loading about the crack, it is shown that the energy density is not a along the direction of the crack but is one third higher at an angle zcos" the principal stresses are equal, thus tending toward a of yielding ahead of the strain energy ±70 deg. It is shown that at the base of the crack in the

(1/3); i.e., approximately

of its prolongation,

state of hydrostatic tension. As the distance from the point of the crack increases, the strain energy increases, suggesting the possibility stress distribution crack as well as ±70 deg to the sides. The maximum principal tension stress occurs on ±60 deg rays. For the anti-symmetrical the distortion is a relative maximum along the crack and 60 percent lower ±SS deg to the sides.

:: . '_ 2 __I [7l I It is a more convenient alternate form of expressing Equation [7] in terms of the bisector angle t.+2 sin (. LjJ) can be split into its even Xe(r.l)f:J-()OS(~+1)8]} ".!J)parts with respect to til (Fig. & Theoretical explanation For the particular purpose of this paper it is desired to consider the case where the two radial edges of the plate are unloaded and the included angle approaches 2n:. e.!J=8·n:..he stress function x(r._ -I): 8 _ n . as well as by the complex variable technique in a later paper [4]. cos('n._ -.2 T "e "'. Griffith [2J set up an energy criterion for crack instability. COd (A + n6 + ~"cos (l\ ~ l)8 1)6] .oJ r [.t. Westergaard initially treated the crack problem in the same way to be exploited in this paper [3].Summary Earliest contributions • • • Inglis [I] studied an internal crack using elliptical bounding surface. 1) . }. _.. The stress functions of the form x(r.- + 1)8 + C. LjJ) and t odd Xo(r. 0) = .2. • Hollister [5] examined the stress distribution at the base of crack photoelastically with first attempt to measure isochromatic-fringe patterns in this specific application apparently.. [11 Four boundary conditions can be satisfied by x(r.)"'" rH1F(Oi = rA+l[cl + A} sin (A 1:1 sin ().2 + 1). • Post has published some interesting results of his photoelastic observations for the case of an edge crack Purpose of this paper It is the purpose of this paper to supplement certain elastic-stress distribution Formula derivation the results of these investigators in understanding of the respects which it is hoped will aid in the further at the base of a stationary crack...r("IZHl { c '[Sin (" 11 I '.2 .

..110J + ll~T~PFrom which the associated 0".(1'.~n 4r 1" 1. (13J .!'!1 . the total strain energy less that Wd =~ l'JG {IF.) = 1.)m. .. 3"'J'}'' 23. 2 .--sm 2- . cos cos ~- + b1[. .) cos. / -"' .w. .31/1)J . 4r~b {at [ -3 I + 4al + 0(1'1/0) + . J 21/1 + 0(1'1/1) The total strain-energy density H' = 2~ rq/ + (f~~-2y(1. . 1/1) cos2p-J + 0(1"10) + stresses Ie may be found as cos 1/1. - <T!)2 + (11'2 - O'~p + (0'3 =- (T1)gj 1 (3-r . = -.e..if. ' .') + .•••• 12G 11 . +2(1 + Y)rr. t ~ '1". .(r..'-aSin"" 1/1)= 4rI/l I + 4C1~ sill~ ift + 0(1".f1'". 2 sin + 3 COl! -. .[-5 1. ...•• [17) and the strain energy due to distortion due to change in volume alone.. i.J!· [ (1] (-COS : +b I.' .]} + .1£1... (rl. '-2 + .- .810 C062 '" (1... 1 III [-Sin 1_ - + bleos [if! -ZUcl. . .. [12] 2 ~i1l3.".sill . __ 2 -3 3tJ'}'. i 3.".f. sin 3tJ '" [111 ' r ry. au] 2- ...(. VI [ 2 + COil 3""J 2: + If) = -3. -J...2" 3". G1'IAGK (0) (li) fORKED '" Upon writing out the first few terms X (1'. .. -.

.. cos -. . -.-1:I 4r1_ '[i if.. Symmetrical Stress Distribution Specializing the stresses and the other quantities to this case gives ar (r .The definition of the octahedral shearing.. -[ (34 -30).1 + p . . ') . 2 5111. + .. " - ~5 2 + 40' ) cos -'if 2 1 + -cos 2 '-J2""J . -. 2P.{T. -:r.ol The displacements [7] are found to be ')"U -I-"' sill if.L.1. 3f]' 2.-• I + 2a.ell I .f) = -- 1/_ { [( 40' . 1jI sm-"2 + 2(1 + v) - + v) eos 20f + bl~ ~..... +.. If'.11) COS' + 18(1 + II) + 12(1 + .lIlJ SUI 2" CQS of 8(1 +v) sin ziJt] + .b. + ~.3"'J'} + '...0:1 4. [ = rill {" !['( Uil .). +b I '[ .I') In the foregoing expressions it is seen that the term multiplied by the coefficie represents a coupling between the symmetric and antisymmetric variation respect to tjJ.[HII - if!) .)cos 21{1 ] . -b.-- 'l/t 2... ".2" sin . --.·c06 22. .. I [23·J "...[20) r (1' • .'. (32 - + 2a'I.....-.U". J [(34 I{I 2 3011) sinl k + 2(1 + . respectively.= 1 . (-3 + 1".[221 - where a = 11/(1 + ."..(7) -' '2 40' _ I COS ---. 3 . cosi 2" I{I 4(1 2(· + '... as 32Erlil ~ (lIt..) Sill .. . [2·11 '" 1. + cos 3"'J' 2 '.) ''I' .1). .l [ .if.-i + '2 '1 - am aWJ_}" "2_. '2" ] . +IJI. 2 ... ·sm 2" ._.~.

') = r'lt [( - + 40') 2 cos ~ + .. 2 .'1:' = -.. [1 + -~ "'. There are certain other interesting features which.. _.. I/tJ " ' + . 2 _. !"2Ij~ :2 r 'I. .. 2 Ji + ...(r ) . ... . ..1'1 '" .II) "']1 + . '" 2 - CO!! -...2 -ItT ...". GRACK (a) SYMMETRlC -1/2 CASE (b) ANTISYMMETRIC n-rsin . [24J . P.]''''l\S al = ~-'I' [4al sin 4r' -" . 41" ~I I [-8 1 oos l_J' ...I..'. ]. (281' 0'1 + 0'2 = 111 0'. 1-[' 1- ~ + (1 }J . cos 2jLU1/-(I". '¢' =- 41"'{' 1 1[-sm-.. _.I!.' [( 7 . because of the relative simplicity of the previous expressions. [20] = 0 . 3'" -] 2 + ["'5) '" 2~I ...NS.:' .j'fl '1/1 .. .. 3 CASE J"h FlO..(1'. [31] 3 + (1 + . . Sill! - W" .. 13m if. . also isotropic W= IjI r30J ~cosli_ Er 2 . Ul + . .. + . + ..._..!. '-3 -tr'll 1 '1[" cos-..o\.sinz ) • .) . .. if. .If : :2 -i!Hl-.!_ sin 22 - 3"']..] eLI + . + .. 3""J" a.Yt) = 3if.IlLRoMATIC-FnINGE -v r. become readily apparent. fl-I = (3"'/4) ± {1r/4). 2 ..' '2 al T~'. .321 ' 2...p lSOO.a!~' '" = _'~ COSI' _'_.t'l'E. 2 n-r ~ .~-'4 $. Er2~. 1'27] . ...)..

0~---------------------' 1.UNC1PAL S'IRESSE. Shear Stress.mmt!trlC: 2.8 211+U)b.0 0 0.2 w (O)~ --d Er 2. 6 Cnrrtc ct.--l/t .S FOR THE LO'v·BST E\'£N EICiENFDNCTION n ""'" -alt. Stress OetC!'hll!'drol I I f I I I I I I I I FIG.6 0..uECTOlnEB FOR LOWEST EVEN EWENFU"-C"IIO>l f3 - (3. P.0 1.6 1.--------------------" 1.ymmelrtc FlO.2 ::(~i~:l 0.SINCIPA. ft 70° MOl.5 '.180 to) S).4 20 40 60 'b) ANTI SYMMETRIC CASE eo 100 12. 5 STRESS TIOl.-STIlE8S V M<JAnol'S FIG.6 1./4) "" (...5 0.5 1..0 0./4) 90 MI'J:(..0.2 o 20 40 eo (0) SYMMETRIC CASE o 20 40 60 SO 100 120 I~O 160".0 1<10 160 ISO 01- [b) An'ii.4 0.0 0.3.:I P.8 0 20 40 160 I0 0.

II "" (1 + II) It would be interesting condition.f 2"" + ..(r....1 + .-0. + . 1 3' (1tJ.) ] if'.1...+lj IT.. ) !' -" (1 _!. .L.. [40j O"t + f1'2 -j" [-8. .: 1- II . sin {I 2 1/1 3'Sin 3{1J-b I Z ..(. . -. [43] Wd . ~. 2 2 b ... ••• .._.39] ..1. ·[1 + __+ --sin! 3: 2.!hl Er..sin '. b.T. in an analysis similar to that of Post for the symmetrical case. which is a case that does not seem previously to have been treated explicitly.· ]".. 4r • 1 [ -.2 W" = -Er [( I . [COB 41" '. -:--. • ..I .-/. aill2 if..' 4r"" '4 )'/0] . to experiment photoelastically with the antisymmetric-Ioading which is not too simple a matter. :42. ..Antisymmetrical Stress Distribution When the stress distribution is antisymmetric. + 3'sm 3"'J .= . .". ..~] hi + .Jsm' -..L.... ljI) = +/. -112 1 ~.2 + 3 cos 3f. such as may exist about a crack parallel to the neutral axis of a beam in pure bending. I •• . [38] .. ..1 ..sin _ .L . there results oAr.---rJ [(S 1-. . .: " .·· ' ·136) ."i) .1 11.. . 'I") = 4r'b '[ .. [37J r r1/>(r.3..sml ).

4. . it may be possible to relate the maximum stresses occurring at ±60 deg. When the stress becomes non hydrostatic as the distance from the point of the to suspect a crack increases. although not as severe. noting that any arbitrary and antisymmetric as some cracks do fork.Conclusion 1. by Post [6] or in Fig. it is recognized direction that the it may be worth to both symmetric oriented cracks generally propagate more or less straight. As the magnitude of the individual stresses increases as the inverse half power of the radius. with macroscopic release being controlling factors. there may be reason therefore yielding region ahead of the crack also. On the other hand. in the neighborhood the angle crack-forking l(b). Even in the presence of a partial (two-dimensional) hydrostatic-stress field there would be a reduced tendency for yielding at the base of the crack. for example. to plastics the effect of crystal and slip planes probably would be quite strong. shown. At the same time the elastic analysis indicates there should be large amount of distortion off to the sides of the crack and presumably some yielding should take of failure actually occurring in a given specimen would depend place in these areas would tend toward a ductile failure. The character upon the material. 8. For randomly the direction of cracking or forking. by Equation [35]. high with a tendency toward a 3. although orientation phenomenon again for metals as opposed of the maximum distortion. 2. 5. For concerning however simultaneously that slow-moving 7. the stress should become quite cleavage failure. 6. cracks there would be no preferred structure and rate-of-energy principal tensile to crack might take upon moving. crack will be subjected loading.

1951. by H. 99 [7] Stress Singularities Corners of Plates in Extension. A. Inglis. pp. Trans. 1921. Royal Aircraft Establishment. 60. L. vol. M. [5] Experimental [6] Photoelastic Study of Stresses at a Crack in a Compression Member. part 2. vol. 93-102 [4] Bearing Pressures and Cracks. 526. H. 42. 1954. 361-365. England. Westergaard. p. 221. vol. ASME. Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute. J. vol. C. Hollister. 30. vol. 74. Resulting From Various Boundary Conditions in Angular Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Stress Analysis. 739-750. by A. [2] The Phenomena of Rupture and Flow in Solids. c. 1952. January. Westergaard. by C.163-198. by E. England. 12. p. Stress Analysis for an Edge Crack in a Tensile Field. Post. pp. pp. Journal of Applied Mechanics. A-49-53. Philosophical Magazine. no. by D. pp. 1939. by H. vol. p. Yaffe. A.BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Stresses in a Plate Due to the Presence of Cracks and Sharp Corners. Griffith. of Naval Architects. pp. ASME. . Size of the Crack and the Bending of Reinforced Concrete. 1934. Mechanics. Williams. vol. 5tubbington. Transactions of the Institution 219. [9] The Moving Griffith Crack. by M. by P. 1934. London. E. M. Trans. 61. 1. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. E. vol. 30. Forsyth and MET Report 78. Proceedings ofthe American Concrete Institute. 1954. Journal of Applied by S. [3] Stresses at a Crack. [8] The slip Band Extrusion Effect Observed in Some Aluminum Alloys Subjected to Cyclic Stresses. 1913.

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